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PART II.

AUSTRALIAN COOKERY RECIPES AND ACCESSORY KITCHEN INFORMATION.

MRS. H. WICKEN.note


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CHAPTER XIII.

THE KITCHEN.

FURNISHING the kitchen is often looked upon as quite of secondary importance; but, instead of being last and least, it ought to be first and foremost, for a cook cannot be expected to send up a good dinner without proper utensils, any more than a carpenter can turn out a piece of furniture without proper tools. It is no doubt a great mistake to have many things in use, for a bad servant will have every one dirty before she begins to wash up, and a good servant will have a lot of work in keeping them clean and in good order. There are a few utensils, not at all expensive, which are a great aid to the cook and a saving of time too, and yet from some cause or other are seldom found in an ordinary kitchen. Before glancing at these we might consider what is the best covering for the floor. There is no doubt that deal boards well scrubbed look nicer than anything else, but to keep them spotless involves a lot of labour, and as this is not always to be had, perhaps the wisest plan is to cover it with oilcloth or linoleum; a good medium quality can be bought for 3s. 3d. a square yard, and if properly laid will last for years. By the way, it should not be washed, but only rubbed with a damp cloth first and then with a piece of flannel dipped in oil soda and scrubbing will ruin it very quickly. If the cupboard accommodation is scanty the dresser should be bought with cupboards underneath; in this case it will cost about 3l., but if without cupboards 1l. 10s. A deal table is the best, and this must be kept white with constant scrubbing; while the cookery is going on a piece of oil baize might be laid over it. Pearson's carbolic sand soap will remove any grease spots very quickly;


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the paste board and rolling pin can also be kept white in the same way. It will be found an advantage to have two or three French or butchers' knives for cooking purposes, instead of using the dinner knives. These can be bought from 1s. 6d. each; they are stronger and take a better edge than ordinary knives. Wooden and iron spoons will be found cheaper and better than using table spoons as these latter are soon ruined if used for stirring; cookery spoons cost about 3d. each; two of each would be found sufficient. A conical strainer is more convenient and useful than the round ones so generally used. For mixing bowls the agate iron are the best; they are a little more expensive in the first place than the yellow earthenware, but they are unbreakable, and therefore cheaper in the end; they cost about 4s. 6d. each. A small sausage machine is very necessary, for by means of this useful contrivance many scraps of meat and bread can be utilized; the cost of one is 10s. 6d. A pestle and mortar, too, will be found of great use in making up odds and ends into dainty tit-bits; these, too, cost about 10s. 6d. Wire and hair sieves are invaluable for preparing soups and many other dishes; sieves with a wooden rim will be found the most durable; they cost 2s. 6d. each. Agate iron saucepans are light and durable and very easy to keep clean; they are much better than the blue enamelled ware, as they do not burn so readily or chip so soon. Frying pans are nice, too, of the same ware. A set each of wire and metal dish-covers must not be forgotten; the latter should be of plain blocked tin, and as the fluted ones soon get shabby, these should be well washed inside and out with scouring soap and polished with Goddard's plate powder. A French fryer is invaluable; it will cost 7s. 6d. Three or four pounds of dripping clarified should be put at first; this will require straining. After being used once or twice, the fryer should then be washed out with soda water, well dried, and


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the fat put back; it can be renewed from time to time with some fresh fat, and it will keep good for weeks. When it looks very dark throw it away and start with a fresh lot of fat; it can be used for fish, rissoles, fritters, &c., and one can never tell that anything has been fried in it before, if it attains the right heat before the friture is put in. It should be between boiling water heat (212°) and boiling fat (600°), 385° being exactly right, and can be tested by dropping in a small piece of bread. If it browns instantly it is ready; whatever is put into it will fry in two or three minutes. Food cooked in this way will not be so greasy and indigestible as it often is if cooked in a frying pan.

And now, last and most important of all, the stove; for although we may do without a great many things which are nice and useful to have, without a stove it is impossible to cook well. It may be for gas, wood, or coal, but it must act well. Gas stoves are extremely simple, clean, and easy to use, there are no flues to get choked, and in towns where gas is cheap it is no doubt the easiest and pleasantest heat to use. To keep them clean and sweet they should be well washed inside and out with soda and water at least once a week and polished with a little Electric black lead. The flues of wood and coal stoves should be thoroughly cleaned out once a week, and the oven cleansed with soap and soda; this is very necessary work, for if the ovens are not clean whatever is cooked in them will be spoilt. A little thoughtful care in these matters will often prevent much trouble when cooking. Let a housekeeper, therefore, thoroughly master her stove first, and understand the flues and dampers, for only in this way will she be able to successfully cook the dishes she has skilfully prepared. Cleanliness and care in respect of the stove and kitchen utensils generally are as necessary to success as knowing the right materials to use and how


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to put them together, and every one who can cook a dinner should also know how to clean and keep in good order the stove and all culinary utensils. Order and neatness must reign in the kitchen as well as in the drawing-room, and it will help greatly to bring about this desirable state of affairs if all utensils are cleaned and put away immediately they are finished with, for it is much easier to wash them then than if left dirty for some time. As soon as the contents of a saucepan have been dished, fill it with cold water, add a lump of soda, and stand it on the stove till hot; it can then be washed up in a few minutes. Plates and dishes should at once be put into a bowl of hot or cold water; treat spoons and forks in the same way. Knives, wipe at once, and clean as soon as possible. A damp cloth rubbed with Monkey soap will do wonders in removing stains and dust; these, if left for a time, are hard to get off, and the kitchen, which ought to be bright and cheerful, soon has a greasy, dirty look.

Some of us can call to mind delightful old kitchens in country houses, which were a pleasure and a joy to both mistress and maids, where bright copper stewpans reflected the blazing fire on all sides, and metal covers shone like mirrors; while as for “eating off the floor,” one might certainly do it if so inclined, without the “peck of dirt” at once.

How cosy and delightful everything seems in a kitchen like this, and what visions can we not see of home-made bread and cakes, well-cooked joints, succulent vegetables, delicious puddings, dainty dishes of all kinds concocted with skilful fingers! And why should not these visions turn into substantial realities? They will do so if women will consider it a pleasure, instead of a degradation, to “look well to the ways of her household,” and establish


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a system of order and neatness from cellar to garret. When this happy time comes she will be “emancipated” from many cares and have more leisure to cultivate her intellect than she has now. Surely “a study which helps” to make cheerful homes and healthy, well-conducted, prosperous citizens is worth at least a trial.”




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CHAPTER XIV.

THE ICE CHEST.

“AN ice chest!” someone exclaims. “I should like to know how I am to get that.” Well, very easily indeed, if there is a will to have one, for then the way is plain. A refrigerator years ago was perhaps only obtainable by the wealthy, and regarded rightly by others as a not-to-be-thought-of luxury; but, thanks to the rapid development of scientific knowledge, both ice and refrigerators are now within the means of nearly all. The Americans in this led the way, and those in the Central States would no more dream of being without ice during the hot season, than they would of failure to take daily supplies of bread and milk. In almost every home through bright and sunny Australia we find a piano and a sewing machine, and yet either of these costs far more than an ice chest, and perhaps as much to keep in repair as the ice to fill it. Looking at it from many points of view, it ought to be considered an indispensable article of furniture, and it has this great advantage over many “household gods,” that the first expense is the last; for it never gets out of order, and lasts a lifetime; and this cannot be said of many other pieces of furniture, which perhaps cost more and yet are not so useful. In such a warm climate as this, where for six months in the year our one desire is to keep cool, it must certainly be worth while to secure a simple and inexpensive article which will help us to attain this object. Looking at the matter from the Domestic Economy point of view, we shall certainly decide at once in favour of the purchase. Housekeepers, both young and experienced, know how much food has to be thrown away because it will


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not keep sweet for even a few hours in the hot season. All this waste is at an end if there is ice about, as it will keep perishable food cool and pleasant and ready for a second meal. Many odds and ends of vegetables, fish, and meat can be turned into a dainty salad with the ice chest which must have been thrown away without it. Thus the expense, not only of the ice, but also of the chest, is soon saved, to say nothing of the pleasure and enjoyment of the said salad, which one would so infinitely rather have had than the chops and steaks so universally served. Delicious little breakfast dishes can be concocted over night from the remains of fish and meat served at tea and put down into the ice all night. These are cooked in a few minutes in the morning, and form such a pleasant change to the standing dish of eggs and bacon; and how proud a good house-keeper will feel when her little dishes are enjoyed, and she knows that they have cost nothing! — for the food would not have kept, and must therefore have been thrown away if she had not possessed an ice chest. This is only one instance of what may be accomplished, but in the daily routine of work many more will be found. Think, for a moment, of the state of the butter without ice on a hot day. Who does not dread the sight of the liquid or greasy fat usually seen in the butter-dish, and what a remote chance there is of enjoying a slice of bread and butter with bread as hard and dry as a brickbat, and butter running to oil? Put both into a refrigerator and note the difference. Look at it, also, from the hygienic standpoint. Most people, save the very strong and robust, lose their appetite during the hot season, and therefore feel languid and weak. Give them dry bread and liquid butter, and they can't touch a morsel; but with fresh bread, hard butter, and some dainty tit-bit, kept in the ice also, placed before them, a good meal is often enjoyed. Again, in cases of illness ice becomes


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at once a necessity; and if it is at hand in the house and ready for use much time and trouble will be saved, and suffering too, as the poor invalid waits with what patience he can for the relief which is so often brought with ice.

And now we come to the practical question of how we are to get it, and how to keep it. There are several companies who undertake to deliver a daily supply of ice in town and country at a very moderate price, about sixpence a block of 10 lbs.; but when there is a larger demand for it, it will very soon be supplied at even a cheaper rate. There is a very simple little American invention which makes ice very quickly. It is not by any means expensive, about 2l. 2s. 0d., and is invaluable in country districts away from the railway. Then for a refrigerator there are several very simple chests which require only a small quantity of ice to keep them charged. The smallest and cheapest is the Baldwin, costing from 30s., and another is the Iceberg, which acts splendidly. Unlike other machines, which are liable from their complicated structure to get out of order, these are so simple that they require no repairs, but only strict cleanliness to keep them in good order. They should be well washed out with soap and soda at least once a week, and care taken that no little bits of food are left in when the plate containing the main part is removed, for these morsels will cause an unpleasant smell and quickly taint anything that may be put in afterwards. It is better not to break the ice up, but to put the whole block in the refrigerator, and when once it is in to close the lid securely and keep it closed. It is a good plan to put a piece of newspaper over the block, as that forces the cold air down into the lower chamber. The larger blocks will be found almost as cheap as the small ones, as if carefully used they last much longer. No doubt, as the desire for ice increases, smaller blocks, costing perhaps 2d., or 3d., will be made, or


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the present prices reduced to that figure. This, to a great extent, is in the hands of the consumers, for as soon as there is a more spirited demand some energetic firm will arise and supply the want, and we shall have, not only cheaper ice, but cheaper ice-chests too. Dr. Muskett has pointed out some of the advantages of ice in his work on The Health and Diet of Children in Australia, as will be seen from the following paragraph: —

“In our semi-tropical climate a dislike is often taken to butter, when it is presented at breakfast in the form of semi-liquid grease. It would require a person with the stomach of an ostrich to digest, to say nothing of relish, such an oleaginous composition during our summer months. But if this necessary and all-important article of diet can be presented in an appetising form, what a desirable result is achieved! The mass of the people — I am not referring to those who are well endowed with wordly gifts — are apt to look upon the Ice Chest as a luxury which is altogether beyond their means. But I am firmly persuaded that if the price of ice were brought down to one halfpenny per pound, and that if a company were formed to deliver such a small quantity as six pounds per day, or every second day, it would be a great boon, and, moreover, a wonderfully profitable speculation. A very small and suitable Ice Chest could be constructed solely to preserve the butter in a congealed and therefore palatable state, both to children and to adults. The former would take it with great avidity, and the benefit to health resulting therefrom would be incalculable. Even in some of the better-class houses Ice is looked upon too much as a luxury, and not as it should be, a necessity; indeed, the money saved from gas during the summer months might well be expended in Ice.”




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CHAPTER XV.

THE STOCK POT.

THE stock pot is indispensable to good cooking, and although many soups and sauces can be made with water as a foundation, nearly all of them are improved by using stock, and no cook who desires to achieve good results should be without a basin of stock when she commences operations in the morning. There are saucepans now called digesters, which are most useful as stock pots, but any good-sized saucepan or boiler will do very well indeed. This should be put on fresh every morning with everything the larder contains that is suitable — such, for instance, as the bones of fresh or cooked meat, poultry, or rabbits. Never put in fat, as this can be rendered down for pastry and frying, and only makes the stock greasy; always cover the bones with cold water, but regulate the quantity by the material used. Put in cold water with a teaspoonful of salt, and when it boils up, skim well; when skimming, take an iron spoon and a basin of water, and dip the spoon in the water each time the scum is removed; then put in the peppercorns and vegetables. In very hot weather put peppercorns and a fagot of herbs only, as the vegetables cause the stock to turn sour very soon; peppercorns should always be used, as they impart a much pleasanter flavour to soup than pepper. A fagot of herbs is made with a bay or peach leaf, a sprig each of parsley, thyme, and marjoram tied together with a piece of cotton. These herbs can be grown so easily if one has a small garden, or even in a box, with very little care; they impart such a pleasant flavour to soups and gravies. Leeks cut up with the green tops and put into the stock pot instead of onions are very good.


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Part of the onion skin left on makes a good colour, but it can be coloured by burning half a teaspoonful of sugar in an old spoon, or by a few drops of caramel — the recipe for which is given elsewhere. All fresh meat and bones should be carefully trimmed and wiped with a warm damp cloth before putting into the pot; when the stock has boiled, stand the saucepan at the back of the stove and simmer slowly for at least five or six hours. If strong stock is desired, leave the lid off the saucepan for the last hour; the water will then evaporate and make the stock richer. The stock should be strained through a hair sieve or a colander, and should stand in a cool place till the next day. If it has been carefully made it will be in a jelly; the fat can very easily be removed with a spoon. It should finally be wiped with a hot damp cloth. Removing the fat thoroughly is a most important item, for greasy soups and sauces are most indigestible and unwholesome. If the stock has to be used at once, remove the fat first with a spoon, and then pass pieces of thin paper lightly across the surface; these will absorb the fat. A small piece of charcoal laid on top of the stock will prevent it turning sour in the hot weather. With this basin of stock to work on, many dainty tit-bits are possible which could not be made without it. How often has the cookery book been searched for “something nice” and laid down with a sigh when half a pint of gravy has been found necessary to concoct the desired dainty! But with a basin of stock on hand, all these things are procurable, and it certainly does not take more than ten minutes to break up the bones, skim the pot, and strain it, and last of all it costs nothing. In cases of sudden emergency, when stock is wanted and is not to be had, the recipe for Quick Beef Tea answers very well, using one quart of water instead of one pint, and by adding a few vegetables; this is made in five minutes.


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White soup is looked upon as quite a high-class soup, but it is just as easy to make as any other kind. A piece of stewed veal or mutton, or a boiled chicken, gives the stock at once, or the bones of mutton, veal, or pork alone will form the foundation. Never throw away the water in which carrots, parsnips, celery, or even cauliflowers have been boiled. Vegetables contain a great deal of potash, which is a valuable food for the blood. A great deal of this potash comes out in the water during the process of cooking; if this liquor is used as a foundation for soup, we utilize this. For this reason vegetable soups, and stews containing plenty of vegetables, are such a good diet for anyone suffering from or subject to diseases of the blood and bones. These simple facts seem to be overlooked; but if Australia is to become in the future, as we all hope it may, a power in the world second to none, the wives and mothers of her husbands and sons must understand the necessity of providing them with a diet which shall make them strong and brave, and root out what now seems to be the curse of the land — dyspepsia — brought on in a great measure by badly cooked and therefore indigestible food. The remedy for this is in the hands of the women of Australia, and if they will rise to their position and importance and do their work with a high and holy motive, they will not find it the drudgery it is often supposed to be. What does Owen Meredith say? —

“We may live without poetry, music, and art,
We may live without conscience, and live without heart,
We may live without friends, we may live without books,
But civilised man cannot live without cooks.

He may live without books — what is knowledge but grieving?
He may live without hope — what is hope but deceiving?
He may live without love — what is passion but pining?
But where is the man that can live without dining?”




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CHAPTER XVI.

SOUP.

Soup is a much neglected food; there are many excuses made for this — one says it is “expensive”, another it is “too much trouble” and “quite unnecessary.”

When once the principle of the stock pot is understood the first excuse falls through, for in any ordinary households the stock can be made from bones and trimmings of meat, and costs nothing. Neither does the excuse of too much trouble hold good. Some little time must be devoted to cooking, and soup will almost cook itself while other preparations are going on, and it can be made at any time and just boiled up when required. As for being unnecessary, that is quite a mistake. To give the greatest amount of nourishment with the least trouble to the digestive organs should be the study of every housekeeper, and soup is a valuable aid in this respect. For weakly and delicate constitutions, for the young and the aged, there is no better food, and for the busy workers it is invaluable, for immediately after work the digestive organs are not in a proper state to do hard work, and a little soup prepares the stomach for the more solid food to follow. It is quite a mistake to suppose that a rich, heavy soup is necessary, and that a large quantity must be taken. In either case, the effect would be to take away the appetite, instead of which it is to stimulate and encourage the appetite that the soup should be given.

Soup is a splendid restorative, and if given to any one suffering from exhaustion or over fatigue will quickly restore strength, and be found far better than any stimulant. Soup


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is often disliked because it is greasy and served lukewarm; if the directions given in the paragraph on the stock pot for removing the fat be carried out, it will never be greasy, and if it is boiled up just before serving, it will be hot. Allow half a pint of soup for each guest, have a warm tureen and hot plates, and “try the effect.”




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CHAPTER XVII.

FIFTY RECIPES FOR SOUPS.

STOCK FROM BONES (FRESH BONES)

   
Bones 3d. 
Vegetables 1d. 
Total Cost—4d. 

Beef bones are the best for this stock; break them up very small with a chopper, put them into a large saucepan and cover well with cold water, add two teaspoonsful of salt, and when it boils up remove the scum carefully, and put in one onion, one carrot, half a turnip, a little piece of the outside stalk of celery, and 1 dozen peppercorns. Boil steadily for six hours, or longer, then strain off through a colander or sieve, and stand in a cool place till the next day. Carefully remove the fat by directions given elsewhere, and it is ready for use.

This stock is a good foundation for all soups, gravies, and sauces. In very hot weather omit all the vegetables.

STOCK FROM BONES—No. 2

The bones from all joints of meat, whether roasted or boiled, make excellent stock. Beef bones are the best, but very good stock can be made from mutton and veal bones. The bones and trimmings of all kinds of poultry, game, and rabbits are also excellent, particularly for soups that require a special flavour. To make this stock successfully care must be taken to remove all pieces that may be burnt, as these give the stock an unpleasant flavour. The bones must also be chopped very small, and well covered with cold water. When the pot boils put in a teaspoonful of salt and


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skim well, then boil steadily for six hours or longer; strain off and remove the fat, and it is ready for use, but it is much better to let it stand till the next day before converting it into soup or gravy.

FISH STOCK

 
Vegetables and Peppercorns 1d. 

Fish for nearly all dishes is better if boned before cooking; it is also economy to do this, as the bones can then be used for stock for fish soups. These soups, although not well known here at present, are a valuable food; they are easy to make, wholesome, and nourishing. After the fillets of fish have been removed, directions for which are given amongst the fish recipes, take the bones, wash them well in cold water, and cut away any black substance that may be adhering to them. Break them up and put into a saucepan with a teaspoonful of salt; when it boils remove the scum and put in 1 dozen white peppercorns, a fagot of herbs, one onion, and one carrot; boil steadily for two hours or longer, strain through a sieve into a basin, and it is ready for use.

POT BOILINGS

Water in which meat or fish has been boiled should never be thrown away, as it forms an excellent foundation for many soups and sauces which might otherwise have to be made with water.

If a large quantity of water has been used, the boilings will be poor; therefore, when the meat has been taken up, leave the pot on the fire and let it boil quickly, without the lid, for an hour or so, then strain off for use.

The water in which corned beef or pork has been cooked is generally too salt for soups, but it should be stood away till cold, when a thick cake of fat will be found on the top.


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Put this into a basin and pour over it some boiling water; when it is cold again it can be used for cakes and pastry. It makes an excellent and wholesome substitute for butter in cooking.

VEAL STOCK

   
Knuckle of Veal 9d. 
Peppercorns and Vegetables 1d. 
Total Cost—10d. 

The butcher should chop the bones very small. Cut the meat across in several places, lay it in a very clean stock pot, cover well with cold water, and bring to the boil slowly; put in a dessertspoonful of salt, and skim very carefully; draw away from the fire, place it where it will boil steadily, put in 2 dozen white peppercorns, one onion stuck with six cloves, and a fagot of herbs. This is made with a sprig each of parsley, marjoram, and thyme, tied up with a bay or peach leaf; boil steadily for six hours, and strain off.

This is the foundation for the best white soups and sauces; it is also a very nutritious broth for invalids. The meat can be made hot again in about half a pint of the stock and served with parsley butter sauce. A recipe for this is given with the sauces.

BEEF STOCK

   
Leg of Beef 9d. 
Vegetables 1d. 
Total Cost—10d. 

The bone in this meat should be chopped small by the butcher. Remove the marrow from the bones, and cut the meat into small pieces; put all together into a stock pot or digester, cover well with cold water, and bring it to the boil; add a dessertspoonful of salt; this will throw up the scum, which must be carefully removed. When this has


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been done put in 2 dozen peppercorns, an onion, and two carrots, draw away from the fire and let it boil steadily for five or six hours or longer, then strain off through a colander and stand away in a cool place.

This is the foundation for nearly all good brown soups. The bones boiled again will make second stock, and the meat does very well for brawn, a recipe for which is given amongst the meat dishes.

BEEF TEA—No. 1

  
1 lb. Gravy Beef 3d. 
1 pint Water 

Remove all fat and skin from the meat and put it twice through a sausage machine or scrape it into a pulp with a sharp knife, pour over the cold water, and let it stand for an hour. Pour it into a brown baking jar and put it into a cool oven, and keep it below boiling point for an hour or longer, according to the heat of the oven. It should look brown, thick, and rich, when sufficiently cooked. Strain through a colander, add salt to taste, and it is ready to serve.

QUICK BEEF TEA—No. 2

  
1 lb. Gravy Beef 3d. 
1 pint water 

Pass the meat twice through a sausage machine, put it into a saucepan, pour over the cold water, and stand on the stove; stir constantly until it comes to boiling point, but do not allow it to boil. As soon as it changes colour from red to brown strain through a colander, add salt to taste, and it is ready to serve.

RAW BEEF TEA

 
¼ lb Gravy Beef and 1 gill of Water 

Scrape the meat to a pulp with a sharp knife, pour over it with water; cover over and stand away for an hour. Strain


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off, and it is ready. As this is given to an invalid in small quantities, very little should be made at a time.

BEEF ESSENCE

 
1 lb Gravy Beef—3d. 

Mince the meat very small, put it into a brown baking jar, and cover down with a closely-fitting lid or with brown paper. Stand in a saucepan of boiling water for one hour, pour off the essence, add a little salt, and it is ready.

MUTTON BROTH

 
4 or 5 scrags of Mutton and Shank Bones—6d. 

Carefully trim the scrags of mutton, remove the pith from the bones, and wipe with a damp cloth; break these and the shank bones into very small pieces, put them into an enamelled saucepan, well covered with cold water; add a teaspoonful of salt, stand on the stove, and when it boils up remove the scum very carefully. Add 1 dozen peppercorns, and an onion and carrot, if vegetables are allowed the patient. Boil steadily for eight or nine hours; the liquor should then be reduced to one quart. Strain off, and, if possible, let it stand till quite cold; it should then be in a jelly, and can be made hot as required. When serving this to a convalescent a spoonful of rice or pearl barley well washed in cold water and boiled in either stock or milk may be added.

COCK-A-LEEKIE SOUP

      
9 Leeks 3d. 
1 set of Giblets 4d. 
2 oz. Beef Dripping 
3 quarts Water or Pot Boilings 
Salt and Peppercorns 
Total Cost—7d. 

Wash and slice up the leeks into pieces about one inch long, put them into a saucepan with the butter or dripping


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made thoroughly hot; cover over and let them cook for half an hour, stirring occasionally. While they are cooking clean the giblets thoroughly, washing them first in hot and then in cold water. Cut open the gizzard, remove the stones, and cleanse well. Cut them all up into small pieces and put them into the saucepan with the leeks, pour over the boiling water or liquor, put in the peppercorns tied in a piece of muslin, and a piece of bacon rind if there is any in the larder. Let it simmer slowly for three hours; if not brown enough add a few drops of caramel, take out the peppercorns and bacon rind, season to taste, pour into a hot tureen and serve.

CABBAGE AND BACON SOUP

        
1 Cabbage 3d. 
1 lb. Bacon 9d. 
1 doz. Peppercorns 1d. 
2 Turnips 
1 Carrot 
1 Onion 
Pieces of Stale Bread 
Total Cost—1s. 1d. Time—Three Hours and a Half 

This soup is not as expensive as it appears, for the bacon is served as a dish of meat, either after the soup or cold for breakfast or tea. Put two quarts of water into a saucepan; when it boils put in a pound of bacon neither too lean nor too fat. Let it boil slowly for one hour. The bacon must be well washed and scraped before cooking, and when it boils skim the pot thoroughly. Well wash the cabbage and soak it in hot water for half an hour. Take all the water away and put the cabbage into the saucepan with the bacon and vegetables cut up, and the peppercorns tied in a piece of muslin; let them simmer together for two and a half hours, take up the cabbage, and cut it into quarters. Take one quarter and cut it into small pieces and put it into a soup


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tureen. Cut some stale pieces of bread into thin slices and lay on the top, pour over the boiling liquor, and serve. Dish the bacon, pull off the rind, and put the rest of the cabbage round the dish.

ITALIAN SOUP

      
2 oz. Macaroni d. 
2 quarts Water or Pot Boilings d. 
2 Tomatoes 
1 oz. Butter 
2 oz. Cheese Rind—1½d. 
Total Cost—3d. Time—Half an Hour. 

Put the water or stock on to boil, and when it boils put in the macaroni and boil from twenty-five to thirty minutes. While it is boiling grate up a dry piece of cheese. Put the tomatoes into boiling water and remove the skin, slice them up and put them into a saucepan with the butter and some pepper and salt, and cook them for a few minutes. When the macaroni is soft, cut it into pieces one inch long, put a layer of tomatoes at the bottom of the soup tureen, then a layer of grated cheese, then one of macaroni; repeat this until all the materials are used up, pour over it boiling the liquor in which the macaroni has been cooked, cover down for a few minutes, and serve.

POT-AU-FEU

         
3 lbs. Leg of Beef 6d. 
2 quarts Water d. 
1 fagot of Herbs 
Salt and Pepper 
2 Onions 
2 Carrots 
2 Turnips 
1 doz. Peppercorns 
Total Cost—7½d. Time—Five Hours 

Pot-au-feu is the national dish of France; it is cheap, nourishing and palatable, and very simple to make. The slower it is cooked the better it is; in fact, in this lies the


  ― 272 ―
whole secret of success, for if it boils instead of simmering it is spoilt. Tie the meat up into a nice shape with a piece of tape, put it into cold water, bring slowly to the boil, and very carefully remove the scum; peel and slice up the vegetables, and put them in with the fagot of herbs and the peppercorns tied in a piece of muslin; bring to simmering point, and keep it so for five hours. The liquor can then be served as a soup with part of the vegetables and some sippets of toast. Take the tapes off the meat, and serve with the rest of the vegetables round the dish as a border or garnish. The remains of the beef can be pressed between heavy weights till cold, or put into a brawn tin and served cold with a salad.

VERMICELLI SOUP

    
1 oz. Vermicelli 1d. 
Vegetables and Saffron 1d. 
2 quarts Bone Stock 
Total Cost—2d. Time—One Hour 

The stock for this soup should be good and in a strong jelly when cold. Put it into a saucepan with three or four threads of saffron, an onion or leek stuck with six cloves, 1 dozen white peppercorns and some salt, and boil all together for half an hour; then strain out the vegetables and put it back into the saucepan. It should be of a bright straw colour; if it is not, a thread more saffron may be added before straining. Put in the vermicelli broken small, and simmer for twenty minutes; it is then ready to serve.

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP

        
2 quarts Stock 1d. 
1 Apple 
1 Onion 
1 Carrot 
½ oz. Curry Powder 1d. 
1 oz. Flour 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Total Cost—3d. Time—One Hour 




  ― 273 ―
The liquor in which poultry or a rabbit has been boiled is the best for this soup. Slice up the apple, onion, and carrot, and fry them in the butter; sprinkle over the curry powder and flour and brown that too; pour over the boiling stock and stir until it boils up, simmer gently for one hour, then rub through a sieve and return to the saucepan. Bring to the boil, flavour with salt and lemon juice. Pour into a warm tureen and serve. Send well-boiled rice to the table with this soup.

FRENCH SOUP

           
3 Potatoes d. 
3 Carrots 
2 Turnips 
2 quarts Bone Stock 1d. 
Pepper 
2 Onions 
½ stalk Celery 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 teaspoonful Sugar ½d. 
Salt 
Total Cost—4d. Time—One Hour. 

Peel and slice up the vegetables and sprinkle them with the sugar and salt, and put them into a saucepan with the butter, and sweat for five minutes. Pour over the boiling stock and stir until it boils; boil slowly for an hour, then rub through a sieve. If it is too thick, reduce it with a little more stock or milk, return to a saucepan, and bring to the boil. When tomatoes are in season slice up two with the other vegetables; these will make the soup a good colour and improve the flavour.

SAGO SOUP

      
3 oz. Sago 1d. 
1 pint Milk d. 
2 quarts Bone Stock ½d. 
1 Leek 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—4d. Time—Half an Hour. 




  ― 274 ―
Wash the sago in cold water, boil the leek in the stock for ten minutes, take it out and stir in the sago; continue stirring until the sago is transparent and the stock quite thick, then pour in the milk and bring up to the boil. Season with salt and pepper, and serve.

CELERY SOUP

     
2 heads of Celery 2d. 
2 quarts Pot Boilings 
1 pint of Milk d. 
1 oz. Sago ½d. 
Total Cost—5d. Time—One Hour 

If vegetables have been boiled with the meat the stock will be sufficiently flavoured; if not, boil an onion and carrot in it and strain out. Wash the celery thoroughly and cut it into pieces one inch long, put it into the boiling stock and boil for half an hour, then sprinkle in 1 oz. of sago and stir until it is transparent. Pour in the milk and bring to boiling point; it is then ready to serve. This is an excellent soup for any one suffering from or subject to rheumatism or gout.

TURNIP AND RICE SOUP

      
4 Turnips 2d. 
¼ lb. Rice 1d. 
2 quarts Water d. 
1 pint Milk 
Onion and Salt ½d. 
Total Cost—6d. Time—One Hour and a Quarter 

Peel and slice up the turnips, wash the rice and put into a saucepan with the onion and 1 dozen white peppercorns. Pour over the water and boil for an hour, rub through a sieve and return to the saucepan, with the milk and a seasoning of salt and pepper; stir until it boils, then pour


  ― 275 ―
into a warm tureen and sprinkle some chopped parsley on top. This soup is much improved by putting one ounce of butter into the water in which the rice and turnips are boiled.

TAPIOCA SOUP

     
2 oz. Tapioca 1d. 
1 Onion ½d. 
1 Carrot 
3 quarts Bone Stock 
Total Cost—1½d. Time—Half an Hour. 

Boil the onion and carrot in the stock for twenty minutes. If the stock is not a good colour put in half a teaspoonful of burnt sugar. Strain out the vegetables, wash the tapioca in cold water and stir it in; continue stirring until the tapioca is quite clear, flavour with salt and lemon juice, and serve very hot. This soup should be quite transparent and of a bright brown colour.

WATER SOUCHET

     
6 Small Fish 1s. 6d. 
Vegetables 1d. 
Salt and Pepper 
Lemon Juice— 
Total Cost—1s. 7d. Time—One Hour and a Half. 

Choose small fish of different kinds and fillet them. As only half the fillets are wanted for the souchet, the rest may be dressed in another way. Wash the bones in cold water and remove the black substance from them, put them into two quarts of cold water with a teaspoonful of salt, and when it boils remove the scum and add 1 dozen peppercorns, one carrot, one small turnip, one onion, a small piece of celery, and a fagot of herbs. Put the vegetables in whole. Boil this together for one hour, then strain off through a hair sieve and return to the saucepan; wash the vegetables that have been boiled in it, slice them up and put them


  ― 276 ―
into the liquor. Cut the fillets of fish into small pieces and put them in; simmer for half an hour, then put in a little lemon juice, pour into a tureen, and sprinkle a little chopped parsley on the top. Send brown bread and butter to table with it and a lemon.

OYSTER SOUP

     
1 bottle Oysters 1s. 
1 pint of Milk d. 
Cornflour and Vegetables 1d. 
2 quarts Fish Stock 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—One Hour. 

If there is no fish stock, use pot boilings. As this is a white soup a special saucepan must be used. Put the stock and the liquor from the bottle of oysters into this stewpan with an onion stuck with six cloves, 2 dozen white peppercorns, and a fagot of herbs, and boil together for half an hour, then strain off and return to the saucepan with the milk. When nearly boiling thicken with a tablespoonful of cornflour and boil two or three minutes; put in the oysters and simmer for five minutes. Flavour with a little lemon juice, nutmeg, and salt. Pour into a warm tureen, and send fried bread to table with it.

BROWN MACARONI SOUP

      
1½ oz. Macaroni d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Vegetables 1d. 
Cornflour ½d. 
2 quarts Bone Stock 
Total Cost—4d. Time—One Hour and a Quarter. 

Slice up the onions or leeks, one carrot, and make a fagot of herbs; fry them in the butter with 1 dozen peppercorns till they are quite brown, but not burnt. Sprinkle over a tablespoonful of cornflour, and when brown pour over the boiling stock and stir till it boils up; let it simmer for an


  ― 277 ―
hour. If it is not brown enough, burn a little sugar in a spoon and stir it in. If half a teaspoonful of sugar is sprinkled over the vegetables when they are frying they will brown much quicker. When the vegetables are soft rub the soup through a wire sieve and return to the saucepan. Boil the macaroni in salt and water for twenty minutes, strain off, and cut into pieces one inch long; put these into the soup and simmer for a quarter of an hour. Flavour with a little salt and pepper if necessary, and pour into a hot tureen.

HARICOT BEAN SOUP

     
1 lb. Haricot Beans 4d. 
2 Onions d. 
½ pint of Milk 
2 quarts Bone Stock 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—Four Hours 

Soak the haricot beans for an hour or two, then put them into a saucepan with the stock or water, the onions, and 1 dozen white peppercorns; boil for four hours and then rub through a sieve, return to the saucepan with the milk and seasoning of pepper and salt, stir until it boils. It is then ready to serve. An ounce of butter stirred in just before it is finished is a great improvement.

This is one of the most nourishing soups that can be made. It is an excellent food for outdoor workers. When butter is dear, sweat the haricots in 1 oz. of beef dripping.

MILK SOUP

      
2 lbs. Potatoes 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 Onion d. 
½ pint of Milk 
3 pints of Water 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—Half an Hour 

Peel, wash, and slice up the potatoes and onions and put them into a saucepan with the butter, and stir them about


  ― 278 ―
till all the butter is dissolved and worked into the potatoes, but they must not get brown. Pour over the boiling water and boil until they are of a pulp, then rub them through a sieve, return to the saucepan, add the milk and seasoning, and stir till it boils. Pour into a hot tureen, and serve with fried bread.

ONION SOUP

       
4 Onions 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1½ oz. Flour 1d. 
1 gill of Milk 
2 quarts of Stock 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—3d. Time—One Hour. 

Peel and slice up the onions and fry them in the butter till they are a good brown colour. Sprinkle over the flour and brown that too. Pour on the boiling stock and boil steadily till the onions are very soft, then rub through a sieve. If there is any fat on it remove it carefully, pour back into the saucepan, add the milk, pepper, and salt, and boil up.

Just before serving put in a few drops of lemon juice. Send fried bread to table with it.

PUMPKIN SOUP

      
1 small Pumpkin 4d. 
2 oz. Butter 2d. 
½ pint of Milk 1d. 
2 Onions, 1 Carrot 1d. 
2 quarts of Water—1d. 
Total Cost—8d. Time—One Hour and a Half. 

Peel and slice up the pumpkin, onions, and carrot, put them into a saucepan with half the butter, and sweat the vegetables in it for five minutes, then pour over the boiling water and boil until the vegetables are very soft. Rub


  ― 279 ―
through a sieve and return to the saucepan with the milk and some pepper and salt; stir until it boils up.

Just before serving, stir in, in tiny pieces, the rest of the butter and a little lemon juice.

VEGETABLE SOUP

      
2 lbs. Mixed Vegetables 4d. 
2 oz. Butter 2d. 
¼ lb Haricot Beans 1d. 
Peppercorns, Salt, and Sugar ½d. 
4 quarts of Water 
Total Cost—7½d. Time—One Hour and a Half. 

Take any vegetables that may be in season, such as carrots, turnips, leeks, onions, and celery, and slice them up; put them into a saucepan with the haricot beans and the butter, and turn them all about till the butter is all absorbed; sprinkle over them a teaspoonful each of salt and sugar, add the peppercorns and the water, and boil until the vegetables are very soft.

Rub them through a sieve, return to the saucepan and make thoroughly hot, and it is ready to serve.

SEMOLINA SOUP

     
2 oz. Semolina 2d. 
½ pint of Milk 1d. 
3 pints Bone Stock 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—3d. Time—One Hour. 

If the stock has been made without vegetables, as it must often be in hot weather, boil an onion, carrot, fagot of herbs, and a dozen peppercorns in it for half an hour, then strain the stock and put it back in the saucepan. Sprinkle in the semolina and stir until it boils; simmer till the semolina thickens, then add the milk, pepper, and salt, and boil up. Pour into a warm tureen, and send fried bread to table with it.




  ― 280 ―

CARROT SOUP

     
6 Carrots 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Sugar, Salt, and Pepper ½d. 
3 quarts Bone Stock 
Total Cost—3½d. Time—One Hour. 

Scrape and slice up the carrots and put them into a saucepan with the butter. Sprinkle over a teaspoonful each of salt and sugar and a quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper; turn them about in the butter for five minutes, pour over the boiling stock and boil for an hour. Rub through a sieve, return to the saucepan and boil up, season to taste, and serve very hot.

TOMATO SOUP

        
1 doz. Tomatoes 4d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
2 Onions, 1 Carrot d. 
2 oz. Flour 
Salt and 1 teaspoonful Sugar 
2 doz. Peppercorns 
3 quarts Bone Stock 
Total Cost—6½d. Time—One Hour. 

Slice up the onions and carrot, and fry them in the butter with the peppercorns and sugar. Sprinkle over the flour and mix well together. Cut up the tomatoes and put them in, then pour over the boiling stock and stir until it boils. Simmer slowly for an hour. Rub through a sieve, return to the saucepan and make thoroughly hot, pour into a warm tureen, and serve with fried bread.

JERSEY SOUP

        
2 quarts White Stock 6d. 
1 pint Milk d. 
1 oz. Sage d. 
1 Leek 
1 Fagot of Herbs 
1 doz. White Peppercorns 
Salt 
Total Cost—10d. Time—One Hour. 




  ― 281 ―
Put the stock into a stewpan; slice in the leek and add the fagot of herbs and the peppercorns. Boil them together for half an hour, strain out the vegetables and return to the saucepan; stir in the sage and continue stirring until it is clear and the soup is thick; pour in the boiling milk, boil up and pour into a tureen. Sprinkle finely chopped parsley on the top before serving.

SCOTCH BROTH

      
2 quarts of the Liquor in which Mutton has been cooked d. 
Salt 
1 oz. Rice 
1 Carrot 
½ Turnip, and Stalk of Celery 
Total Cost—1½d. Time—One Hour. 

Carefully remove all the fat from the liquor; put it into a saucepan. Wash the rice and cut all the vegetables into dice; stir them in, and simmer by the side of the fire for an hour. It must be cooked very slowly and without the lid. Add salt to taste, and pour it into a tureen. Pearl barley may be used instead of rice.

LENTIL SOUP

       
1 lb. Split Lentils 2d. 
½ oz. Butter 1d. 
3 Onions and 2 doz. Peppercorns 1d. 
1 teaspoonful Sugar 
3 quarts Water 
Salt 
Total Cost—4d. Time—Four Hours. 

Wash the lentils well in two or three waters and put them into a saucepan with the onions, peppercorns, sugar, salt, and half the butter, and sweat them for five minutes. Pour over the boiling water and boil steadily for four hours. If the soup gets too thick, pour in a little more water or stock. Rub through a sieve and return to the saucepan; stir in the butter, salt, and pepper to taste. Boil up and serve.




  ― 282 ―
Lentil soup is one of the most nourishing of all soups, and particularly nice during the winter months.

PEA SOUP

       
1 lb. Split Peas 3d. 
2 Onions and ¼ Head of Celery 1d. 
1 oz. Butter or Dripping 1d. 
2 Carrots 1d. 
2 doz. Peppercorns 
3 quarts Water 
Total Cost—6d. Time—Four Hours. 

Wash the peas well in cold water, and put them into a saucepan with the vegetables sliced up, the peppercorns and the water. Bring to the boil and boil steadily for four hours, then rub through a sieve and return to the saucepan. Season well with salt, and stir in 1 oz. butter or dripping. Bring to the boil and pour into a warm tureen. Send some dried mint and fried bread to table with it. This is a very nourishing soup, particularly if it is made with stock instead of water; it is very suitable for the cold season.

VEGETABLE MARROW AND TOMATO SOUP

         
1 doz. Tomatoes 3d. 
1 Vegetable Marrow 2d. 
9 Onions 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 
2 doz. Peppercorns 
1 teaspoonful Sugar 
3 pints Stock 
Salt 
Total Cost—7d. Time—One Hour. 

Peel the vegetable marrow, slice it up, and take out the seeds; slice up the tomatoes and put them, with the marrow, into the saucepan with the butter, sugar, salt, and peppercorns; sweat them for five minutes. Pour over the boiling water or stock, and simmer for one hour. Rub through


  ― 283 ―
a sieve and return to the saucepan. Add more salt, if necessary, bring it to the boil, pour into a tureen, and serve.

KIDNEY SOUP

       
1 Ox Kidney 4d. 
2 Onions ½d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 oz. Cornflour ½d. 
Salt, Lemon Juice, and Parsley ½d. 
2 quarts Stock 
Total Cost—6½d. Time—One Hour. 

Slice up the onions and fry them in the butter, strain them out and return the butter to the saucepan. Stir in the cornflour, and when well mixed pour over the stock and stir until it boils. Slice the kidney up into small pieces, and put it in; simmer very gently for one hour. Just before serving, season with salt and a little lemon juice; pour into a tureen and sprinkle a little chopped parsley on top.

This soup must be cooked very slowly, or the kidney will be hard and tough.

EGG SOUP

       
1 quart White Stock d. 
1 pint of Milk 
3 Yolks of Eggs 3d. 
1 oz. Sago ½d. 
1 Onion ½d. 
Salt and Pepper ½d. 
Total Cost—7d. Time—Half an Hour 

Boil the sago, stock, and onion together till the sago is clear; then take out the onion and season the soup with salt and pepper.

Beat the yolks of the eggs in a basin, pour over the boiling milk, strain into the stock. Put over the fire and whisk till it comes to boiling point, but do not let it boil,


  ― 284 ―
or it may curdle. Pour into a tureen, sprinkle with chopped parsley, and send some fried bread to table with it.

WHITE MACARONI SOUP

      
1½ oz. Macaroni 1d. 
1 pint Milk d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
3 pints Bone Stock 1d. 
Vegetables and Flour 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—One Hour. 

The stock made from veal or mutton bones is the best for this soup, as it must be white. Nothing is nicer than the liquor in which a piece of veal has been stewed. If plenty of vegetables have been boiled in it none need be added when the soup is made. If not, boil an onion or leek, a slice of turnip, and a small piece of celery stalk in the stock for twenty minutes, and strain them out. Put the butter into a stewpan, and when it is melted stir in a tablespoonful of cornflour, pour over the milk and stock, and stir until it boils. Boil the macaroni in salt and water for twenty minutes, strain off the water, and cut it into pieces about 1 inch long; put these into the soup, and simmer for ten minutes. Just before serving, flavour with salt, a dust of white pepper, and a few drops of lemon juice.

LOBSTER SOUP

      
1 Lobster, Crayfish, or Tin of Lobster 1s. 
2 quarts Fish Stock 1d. 
½ pint of Milk 
1 oz. Cornflour ½d. 
Lemon Juice, Salt, and Pepper ½d. 
Total Cost—1s. 2d. Time—One Hour 

The fish stock for this soup should be well flavoured with vegetables. If a crayfish be used, remove all the white meat and boil the shells in the stock for half an hour and strain them out; thicken with the cornflour, pour in the


  ― 285 ―
milk, and boil up. Cut the lobster into small pieces and put into the soup; simmer for ten minutes. Flavour with lemon juice and salt, pour into a warm tureen, and serve with fried bread. Wash the shells well in cold water before putting them into the soup.

FISH SOUP

      
3 pints Fish Stock d. 
1 pint Milk 
Cornflour ½d. 
Vegetables 1d. 
Fish 6d. 
Total Cost—10d. Time—Half an Hour 

Remove all the fat from the fish stock and put it into a saucepan with six white peppercorns, an onion, one slice of turnip, a fagot of herbs, and some carrot. Boil this together for twenty minutes, then strain out the vegetables and pour back into the saucepan. Mix a tablespoonful of cornflour smoothly with the milk and stir it in; continue stirring till it boils. Skin and fillet the fish and cut it into dice, put these pieces of fish into the soup, and simmer for ten minutes. Just before serving add a few drops of lemon juice, and salt to taste. Pour into a tureen and sprinkle a little chopped parsley on top.

CABBAGE SOUP

     
1 Cabbage 3d. 
2 oz. Butter d. 
1 pint Milk 3d. 
Pepper, Salt, and Bread 
Total Cost—7½d. Time—One Hour 

Wash and strain the cabbage well, and cut it up into slices; throw it into boiling salt and water, and cook for five minutes; strain all the water off and put it into a saucepan with the salt, pepper, and two quarts of boiling water, and boil for one hour. Add the milk and let it boil


  ― 286 ―
up again, toast the slice of bread and cut it up into dice. Put it into a warm soup tureen and pour the boiling soup over it.

SYDNEY SOUP

             
½ doz. Tomatoes 2d. 
1 Carrot d. 
2 Small Onions 
12 Peppercorns 
1 fagot Herbs 
½ teaspoon Salt 
2 quarts Stock 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 oz. Cornflour and ½ oz. Tapioca 1d. 
1 cup of Green Peas 2d. 
Curry Powder ½d. 
½ teaspoonful of Sugar 
Total Cost—8d. Time—One Hour. 

Put the butter into a saucepan, slice up the onions and carrot and fry them in it with the herbs, peppercorns, and a good pinch of curry powder. Mix the cornflour with a little stock and pour it over. Slice up the tomatoes and add them with the boiling stock; stir until it boils, and then simmer slowly for an hour. Rub through a sieve and return to the saucepan. Add the salt, sugar, and the tapioca; stir until this becomes transparent and thickens the soup. Put in a cupful of cold boiled peas; boil up and serve.

WHITE ONION SOUP

(Soubise Blanche.)

       
1 pint of Milk 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
4 Onions 1d. 
Salt and Pepper 
1 pint White Bone Stock 
Dry Crusts 
Total Cost—4d. Time—One Hour. 

Peel and slice up the onions and put them into a saucepan with the butter; make them very hot, and then cover them down and leave them to cook by the side of the fire for an hour, but they must not get any colour. Break in


  ― 287 ―
some dry, hard pieces of bread; it should be crust only for this soup. Boil the milk and stock together, pour it over the onions and bread, and let it simmer very slowly, closely covered, for an hour; rub through a sieve, season with salt and pepper and a few drops of lemon juice. Boil up and serve with fried bread.

CRECY SOUP

         
6 Carrots 2d. 
2 oz. Butter 2d. 
1 Onion ½d. 
½ teaspoonful Sugar 
½ teaspoonful Salt 
1 Turnip 
1 stalk of Celery 
3 pints of Boiling Water 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—Two Hours. 

Slice up the carrots and vegetables, put them into boiling water, and cook for half-an-hour; strain them out of the water, which must be saved, and put them into a saucepan with the butter and a few scraps of bacon, if any are in the larder. Sprinkle over the sugar, make very hot, and cover down closely until the vegetables are very soft. Rub them through a sieve and pour on by degrees the water in which the vegetables were boiled; mix well together, return to a saucepan, and boil slowly for an hour. Stir in a small piece of butter and it is ready to serve. This soup should be perfectly smooth if properly made. A hair sieve should be used for the vegetables, and the soup should be cooked very slowly.

LENTEN SOUP

      
6 Onions d. 
2 oz. Butter or Beef Dripping 2d. 
2 quarts of Water or Pot Liquor 
Crusts of Bread 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost, with Butter—3½d. Time—Two Hours. 

Peel and slice up the onions and put them into a saucepan


  ― 288 ―
with the butter or dripping, and brown them. Then let them cook, covered over, for an hour. Break in some brown dry crusts of bread. Pour over the boiling liquor the water in which some vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, or cauliflowers, have been boiled, stir it well and boil for an hour; rub through a sieve. If it is not thick enough, let it boil again without the lid for ten minutes. Season well with pepper and salt, and serve.

SOUP MAIGRE

        
½ lb. Rice 1d. 
2 oz. Butter 2d. 
1 gill Milk ½d. 
Salt d. 
2 Eggs 
1 Carrot 
1 Onion 
Total Cost—6d. Time—Half an Hour 

Wash the rice well in two waters, put into a saucepan with 2½ pints of cold water and the onion and carrot whole. As the rice begins to swell add some more boiling water, until it is about the right consistency. Take out the onion and carrot and stir in the butter, a small piece at a time. Beat the yolks of the eggs in a basin, stir them quickly in, and bring again to boiling point, but do not let it boil; season with salt, and serve at once, with tiny rusks of bread. Make these by cutting up a dry crust into small pieces, dipping them in water, and baking until crisp in a moderate oven.

ARTICHOKE SOUP

        
2 lbs. Artichokes 3d. 
2 Onions ½d. 
1½ pints Milk 4d. 
2 quarts Bone Stock (White) 1d. 
1 tablespoonful Vinegar 
1 tablespoonful Lemon Juice 
1 doz. White Peppercorns 
Total Cost—8½ d Time—One Hour and a Quarter. 




  ― 289 ―
Peel the artichokes and lay them in vinegar and water for an hour; this will make them a good colour. Mix up half a pint of the milk with the stock, and boil the artichokes, onions, and peppercorns in this for an hour. Rub through a hair sieve with a wooden spoon. Stir in the milk and some salt, pour back into the saucepan and stir until it boils. If the artichokes do not thicken the soup sufficiently, sprinkle in a little sago or semolina when it is returned to the saucepan. Serve with fried bread.




  ― 290 ―

CHAPTER XVIII.

FIFTY RECIPES FOR FISH.

The consumption of fish as a daily article of food is not nearly so large as it ought to be if we studied our health. It must be admitted that it is much more expensive than meat, and cannot be bought so readily. Then again, ordinary plain cooks only know how to fry and boil it, so that very little variety can be obtained; and even these two methods are often so badly followed as to take away rather than tempt the appetite. Not one cook in a hundred knows how to boil fish properly. If a little more time and attention were given to fish-cooking we should not have so many complaints, and fish, instead of being a neglected food, would be a much desired one. It has one or two advantages over meat. It is easier of digestion, for one thing. It is therefore an invaluable food for people obliged to be indoors a great deal, or for those engaged in literary work, for it contains, besides other good things, a good proportion of phosphorus, and this is excellent food for the brain and organs of the chest. It is, however, with the cooking of fish that we have to deal. In the first place, be sure that it is perfectly fresh. The flesh should be firm and hard; if soft and leaving the mark of the finger if pressed, it must be rejected. It must also smell sweet; again, it must be very thoroughly cooked. It is a matter of taste whether we like well or underdone meat, but underdone fish is the most unwholesome as it is the most repulsive food that can be offered to us, and in no process of cooking is more judgment required than in the cooking of fish. Fillets


  ― 291 ―
of fish of all kinds, either boiled, steamed, or baked, look transparent when raw, but are milk white when cooked sufficiently. If the French method of frying is practised, the large quantity of fat cooks it very quickly, and as soon as it is brown it is done. In boiling and steaming large fish so much depends upon the quantity of water or steam used. Never leave fish in the water after it is cooked. Put it on to a hot dish and cover with a cloth, and stand over a saucepan of hot water till required; if left in the water it soon becomes insipid and watery. In all dishes of dressed fish much depends upon the sauce served with it. Very simple directions for making several fish sauces will be found amongst the sauce recipes, and if these are carefully studied, the art will be easily acquired. In country districts where fish can be had for the catching, it should form the chief item in at least one meal during the day; and if variety in dressing it is studied, it will not be found monotonous, as it sometimes is if only fried and boiled. The ice chest will be found invaluable for keeping fish good and sweet.

FISH CAKES

        
½ lb. Cold Boiled Fish 5d. 
½ lb. Cold Boiled Potatoes 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 1d. 
Frying Fat 
1 oz. Butter 
1 Egg 1d. 
1 tablespoonful of Milk, Bread Crumbs 1d. 
Total Cost—9d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Free the fish from skin and bone and flake it up; mash the potatoes smoothly, mix together and season with pepper and salt. Put the milk and butter into a saucepan, and when it is quite hot put in the fish and the potatoes. Beat up the egg, and put half in, and mix together till hot


  ― 292 ―
through; spread on to a plate and stand away to cool. Add a teaspoonful each of water and oil to the egg. Make some bread crumbs on a sieve, and put them on to a piece of paper. Shape the fish mixture into cakes about one inch high and two inches across; brush them over with the egg, and toss them into the crumbs. Shape again and fry in very hot fat, arrange in the form of a wheel on a dish paper, garnish with fresh or fried parsley, and serve hot.

BAKED BREAM AND EGG SAUCE

     
1 Bream 6d. 
½ pint White Sauce d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
Parsley, Lemon Juice ½d. 
Total Cost—10d. Time—20 Minutes 

Wash the bream, rub some dripping on to a baking sheet, lay on it the fish, squeeze over a few drops of lemon juice; cover with a piece of paper well rubbed with dripping, and bake in a moderate oven for about twenty minutes or longer, if the fish is large. Remove the skin and fins, and put them on the dish; pour over the white sauce, which should be just thick enough to coat the fish. Chop the parsley finely, and boil the egg hard, cut it in half, and either chop the yolk or rub it through a sieve, and chop the white. Arrange these in alternate rows all over the fish, and garnish with a few lemon slices.

FISH À LA MAÎTRE D'HôTEL

    
2 Bream 8d. 
½ pint White Sauce d. 
Lemon, Parsley, Pepper and Salt ½d. 
Total Cost—11d. Time—20 Minutes 

Fillet the fish, wash and trim them, roll them lightly up with the skin inside. Rub a baking sheet with some


  ― 293 ―
butter or dripping. Put on the rolls of fish close together. Squeeze over them some lemon juice, cover with a piece of buttered paper, and bake in the oven for twenty minutes or until they look milk white. Dish them carefully, make the white sauce by recipe given, season it with pepper, salt, and half a teaspoonful of lemon juice. Chop half a teaspoonful of parsley very finely and stir it in, pour over the fish, and serve.

FISH AND TOMATO SAUCE

    
2 Bream 8d. 
½ pint of Tomato Sauce 3d. 
Salt, Pepper, and Parsley 
Total Cost—11d. Time—20 Minutes 

Fillet the bream; cut each fillet into two pieces, wash and trim them. Make some tomato sauce by recipe given. Butter a pie dish, lay in the fillets, and season them; pour over the sauce, and bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes. Garnish with a little chopped parsley, and serve in the dish in which they were cooked.

OYSTER STEW

      
1 bottle Oysters 1s. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
½ pint Milk 1d. 
½ oz. Flour 
Pepper, Salt, and Lemon Juice ½d. 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—5 Minutes 

Make a sauce by directions given, using a little of the oyster liquor mixed with the milk; flavour with salt and pepper, and a little nutmeg and lemon juice. Stir in the oysters and simmer for five minutes, it is then ready to serve.




  ― 294 ―

AMERICAN OYSTERS

      
1 bottle of Oysters 1s. 
½ pint of Milk 1d. 
6 Soda Biscuits d. 
1 oz. Butter 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—5 Minutes 

Put the milk and butter into a saucepan; when it boils put in the oysters and simmer for five minutes. Season with pepper and salt; break up the biscuits and throw them in. Boil up and pour into a deep dish, and it is ready to serve.

FISH AND BUTTER SAUCE

    
3 Whiting or Bream 1s. 
1½ oz. Butter d. 
1 teaspoonful Parsley, Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—Three-quarters of an Hour. 

Fillet the fish and cut them into strips, wash them well in cold water and dry in a cloth; twist them round, and lay in a buttered soup plate, sprinkle with white pepper and salt, and chopped parsley. Put in the rest of the butter, cover with another soup plate, and stand over a saucepan of boiling water for three-quarters of an hour; reserve the plates once while it is cooking, place in a hot dish, and pour over it the butter and parsley in which it was cooked.

This is a nice delicate way of cooking fish for an invalid.

FISH PATTIES

        
1 Small Bream 4d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 oz. Flour d. 
1 teaspoonful Anchovy Sauce 
1 gill Milk 
Pepper, Salt and Lemon Juice 
Flaky Pastry 
Total Cost—11½d. Time—20 Minutes 




  ― 295 ―
Bake the fish in the oven, unless there is cold fish in the larder, which will do just as well; take away the skin and bone, and flake it up. Make a sauce of the butter, flour, and milk; season with anchovy, pepper, salt, and lemon juice; stir in the fish and mix well. Line some small patty pans with flaky pastry, put a spoonful of the mixture in the centre, cover with a round of pastry, press the edges together, and trim into a neat shape; make a small hole in the centre with a skewer, brush over with egg or milk, put into a quick oven, and bake for about twenty minutes. Dish on a fancy paper, and garnish each patty with a tiny sprig of parsley.

FISH, TO FRY

Fish requires careful preparation for successful frying; it may be filleted or fried whole, but in either case it must be well washed in cold water, but not soaked; dry in a cloth. Mix on a plate a spoonful of flour, pepper, and salt. Beat on another plate an egg, with a spoonful each of water and oil, and have plenty of dry fine crumbs on a sheet of paper; when these things are all ready, dip the fish in the flour and dust off again; put at once into the egg and cover well; then drop into the crumbs, shake them all over it; next toss in the hands to shake all the loose crumbs off; lay on a plate separately, and either fry at once or leave in a cool place for an hour or two. Plunge into plenty of hot fat and fry till crisp and brown; drain for a few minutes on kitchen paper; pile on a dish, and garnish with either fresh or fried parsley.

CURRIED FISH

    
3 Bream 1s. 
½ pint Curry Sauce 3d. 
¼ lb. Rice 1d. 
Total Cost—1s 4d. Time—One Hour 

Make the curry sauce by recipe given elsewhere. Fillet


  ― 296 ―
the fish and cut each fillet in two pieces, butter a saucepan and lay in the fish; pour over the sauce, bring it up to the boil, and cook on the stove very slowly for an hour. Just before serving, season with salt and lemon juice to taste. Boil the rice and dry thoroughly; press into little cups or moulds. Dish the fish carefully and pour the sauce over it; garnish with the moulds of rice.

SCALLOPED FISH

     
½ lb. Cold Fish 4d. 
2 oz. Bread Crumbs 
1 gill Cold Fish Sauce, Pepper, and Salt 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Total Cost—7d. Time—20 minutes. 

Flake up the fish, butter a small dish, and sprinkle well with bread crumbs; put in a layer of fish, a little sauce and seasoning, and some bread crumbs. Continue this in layers until all the fish is used up. Put plenty of crumbs on top and the rest of the butter in small pieces. Bake in a moderate oven for 20 minutes. Garnish with a sprig of parsley, and serve.

FISH PUDDING

      
½ lb. Blue Cod 5d. 
1 lb. Potatoes 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—8d. Time—Half an Hour 

Use cold fish and potatoes, if there are any in the larder; if not, boil a piece of blue smoked cod in some water for five minutes. Flake it up free from skin and bone and put it


  ― 297 ―
into a basin; mash up the potatoes and mix them in with the pepper and salt. Bind into a paste with an egg; rub some dripping on a baking sheet, turn the mixture on to it and shape into the letter S, brush over with egg or milk, and bake till brown. Slip it off on to a hot dish, and garnish with parsley.

FISH PIE

     
2 or 3 Bream 1s. 
1 gill Milk or Melted Butter 1d. 
Short Pastry, Pepper and Salt 3d. 
Parsley 
Total Cost—1s. 4d. Time—Three-quarters of an Hour. 

Cold fish will do very well for this dish. If fresh is used, fillet it and cut into small pieces; if cooked, flake up into small pieces. Lay in a buttered pie-dish, season with pepper, salt, and chopped parsley; pour over the sauce and cover with a short pastry made with ½ lb flour and¼ lb dripping. Brush over with egg or milk, and bake for three-quarters of an hour; garnish with parsley, and serve.

FISH IN BATTER

    
2 Mullet 8d. 
Frying Batter 2d. 
Hot Fat 
Total Cost—10d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Fillet the mullet and cut into small pieces; dip in flour seasoned with salt and pepper. Cover with French frying batter, the recipe for which is given elsewhere. Plunge into plenty of hot fat and fry until a good colour; drain for a few minutes on kitchen paper. Pile high on a dish, garnish with parsley, and serve hot.




  ― 298 ―

FISH AU GRATIN

        
1 Sole 9d. 
1 teaspoonful of Parsley ½d. 
4 teaspoonsful Bread Crumbs 
½ Small Onion d. 
1 oz. Butter 
1 gill Good Gravy 
½ oz. Fat Bacon 
Total Cost—11d. Time—20 minutes. 

Mince the onion, parsley, and bacon very finely, and put them into a basin with the seasoning and crumbs, and mix thoroughly. Butter a dish in which the fish can be both cooked and served. Spread half the seasoning on it, wash and dry the fish and lay it on this bed of seasoning; spread the rest of the seasoning on the top, pour over gently the gravy. Cover with a few brown raspings and put the butter on in tiny pieces. Put it into a quick oven and bake from 15 to 20 minutes, according to the thickness of the fish. Pin a paper collar round the dish, and serve at once.

FISH HASH

         
½ lb. Cold Boiled Fish 4d. 
½ lb. Cold Boiled Potatoes 1d. 
¼ of an Onion 
2 oz. Fat Bacon 1d. 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 
1 gill Milk or Gravy 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—7d. Time—10 Minutes 

Flake up the fish free from skin and bone, mash the potatoes and mix them together; season with half the parsley, pepper and salt. Mince the bacon and onion very finely; put them into a frying pan with the butter


  ― 299 ―
and fry for a few minutes. Stir in the fish and potatoes and turn about until thoroughly hot through. Pour over the gravy or milk and again make thoroughly hot. Heap on to a dish, and garnish with the rest of the parsley. Serve very hot.

FISH BALLS

        
½ lb. Cold Fish 4d. 
1 gill Thick Sauce d. 
1 teaspoonful Anchovy ½d. 
½ pint Melted Butter d. 
2 oz. Fat Bacon 1d. 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
1 Egg and Pepper and Salt d. 
Total Cost—10d. Time—10 Minutes 

Chop the fish, bacon, and parsley finely, and mix them together with the seasoning. Make a thick sauce with 1 gill water, 1 oz. flour, and 1 oz. butter; flavour with anchovy and stir the fish in. Simmer for a few minutes, stir in the yolk of the egg, and turn on to a plate to cool. Make up into small balls, fill a frying pan with boiling water, put in the balls. Cover over and simmer gently for ten minutes. Dish the balls in a circle and pour over the melted butter, which has been nicely flavoured with anchovy; garnish with parsley, and serve.

FISH À LA CRÈME

      
4 Whiting or Schnapper 1s. 
1 gill Milk 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
½ oz. Flour, and Lemon Juice 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—1s. 2d. Time—One Hour 

Fillet the fish, wash the bones, and put them into half a pint of white stock, and boil them for half an hour. Strain out and mix with 1 gill of milk. Wash the fillets


  ― 300 ―
and roll them up, stand them in a stewpan and cook them in this liquor, covering them with a piece of buttered paper; they will take about 20 minutes.

Dish them carefully, strain the liquor, and make a sauce of it with the butter and flour by directions given. Season and flavour this and pour it over the fillets; garnish with chopped parsley and red bread crumbs, and serve hot.

FILLETS OF FISH AND CHEESE SAUCE

       
3 Mullet or Bream 1s. 
½ pint Cheese Sauce 4d. 
1 oz. Dry Cheese d. 
1 oz. Butter 
Lemon Juice 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—25 Minutes. 

Fillet the fish, wash and dry them; put them on to a baking sheet, sprinkle with lemon juice. Put a few little pieces of butter over them; cover with buttered paper and bake from 20 minutes to half an hour, according to the thickness of the fillets. Place them carefully on the dish in which they are to be served, pour over them the cheese sauce nicely flavoured with pepper, salt, and parsley. Sprinkle over them some dry cheese, brown in front of the fire, or under the grill if using a gas stove, and serve hot.

COLLARED EELS

         
2 Eels 1s. 5d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
½ oz. Gelatine d. 
1 fagot of Herbs 1d. 
1 Onion 
1 Carrot 
1 spoonful Vinegar 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—One Hour and a Half 

Clean the eels, cut them into pieces 2 inches long;


  ― 301 ―
put them in cold water well seasoned with salt, 2 dozen peppercorns and the vegetables, and a spoonful of vinegar. Bring to the boil, and skim well; then boil steadily for an hour, or longer if the eels are large. Take out the fish, slip out the bones, and cut the meat into small pieces. Put back the bones and boil the liquor quickly without the lid for half an hour, then strain off.

Dissolve the gelatine in a little cold water or gravy and stir in. If a very special dish is desired, the liquor can be clarified with the white of an egg in the same way as jelly. Rinse a mould in cold water, arrange in it the pieces of eel and a hard boiled egg cut into slices with a few sprigs of parsley. Strain the liquor over and stand away till cold. Turn out and serve with a salad.

STUFFED FLATHEAD

     
1 Flathead 9d. 
2 oz. Forcemeat 2d. 
1 gill Gravy 1d. 
1 oz. Dripping 
Total Cost—1s. Time—Half an Hour 

Take a little veal forcemeat and season nicely. Sew this into the flathead and truss it into the shape of the letter S. Rub some dripping on to a baking sheet, which should only be just large enough to take the fish. Put some dripping on the top, and bake in a moderate oven for half-an-hour, or longer if large. Slip it on to a hot dish, draw out the trussing string carefully, flavour and boil up the gravy and pour round it. Serve very hot.

OYSTERS AND BACON

    
1 doz. Large Oysters 6d. 
3 Rashers Bacon 3d. 
Pepper, Salt and Lime Juice 
Total Cost—9d. Time—10 Minutes.  

Mix some pepper, salt, and lemon juice together, and lay


  ― 302 ―
oysters in this. The bacon should be cut very thin, and then into strips about 1 inch broad and 3 inches long. Roll these up, and thread on a skewer first a roll of bacon and then an oyster, until the skewer is full; lay on a baking sheet and cook in the oven for about ten minutes. Have ready a hot dish, slip the bacon and oysters off the skewers on to this, and serve hot.

SCALLOPED OYSTERS

     
1 bottle Oysters 1s. 
3 oz. Bread Crumbs 1d. 
2 oz. Butter 2d. 
Lemon Juice, Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—1s. 3d. Time—20 Minutes 

Strain the liquor from the oysters, boil it up and pour over them, cover down for five minutes, and strain off again. Melt the butter, season with lemon juice, pepper, and salt.

Butter a dish, put in a layer of crumbs, then one of oysters; moisten with the butter, then more crumbs, and continue in layers till the dish is full. Pour over all the rest of the butter, and bake for a quarter of an hour. Serve at once.

TO COOK DRIED FISH

Put it into hot water, and boil gently for five minutes or longer if the fish is very thick. Take it out of the water and put it on to a hot dish, rub a small piece of cold butter over it and cook for a few minutes either in the oven or in front of the fire. One or two soft boiled eggs broken over it is a nice way of serving it, or a few very thin slices of bacon well cooked may be placed round the dish as a garnish.




  ― 303 ―

FRIED CRAYFISH

     
1 Crayfish 1s. 
French Frying Batter 2d. 
1 teaspoonful Anchovy ½d. 
Frying Fat 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—3 Minutes 

Pick all the white meat from a crayfish, and cut it into pieces about two inches long and one inch broad. Make a frying batter by recipe given elsewhere, and season with anchovy, lemon juice, pepper, and salt. Dip the pieces of crayfish into this and plunge into plenty of very hot fat; fry a good colour, drain on kitchen paper for a few minutes, pile high on a dish, and garnish with fried parsley.

BREAM PUDDING

       
2 Bream 8d. 
1 gill Melted Butter 1d. 
½ lb. Suet 1d. 
½ teaspoonful Parsley 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 
½ lb. Flour 
Total Cost—11d. Time—One Hour and a Half. 

Skin and fillet the fish and cut into small pieces; make a dry crust of the suet, and flour and line a pudding basin with it. Lay the fish in lightly, and season with the parsley, pepper, and salt. Pour over the melted butter; this should be made with ½ oz. butter, ½ oz. flour, and 1 gill of water. Cover the top of the pudding with crust, tie down securely with a cloth and string, and plunge into plenty of boiling water. Boil for one hour and a half, turn out of the basin, and sprinkle with chopped parsley. Serve hot.




  ― 304 ―

FISH RISSOLES

          
½ lb. Cold Fish 4d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 gill Milk 1d. 
Bread Crumbs 2d. 
Hot Fat 
1 oz. Flour 
1 teaspoonful of Anchovy 
½ teaspoonful of Parsley 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—8d. Time—5 Minutes 

Pick the fish free from skin and bone, and chop it up. Make a smooth thick sauce with the flour, butter, and water, by directions given elsewhere. Flavour it with anchovy, parsley, pepper, and salt; stir in the fish, and mix well. Turn on to a plate till cold. Make up into small balls, cover with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot fat; drain for a few minutes on kitchen paper, arrange carefully on a dish, and garnish with parsley.

FISH À LA SAUMAREZ

           
2 Bream 1s. 
2 Tomatoes ½d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 fagot of Herbs d. 
1 Carrot 
1 oz. Flour 
Pepper and Salt 
1 Onion 
1 doz. Peppercorns 
Lemon Juice 
Total Cost—1s. 3d. Time—One Hour 

Fillet the fish, put the bones in a saucepan, and just cover them with water. When they boil, skim well, and add the tomatoes sliced up, the peppercorns and vegetables; boil


  ― 305 ―
quickly without the lid for half an hour, then strain, rubbing the pulp of the tomatoes through with the liquor. Make a smooth sauce with half a pint of this liquor, the butter, and the flour; if the colour is not good add a few drops of cochineal. Fold the fillets of fish neatly, and bake in the oven with a little lemon juice, and covered with a buttered paper. Arrange them on a dish and pour the sauce over. Serve hot.

KEDGEREE

      
½ lb. Cold Fish 4d. 
¼ lb. Boiled Rice 1d. 
2 Hard Boiled Eggs 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—8d. Time—5 Minutes 

Flake up the fish and mix it with the rice; shell the eggs and cut them in half, put the yolks on one side. Chop the whites and mix them with the rice and fish; season nicely and put into a saucepan with the butter, and stir until thoroughly hot. Pile on a dish, and either chop the yolks and sprinkle them over, or hold a sieve over the kedgeree and rub them lightly through. Serve hot.

FISH BAKED IN VINEGAR

       
2 Mullet 6d. 
½ pint Vinegar 2d. 
1 gill Water ½d. 
1 fagot of Herbs 
1 doz. Peppercorns 
Salt 
Total Cost—8½d. Time—One Hour 

Wash the fish, dry them on a cloth, and rub them with a little salt. Lay them in a deep dish, put in the herbs and peppercorns, pour over the vinegar and water. Cover


  ― 306 ―
with a tin, and stand in a cool oven, and bake very slowly for an hour. Take them out and let them get quite cold in the vinegar, then lay them in a dish, and strain the sauce over. Garnish with sprigs of parsley.

STUFFED CONGER EEL

      
1 Eel 1s. 
3 oz. Veal Seasoning 2d. 
1½ oz. Flour ½d. 
Pepper and Salt 
1½ oz. Butter 1d. 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—One Hour 

Make the veal seasoning by recipe given elsewhere; sew it into the eel and put it into a deep dish. Just cover it with water, and bake it in a good oven for about one hour. Take it up and keep hot, strain the liquor in which it has been cooked; take about one pint and make into a brown sauce with the butter and flour. Colour it with a few drops of caramel, let it boil for a few minutes, season with salt, pepper, and lemon juice; pour over the fish, and serve very hot.

EEL AND TOMATO SAUCE

       
1 Eel 1s. 
6 Tomatoes 2d. 
2 oz. Veal Seasoning 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 oz. Flour 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—1s. 5d. Time—One Hour 

Stuff and cook the eel as in the preceding recipe, and strain off the liquor. Rub the tomatoes through a sieve; mix with half a pint of the liquor in which the fish was cooked. Make a sauce of this with the butter and flour, season with pepper and salt, and pour it over the fish. Garnish with parsley, and serve.




  ― 307 ―

FRIED ROES

     
3 Roes 6d. 
Frying Batter 1d. 
Hot Fat 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—7d Time—35 Minutes 

Put the roes on in cold water and boil for about half an hour. Take them up and let them get quite cold, then cut into slices. Make some frying batter by recipe given elsewhere. Season it with salt and pepper, dip in the slices, and fry a good colour. Pile high on a dish and garnish with fried parsley. Roes may also be fried in egg and bread crumbs; they are prepared just in the same way, only covered with egg and crumbs instead of batter.

CODS' ROES IN TOMATO SAUCE

       
2 Roes 4d. 
1 gill Tomato Sauce 2d. 
Cayenne 2d. 
3 slices Toast 
1 Egg 
Nutmeg and Salt 
Total Cost—8d. Time—40 Minutes. 

Cods' roes are the best for this dish, but any roes will do. Wash them well, cover with cold water seasoned with salt, and boil for half an hour, or longer if the roes are large. Take them up and stand away till cold, then cut into slices about half an inch thick. Make some tomato sauce by recipe given elsewhere; when it is boiling, season with cayenne, nutmeg, and salt; stir in the yolk of an egg, lay in the slices of roe, cover down until hot through. Cut the toast into as many pieces as there are slices of roe, stand them in a dish, and put on each some roe. Make the sauce very hot, pour it over, and serve at once.




  ― 308 ―

MULLET AND TOMATOES

       
2 Mullet 8d. 
6 Tomatoes 2d. 
Bread Crumbs 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
Salt and Pepper 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Total Cost—11d. Time—30 Minutes 

Fillet and slice up the mullet, season each slice with parsley, pepper, and salt. Dip the tomatoes in boiling water, skim and slice them up. Butter a pie-dish, lay in the slices of fish and tomatoes alternately. Cover the top with bread crumbs and little pieces of butter. Cover with buttered paper and bake in a moderate oven for half an hour; take off the paper, and serve hot.

AMERICAN FISH

     
1 Flathead 1s. 
½ pint Brown Sauce 1d. 
3 oz. Fish Forcemeat 4d. 
1 oz. Dripping 
Total Cost—1s. 5d. Time—30 Minutes. 

Make a forcemeat and sew it into the fish. Rub some dripping over a baking sheet, truss the fish into shape, and lay it on. Rub the rest of the dripping on to a piece of paper, cover the fish carefully, bake in rather a hot oven for half an hour or longer, according to size; take off the paper, dish it, and pour round a nice brown sauce. A fish forcemeat is made with 2 oz. cold fish, 1 oz. suet, 1 oz. bread crumbs well mixed together, with some seasoning and an egg.

COLD FISH AU GRATIN

Any scraps of cold fish may be served in this way. If any fish sauce is left, nothing is nicer to warm it in; if


  ― 309 ―
not, make a little with 1 gill of milk or water, 1 oz. of butter, and 1 oz. of flour. Flake the fish up, butter a plate, put the fish in and pour the sauce over. Sprinkle with brown bread crumbs, and bake in the oven for a quarter of an hour.

SMALL FISH

Any kind of small fish will do for this dish. Wash and dry them; well butter a sheet of stiff writing paper, lay the fish in, sprinkle them with a little very finely chopped onion or shallot, parsley, pepper, and salt. Squeeze over a few drops of lemon juice, and put a few little pieces of butter about them; wrap them up in the paper and bake for twenty minutes. Serve in the paper in which they were cooked.

BAKED FISH

         
4 Mullet or Jew-fish 1s. 
2 oz. Bread Crumbs ½d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Pepper and Salt d. 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
1 teaspoonful Sweet Herbs 
½ Lemon 
2 oz. Suet 
Total Cost—1s. 4d. Time—30 Minutes. 

Split open the fish and remove the head and backbone, wash well in cold water and dry in a cloth. Chop the parsley, herbs, and suet, and mix these together; add half the crumbs, the rind of half a lemon, and pepper and salt. Butter a baking tin, lay on a fish skin downwards. On this place a layer of seasoning, a little lemon juice, and a few pieces of butter; on this another fish with the cut part next the seasoning. Do the rest in the same way, piling one on top of another; over all put the rest of the crumbs and butter, bake in a moderate oven for half an hour. Slip into a hot dish, and serve.




  ― 310 ―

CODFISH AND POTATOES—BOUILLABAISSE OF COD

         
2 lbs. Murray Cod 1s. 
1 lb. Potatoes 1d. 
Slices of Roll d. 
1 quart Water 
1 fagot of Herbs 
2 Leeks or 1 Onion 
Pinch of Saffron 
1½ oz. Butter 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—One Hour. 

Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is hot add the leeks or onion chopped small, and let them get a good colour without burning; then add a quart of water, the fagot of herbs, the saffron tied in a piece of muslin, and the potatoes peeled. Bring up to the boil, and when they are nearly cooked cut the cod into slices and lay it in. Cook slowly for twenty minutes, take up the fish, and put it in a hot dish and lay the potatoes round. Season and flavour the liquor, and boil up. Cut the bread into slices, put it into a hot dish, and strain the liquor over; serve with the fish.

BUTTERED WHITING

     
3 Whiting 1s. 
Pepper and Salt 2d. 
1½ oz. Butter 
1 Lemon 
Total Cost—1s. 2d. Time—20 Minutes 

Wash the whiting, dry them in a cloth, mix a little flour, pepper, and salt together, cover the fish thoroughly with this. Butter a thin dish, lay the whiting in and put the rest of the butter over them in small pieces, and put them into a hot oven; baste constantly with the butter. This must not be allowed to get black; it should be brown. When the whiting are done, which will be in from fifteen


  ― 311 ―
to twenty minutes, according to the thickness of the fish, place them in a hot dish and pour the butter in which they have been cooked over them.

BROILED FISH

     
2 Mullet 8d. 
2 teaspoonful Oil ½d. 
Pepper 
Salt 
Total Cost—8½d. Time—10 Minutes. 

Split the mullet open and wash away the black substance from the bones, dry on a cloth, rub with oil and sprinkle them with pepper and salt, and leave them in a cool place for an hour. Rub a gridiron with a piece of suet, and when it is quite hot put on the fish and broil it carefully, turning it two or three times whilst cooking. Lay on a hot dish and rub over with a little butter.

To broil successfully a very clear fire is required, and it should be made up some time before it is wanted. Broiling on a gas-stove is equivalent to broiling over a fire.

BOILED FISH

To boil fish properly it must never really boil; and in this lies the secret of success. If it boils it has a watery, insipid flavour, and drops of pieces very often when it is taken out of the water. The water must boil well before the fish is put in, and be seasoned with salt and a teaspoonful of vinegar or lemon juice; lay the fish carefully in, and bring the water to the boil again. Then draw it away from the fire, cover down closely, and keep it just below the boil. The time it takes to cook depends so much on the size and thickness of the fish that no hard and fast rule can be given; about ten minutes to every lb. will be sufficient. It is always done when it begins to leave the


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bone. Take it out of the water directly it is cooked, and if it is not wanted just at the time, cover it with a cloth and keep it hot. Any kind of fish sauce can be served with it, such as plain melted butter, parsley, or egg sauce.

SALT FISH

To cook salt fish it should be soaked in cold water for twelve hours, then well washed in fresh water, scraped and cleaned. Lay it in a fish-kettle, cover with cold water, then simmer very gently indeed for one hour and a half, according to the thickness of the fish. It should be dished on a serviette, and garnished with sprigs of parsley and slices of lemon. Send it to table with boiled parsnips and egg sauce.

DEVILLED SARDINES

     
1 tin Sardines 6d. 
½ oz. Mustard ½d. 
Buttered Toast 1d. 
Cayenne 
Total Cost—7½d. Time—5 Minutes 

Make the mustard with vinegar instead of water, and stir into it some cayenne and salt. Rub the sardines over with this, and either fry them in a little dripping or grill them. Cut the toast into fingers, lay a sardine on each piece, and serve hot. Sardines are also very good dipped in French batter and fried and served with fried parsley.

FISH À L'AURORE

       
1 Jew-fish 9d. 
½ Small Onion 3d. 
½ teaspoonful Parsley 
1 Egg 
½ pint White Sauce 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—1s. Time—30 Minutes. 

Put some dripping on a tin dish, lay the fish in it, and


  ― 313 ―
cover with a buttered paper and bake in the oven for twenty minutes. Take it out, split open and take out the centre bone; sprinkle the inside of the fish with finely chopped onion and parsley, pepper, and salt. Put back the upper fillet, trim away some of the bones, pour over the melted butter or white sauce, and put back into the oven for ten minutes. Boil the egg hard, remove the shell, take out the yolk and either chop it or rub it through a sieve, cut the white into shapes. Take the fish from the oven and decorate the top with the yolk and white of egg; serve hot.

FILLETS À LA ORLY

       
2 Bream 8d. 
Lemon Juice 3d. 
Parsley 
Half an Onion 
½ pint Tomato Sauce 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—11d. Time—5 Minutes 

Fillet the fish and lay them in a dish; sprinkle them well with lemon juice, pepper, salt and parsley. Lay over them some slices of onion and leave them for an hour, then fry them either in batter or flour. Drain them for a few moments on kitchen paper, and serve on a dish very hot with some good thick tomato sauce in a sauce-boat.

SCANDINAVIAN PUDDING

       
2 Bream 8d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
½ pint Milk 1d. 
½ lb. Flour 2d. 
Pepper and Salt 
½ pint Fish Sauce 
Total Cost—1s. 1d. Time—One Hour. 

Fillet the fish, skin and chop very fine; sift the flour into a basin, drop in the eggs, and make into a batter with


  ― 314 ―
the milk. Season with salt and pepper, and stir in the chopped fish. Butter a basin, pour in the mixture and boil for one hour; turn out of the basin and serve with melted butter sauce, flavoured with anchovy, or with any other fish-sauce that may be preferred.

OYSTERS AND POTATOES

      
1 bottle Oysters 1s. 
4 Cold Potatoes 1d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
2 oz. Flour ½d. 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—20 Minutes. 

Mash the potatoes and make them into a paste with the flour and egg, roll out and cut into small pieces. Season the oysters with lemon juice, pepper, and salt; put three or four into each piece of potato crust. Roll it up, brush over with milk, and bake for twenty minutes. Pile high on a dish, and serve hot.

STEWED FISH

           
2 Fish 9d. 
½ pint Stock ½d. 
1 blade of Mace 
2 Cloves 
½ oz. Flour 
2 tablespoonful Ketchup 1d. 
1 Onion 
1 Egg 1d. 
Bread Crumbs ½d. 
1 doz. Peppercorns 
Total Cost—1s. Time—One Hour and a Quarter 

Fillet the fish and fry them in egg and bread crumbs; slice and fry the onion, lay this and the fish in a tin dish. Cover with stock, put in the cloves, peppercorns, and mace,


  ― 315 ―
cover over, and put into a moderate oven for an hour. Mix the flour and ketchup together and stir it in; put back into the oven for ten minutes. Dish the fish and strain the sauce over it.

OYSTERS AND MACARONI

       
2 oz. Macaroni d. 
1 bottle Oysters 1s. 
1 gill Milk or Melted Butter Sauce 1d. 
Cayenne 1d. 
Salt 
Bread Crumbs 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—Half an Hour. 

Boil the macaroni in the oyster liquor or in weak stock till quite soft. Rub a little butter on a dish, cut the macaroni into pieces two inches long and lay it at the bottom. On this place the oysters, and season them with cayenne, salt, and a little lemon juice or nutmeg. Pour over the milk or sauce, cover with bread crumbs, and brown it in a quick oven. A few little pieces of butter laid on top of the crumbs make a richer dish. It must be served very hot.




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CHAPTER XIX.

FIFTY RECIPES FOR MEAT DISHES.

COOKERY OF MEAT

The principal methods of cooking meat are roasting, baking, boiling, stewing, broiling, braising, and frying. Of these methods roasting and baking are conducted on the same principle—dry heat; boiling and stewing are often spoken of as if they were the same, but this is quite a mistake. When we boil a joint we plunge it into boiling water, and this water should cover it completely; but when meat is stewed it must be cooked in a very small quantity of water, and never allowed to boil. Water boils at 212°, but simmering heat is 180°, and meat cannot be properly stewed if it is cooked quicker than this. One of the great faults of English cooks is that they cook too quickly, and it is particularly necessary in stewing to cook slowly, because we want to extract and blend all the different flavours of the various substances, which are necessary for a good and savoury stew. When boiling meat for table plunge it into boiling water, and then reduce the heat; but when broth or soup is to be made it must be put into cold water, so that the goodness may be drawn from it. Corned beef or pork should also be placed in cold water and heated gradually, so that some of the salt is drawn out. The frying-pan should be discarded from the kitchen, at least as far as steaks and chops are concerned; grilling or broiling is by far the best method of cooking them. Meat unless it is very carefully fried is


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tough and greasy, yet the same piece of meat if grilled or stewed would be tender and nutritious. There is often a prejudice against meat twice cooked, but the most delicate entrées that are so highly esteemed by many are only re-cooked meat. It is the time and care expended on it that makes it so delicious. Even in plain cooking there is no reason why the homely dish of hash should not be appetizing and wholesome. I trust that the following recipes, if carefully carried out, will prove this to be true.

STEAK AND KIDNEY PIE

       
2 lbs. Steak 5d. 
2 Kidneys d. 
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
½ lb. Dripping 
1 gill Water 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—8½d. Time—One Hour and a Half 

Mix a teaspoonful of flour in a plate with some pepper and salt, slice up the meat into pieces about three inches long by two broad, dip each piece lightly in the flour; skin and slice up the kidneys, and cut the fat into small pieces. Roll a piece of kidney and a piece of fat alternately in the slices of meat, pile high in a dish, and pour in a gill of water or stock. Make a short crust by directions given for short pastry, wet the edge of the dish and line it with a strip of the paste, wet this strip again with water and cover the dish with paste; trim off the edge, cut a small piece out of the centre of the pie, and ornament it with a few leaves cut out of the paste trimmings. Brush over with water and bake in a moderate oven for one hour and a half. As soon as the crust has acquired some colour, cover with a piece of paper well rubbed with dripping.




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STEAK AND KIDNEY PUDDING

       
2 lbs. Steak 5d. 
2 Kidneys d. 
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
½ lb. Suet d. 
½ pint Water 
Pepper and Salt— 
Total Cost—10d. Time—Three Hours 

Make a dry crust, by directions given elsewhere, of the flour, suet, and butter. Rub the pudding basin well with dripping, roll out the crust, take two-thirds and line the basin, well pressing the crust in. Slice up the meat and kidney, season with pepper and salt, pile lightly in the basin, pour in half a gill of water, wet the edge of the crust. Roll out the piece left, and cover the pudding securely. Dip a cloth in boiling water, put it over the top, tie it round with string, and pin or tie the ends of the cloth over the top. Plunge into plenty of boiling water, and boil for three hours. Take it up, take off the cloth, turn it out of the basin on to a hot dish, and serve hot.

STEWED KIDNEYS AND MACARONI

      
6 Kidneys 6d. 
1 gill Stock d. 
1 oz. Butter 
2 oz. Macaroni 
Parsley, Pepper, and Salt 
Total Cost—8½d. Time—25 Minutes 

Put the macaroni into boiling water seasoned with salt, and boil for about twenty minutes, or until quite soft, but not broken. When it is boiling, skin and cut the kidneys in half, put them into a frying-pan with the butter, and toss them over the fire for two or three minutes. Sprinkle with parsley, pepper, and salt, pour over the stock or water.


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Bring it to the boil, then cover down by the side of the fire for five minutes. Place carefully in the centre of a hot dish, boil up the gravy and pour over. Arrange the macaroni round the dish as a border, and serve hot.

STEWED STEAK AND WALNUTS

       
2 lbs. Steak 5d. 
½ pint Water or Stock 1d. 
3 Pickled Walnuts 
1 teaspoonful Vinegar 
1 teaspoonful Cornflour 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—6d. Time—Three Hours 

Cut the steak into neat pieces, put it into hot water and bring to the boil, then keep it below boiling point, but simmering very gently for two hours and a half. Mix the cornflour with a tablespoonful of the vinegar from the walnuts and stir it in, add salt to taste and a small pinch of pepper. Cut up three walnuts and put them in, bring to simmering point again, and cook for at least another half-hour, then dish neatly. Boil up the gravy and pour over it.

STEAK AND MACARONI

        
2 lbs. Steak 5d. 
2 oz. Macaroni d. 
1 oz. Dripping ½d. 
½ pint Stock 
1 Onion 
1 doz. Peppercorns 
Salt 
Total Cost—7d. Time—Three Hours 

Cut the steak into neat pieces, put the butter or dripping into a saucepan and fry the steak quickly; take it out, shred the onion and put it in with the peppercorns, and let it get


  ― 320 ―
quite brown. Pour over the stock and stir until it boils, then put back the steak and let it simmer very gently for three hours. While it is cooking, boil the macaroni in weak stock or water for twenty-five minutes, and if it is ready before it is wanted keep it in hot water. When the steak is done, dish it neatly, flavour the gravy, boil it up and pour over. Cut the macaroni into short pieces and place it round the dish as a garnish.

MUTTON CHOPS IN BATTER

      
2 Eggs 2d. 
2 lbs. Chops 5d. 
1 pint Milk d. 
¾ lb. Flour ½d. 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—10d. Time—One Hour and a Quarter  

Break the eggs into a basin, beat in the flour with a fork, then add gradually the milk, season with a little pepper and salt. Rub some dripping on a baking dish, pour in the batter, lay in the chops. Put into a moderate oven and bake for about one hour and a quarter. Serve hot.

TOMATO PIE

       
3 or 4 Tomatoes 2d. 
1 lb. Chops d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
4 Cold Potatoes 1d. 
Pepper and Salt ½d. 
1 tablespoonful Milk 
Total Cost—7d. Time—One Hour and a Quarter 

Skin and slice up the tomatoes, put a layer at the bottom of a pie-dish, then lay in the chops. Season with pepper and salt, and cover with the rest of the tomatoes; mash up the potatoes until very smooth. Warm the butter and milk and pour it over them and make into a paste. Cover the


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dish with this crust, brush the top over with a little milk, put into the oven and bake for about one hour and a quarter.

KABOBS

          
1½ lbs. of Steak 4d. 
1 dessertspoonful Curry Powder d. 
1 dessertspoonful Worcester Sauce 
1 dessertspoonful Vinegar 
½ pint Stock 2d. 
1 tablespoonful Flour 
1 tablespoonful Chutney 
¼ lb. Rice 
Salt 
Total Cost—7½d. Time—One Hour and a Half 

Slice up the steak into pieces about three inches long and two broad. Mix the curry powder, sauce, vinegar, flour, and chutney together and spread this over the steak; roll up and thread on small wooden skewers. These skewers should be made from a very small splint of wood, just large enough to hold one or at most two of the rolls; lay them in a saucepan, pour over the stock, bring to the boil and simmer one hour and a half. While they are cooking, well wash the rice in cold water and let it soak for half an hour, throw it into boiling water for three minutes and strain off. Put a pinch of saffron in some fresh water, season with salt, and finish cooking in this. Strain off and dry in the saucepan. Pile this on a dish and lay the kabobs over it; boil up the gravy, season and flavour, and strain round the dish.

SCOTCH COLLOPS

       
1 lb. Lean Steak d. 
1 gill Stock 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 
1 oz. Butter 
Quarter of an Onion 1d. 
Small Sippets of Toast 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—One Hour 

Remove all the fat, and cut the meat into very thin and


  ― 322 ―
small dice, mince up the onion very finely. Mix together, season with some pepper and salt, and put into a saucepan with the butter. Stir it about for five minutes, then pour on the stock, bring to the boil, and simmer for one hour. Arrange neatly on a hot dish, and put the sippets of toast round.

POOR MAN'S DISH

    
½ pint Poor Man's Sauce ½d. 
Slice of Toast 2d. 
Slices of Cold Meat 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—Half an Hour 

Make the sauce by directions given elsewhere, pour it into a pie dish, lay in some slices of underdone beef or mutton; cover over and stand in the oven for a quarter of an hour. Cut the slice of toast into sippets, lay them round, and serve.

BREAST OF MUTTON AND PEAS

           
2 Breasts of Mutton 4d. 
2 Onions ½d. 
1 Carrot 
1 Egg 1d. 
Bread Crumbs ½d. 
1 fagot of Herbs 7d. 
1 pint Peas 
Salt and Pepper 
Hot Fat 
12 Peppercorns 
Total Cost—1s. 1d. Time—Two Hours 

Wipe the meat with a warm damp cloth, and put it into a saucepan with the vegetables; bring to the boil and stew very gently for two hours. Take it up and remove all the bones, put it between two boards and stand some heavy weights on it till quite cold. Then cut into neat-shaped pieces, egg and bread crumb them; fry a good colour. Boil the peas by recipe given elsewhere. Pile the mutton on


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a dish and put the peas round. A breast of lamb is exceedingly nice done in this way; it may be cut off before the quarter is roasted. The liquor in which the meat was cooked makes excellent soup.

TRIPE AND TOMATOES

       
2 lbs. Tripe 5d. 
1 doz. Tomatoes 3d. 
½ pint Water or Stock ½d. 
1 oz. Cornflour 
1 Onion ½d. 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—9d Time—Four Hours 

Cut the tripe into neat pieces, put it on in cold water and bring to the boil; let it boil for five minutes, put it into cold water, and wash and scrape it well. Slice up the tomatoes and rub them through a sieve; mix them with the stock or water, and season with pepper and salt. Pour this into a saucepan, slice in the onion, put in the tripe, and let it boil up. Simmer gently for four hours, mix the cornflour smoothly with a little water or stock, and pour it in; stir until it boils, dish the tripe carefully, season and flavour the sauce to taste, and pour it over. Tripe is more easily digested than any other animal food, and is therefore good for people suffering with dyspepsia.

TRIPE IN MILK

       
2 lbs. Tripe 5d. 
1 pint Milk 2d. 
Pepper and Salt ½d. 
2 Onions 
1 oz. Flour 
½ pint Water 
Total Cost—7½d. Time—Four Hours 

Prepare the tripe as in the preceding recipe. Mix the milk and water together, pour it into a saucepan; lay in the


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tripe, slice in the onions, bring to the boil, and let it simmer slowly for four hours. Season with pepper and salt, thicken with the flour; after adding the flour let it cook for fifteen minutes, then dish the tripe carefully and pour the sauce over it.

TOMATOES AND MINCE

     
8 Tomatoes 3d. 
8 pieces Toast 1d. 
¼ lb. Minced Meat 
Parsley 
Total Cost—4d. Time—10 Minutes. 

Take any remains of cold mince or hash, add more flavouring if necessary, and make it hot in the saucepan. Wipe the tomatoes and scrape out the centre, fill it up with the mince, and stand in the oven for ten minutes. Have ready some rounds of toast about the same size as the tomatoes. When the tomatoes are cooked enough, stand them on the toast, and serve.

BREAKFAST MEAT

       
1 lb. Cold Meat 3d. 
2 oz. Macaroni d. 
Pepper and Salt 1d. 
3 Tomatoes 
½ gill Stock 
Bread Crumbs 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—Half an Hour 

Mince up the meat, or any remains of cold hash or mince will do. If there is any cold macaroni it can be used; if not, boil some by directions given, and slice up the tomatoes. Butter a dish in which it can be cooked and served. Place at the bottom a layer of meat, then one of macaroni, then one of the tomatoes, season with pepper and salt, and


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continue this in layers until all the materials are used up. Sprinkle a few bread crumbs on the top, put into the oven, and bake for half an hour. Serve hot.

RISSOLES

           
2 lb. Cold Meat 3d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1½ oz. Flour 2d. 
1 Egg 
Bread Crumbs 
½ pint Stock 
Quarter of an Onion 
Parsley 
Pepper and Salt 
Hot Fat 
Total Cost—6d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Mince up the meat and mix in some chopped parsley, pepper and salt; put the butter into a stewpan, and when it is dissolved mince up the pieces of onion very finely and fry that for two minutes, then stir in the flour. Pour in the gravy and stir until it boils; mix in the meat and let it get thoroughly hot. Turn it out on to a plate, spread it over, and leave until quite cold. Make up into balls, cover with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot fat; arrange in a circle and garnish with fried parsley.

KIDNEY FRITTERS

       
6 Kidneys 6d. 
1 teaspoonful Minced Herbs ½d. 
Hot Fat 1d. 
1 teaspoonful Onion 
Frying Batter 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—7½d. Time—5 Minutes 

Skin the kidneys and cut up each one into three or four


  ― 326 ―
slices. Make a frying batter by directions given elsewhere; stir in the minced onions and herbs, and season with pepper and salt. Dip the slices of kidney into this and plunge into very hot fat. Fry a good colour, pile high on a dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve very hot. Slices of cold beef or mutton are very nice done in this way.

KIDNEY TOAST

      
2 Kidneys d. 
½ oz. Butter ½d. 
1 Slice of Toast ½d. 
Parsley 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Skin and chop the kidneys small, put into a saucepan with the butter, and cook for two or three minutes; season with pepper and salt. Spread it on the toast, sprinkle over some chopped parsley, and serve.

BEEF TRIFLES

       
1 lb. Cold Roast Beef 3d. 
4 oz. Bread Crumbs 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 
1 teaspoonful Onion d. 
1 Egg 
1 teaspoonful Parsley or Horse-radish 
Total Cost—5½ d Time—Half and Hour 

Mince the beef and onion very finely, and mix it with the bread crumbs, pepper, and salt. Add either some chopped parsley or finely scraped horse-radish; mix thoroughly. Moisten with an egg well beaten, and if very dry a spoonful of gravy or milk. Butter some small cups or moulds, fill them with this mixture, and bake for about half an hour.


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Garnish with sprigs of parsley, and serve with them some horse-radish sauce or brown gravy.

HASHED BEEF AND TOMATO SAUCE

         
1 lb. Cold Roast Beef 3d. 
8 Tomatoes 3d. 
1 fagot of Herbs ½d. 
Salt and Pepper 
1 gill Gravy d. 
1 oz. Butter 
½ teaspoonful Sugar 
Toast 
Total Cost—8d. Time—Half an Hour 

Slice up the tomatoes and put them into a saucepan with the butter, herbs, pepper, salt, sugar, and gravy. Stir about until it becomes quite a pulp; then rub through a sieve, season to taste, and let it get quite cold. Cut the beef into thin slices and lay it in a saucepan, pour over the cold sauce and let it get hot through, very slowly. Arrange on a hot dish, and garnish with fried sippets of bread or toast.

STEWED CHOPS

      
1 lb. Chops d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Pepper and Salt ½d. 
½ oz. Flour 
1 gill Gravy 
Total Cost—4d. Time—One Hour 

Trim some of the fat from the chops, put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is melted stir in the flour. Mix well, and pour in the gravy; stir until it boils, lay in the chops, and simmer very gently for one hour. Dish the chops in a circle, boil up and season the gravy, and pour over the stew.




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BAKED CHOP

   
1 Chop 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—1d Time—One Hour 

Choose a nice loin chop with an undercut. Rub a little butter in a soup plate, lay in the chop, cover with another plate, and stand in a cool oven for an hour. Put on a very hot plate and pour over the gravy which has run from it. Serve very hot.

RICE CUTLETS

       
½ lb. Cold Meat d. 
2 oz. Rice 
Pepper and Salt 
1 Egg 1d. 
Bread Crumbs ½d. 
Hot Fat 
Total Cost—3½d. Time—5 Minutes 

Mince the meat finely; if there is any cold rice in the larder it will do; if not, boil some. Mix the rice and meat well together, season and flavour with a little nutmeg or lemon peel; if the meat is very lean add 2 oz. fat or beef suet. Shape into cutlets, egg and bread crumb them, and fry in hot fat; dish in a circle and garnish with fried parsley.

POTATO SAUSAGES

       
3 Cold Potatoes ½d. 
¼ lb. Cold Meat 1d. 
Nutmeg, Pepper, and Salt d. 
1 Egg 
Bread Crumbs 
Hot Fat 
Total Cost—3d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Mash up the potatoes, and mince the meat; mix together,


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season nicely, and mix into a paste with half the egg. Roll into sausages, egg and bread crumb, and fry in hot fat. Dish in a pyramid, and garnish with fried parsley.

BRAZILIAN STEW

      
2 lbs. Leg of Beef 5d. 
1 Onion ½d. 
1 Carrot 
1 tablespoonful Vinegar 
1 doz. Peppercorns 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—Three Hours 

Cut the beef up in small pieces, dip them in the vinegar, and lay in a jar. Slice in the vegetables, add the peppercorns, and tie a paper over the top of the jar. Stand in a saucepan of boiling water for three hours; dish up the meat, garnish with the carrot, strain the gravy, season and flavour, boil up and pour over. Serve hot.

BEEF OLIVES

       
2 lbs. Rump Steak 10d. 
¼ lb. Veal Seasoning 2d. 
12 Peppercorns ½d. 
½ pint Stock 
1 Onion 
1 Carrot 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—One Hour and a Quarter 

Cut up the steak into thin slices about three inches long and two broad, shape the seasoning into small corks, roll a piece up in each slice of steak, thread them on a skewer and lay them in a saucepan. Pour in the stock, add the peppercorns and vegetables, bring to the boil, simmer very gently for one hour and a half. Place the olives on a hot dish and draw out the skewers, remove the fat, boil up the gravy, season and flavour to taste, and pour round. Serve hot.




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MACARONI PUDDING

        
3 oz. Macaroni 2d. 
½ lb. Cold Meat 2d. 
Pepper and Salt 3d. 
½ pint Gravy 
2 Eggs 
½ pint Milk 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
Total Cost—7d. Time—One Hour 

Boil the macaroni in stock or water. Mince the meat finely, and season with parsley, pepper, and salt. Rub a pudding basin or mould with butter, put the macaroni and meat in in layers, and season nicely. Beat up the eggs and milk and pour them over, cover with buttered paper, and steam for one hour. Turn out of the basin carefully, and pour round it a little nice brown gravy or white sauce.

SHEEPS' TONGUES IN TOMATO SAUCE

       
6 Tongues 1s. 
½ pint Tomato Sauce d. 
1 doz. Peppercorns 1d. 
1 Onion 
1 fagot Herbs 
1 Carrot 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—Three Hours. 

Wash the tongues in cold water, put them into a saucepan, cover them with cold water or stock, and bring to the boil, then skim well. Either corned or fresh tongues will do for this dish. If corned, no salt is required; but if fresh ones are used, put in a dessertspoonful of salt. Put in the vegetables and peppercorns and simmer gently for two hours, then take them up, plunge them into cold water and remove the skin. Trim them off and cut in half. Make some tomato sauce by recipe given elsewhere. The liquor in which the tongues were boiled may be used for this if it is not too


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salt. Lay the tongues in and simmer for another hour; dish carefully, boil up the sauce and pour over. Garnish with chopped parsley.

BROWN MINCE

       
1 lb. Cold Roast Beef 4d. 
½ lb. Bread Crumbs 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 1d. 
1 Egg 
½ pint Gravy 
Nutmeg 
Total Cost—6d. Time—One Hour 

Mince up the beef finely and mix it with the bread crumbs; season with pepper, salt, nutmeg, or parsley. Beat up the egg, mix it with the gravy, and pour over the meat and crumbs. Butter a basin, sprinkle well with brown bread crumbs, put in the mince. Cover over with a plate and bake for an hour, then turn on to a hot dish and pour a little nice gravy round it.

STEAK À LA JARDINIÈRE

          
2 lbs. Steak 5d. 
1 gill Green Peas 2d. 
1 gill French Beans 1d. 
½ oz. Flour d. 
1 oz. Butter 
1 Carrot 
1 Turnip 
½ pint Gravy 
Salt 
Total Cost—9½d. Time—Three Hours 

Cut the steak into neat pieces and fry very quickly in the butter; take it out, put in the flour, and when quite smooth pour on the gravy and stir until it boils. Put back the steak, and simmer very gently for three hours. Cut the carrot and turnip up into thin strips, and put them in when


  ― 332 ―
the steak has been cooking for two hours. Boil the peas and beans separately, and add them to the stew five minutes before serving. Arrange the steak on a hot dish, put the vegetables round, and pour over the gravy. The greater the variety of vegetables used the nicer this dish will be.

KROMSKIES

         
½ lb. Cold Meat 2d. 
2 Rashers Fat Bacon 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Frying Butter 1d. 
½ gill Stock ½d. 
1 oz. Flour 
Parsley, Pepper, and Salt 
Hot Fat 
Total Cost—6½d. Time—5 Minutes 

Mince the meat finely or put it through the sausage machine, season with parsley, pepper, and salt; put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is melted stir in the flour and the stock. Stir until it boils, then add the meat and mix thoroughly. Turn on to a plate to cool. When cold make up into pieces about the size of a cork. Take some very thin rashers of fat bacon and cut into strips about half an inch wide by two inches long. Roll the meat in this, dip in frying batter, and fry in very hot fat; drain for a few minutes on kitchen paper, pile high on a dish, garnish with fried parsley, and serve very hot.

KÖTTBULLAR

         
2 lbs. Fillet of Beef 10d. 
½ lb. Suet 1d. 
Salt and Pepper 1d. 
Hot Fat 
½ pint Milk 
2 Eggs 2d. 
Nutmeg ½d. 
Soda Biscuit 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—10 Minutes 




  ― 333 ―

Mince the lean of the meat very small with about a quarter of a pound of the suet which surrounds it; season with pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Make a little boiled custard by recipe given elsewhere, pour it over the biscuit, which must be made into fine crumbs, then stir in the meat and let it get quite cold. Roll into small balls with a little flour. Put three ounces of dripping into a frying pan, and when very hot drop in the balls and fry a good colour; drain for a few minutes on kitchen paper, and dish in a circle. Serve hot.

BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON

          
1 Leg of Mutton 1s. 3d. 
1 Rasher of Ham 2d. 
1 fagot of Herbs ½d. 
20 Peppercorns 
1½ oz. Butter 1d. 
2 Carrots 1d. 
1 Turnip 
1 Onion 
1 quart Stock 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—Four Hours. 

Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is dissolved put in the mutton and brown it all over; then lay the ham and vegetables round it, pour in the stock, and bring it to the boil. Cover down closely, and stand the saucepan in a moderate oven where it will cook slowly. If the braising is being done by a coal fire the lid of the stewpan may be reversed and some hot coals placed in it; these will want renewing from time to time. In any case cook very slowly, then dish the meat, strain the gravy, remove the fat carefully, and boil to a sort of half glaze; pour round the dish, serve with Julienne or plain vegetables.




  ― 334 ―

PRESSED BEEF

        
10 lbs. Thick Brisket of Beef, Corned or Fresh 1s. 6d. 
1 fagot of Herbs ½d. 
1 stalk Celery 
1 Onion d. 
2 Carrots 
1 Turnip 
40 Peppercorns 
Total Cost—1s. 8d. Time—Four Hours 

Bind the beef with tapes to keep it a good shape. If it is corned, put it on in cold water; if fresh, in hot stock or water, and bring to the boil, then skim carefully and put in the vegetables and peppercorns. Simmer very gently indeed for four hours, then take it up. Take off the tapes, slip out the bones, and put it into a dish; place a piece of board on the top and some heavy weights and leave till the next day, then turn out and serve with a salad. If fresh meat is used for this dish the liquor may be used for soup, or the bones may be put back when removed from the meat and boiled without the lid very quickly for an hour. Then strain off and stand away till the next day; it should then be in a strong jelly. This may be cut into blocks and put round the meat.

CURRIED CHOPS

           
2 lbs. Chops 5d. 
½ oz. Curry Powder 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Lemon Juice 1d. 
¼ lb. Rice 
½ pint Gravy or Water 
½ oz. Flour 1d. 
1 Apple 
1 Onion 
Salt 
Total Cost—9d. Time—Three Hours. 

Trim some of the fat away from the chops. Put the butter into a stewpan, put in the chops and brown them


  ― 335 ―
quickly; take out, chop up the apple and onion, and fry that too. Sprinkle with the curry powder and flour, pour in the stock or water and stir until it boils, then put back the chops, bring to the boil, and simmer very gently for three hours. Dish carefully, boil up the gravy, and if it is not thick enough boil quickly without the lid for some minutes. Season with salt and lemon juice and pour over the chops. Boil the rice by directions given elsewhere; rinse out a small mould or cup in cold water, press the rice into it, and turn out. Serve this in a separate dish, but send it to the table with the curry.

BEEF À LA MODE

           
6 lbs. Leg of Beef or Silverside 9d. 
1 Calf's Foot 4d. 
2 Onions 1d. 
2 Carrots 
1 Turnip 
1 fagot of Herbs 1d. 
40 Peppercorns 
1 blade of Mace 
6 Cloves 
Salt 
Total Cost—1s. 3d. Time—Five Hours. 

Have the foot well chopped up, put it on in cold water, bring it to the boil. Let it boil for five minutes, then take it up and scrape and wash it well, lay it in a stewpan with the beef cut into pieces. Cover with cold water and bring to the boil, put in the spices tied in a piece of muslin, and let it simmer very gently for three hours.

Slice up the vegetables and put them in, and continue simmering altogether for about five hours. Take up the foot, take out all the bones, and cut into pieces; put back the meat of the foot into the saucepan, take out the spices, season with salt, remove the fat, boil up, and serve. This dish is always better for being made the day before it is wanted, as the fat can be more easily removed.




  ― 336 ―

BEEFSTEAK ROLLS

          
1 lb. of Beefsteak 2d. 
Bread and Butter 1d. 
2 Cloves ½d. 
1 Onion 
Stalk of Celery 
½ pint Gravy 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 
½ oz. Flour 
Salt 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—Two Hours 

Take a thick steak and split it open, cut it into strips five inches wide by three long. Cut some very thin bread and butter the same size seasoned with pepper and salt, lay it on the steak and roll it up, thread on a skewer and dust with flour. Put the butter into a frying-pan, and when it is hot put in the rolls and fry them quickly; take out and lay in a saucepan, cut up the onion and fry in the same butter as the rolls were fried in. Shake in a teaspoonful of flour and pour in the gravy; stir until it boils, then pour over the rolls. Put in the celery and cloves, and simmer very gently for two hours; take up the rolls on a hot dish and slip off the skewers, boil up and flavour the gravy. Remove the fat and pour round the meat. Veal or mutton is also very good prepared in this way.

BEEFSTEAK STUFFED

         
1½ lbs. of Beefsteak 4d. 
½ lb. Potatoes 1d. 
2 oz. Dripping 
Salt and Pepper 
1 oz. Butter d. 
1 tablespoonful Milk 
1 Onion 
½ teaspoonful Sage 
Total Cost—6½d. Time—One Hour 

Boil and mash the potatoes with the butter, milk, and


  ― 337 ―
salt (if there are any cold ones they will do as well); lay the steak flat and spread the potatoes over it. Chop the onion very fine and powder the sage, and sprinkle over the potatoes; roll up and tie with a tape or string. Rub some dripping over a baking sheet, put in the steak, and plenty of dripping on the top. Put into a moderate oven and bake for an hour, basting frequently. Put on to a hot dish, take off the tapes, and pour round it some nice gravy. Send mashed potatoes to table with it.

FRICASSEE OF LIVER

          
Half a Calf's Liver 3d. 
1½ oz. Butter d. 
1 Carrot ½d. 
Lemon Juice 
1 Onion 1d. 
1 oz. Flour 
1 pint of Gravy 
Parsley 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—6d. Time—One Hour 

Wash and slice up the liver, and dip in the flour; fry very lightly and quickly in the butter and lay in a saucepan. Slice up the carrot and fry in the same butter. Stir in the gravy, boil up, and pour over the liver; simmer very gently for one hour, then dish carefully. Season the gravy with salt, pepper, and lemon juice; boil up and pour over it. Serve hot.

STEWED SWEETBREADS

        
1 pair Sweetbreads 4d. 
1 pint Gravy ½d. 
Salt and Pepper 
½ Onion 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
½ oz. Flour 
1 Carrot 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—One Hour. 




  ― 338 ―

Put the sweetbreads in cold water, bring to the boil, strain away the water, scrape and clean them and remove the pieces of skin. Put the butter into a stewpan and flour the sweetbreads; dry very lightly and quickly, take them out. Slice up and fry the onion and carrot, stir in the flour and gravy, and bring to the boil. Lay in the sweetbreads and simmer very gently for one hour; take them up on a hot dish, season and flavour the gravy, remove the fat, boil up and pour round them. Serve hot. Sweetbreads are very nice served with tomato sauce.

ROULADES OF BEEF

        
½ lb. Fillet of Beef 9d. 
½ lb. Cold Boiled Bacon 4d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
1½ oz. Dripping 1d. 
½ pint Gravy 
Pepper and Mustard 
2 oz. Crumbs 
Total Cost—1s. 3d. Time—10 Minutes 

Trim away the fat from the fillet and cut it into very small thin slices, and cut the bacon also into thin slices, but smaller. Spread the side of the beef with mustard and pepper, cover with the bacon, and roll up as lightly as possible. When all are rolled beat up an egg, mix it with a spoonful of water, brush over the rolls; cover them with crumbs and thread on a small skewer. Put the dripping into a frying-pan, and when quite hot lay in the rolls and fry until a good colour. Place on a hot dish and slip out the skewers. Make the gravy hot, season and flavour, and pour boiling round the roulades. Should there be any brown sauce in the larder it is nicer than gravy.




  ― 339 ―

VEAL SHAPE

       
2 lbs. Neck of Veal 8d. 
1 Lemon ½d. 
Pepper and Salt 
¼ lb. Ham or Bacon 2d. 
3 Eggs 3d. 
½ pint Stock 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—Three Hours 

Put the meat into a saucepan with the rind of the lemon cut very thinly, pour in the stock and simmer very gently for three hours; if the bacon is not cooked put it in and stew it for the last half-hour, then take up the meat and ham, cut it off the bones, and put these back in the saucepan and let them boil quickly without the lid. Boil the eggs hard and cut them in slices and arrange in a plain mould or dish, then lay in the veal and ham, and season with pepper and salt. Strain and flavour the gravy, add the lemon juice, and pour it over the meat. Set aside until quite cold, then turn out. This is a very nice breakfast or luncheon dish.

SWISS PÂTÉS

        
Cold Roast Veal, Fowl, or Lamb 6d. 
Half a Stale Loaf d. 
Sweet Herbs or Parsley 1d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
1 gill Melted Butter 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 
Hot Fat 
Total Cost—10½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Mince the meat very finely, season with any forcemeat that may be left, or else some grated lemon peel, parsley and sweet herbs, pepper and salt. Make one gill of melted butter by recipe given elsewhere, stir in the meat and let it simmer for a few minutes; cut some slices of bread about an inch and a half thick, stamp them out with a round


  ― 340 ―
cutter about two inches across. Remove the centre for about half way through with a smaller cutter, brush them over with a raw egg beaten up, and cover them with fine crumbs. Fry in hot fat till a good colour, drain away the fat from them on kitchen paper. Fill these with the mince, garnish with sprigs of parsley, and serve.

DEVILLED MEAT

           
1 teaspoonful Mustard d. 
1 teaspoonful Worcester Sauce 
2 teaspoonsful Vinegar 
½ oz. Butter 
1 teaspoonful Oil 
1 teaspoonful Lemon Juice 
½ teaspoonful Curry Powder 
Mashed Potatoes 1d. 
½ gill Gravy 
Slices of Cold Meat 
Total Cost—3½d. Time—10 Minutes 

Put the mustard, made with vinegar instead of water, into a basin; add gradually the oil and butter, curry powder, sauce, vinegar, and lemon juice, and mix very thoroughly, then pour in the gravy. Cut some slices of underdone meat and lay them in a pie dish, pour over the mixture, cover with a plate, and stand in a hot oven for ten minutes; stir frequently. Serve with mashed potatoes.

JUGGED RABBITS

        
2 Rabbits 1s. 
½ lb. Pickled Pork 3d. 
1 Onion ½d. 
1 fagot of Herbs 
1 pint Gravy 1d. 
½ oz. Flour 
1 tablespoonful Red Currant Jelly 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—Two Hours 

Wash and joint up the rabbits and cut the pork into slices; lay some of the pork over the bottom of a baking


  ― 341 ―
jar, and on this some joints of rabbit; continue in layers until all the meat is in, then put in the onion, sliced up, the fagot of herbs, and a few peppercorns. Cover down closely, stand in a moderate oven, and cook for two hours. Take up the meat and arrange nicely on a hot dish, strain the gravy into a saucepan, thicken with the flour, and when it boils stir in the jelly. Flavour to taste, pour it over the rabbits, and serve.

BREAKFAST DISH OF BEEF

       
Slices of Cold Roast Beef (underdone) 4d. 
½ gill Melted Butter Sauce ½d. 
½ gill Gravy or Water ½d. 
Salt and Pepper 
1 tablespoonful Walnut Ketchup or Vinegar 
1 tablespoonful Red Currant Jelly 1d. 
Total Cost—6d. Time—Half an Hour 

Cut some thin slices of beef and lay them in a saucepan or basin, mix the melted butter sauce, gravy, jelly, and ketchup together, and pour over them. Cover down closely and stand the saucepan in a larger one, half full of boiling water, and steam for half an hour. Put the meat into a dish and pour the sauce over it.

SOUBISE CUTLETS

       
2 lbs. Neck Chops 5d. 
1½ oz. Butter d. 
1 oz. Flour 1d. 
3 Onions 
1 gill Milk 
Pepper, Salt, and Lemon Juice 
Total Cost—7½d. Time—20 Minutes 

Trim off the cutlets, lay them in a tin dish, cover with buttered paper, and bake in the oven from fifteen to twenty minutes, according to thickness, turning once while cooking. Peel the onions, put them into cold water, bring to the boil, throw away the water. Put them on again in cold water


  ― 342 ―
and boil until rather soft, then strain all the water away, put in the butter, let it get quite hot, then cover down and finish cooking the onions in this, but do not brown them. Stir in the flour and pour over the milk, stir until it boils, let it boil two or three minutes, then rub through a sieve; season with salt, pepper, and lemon juice. Dish the cutlets in a circle, pour away some of the fat, and rinse the tin with a spoonful of gravy. Pour this round the dish and put the soubise sauce in the centre. Serve hot.

ROMAN RAGOUT

         
1½ lbs. Gravy Beef 4d. 
2 oz. Fat Bacon d. 
2 oz. Onion ½d. 
1 pint Milk 6d. 
3 Tomatoes 
½ pint Gravy 
1½ oz. Semolina 
1 oz. Dry Cheese 
Total Cost—1s. Time—Three Hours 

Mince the onion and bacon very fine indeed, put them into a saucepan and fry a good brown, then add half the gravy, and stir until a sort of half glaze. Rub the tomatoes through a sieve and stir them in with the rest of the gravy, bring to the boil. Cut the meat into strips and put it in with a little salt and pepper, and simmer very gently for about three hours. While it is cooking put the milk on to boil, mix the semolina with a little cold milk, and stir it in; cook it until the spoon will come out quite clean, then turn it on to a dish till cold. Cut it into squares and lay some in a deep dish, sprinkle with grated cheese, then more semolina and more cheese. Pour over this some of the gravy in which the meat is cooking, and put it in the oven to get hot. Dish up the meat and pour the sauce over it. Send the two dishes to table together, quite hot.




  ― 343 ―

MUTTON OR HAM BONE AND POTATOES

       
1 Bone of Mutton or Ham d. 
1 Onion 
1 oz. Butter 
1 oz. Flour 
½ pint Water or Stock 
1 lb. Potatoes 1d. 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—One Hour. 

Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is hot put in the flour; mix together smoothly, pour in the water or stock, and stir until it boils. Joint up a mutton or ham bone and lay it in; if it is mutton, add a little salt. Bring it to the boil, put in the onion whole stuck with two cloves, and simmer for half an hour or longer; then peel the potatoes, cut them in half and put them in, and cook until they are soft. Take out the bones and place on a dish, put the potatoes round, and pour the sauce over. This is a very homely dish, but a very savoury and economical one. A little meat goes a long way, and it is nourishing, too, as all the goodness of the bone and potatoes is in the stew.

VEAL IN WHITE SAUCE

           
2 lbs. Neck of Veal 10d. 
2 oz. Butter d. 
1 oz. Flour 1d. 
Salt and Pepper 
1 Egg 
¾ pint Milk 2d. 
1 Onion 1d. 
1 fagot of Herbs 
1 dozen Peppercorns 
Lemon Juice 
Total Cost—1s.d. Time—One Hour and a Half. 

Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is melted


  ― 344 ―
stir in the flour and cook well, but do not brown. Boil the onion, herbs, and peppercorns in the milk, strain them out, pour the milk over the butter and flour, and stir till it boils. Cut the meat into cutlets, lay them in and simmer very gently till the meat is tender, then take it up and arrange nicely on a dish. Beat up an egg with a drop or two of lemon juice and a spoonful of gravy or milk. Pour into the sauce in which the meat was cooked, and stir briskly over the fire until it thickens; strain over the meat, and serve.

A few very small fat rashers of bacon rolled up and fried are a great improvement to this dish.




  ― 345 ―

CHAPTER XX.

FIFTY RECIPES FOR VEGETABLES.

TOMATOES STUFFED

     
6 Tomatoes 2d. 
¼ lb. Veal Forcemeat 2d. 
1 oz. Cheese d. 
6 pieces Fried Bread ½d. 
Total Cost—6d. Time—10 Minutes 

Choose tomatoes of a good colour, and all about the same size; scoop out the centre. Grate up the cheese and mix it with the forcemeat, put this into the tomatoes; place on a buttered tin, and bake in the oven for ten minutes. Put each tomato on to a round of fried bread, and serve.

POTATOES IN WHITE SAUCE

    
1 lb. Potatoes 1d. 
½ pint White Sauce 2d. 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—3d. Time—Half an Hour 

Peel and slice the potatoes, put them in water seasoned with salt, and boil for five minutes; strain off the water, make some white sauce by directions given elsewhere. Lay in the potatoes and simmer gently till they are soft, but not broken; place them on a hot dish and pour the sauce over.

TO BOIL POTATOES

To boil potatoes properly much care and judgement are required. They should be peeled thinly, and well washed


  ― 346 ―
in cold water, but not soaked; put them into a saucepan kept for this vegetable only. Just cover them with cold water seasoned with salt, and bring to a boil. Then simmer very gently for about twenty minutes; test them with a fork, and if soft, strain off the water and toss them in a saucepan over the fire until they are dry. Some potatoes will not bear boiling as long as this, but begin to break soon after they boil up. When this is the case, pour off nearly all the water, leaving only one inch at the bottom of the saucepan. Cook the potatoes slowly in this and then strain off and dry. Potatoes that are very troublesome to boil often steam well; they must be allowed from an hour to one hour and a half, according to the quantity of water over which they are cooking.

TO BOIL NEW POTATOES

New potatoes may be either scraped while raw, or peeled after boiling; they are a better flavour if cooked in their skins. In either case they should be well washed in cold water, plunged into boiling water seasoned with salt and a sprig of mint, and boiled quickly until a fork will go through easily; then strain off the water, dry, and serve.

TO BOIL CABBAGE

The outer leaves of the cabbage should be removed, then cut it into quarters and cut out the salt; wash it well in salt and water, and leave in the water for half-an-hour. Then put it into a colander and shake all the water from it. Place on the fire a large saucepan of water, and when it boils, put in two teaspoonsful of salt and a quarter of a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda. Put in the cabbage and cover down till it boils up; then remove the lid and boil very quickly, pressing it down into the water from time to


  ― 347 ―
time. It will be done in from fifteen to twenty minutes; try it with a fork, and if soft turn into a colander, and very carefully press all the water from it. Slip into a vegetable dish and cut into neat pieces.

TO BOIL GREEN PEAS

Shell the peas and wash them well; just cover them with cold water, season it with a little salt, sugar, and mint. Bring quickly to the boil and cook for about twenty minutes. When soft, but not broken, strain off the water and put them into a vegetable dish.

TO BOIL FRENCH BEANS

Slice up the beans and wash in cold water, put them into plenty of boiling water, seasoned with salt and a quarter of a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda; boil quickly without the lid for about ten minutes or a quarter of an hour. When soft, strain off and shake the water out thoroughly; put into a hot dish, and serve plainly or with melted butter.

TO BOIL CAULIFLOWERS

Soak the cauliflowers in plenty of salt and water, with the flower downwards, then cook, in plenty of boiling water seasoned with salt, putting the flower to the bottom of the saucepan. Keep uncovered all the time of cooking; take up with a slice and strain in a colander. Turn carefully into a vegetable dish, and serve with or without sauce.

VEGETABLE MARROW

    
1 Marrow 3d. 
½ pint White Sauce 2d. 
Salt 
Total Cost—5d. Time—15 Minutes 

Peel the marrow, take out the seeds, and cut it into small


  ― 348 ―
pieces; put into boiling water nicely seasoned with salt, and boil gently for about fifteen minutes. Take up with a slice and strain in a colander, place in a hot dish, and pour over the sauce.

BEETROOT IN SAUCE

   
3 Beetroots 2d. 
½ pint White Sauce 2d. 
Total Cost—4d. Time—Two Hours 

Wash the beetroots, but do not cut them; put them in cold water, and boil till they feel soft if pressed—the time depends upon the size; then take them up, peel and slice them. Make the sauce by directions given elsewhere. Put in the beetroot and simmer for about half an hour; dish the beets and pour the sauce over. It should be of a bright red colour.

STEWED CABBAGE

    
1 Cabbage 3d. 
Salt and Pepper 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 
Total Cost—4d. Time—25 Minutes 

Boil the cabbage as directed, and squeeze very dry; melt the butter in a saucepan, season with pepper, salt, and a drop or two of lemon juice. Put in the cabbage and cook in the butter for ten minutes, stirring frequently; arrange neatly in a hot dish, and serve.

BAKED TOMATOES

     
1 doz. Tomatoes 4d. 
1 oz. Bread Crumbs ½d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
½ teaspoonful Mustard 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—15 Minutes 

Slice up the tomatoes, spread with a very little made


  ― 349 ―
mustard. Season some brown bread crumbs with pepper and salt, and sprinkle the slices well. Put into a buttered dish and bake till soft. Serve hot.

CURRIED TOMATOES

          
1 doz. Tomatoes 4d. 
1½ oz. Butter 1d. 
1 gill Milk 1d. 
½ oz. Flour d. 
½ lb. Rice 
1 Apple 2d. 
1 Onion 
1 dessertspoonful Curry Powder 
Salt 
Total Cost—9½d. Time—Half an Hour 

Mince the onion and apple finely, and fry in the batter till a good colour; sprinkle over it the curry powder and flour, and mix well. Pour in the milk and stir until it boils; slice the tomatoes and put them in and simmer very gently for half an hour. Season with salt, dish carefully and serve either in a border of rice, or with rice moulds on a separate dish.

CURRIED VEGETABLES

Take any vegetables in season, such as potatoes, peas, carrots, beans, and cauliflowers; very young vegetables are the best, and if there are any cold ones in the larder they will do as well as fresh. Slice up the potatoes and branch the cauliflowers, and, if they are not been boiled before, boil them in water seasoned with a little salt and sugar, for ten minutes, and strain off the water. Put one ounce or more of butter into a saucepan according to the quantity of vegetables, and when hot stir in half an ounce of flour, and the same of curry powder. Pour in half a pint of milk and stir till it boils. Then put in the vegetables and simmer


  ― 350 ―
very gently for about half an hour. They should not be broken, but quite soft, and all the liquor absorbed. Pile in a hot dish and serve with boiled rice.

BEETROOT AND ONION STEW

          
3 Beetroots 2d. 
3 Onions 1d. 
1½ oz. Butter d. 
1 teaspoonful Sugar 
½ teaspoonful Salt 
½ pint Milk 1d. 
1 tablespoonful Vinegar ½d. 
½ oz. Flour 
Mashed Potatoes d. 
Total Cost—7½d. Time—One Hour 

Boil the beetroots by directions given and slice them up; peel and slice up the onions and fry in the butter, but do not let them brown. Stir in the flour and the milk and bring to the boil, and when it has boiled a few minutes stir in gradually the vinegar, salt, and sugar, then the beetroot. Simmer slowly for one hour; make a border of the potatoes on a hot dish, garnish with sprigs of parsley. Put the beetroot and onion in the centre, and serve hot.

SAUTÉ OF TURNIPS

      
6 Turnips d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 gill Stock 
1 teaspoonful Sugar 
1 teaspoonful Salt 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—Half an Hour 

Peel the turnips and cut them into pieces like the quarter of an orange; put them into a small stewpan with the butter, sprinkle over them the sugar and salt, and stir about


  ― 351 ―
till quite brown. Pour on the stock, bring it to the boil, and simmer till soft but not broken. Dish the turnips, season the gravy with salt and a few drops of lemon juice, pour over, and serve.

CARROTS IN BUTTER

     
4 Carrots d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
Pinch of Salt and Sugar 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—One Hour 

Scrape the carrots and slice them up, put them into boiling water seasoned with salt and sugar, and boil for ten minutes. Strain off the water. Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is hot stir in the parsley and a few drops of lemon juice. Toss the carrots in this until they are thoroughly hot, then cover down and cook slowly till soft. Dish and pour over the butter in which they were cooked.

PARSNIPS AND PARSLEY BUTTER

       
4 or 5 Parsnips 2d. 
½ oz. Flour 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
1 oz. Butter 2d. 
1 gill Milk 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—4d. Time—One Hour 

Scrape and cut up the parsnips (or cold ones will do). If raw, boil them in water seasoned with salt for three-quarters of an hour. Make the butter, flour, and milk into a sauce by directions given, and season nicely. Stir in the parsley, put in the parsnips, bring to the boil and simmer for ten minutes. Arrange them on a hot dish, pour the sauce over, and serve.




  ― 352 ―

PARSNIPS FRIED

Cold boiled parsnips make a delicious breakfast dish if sliced up and fried either in bacon fat, dripping, or butter. Pile high on a dish and serve very hot.

POTATO BALLS

      
1 lb. Cold Boiled Potatoes 1d. 
Bread Crumbs 
2 Eggs 3d. 
1 oz. Butter 
Hot Fat 
Total Cost—4d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Rub the potatoes through a sieve or mash them smoothly. Put the butter into a saucepan, and, when melted, season with pepper and salt; put in the potatoes and turn them about till hot through. Drop in the egg and mix into a paste, turn on to a plate to cool, and roll into balls. Beat up an egg and brush over the balls, cover well with crumbs, and fry in hot fat. The yolks of eggs will do for this dish if the whites are wanted for other purposes.

HARICOT BEANS

Soak the haricots over night, if possible; if not, at least for two or three hours. Put them on in plenty of cold water seasoned with salt and an onion, and boil them steadily for three hours. Strain the water off, put them into a vegetable dish, and pour over them some parsley butter sauce. Haricot beans are the most nutritious of all pulse foods, and are a particularly good food for people who work in the open air. They are very nice eaten alone or served with meat. They make an exceedingly delicious dish if boiled for two hours and then put into a nice brown gravy and simmered for about an hour. Serve in the gravy with roast mutton.




  ― 353 ―

POTATO AND TOMATO PIE

        
6 Tomatoes 2d. 
6 Potatoes 1d. 
½ lb. Short Pastry d. 
Dripping 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
1½ teaspoonful Sweet Herbs 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—One Hour 

Peel and slice up the potatoes and tomatoes; lay them alternately in a pie dish and sprinkle over them some parsley, herbs, salt, and pepper. When the dish is full, cover with a short pastry and bake for one hour; serve hot.

CAULIFLOWERS AND TOMATOES

   
2 Cauliflowers 4d. 
½ pint Tomato Sauce 1d. 
Total Cost—5d. Time—20 Minutes 

Boil the cauliflowers and make the sauce by directions given elsewhere. Dish the cauliflowers carefully and pour over them the sauce, leaving just the centre of the flowers clear. Put into the oven for five minutes, and serve.

STEWED CELERY

      
3 heads of Celery 3d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
½ gill Milk 1d. 
1 oz. Flour 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—5d. Time—Half an Hour 

Take only the white and best part of celery for this dish, pull it to pieces, wash well in salt and water, and tie in a bundle. Put it into boiling water seasoned with salt, and boil for about half an hour, or until the fork will go through


  ― 354 ―
easily. Take half a pint of the water in which it was boiled and mix it with the milk; make a sauce with this and the butter and flour by directions given for sauces. Dish the celery and pour the sauce over. This is an excellent food for anyone suffering from, or subject to, rheumatism or gout. Celery is also very nice stewed in broth or gravy and thickened with a little butter and flour.

LETTUCE STEWED

     
4 Lettuces 3d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Nutmeg 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—4d. Time—Half an Hour 

Wash the lettuces very thoroughly and lay them in salt and water for half an hour. Plunge them into plenty of boiling water seasoned with salt and a quarter of a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda. Boil quickly without the lid from fifteen to twenty minutes, take up and squeeze all the water from them. Chop them up and put into a saucepan with some butter, nutmeg, pepper and salt, and a few drops of lemon juice; stir them about and cook for about five minutes. Turn into a hot dish and serve.

BAKED ONIONS

     
2 lbs. Onion 2d. 
½ pint Thick Gravy 1d. 
½ pint Water 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—3d. Time—One Hour. 

Peel the onions, put them on in cold water, and bring to the boil. Strain the water off, butter a baking dish, put in the onions, pour in the water, cover with a plate, and stand in a moderate oven. Stew until soft, place in a hot dish and


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pour over them, either a nice gravy thickened with a little butter and flour, or some plain melted butter. Serve hot.

CASSOLETTES OF VEGETABLES

Peel some turnips and scoop out the centre; boil them in salt and water till soft, but quite whole. If there are any cold vegetables in the larder, such as beans, peas, carrots, and parsnips, make them hot; if not, cut some into small pieces and boil separately. Stir them into any cold sauce that may be left, or toss them in a little butter. Fill the turnip cups with these, arranging them on a dish, alternately red and green. Serve hot.

VEGETABLE MARROW STUFFED

    
1 Vegetable Marrow 3d. 
¼ lb. Veal Forcemeat 2d. 
½ pint Melted Butter Sauce d. 
Total Cost—6½d. Time—Half an Hour 

Peel a marrow and cut it in half length-ways. Prepare some veal forcemeat by recipe given elsewhere, and make it hot in a saucepan. Remove the seeds from the marrow and put in their place the forcemeat; put the pieces together and bind round with tape. Have ready a fish kettle full of boiling water seasoned with salt; lay the marrow on the drainer and plunge into the water; boil gently for about twenty-five minutes. Slip the marrow carefully into a dish and pour over some melted butter sauce.

LYONNAISE POTATOES

   
1 lb. Potatoes 1d. 
½ pint Onion Sauce 2d. 
Total Cost—3d. Time—Half an Hour 

Peel and boil the potatoes in the usual way, slice them up


  ― 356 ―
and put them into a hot dish; make some rather thin onion sauce by directions given elsewhere, season with a few drops of lemon juice, and pour over the potatoes; serve hot.

POTATOES SAUTÉ

Cut up any cold potatoes that may be left into strips, not too thin, put some dripping into a frying pan, and when very hot put in the potatoes and fry them a pale colour. Place them on a hot dish; melt one ounce of butter in a saucepan; season with lemon juice, parsley, pepper, and salt. Pour this over the potatoes, and serve very hot.

COLCANNON

Take any remains of cold boiled cabbage and potatoes, and cut them into small pieces, season with pepper and salt. Put a small piece of butter into a frying pan; put in the vegetables and fry them until they are thoroughly hot through and well mixed. Turn them on to a hot dish, make into a neat pile, and serve.

BAKED VEGETABLE MARROW

    
1 Vegetable Marrow 3d. 
½ pint Gravy 
1 oz. Dripping 
Total Cost—3d. Time—One Hour 

Peel the marrow and cut into pieces, remove the seeds, put on to a baking sheet with some beef dripping, and bake till soft and rather brown. Thicken a little gravy with some flour, and season and flavour it nicely; dish the marrow and pour this sauce over.




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STEWED LEEKS

       
1 bunch Leeks 2d. 
½ pint Stock 
Pepper and Salt ½d. 
½ oz. Butter 
½ oz. Flour 
Lemon Juice 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—One Hour 

Cut off the roots and green tops of the leeks and wash well. Put them into a saucepan with the stock and stew very gently till soft; take them up and put on to a hot dish. Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is dissolved stir in the flour, mix well, and strain in the stock. Stir until it boils. Season with some pepper, salt, and a few drops of lemon juice. Pour over the leeks, and serve.

POTATOES À LA MAÎTRE D'HôTEL

   
Cold Potatoes 1d. 
½ pint Maître d'Hôtel Sauce d. 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—5 Minutes 

Make the sauce by recipe given elsewhere, flavour nicely with lemon juice, pepper, and salt. Slice up the potatoes, and put them into it; simmer for five minutes, dish, and serve.

LENTILS, TO BOIL

Wash the lentils well in cold water, cover them with cold water seasoned with salt, and boil for one hour and a half. Strain all the water off, put them into a hot dish with about half an ounce of butter, and serve.

CURRIED LENTILS

Any cold lentils left make a very nice breakfast dish if they are curried. If there should be any curry gravy left,


  ― 358 ―
put them into that and simmer for half an hour; serve with boiled rice. If there is no curry sauce, make a little by a recipe given elsewhere.

STEWED BEETROOT AND MASHED POTATOES

         
1 bunch Beetroot 2d. 
2 Onions ½d. 
1 oz. Flour 3d. 
Mashed Potatoes 
Pepper and Salt 
1½ oz. Butter 
½ pint Milk 
1 dessertspoonful Vinegar 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—Half an Hour. 

Peel and cut the onions into dice, put them into a frying-pan with the butter, and fry, but do not let them brown; sprinkle in the flour, pour in the milk, and stir until it boils. Season with salt, pepper, and vinegar. Boil the beetroot carefully, and when cold, peel and slice up. Put it into the sauce and simmer for half an hour. Make the mashed potatoes into a border on a hot dish, and put the beetroot in the centre; boil up the sauce, pour it over, and serve.

CAULIFLOWERS AU GRATIN

     
1 Cauliflower 4d. 
½ pint White Sauce d. 
2 oz. Dry Grated Cheese ½d. 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—6d. Time—15 Minutes. 

Boil the cauliflower and make the sauce by directions already given. Put the cauliflower into a dish in which it can be served, put half the cheese into the white sauce, season with pepper and salt, make it hot and pour over. Sprinkle the rest of the cheese on the top, and put into the oven till quite brown; it is then ready to serve.




  ― 359 ―

NEW POTATOES SAUTÉ

      
1 lb. New Potatoes 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Pepper and Salt ½d. 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
Lemon Juice 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—Half an Hour. 

Wash the potatoes and put them into boiling salt and water, and boil for ten minutes. Take up, peel and cut them in half. Melt the butter in a saucepan, and when quite hot, put in the potatoes and toss over the fire. Sprinkle over the parsley, pepper, salt, and a few drops of lemon juice; cover down and cook gently till the potatoes are soft but not broken. Put into a hot dish and serve.

POTATO PUFF

     
½ lb. Cold Potatoes 1d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1 gill Milk 
Total Cost—4d. Time—Half an Hour 

Mash the potatoes, beat the butter to a cream, then beat in the eggs, pepper, salt, and milk. Stir up the potatoes, pour into a buttered pie-dish, and bake for about half an hour. Serve hot.

POTATOES STUFFED

     
6 Large Potatoes 2d. 
¼ lb. Cold Meat ½d. 
½ gill Gravy or Sauce ½d. 
Pepper, Salt, and Parsley 
Total Cost—3d. Time—One Hour and a Half. 

Wash and scrub the potatoes, and bake them in the oven till quite done. Cut them in half so that they will stand


  ― 360 ―
nicely. Scoop out the inside, and mix the potato meal with some butter, pepper, and salt. Make a little savoury meat by directions given for mince, and nearly fill the potato skins with this. Put some of the potato on top, making it look as rough and rocky as possible. Stand in the oven till quite hot, and serve.

HARICOT BEANS AND BACON

     
1 pint Haricot Beans 2d. 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 5d. 
½ lb. Bacon 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—7d. Time—Two Hours. 

Soak the haricot beans and boil them by directions already given. Rub them through a wire sieve. The bacon should be in thin rashers and very fat. Cook it carefully in a small clean frying-pan, and as the fat runs from it, pour it on the beans. Mash them up with this and a little pepper and salt, and put them into a hot dish. Sprinkle over with parsley and lay the bacon rashers on top. Serve hot.

ARTICHOKES, TO BOIL

   
2 lbs. Artichokes 4d. 
½ pint White Sauce d. 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—One Hour 

Wash and peel the artichokes and put them into some water; add a teaspoonful of vinegar and leave them for half an hour. Drain the water all away and put them into a saucepan, cover with cold water; add one gill of milk and some salt. Bring to the boil and cook slowly for about an hour. Take half a pint of the liquor in which the artichokes were boiled, and make a sauce; dish them and pour this over.




  ― 361 ―

IMITATION SPINACH

Take the very young green shoots of the pumpkin plant. Wash them well and put them into a large saucepan, with a very little water seasoned with salt and a pinch of carbonate of soda; keep pressing them down into the water and boil till soft. Turn into a colander and squeeze very dry, put into a saucepan with one ounce of butter, pepper, salt, and a few drops of lemon juice. Stir about till thoroughly hot through, dish neatly, and serve.

BANANAS STEWED

     
1 doz. Green Bananas 3d. 
Lemon Juice 2d. 
½ pint Brown Sauce 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—5d. Time—Half an Hour. 

Peel the bananas and put them in boiling water to which a few drops of lemon juice have been added; boil them for half an hour, or until soft. Make sauce by directions already given, flavour with lemon juice, pepper, and salt. Strain all the water from the bananas, dish, and pour over the sauce

POTATO CHIPS

To fry potatoes successfully, two things must be carefully attended to. First of all dry the potatoes thoroughly, and then have very hot fat. Peel the potatoes and dry them in a cloth. Cut into any shape—slices, strips, quarters, &c.—and dry again. Have a good quantity of very hot fat ready, put the chips into a frying basket, and plunge into the fat. Fry quickly, and directly they are brown enough they are done. Throw them on to some kitchen paper to drain off the fat. Pile high on a dish, sprinkle with salt, and serve very hot.




  ― 362 ―

ITALIAN CABBAGE

      
1 Cabbage 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
2 oz. Dry Cheese 1d. 
1 spoonful Flour 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—4d. Time—15 Minutes. 

Boil the cabbage by directions given, strain away the water and press it very dry. Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is dissolved, chop up the cabbage and put a layer at the bottom of the saucepan. Sprinkle over some grated cheese, pepper, and salt, then more cabbage and cheese, until all are used up. Simmer gently for fifteen minutes, slip it on to a hot dish, and serve.

SAVOURY POTATOES

      
5 or 6 Large Potatoes d. 
2 oz. Cheese 1d. 
1 spoonful of Milk 1d. 
1 Egg 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—3½d. Time—Two Hours. 

Scrub the potatoes and bake them in the oven. Cut off the end, scoop out all the meal; grate up some dry pieces of cheese, beat it into the potatoes with the yolk of the egg, and some seasoning. Whip the white till stiff and stir lightly in; fill the potatoes with this mixture. Lay in a baking sheet and bake for about twenty minutes. Garnish with parsley, and serve.

CAULIFLOWER FRITTERS

    
Cold Cauliflower d. 
Frying Batter 
Hot Fat 
Total Cost—1½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Take any cold cauliflower that may be left, divide it into


  ― 363 ―
branches. Make the frying batter by directions given. Dip the pieces of cauliflower into it, and put into very hot fat. Fry a good colour and pile high on a dish. Garnish with fried parsley and serve very hot.

FRIED TOMATOES

     
1 doz. Tomatoes 4d. 
1 gill Milk d. 
1 oz. Butter 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—10 Minutes. 

Slice up the tomatoes, mix a spoonful of flour with some pepper and salt; dip in the slices and fry quickly, pile on a dish. Pour the milk into the pan in which they were fried, stir until it boils, and pour over. Garnish with fried bread and serve hot.




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CHAPTER XXI.

FIFTY RECIPES FOR SALADS AND SAUCES.

CURRY SAUCE

         
1 Onion 1d. 
1 Apple  
½ oz. Flour 
Lemon Juice 
Salt 
½ oz. Curry Powder 1d. 
1 oz. Butter or Dripping 
1 pint Gravy 
Total Cost—2d. Time—Half an Hour. 

Peel and chop up the apple and onion. Put the butter or dripping into a saucepan, and when it is melted put in the apple and onion, and fry for a few minutes; sprinkle over the curry powder and the flour. Pour over the gravy and stir until it boils. Simmer for half an hour, then strain, flavour with lemon juice and salt, boil up, and it is ready. If this sauce is for fish, use milk or fish stock instead of gravy.

MAÎTRE D'HôTEL SAUCE

       
½ pint Milk 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Lemon Juice 1d. 
½ oz. Flour 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—3d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is melted stir in the flour, and mix smoothly; pour in the milk and stir until it boils. Take the saucepan from the


  ― 365 ―
fire, add a few drops of lemon juice, a pinch of pepper and salt to taste, last of all the parsley. It is then ready to serve.

ONION SAUCE

       
3 Small Onions ½d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Lemon Juice d. 
½ pint Milk 
1 oz. Bread Crumbs 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—3d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Peel the onions, put them into cold water, and let them boil for a minute. Strain away the water, cover again with cold water, boil up and cook till soft; take out of the water, chop small. Put the butter and milk into a saucepan, and when it boils put in the bread crumbs and onions. Cook slowly for five minutes, season with pepper, salt, and a few drops of lemon juice, and it is ready to serve.

CREAM TOAST

    
4 Slices Toast 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 2d. 
½ pint White Sauce 
Total Cost—3d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Make the toast and lay it in a dish. Make the sauce by directions given for white sauce. Season with pepper and salt, and pour over it; serve hot. If a richer dish is desired, a little butter may be put on the toast.

JAM SAUCE

      
1 tablespoonful Jam 1d. 
½ pint Water 1d. 
1 oz. Sugar 
1 teaspoonful Cornflour 
½ Lemon 
Total Cost—2d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Put the water, jam, lemon juice, and sugar into a small


  ― 366 ―
saucepan and boil it for five minutes. Mix the cornflour with a little cold water and pour it in; stir till it boils up. Strain the jam out, and it is ready to serve; a few drops of cochineal improve the colour.

TO CLARIFY DRIPPING

When the joint is served pour the dripping into a basin and stand away till cold; then cut it out of the basin. The gravy that will be found at the bottom is an excellent addition to hash or mince. Cut the dripping into small pieces and pour over it sufficient boiling water to dissolve it. Stir it well and leave till it is a solid cake of fat. Cut it off the water, scrape the impurities from the bottom, and it will be ready for use.

TO CLARIFY FAT

The fat from meat not required in dressing it, and the ends of chops, &c., make excellent shortening for pies and cakes. Cut it into small pieces and put it into an old saucepan with about one quart of water. Boil until all the water is evaporated; the fat will then begin to boil. Strain this melted fat into a basin, and continue to do so until all the fat is extracted. This is a good substitute for butter and lard.

MELTED BUTTER SAUCE

     
½ pint Water d. 
1 oz. Butter 
½ oz. Flour 
Salt 
Total Cost—1½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Put half the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is dissolved stir in the flour and mix smoothly; pour in the


  ― 367 ―
cold water and stir until it boils. Take the saucepan from the fire, stir in the rest of the butter in small pieces, and some salt, it is then ready to serve.

TO BOIL RICE

Wash the rice well in two or three waters; have a large saucepan on the fire full of boiling water seasoned with salt. Throw in the rice and boil very quickly for five or six minutes. Take up a grain, and if it feels quite soft it is done; if not, boil another minute. Strain off the water and pour over it some clean hot water to separate the grains. If required immediately, put it back in the saucepan and toss over the fire till dry. If not, spread it on a sieve or dish and dry on the stove, covered with a cloth, or in the oven with the door open.

TO FRY PARSLEY

The top or flower of parsley only should be used for frying. Pick it carefully and rub well in a damp cloth, and then in a dry cloth. Put into a frying basket and plunge into the fat when the fish, or whatever it is to be served with, has been fried; leave it in not more than one minute. Turn it on to some kitchen paper and stand for a minute on the stove to dry; it is then ready.

FRYING BATTER

     
¼ lb. Flour ½d. 
½ gill Tepid Water 1d. 
White of Egg 
1 dessertspoonful Oil 
Total Cost—1½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Sift the flour into a basin, pour over it the oil, then the water, and beat into a smooth batter; stand away for an


  ― 368 ―
hour, if possible in a cool place. Whip the white of the egg to a stiff froth, and stir it in, and it is ready to use. This batter is useful for fritters and many dishes both sweet and savoury.

TOMATO SAUCE

      
6 Tomatoes 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
1½ oz. Flour ½d. 
½ spoonful Sugar 
½ spoonful Salt 
Total Cost—3½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

If the tomatoes are ripe they need not be cooked; but if at all hard, boil them for five minutes. Then slice up and rub through a sieve. Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is dissolved stir in the flour and sugar; then pour in the tomato juice and stir until it boils; season with salt to taste. This is tomato sauce pure and simple; but it is often made with half stock and half tomato juice; it is suitable for chops, steaks, &c. If made thicker it is called a purée, and is served with braised and dressed meats.

WHITE SAUCE

     
½ pint Milk 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
½ oz. Flour ½d. 
Salt and Pepper 
Total Cost—2½d. Time 5 Minutes. 

Put the butter into a small saucepan, and when it is dissolved put in the flour; mix well and pour on the cold milk and stir till it boils. Let it boil for two minutes and it is ready. It may be served either as a sweet or savoury sauce, putting either sugar or pepper and salt, as required.




  ― 369 ―

BROWN GRAVY

Brown gravy can be made from any kind of stock. If the stock is good, put it into a saucepan and thicken every pint with 1 oz. of flour. If the stock is not very good, boil some vegetables in it with any trimmings of meat and poultry available, and thicken with butter and flour; a few drops of lemon juice will bring up the flavour. It should be of a rich brown colour. It can be coloured with a little sugar burnt in a spoon, or with a few drops of caramel, a recipe for which will be found elsewhere.

BROWN SAUCE

         
1 pint Stock d. 
1 oz. Butter 
½ oz. Flour 
½ Stalk of Celery 1d. 
1 Carrot 
1 Onion 
½ Turnip 
1 doz. Peppercorns 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—One Hour. 

Put the butter into a saucepan, and when it is quite hot, slice up the vegetables and put them in with the peppercorns, and fry a good colour. Stir in the flour and brown that too, then pour in the stock and stir till it boils. Cover down and let it simmer slowly for an hour. Rub through a sieve, return to the saucepan; season with salt and lemon juice, boil up, and it is ready to serve.

CARAMEL

Put half a pound of sugar into a frying-pan and let it get very brown. Pour over half a pint of water and stir till it


  ― 370 ―
boils; strain into a bottle. It will keep good a long time, and is very useful for colouring soup and gravies.

VEAL FORCEMEAT

        
2 oz. Suet (Beef) ½d. 
3 oz. Bread Crumbs ½d. 
Pepper and Salt d. 
1 Egg 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
½ teaspoonful Sweet Herbs 
Half a Lemon 
Total Cost—2½d. 

Shred the suet and mix it with the bread crumbs. Chop the parsley and sweet herbs very finely and stir them in, then the grated rind of half a lemon, and the pepper and salt; drop in the egg and bind into a paste, and it is ready to use. This forcemeat is suitable for fowls, turkeys, veal, and fish.

TO MAKE BROWN CRUMBS

Cut up some very stale bread and bake it in the oven till a nice colour. Put these pieces through a sausage machine and then rub them through a sieve; keep in a bottle for use. They are excellent for many savoury dishes, and it is good way of using up stale pieces of bread.

SALAD OF COLD VEGETABLES

Take any cold vegetables that there may be in the larder—such as potatoes, cauliflowers, peas, beans, haricots, &c. Slice up the potatoes, branch the cauliflower, and mix in the peas and beans; put all into a salad bowl. Take oil and vinegar in the proportion of one of oil to two of vinegar, blend them together and season with salt and pepper. Pour this over the vegetables, slice up one or two hard boiled eggs into very thin slices, and lay round as a garnish.




  ― 371 ―

BANANA AND ORANGE SALAD

Peel and slice up some ripe bananas and oranges, removing the pips from the oranges, but saving the juice. Take a deep glass dish, lay at the bottom some bananas, then a layer of oranges. Sprinkle well with sugar, then some more bananas and oranges and sugar, until all the materials are used up. Cover and let it stand for an hour, then serve as a sweet.

COSMOPOLITAN SALAD

Take any fruits in season, such as oranges, mandarins, passion fruit, apricots, nectarines, pineapples, bananas, &c. Peel and slice them up, and put them into a glass dish in layers, with plenty of sugar between each layer. Stand in a cool place for an hour covered over, and it is ready to serve.

POTATO SALAD

Slice up some cold boiled potatoes. Sprinkle with salt, pepper, and chopped parsley. Mix the oil and vinegar together in the proportion of two of oil to one of vinegar; pour this over, let it stand for an hour, and serve.

VENETIAN RICE

      
½ lb. Rice 1d. 
¼ lb. Cheese 2d. 
1 pint Stock 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—4d. Time—Three-quarters of an Hour. 

Boil some rice, or take any cold rice that may be left, put it into a saucepan with the stock, and simmer till the stock is absorbed. Grate up some dry, hard pieces of cheese, stir


  ― 372 ―
them in with the butter, pepper and salt. Cover down by the side of the fire for about half an hour; pile on a dish, and serve.

TOMATOES AND EGGS

     
4 Eggs 4d. 
½ pint Tomato Sauce 2d. 
Fried Bread 1d. 
1 teaspoonful Parsley 
Total Cost—7d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Take some thick tomato sauce and pour it on to a hot dish. Poach the eggs carefully and lay them on the sauce. Garnish with parsley and fried bread, and serve hot.

MACARONI CHEESE

     
2 oz. Macaroni d. 
½ pint White Sauce d. 
3 oz. Dry Cheese 1d. 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—4d. Time—10 Minutes. 

Put the macaroni into boiling salt and water, and boil for half an hour or until soft; strain off the water and cut into pieces about 1½ inch long. Make the sauce by directions given elsewhere. Mix in half the cheese and some pepper and salt. Take a dish in which it can be served, and lay at the bottom some macaroni; then some sauce and a little of the dry cheese. Continue in this way till all the materials are used up, leaving plenty of dry cheese for the top. Put in the oven for five or ten minutes till a nice colour. Serve hot.

MAYONNAISE

     
2 Eggs 2d. 
1 gill Oil 2d. 
½ gill Vinegar ½d. 
Salt 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—Three-quarters of an Hour. 

Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin, sprinkle over the


  ― 373 ―
salt, begin to stir them with a wooden spoon, dropping in the oil very slowly. The sauce must be kept thick, and the oil added very slowly. When it is quite thick and smooth, pour in the vinegar slowly, and it is ready for use. This is considered the finest of all salad dressings. If made some time before it is required for table, it must be kept cool. It ought to stand in ice, and the vinegar should be added just before serving. It may be used for any kind of salad instead of the ordinary dressing.

HINTS ON SALAD

Salads form such a pleasant item in the menu, particularly during the hot season, that they should be regarded as a daily dish. There are no scraps of fish, poultry, meat, or cold boiled vegetables, but what can be turned to account in this way. If these are utilised, a great variety can be obtained at a very trifling cost; in fact these dainty tit-bits can often be made of food that otherwise would be thrown away. Cold cauliflowers, beans, peas, and potatoes are particularly nice in salads.

FISH SALAD

     
Cold Boiled Fish 4d. 
1 Lettuce ½d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
Salad Dressing, or Rémoulade Sauce 4d. 
Total Cost—9½d. 

Make a salad dressing the same as that given for lettuce salad; flake up the fish free from skin and bone. Wash and dry the lettuce and shred it up, mix the fish with the dressing. Put a layer of lettuce at the bottom of the bowl, then one of fish and dressing. Do this alternately, leaving plenty of lettuce for the top; garnish with hard boiled eggs cut into slices.




  ― 374 ―

LETTUCE SALAD

        
2 Lettuces 1d. 
1 tablespoonful Condensed Milk 1d. 
2 teaspoonsful Mustard 
2 Eggs 2d. 
½ gill Vinegar ½d. 
¼ gill Oil ½d. 
Pepper and Salt 
Total Cost—5d. 

Boil the eggs hard; take the yolk of one and put it into a basin and work it quite smooth with a spoon. Then add the mustard made with vinegar instead of water, the condensed milk, pepper, and salt, and then the oil slowly; last of all the vinegar. Mix it all very thoroughly. Cut off the outside leaves of the lettuce, and pull it all to pieces, wash in cold water and dry thoroughly in a cloth. Break into small pieces and put into a salad bowl, pour over the dressing. Garnish with the other egg and the white that was not used in the dressing. These should be cut into slices and placed round. A few of the best pieces of lettuce should be laid over the dressing.

BEETROOT AND MACARONI SALAD

      
3 oz. Macaroni 2d. 
2 tablespoonsful Oil 1d. 
1 bunch Beetroot 2d. 
Pepper and Salt 
2 tablespoonful Vinegar—2d. 
Total Cost—5d. 

Boil both the macaroni and the beetroot by directions given elsewhere. When quite cold, peel and slice up the beetroot and cut the macaroni into pieces about two inches long; arrange them in alternate layers on a dish. Blend the oil and vinegar with the salt and pepper and pour it


  ― 375 ―
over; let it stand for an hour, basting continually with the oil and vinegar. By that time it should be of a bright red colour. It is then ready to serve.

PRAWN SALAD

    
1 pint Prawns 9d. 
6 Tomatoes 2d. 
Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing 4d. 
Total Cost—1s. 3d. 

Pick the prawns, leaving the skin on a few fine ones for a garnish. Peel and slice up the tomatoes and arrange them on a dish; put over them the prawns, and pour over all some mayonnaise or salad dressing. Place the other prawns round as a garnish with a few lettuce leaves broken up.

SALAD OF CORNED BEEF

     
Slices of Corned Beef ½d. 
1 Lettuce 
2 Eggs 2d. 
Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing 4d. 
Total Cost—6½d. 

Take some slices of cold corned beef, dip them in a salad dressing, and lay them in a dish with alternate layers of lettuce leaves. Garnish with hard boiled eggs cut in slices.

EGG SALAD

      
6 Eggs 6d. 
1 Lettuce 1d. 
1 bunch Watercress 1d. 
Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing 4d. 
1 Beetroot ½d. 
Total Cost—1s.d. 

Put the eggs into boiling water and boil fifteen minutes. Plunge into cold water till quite cold, peel and cut into


  ― 376 ―
quarters. Wash and cleanse the watercress and lettuce and cut into pieces. Put a layer of this at the bottom of the bowl, then one of eggs dipped in the dressing, then another of lettuce and egg until all are used up, leaving plenty of lettuce for the top. Garnish with sprigs of watercress and slices of beetroot alternately.

CELERY SALAD

    
1 Head of Celery 1d. 
1 Lettuce ½d. 
Salad Dressing 4d. 
Total Cost—5½d. 

Pull the celery to pieces, wash it, and cut into small pieces; shred up some lettuce and lay it at the bottom of the dish. Stir the celery into the dressing and lay it on the top of the lettuce. Cover with more lettuce, and serve.

SARDINE SALAD

     
½ tin Sardines 4d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
1 Lettuce ½d. 
Salad Dressings 4d. 
Total Cost—10½d. 

Split the sardines open and remove the bone. Break some of the lettuce into a bowl, lay on this the sardines. Chop up one of the eggs and sprinkle over them, pour on the dressing. Cover with the rest of the lettuce, and garnish with the other egg cut in slices, and a little watercress or beetroot.

OYSTER SALAD

     
1 bottle Oysters 1s. 
1 Lettuce 1d. 
Half a Lemon 4d. 
Mayonnaise or Salad Dressing 
Total Cost—1s. 5d. 

Strain away the liquor from a bottle of oysters; put it


  ― 377 ―
into a saucepan, and when it boils put in the oysters and cook for five minutes; let them get cold in the liquor. Wash and break up the lettuce and put some of the bottom of a bowl. Strain the liquor from the oysters and mix a little with the dressing, stir in the oysters and spread over the lettuce. Cover with more lettuce and garnish with slices of lemon and red radishes.

BLUE COD SALAD

Any remains of smoked blue cod that may have been left from a meal make an excellent salad either with just a simple dressing of oil and vinegar and a lettuce, or with a mayonnaise or salad dressing. Follow the directions for fish salad, but do not put any salt, as the fish is usually salt enough.

ITALIAN SALAD

         
1 Salt Herring d. 
Cold slices of Meat 
1 teaspoonful Mustard 
1 Beetroot 
4 tablespoonsful Oil 1d. 
3 tablespoonsful Tarragon Vinegar 2d. 
½ oz. Capers 
3 Boiled Potatoes 
Total Cost—4½d. 

Wash the herring in cold water and soak it in milk for an hour; cut it open and take out the bone and slice up both the fish and the meat. Arrange in a bowl, chop the capers and put over. Put the mustard into a basin, add gradually the oil and vinegar; pour this, when well mixed, over the fish and meat, and cover with slices of cold potatoes. Garnish with any cold vegetables in the larder or with some green pickles from a bottle of pickles, a little chopped parsley, and some small radishes.




  ― 378 ―

MACARONI AND CHEESE SALAD

        
¼ lb. Macaroni d. 
¼ lb. Cheese d. 
1 teaspoonful French Mustard 1d. 
3 tablespoonsful Oil 
3 tablespoonsful Vinegar ½d. 
½ Head of Celery ½d. 
½ Lettuce ½d. 
Total Cost—6½d. 

Boil the macaroni, or use any cold that may be in the larder. Cut it into pieces about three inches long, cut the cheese into very thin slices, and cut the celery into very small pieces. Lay these alternately in a bowl with some shredded lettuce. Make a dressing of the mustard, oil, and vinegar, and pour it over. Garnish with a little beetroot, and serve.

CHEESE SAVOURY

Take some dry, hard cheese and some dry crusts of bread. Pour a little boiling milk over the bread, cover it down till quite soft, then beat it with a fork; grate up the cheese and beat it in with the yolk of an egg and some pepper and salt. Beat the white of the egg to a stiff froth and stir it lightly in, pour into a buttered pie-dish and bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. Serve hot.

TURNIP SALAD

      
4 Young Turnips d. 
2 Spring Onions 
2 Boiled Potatoes ½d. 
Half a Lettuce ½d. 
Salad Dressing 4d. 
Total Cost—6½d. 

Peel and slice up the turnips and boil them for twenty


  ― 379 ―
minutes, or until soft. Let them get quite cold. Shred up very small the onions, and slice up the potatoes. Break up half a lettuce. Arrange these neatly in a bowl and pour over a simple salad dressing or rémoulade sauce.

EAST INDIAN SALAD SAUCE

     
2 Eggs 2d. 
1 teaspoonful Curry Powder ½d. 
½ gill Oil d. 
¼ gill Vinegar 
Total Cost—4d. 

Boil the eggs hard; put the yolks into a bowl and work them till they are quite smooth. Work in gradually the curry powder, oil, and vinegar. Blend well, and it is ready. It may be used sometimes instead of mayonnaise or ordinary salad dressing.

BREAD SALAD

          
5 slices Stale Bread 2d. 
½ gill Oil 
3 Pickled Onions 
1 piece Pickled Cauliflower 
2 Eggs 2d. 
1 Beetroot 1d. 
2 slices Cold Mutton 
1 tablespoonful Vinegar 
Mustard and Cress ½d. 
Total Cost—5½d. 

Trim off the crust and cut the bread into dice, put into a bowl and pour over the oil. Let it stand till all the oil is absorbed; then mince up the onion, cauliflower, eggs, and meat, and strew them over. Season with pepper and salt. Well wash the mustard and cress and arrange on the top. Cut the beetroot into neat shapes and arrange as a garnish.




  ― 380 ―

BREAKFAST SALAD

       
2 Tomatoes ½d. 
1 Cucumber 2d. 
1 tablespoonful Oil ½d. 
1 Spring Onion ½d. 
Half a Lettuce 
2 tablespoonsful Vinegar 
Total Cost—3½d. 

Scald the tomatoes and take off the skin, and put them into cold water or on to the ice until quite cold. Cut them up the same as an orange; peel and cut up the cucumber into very thin slices and mince up the onion. Sprinkle these with pepper and salt, pour over the oil and vinegar. Shred up the lettuce and lay on the top, it is then ready to serve.

CAULIFLOWER SALAD

     
1 Cauliflower 3d. 
Half a Lettuce ½d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
½ gill Oil and Vinegar 1d. 
Total Cost—6½d. 

Boil the cauliflower by directions given elsewhere and branch it carefully. Boil the eggs hard, separate the whites from the yolks; chop the whites small and cut the yolks in slices. Shred up the lettuce in a bowl and put the branches of cauliflower all round it, and the slices of yolk of egg outside as a border. Pour on the salad dressing and put the white of egg in little heaps on the lettuce. It is then ready to serve.

CARROT SALAD

       
2 or 3 Cold Boiled Carrots ½d. 
½ lb. Cold Boiled Mutton d. 
1 stalk Celery 
6 Capers 
Half a teaspoonful Parsley ½d. 
Salad Dressing 3d. 
Total Cost—5½d. 




  ― 381 ―
Cut up some cold boiled mutton into small pieces and lay them in a salad bowl. Mince up the celery and capers and strew over it, then pour over the dressing. Slice up the cold carrots and lay them on top; garnish with the chopped parsley, and serve.

CALF'S FOOT SALAD

Calves' feet that have been boiled down for jelly make a good salad. They must, of course, be boiled very thoroughly for at least eight hours. Strain off the stock, remove the bones, and put the meat on one side till quite cold. Then cut up into neat pieces and put into a salad bowl. Pour over a salad dressing or just oil and vinegar; shred over it a nice white lettuce, and garnish with sliced beetroot.

RÉMOULADE SALAD DRESSING

This is a good dressing when mayonnaise is not liked. It is made in the same way as mayonnaise, using hard boiled eggs (yolks) instead of raw ones. Put the yolks into a basin and work very smoothly with the bowl of a wooden spoon; add the oil gradually, using about one gill to every two yolks. A little French mustard and vinegar may be added before using.

SOUP MEAT SALAD

The meat which has been boiled down for soup makes a nice salad. When the stock has been poured off, press the meat into a basin with about a gill of jelly stock, and some salt and pepper. When cold and firm, cut it into neat pieces and lay in a salad bowl. Pour over it some rémoulade sauce and shred on top some nice white lettuce leaves; it may be garnished with beetroot or hard boiled eggs.




  ― 382 ―

LAMB SALAD

       
Cold Roast Lamb 1d. 
2 Lettuces 
1 Tomato ½d. 
12 Capers ½d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
Rémoulade Dressing 3d. 
Total Cost—7d. 

Cut the lamb into small pieces and lay it in a bowl. Cut the tomato into thin slices and lay it over, then the capers chopped small. Pour over the dressing, break up the lettuces and put over, and garnish with the hard boiled eggs cut in slices.




  ― 383 ―

CHAPTER XXII.

FIFTY RECIPES FOR SWEETS.

APPLES AND TAPIOCA

       
6 Apples 3d. 
1½ oz. Tapioca ½d. 
½ Lemon ½d. 
2 oz. Sugar ½d. 
1¼ pints Water 
A few drops of Cochineal 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—Half an Hour 

Peel and quarter the apples and remove the core, put them into a saucepan with the lemon juice, sugar, and a spoonful of water, and stew till soft but not broken. Place them in a glass dish. Wash the tapioca in cold water, put it in a saucepan, pour over it 1¼ pints of water, and stir till it boils. Cook it till quite clear, sweeten and flavour with a few drops of lemon juice, and colour with cochineal. Pour over the apples and put away till cold; it is then ready to serve.

SHORT PASTRY—No. 1

    
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
6 or 8 oz. Dripping 
1 gill Water 
Total Cost—2d. 

Sift the flour into a basin, rub in the dripping very lightly until it is quite fine, mix into a very stiff dough with the water, turn on to a floured board, and knead into a smooth paste. Roll out to the required thickness, and it is


  ― 384 ―
ready at once. This will be found an exceedingly nice paste for everyday pies, and it is very wholesome. The dripping should be clarified, directions for which are given elsewhere.

SHORT PASTRY—No. 2

     
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
8 oz. Butter 6d. 
1 gill Water 
Juice of Half a Lemon 
Total Cost—8d. 

Sift the flour into a basin, rub the butter lightly in, until it is as fine as bread crumbs; make a well in the centre, and strain the lemon juice. Mix into a stiff paste with the water, knead for a few minutes until it is quite smooth, it is then ready for use. A crust may be made with lard just in the same way; this is much lighter of digestion than a butter crust, and should always be given to anyone suffering from a weak digestion.

FLAKY CRUST

      
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
4 oz. Butter 3d. 
4 oz. Lard 2d. 
½ pint Water 
Juice of Half a Lemon 
Total Cost—7d. 

Sift the flour into a basin, cut about one ounce of the lard into it with a knife, then mix into a paste with the water; it should be about the same consistency as the butter. Roll it out evenly, and lay on it small pieces of the butter and lard, sprinkle with flour and roll into three; roll out again and proceed as before. It is ready for use at once if required, but it is much improved by standing in a cool place for an hour. This kind of pastry requires a very quick oven;


  ― 385 ―
and if used for meat pies, a piece of buttered paper should be laid over the top as soon as it has risen to prevent it getting too brown.

SUET PASTRY—No. 1

    
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
10 oz. Beef Suet 3d. 
½ pint Water 
Total Cost—5d. 

Sift the flour into a basin, and make it into a firm paste with the water. Free the suet from skin, and put it twice through a sausage machine. Roll the paste out, and put half over it in very tiny pieces; sprinkle with flour and fold into three. Double the ends over till they meet, roll out again, and put on the rest of the suet and proceed as before. It is then ready for use, but is much improved by standing for an hour in a cold place. This is a very wholesome pastry, and particularly nice for meat pies. If it is properly made, it ought to rise like the best puff pastry; it is an easy crust to make in hot weather, when the puff crusts made with butter are troublesome.

SUET PASTRY—No. 2

     
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
8 oz. Suet 3d. 
½ pint Water 
Pinch of Salt 
Total Cost—5d. 

Sift the flour into a basin; prepare the suet by cutting it into very thin slices and then shredding it up very fine indeed; mix it in with the flour. Stir in the water until it is of a firm consistency, but do not use too much water, or the paste will be tough. Suet crust should be kept as dry as


  ― 386 ―
possible. Turn it on to a floured board and knead for a few minutes. It is then ready for use; this crust is suitable for all kinds of boiled puddings, such as meat, apple, jam, &c. These puddings require to be boiled for a very long time. They must always be plunged into boiling water, and kept boiling and covered with water all the time they are cooking.

SUET PUDDING

      
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
8 or 10 oz. Suet 3d. 
¼ teaspoonful Salt 
½ pint Water 
2 Cold Potatoes 
Total Cost—5d. Time—Two Hours and a Half. 

Sift the flour and salt into a basin, mash the potatoes or rub them through a sieve, and stir them in. Shred the suet finely and mix in thoroughly with a knife; make into rather a stiff paste with the water, dip a pudding cloth into boiling water. Put the pudding into the centre, and tie up tightly. Plunge into boiling water and boil steadily for two hours; turn out of the cloth carefully into a hot dish, and serve. This pudding is delicious with roast meat, or it may be served as a sweet; jam sauce is nice poured round it. A recipe for this will be found elsewhere.

HASTY PUDDING SOUFFLÉ

      
1 pint Milk 2d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
1 oz. Flour 1d. 
1 oz. Sugar 
Flavouring 
Total Cost—5d. Time—40 Minutes 

Put the milk on to boil, mix the flour smoothly with a


  ― 387 ―
little cold milk; when the milk in the saucepan nearly boils stir this in and stir until it boils. Then take off the fire and beat in the sugar, flavouring, and the yolks of the eggs. Whisk the whites to a stiff froth and stir them lightly in, pour into a buttered pie-dish, and bake in a brisk oven for forty minutes; serve hot.

CHEESE CAKES

      
1 pint Sour Milk 2d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
½ lb. Flaky Pastry 3d. 
2 oz. Sugar 1d. 
Flavouring 
Total Cost—8d. Time—15 Minutes. 

Pour the milk through a sieve and use only the thick curd which does not run through into the basin; beat in the sugar, yolks of the eggs, and flavouring to taste. Roll out some flaky pastry and line some patty pans with it; fill them with rice or crusts of bread, and bake for about ten minutes. Then take out the rice or crusts and fill with the cheese cake mixture. Finish baking, and stand on a sieve till cool. Sprinkle well with sugar, and serve cold.

BANANA SOUFFLE

     
6 Bananas 2d. 
2 oz. Sugar ½d. 
½ pint Milk 1d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Choose ripe bananas, peel and slice them up, and lay them in a glass dish, sprinkle with sugar. Make a custard with the milk and yolks of the eggs by directions for boiled


  ― 387 ―
custard, flavour with a pinch of ginger, and pour it over the bananas. Let it stand till quite cold, then whip the whites to a very stiff froth and heap them on top; sprinkle with sugar, and serve.

BOILED CUSTARD

     
1 pint Milk 2d. 
3 Eggs 3d. 
1½ oz. Sugar 1d. 
Flavouring 
Total Cost—6d. Time—5 Minutes 

Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin and whisk them. Put the milk into a saucepan, and when it is boiling pour it over the eggs, stirring all the time. Strain back into the saucepan and whisk well till it comes to boiling point; draw away from the fire, but continue whisking for a few minutes. Then pour into a basin, sweeten and flavour to taste, and it is ready for use.

CORNFLOUR CUSTARD

     
½ pint Milk 1d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
1 dessertspoonful Cornflour 1d. 
Sugar and Flavouring 
Total Cost—3d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Put the milk into a saucepan to boil, mix the cornflour with a spoonful of cold milk, and when the milk in the saucepan is nearly boiling, stir it in and continue stirring till it boils. Let it boil two or three minutes, then draw the saucepan away from the fire, beat in the yolk of the egg and flavouring. Put back on the fire and bring to boiling point; it is then ready for use. This is a good sauce for plum or other puddings and fruit tarts.




  ― 389 ―

BACHELORS' BUTTONS

       
5 oz. Flour ½d. 
2 oz. Sugar ½d. 
½ teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 
1 teaspoonful Cream of Tartar 
6 drops Essence of Almonds 
Total Cost—3d. Time—10 Minutes. 

Rub the butter into the flour, stir in the sugar, carbonate of soda, and cream of tartar; mix into a stiff dough with the egg and flavouring. Roll into small balls about the size of a marble; toss in coarse sugar, put on to a greased baking sheet, and bake from five to eight minutes.

PRINCE OF WALES CAKES

         
¼ lb. Flour ½d. 
¼ lb. Cornflour 1d. 
1 gill Milk ½d. 
½ teaspoonful Baking Powder ½d. 
2 oz. Butter 2d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
Flavouring ½d. 
2 oz. Sugar ½d. 
Total Cost—6½d. Time—20 Minutes. 

Mix the flour, cornflour, and baking powder together, beat the butter and sugar to a cream, beat in the egg, flavouring, and milk, then the flour, &c., and continue to beat for five minutes. Butter some small bun tins, half fill them with the mixture, put into a moderate oven and bake for about twenty minutes; stand on a sieve till cold.

NORMANDY PUDDING

     
2 Stale Buns 2d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
½ pint Milk 1d. 
Sugar ½d. 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—One Hour and a Half. 

Boil the milk and pour it over the beaten egg, sweeten


  ― 390 ―
to taste. Put the buns into a pie-dish, pour over the custard, cover and leave for an hour. Then put into a moderate oven and bake for about half an hour. Serve hot.

RUSK PUDDING

        
1 slice of Dry Bread 2d. 
2 Eggs 
1 oz. Sugar ½d. 
Half a Lemon ½d. 
1½ pints of Milk 4d. 
1 tablespoonful Jam 1d. 
½ tablespoonful Cornflour ½d. 
Total Cost—8½d. Time—One Hour. 

Take a piece of very stale bread and cut it into small squares, bake it in the oven till a good colour. Break the eggs into a pie-dish, beat in the sugar and grated rind of the lemon, pour in one pint of milk, and mix well. Drop in the rusks and put into a cool oven and bake till firm; then spread on the top a layer of jam. Put half a pint of milk into a saucepan, and when it nearly boils, stir in the cornflour which has been mixed with a little lemon peel and sugar, and pour it on top of the pudding. Put it back in the oven for a few minutes, then stand away till cold.

BEDFORD PUDDING

      
Dry Crusts of Bread 1d. 
½ pint of Milk 
1 tablespoonful Jam 1d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
1½ oz. Sugar ½d. 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—Three-quarters of an Hour. 

Soak the bread in cold water till quite soft, put it into a cloth and squeeze all the water out of it; turn into a basin and beat it smooth with a spoon. Then beat in the yolks


  ― 391 ―
of the eggs, sugar, milk, and a little grated lemon peel. Pour into a pie dish and bake till quite firm, then take from the oven and spread the jam on the top. Whip the whites to a stiff froth and spread over the jam; put back in the oven for a few minutes till brown, then sprinkle with sugar and serve either hot or cold.

DE MESTRE PUDDING

       
½ lb. Flour 1d. 
¼ lb. Raisins 2d. 
¼ lb. Sugar 1d. 
1 oz. Dripping ½d. 
1 teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda 
1 gill Boiling Water 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—Three Hours. 

Put the flour into a basin; stone the raisins and cut them in half, mix in the sugar and carbonate of soda. Dissolve the dripping in the water, pour in and make into a dough; leave it to stand all night. Dip a cloth in boiling water and tie the pudding up tightly. Plunge into plenty of boiling water, and keep it boiling steadily for three hours; turn into a hot dish. A little custard sauce served with this pudding is a great improvement.

YANKEE PUDDING

       
1 Egg, and its Weight in Flour d. 
Sugar ½d. 
Bread Crumbs ½d. 
1 tablespoonful Marmalade 1d. 
½ teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda ½d. 
½ gill Milk 
Total Cost—4d. Time—One Hour. 

Mix the flour, sugar, and bread crumbs together; stir in the marmalade. Make the milk just warm, dissolve in it


  ― 392 ―
the soda. Beat up the egg and mix together, pour this over the dry ingredients, beat for a few minutes; turn into a buttered basin. Tie over it a cloth, plunge into boiling water, and boil one hour. Serve either hot or cold. A spoonful of marmalade placed on the top of this pudding just before serving is an improvement.

SPONGE ROLL

      
3 tablespoonsful Flour ½d. 
3 tablespoonsful Sugar 1d. 
3 Eggs 3d. 
2 teaspoonsful Baking Powder 1d. 
3 teaspoonsful Jam d. 
Total Cost—7d. Time—10 Minutes. 

Beat the eggs and sugar together for five minutes, mix the flour and baking powder together and stir them lightly in. Pour into a well-buttered tin and bake in a quick oven for eight or ten minutes. Turn on to a damp cloth and roll up directly; warm the jam in a saucepan while the roll is cooking, and if it is very stiff mix in a spoonful of water. Take the roll out of the cloth and lay flat on a piece of sugared paper, spread the jam on quickly and roll up again; place on a sieve till cold.

SEED CAKE

        
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
6 oz. Dripping d. 
6 oz. Sugar 
1½ teaspoonsful Caraway Seeds ½d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
2 teaspoonsful Baking Powder d. 
1 gill Milk or Water 
Total Cost—6½d. Time—One Hour and a Half. 

Sift the flour into a basin and rub in the dripping; carefully stir in the sugar, baking powder, and caraway seeds.


  ― 393 ―
Beat up the egg and milk or water, and mix the dry ingredients into a dough; beat for two or three minutes. Turn into a cake tin which has been well rubbed with dripping, stand on a baking sheet and place in a moderate oven. Bake for one hour and a half or longer, test it by running a skewer right through the centre; if it comes out clean the cake is done. Turn it out of the tin carefully and stand on a sieve till cold.

SCONES—No. 1

     
¾ lb. Flour d. 
½ pint Milk 1d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
2 teaspoonsful Baking Powder d. 
Total Cost—5d. Time—10 Minutes. 

Rub the butter into the flour, stir in the baking powder, and make into a very light dough with the milk; turn on to a floured board, knead for a few minutes, roll out about half an inch thick. Cut into shapes, put on to a floured tin, and bake in a quick oven for about ten minutes. Serve either hot or cold.

SCONES—No. 2

     
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
½ pint Sour Milk d. 
3 teaspoonsful Baking Powder 
1 teaspoonful Salt 
Total Cost—3½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Mix the flour, baking powder, and salt together, mix into a very light dough with the milk, adding a little more milk if necessary; turn on to a floured board and knead till smooth, roll out half an inch thick. Cut into small rounds and bake for about five minutes.




  ― 394 ―

SCONES—No. 3

       
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
2 oz. Dripping d. 
1 oz. Sugar 
½ pint Sour Milk 
1 teaspoonful Cream of Tartar 
½ teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda 
Total Cost—3½d. Time—20 Minutes. 

Rub the dripping into the flour; stir in the sugar, cream of tartar, and soda. Mix into a very light dough with the milk, turn on to a floured board; divide into two parts. Flatten these out into two cakes, divide each one into four pieces, brush over with milk. Put on to a floured tin and bake in a hot oven from fifteen to twenty minutes.

POTATO FRITTERS

      
Cold Potatoes d. 
1 Egg 
2 oz. Sugar 
Nutmeg or Lemon Peel 
Hot Fat 
Total Cost—1½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Mash up the potatoes very smoothly, beat in the sugar, and a flavouring of nutmeg or grated lemon peel. Beat up the egg and pour over the potatoes and mix into a paste; form into small round cakes. Fry in very hot fat till brown; pile high on a dish, sprinkle with sugar, and serve. One egg is sufficient for about 1 lb. potatoes.

APPLE FRITTERS

      
3 Apples 2d. 
Frying Batter 1d. 
Hot Fat 1d. 
Sugar 
Lemon 
Total Cost—4d. Time—5 Minutes. 




  ― 395 ―
Peel and slice up the apples into rounds, take out the core with a small round cutter. Make frying batter by directions given elsewhere, and flavour with lemon juice. Dip in the pieces of apple, plunge into plenty of hot fat, and fry till a good colour. Drain on kitchen paper, pile high on a dish, and sprinkle well with sugar; serve very hot.

SWEET OMELET

     
2 Eggs 2d. 
½ oz. Butter ½d. 
1 teaspoonful Jam ½d. 
Sugar ½d. 
Total Cost—3½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin and beat in half the sugar, put the whites on to a plate with a little sugar, and whip till stiff; mix with the yolks. Put the butter into a small frying-pan, and when it is dissolved pour in the mixture; leave over the fire for about three minutes. Then hold the pan in front of the fire for a minute or two to brown the top. Put the jam on to a hot plate, slip the omelet on the top; serve at once.

TAPIOCA MERINGUE

       
1 pint Milk 2d. 
1½ oz. Tapioca ½d. 
1 oz. Sugar ½d. 
Whites of 2 Eggs 1d. 
Flavouring ½d. 
1 oz. Beef Suet ½d. 
Total Cost—5d. Time—Two Hours. 

Wash the tapioca well in cold water, strain off the water, and put it into a pie dish. Chop the suet very finely and mix it in with the sugar; flavour with grated lemon peel or nutmeg, pour over the milk and mix well,


  ― 396 ―
stand in a very cool oven for two hours. Whip the whites of the eggs to a very stiff froth, flavour the same as the pudding, spread these on top, sprinkle with sugar, and stand in the oven till set; serve cold. This meringue is very much improved if a few macaroons are broken up and laid on the top before the eggs are put on, or if a spoonful of raspberry jam is spread over.

HASTY PUDDING

     
1 pint Milk 2d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
3 oz. Flour 1d. 
2 oz. Sugar 
Total Cost—4d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Put the milk on the fire to boil, and when boiling stir in the flour quickly; it should be rather lumpy. Pour it into a dish, melt the butter and sugar, and pour it in the middle of the pudding. A little flavouring of grated lemon peel may be put into the milk, or jam served with the pudding.

QUICK PUDDING

      
1 Egg 1d. 
1 tablespoonful Flour 2d. 
1 tablespoonful Jam 
1 teaspoonful Sugar 
1 teaspoonful Baking Powder 
Total Cost—3d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Mix the flour and baking powder together, beat the egg till very light, whisk in the sugar, and stir in the flour. Pour into a buttered tin, and bake five minutes; turn on to a sugared paper spread with jam. Roll up and serve. Custard sauce is nice with this.




  ― 397 ―

STANLEY PUDDING

      
1 pint Milk 2d. 
2 oz. Flour 
1 oz. Sugar 1d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
1 spoonful Jam 1d. 
Total Cost—6d. Time—One Hour. 

Put the milk into a saucepan, mix the flour with a little cold milk; and when the milk in the saucepan is nearly boiling, stir it in, and let it boil up. Pour into a basin and beat in the yolks of the eggs and the sugar; turn into a pie dish and bake till firm. Spread a spoonful of jam on the top; whip the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth and spread them over, sprinkle with sugar, and put back in the oven to set. Serve cold.

IMITATION OMELET

      
1 Egg 1d. 
½ gill Milk ½d. 
1 teaspoonful Sugar 1d. 
1 teaspoonful Jam 
1 teaspoonful Flour 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Beat the yolk and white of egg separately; beat the flour and milk together, and mix in the sugar and yolk of egg. Stir in the white, butter a saucer, put the jam at the bottom. Pour in the mixture, bake in the oven for five minutes, sprinkle with sugar, and serve.

OXFORDSHIRE PUDDING

     
1 pint Milk 2d. 
1½ oz. Rice ½d. 
1 oz. Sugar ½d. 
Rind of Half a Lemon 
Total Cost—3d. Time—Two Hours. 

Wash the rice well, strain off the water and put it into a pie-dish. Mix in the sugar and the rind of the lemon;


  ― 398 ―
pour over the milk, and let it stand for half an hour. Put it into a very slow oven, and bake till firm. This is a very delicious pudding if properly made; it should be firm, but not dry.

MILK BISCUITS

     
½ lb. Flour 1d. 
1 gill Milk ½d. 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
¼ saltspoonful Salt 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—10 Minutes. 

Rub the butter into the flour, sprinkle in the salt, and make into a dough with the milk; knead till smooth, roll out very thin. Cut into small rounds, prick well with a fork, put on to a floured tin and bake for about ten minutes. They should not get brown.

SODA CAKE

       
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
½ lb. Currants 2d. 
½ lb. Sugar 1d. 
6 oz. Dripping 2d. 
1½ teaspoonsful Carbonate of Soda 
½ pint Milk 
Total Cost—7d. Time—Two Hours. 

Rub the dripping and the flour together; clean and stir in the currants and sugar. Stir in the soda and mix into a dough with the milk, beat for a few minutes. Pour into a tin which has been well rubbed with dripping, bake in a moderate oven for two hours.

DIGESTIVE BISCUITS

      
½ lb. Brown Meal d. 
¼ lb. Flour 
1½ gills Water 1d. 
1 oz. Butter or Lard 
1 oz. Sugar 
Total Cost—2½d. Time—5 Minutes. 




  ― 399 ―

Mix the meal and flour together, rub in the butter or lard and the sugar; mix into a dry paste with water, knead till smooth. Roll out very thin, cut into rounds, and bake in rather a slow oven.

LEMON PUDDING

       
½ lb. Flour 1d. 
3 oz. Suet 1d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
2 Lemons 1d. 
2 oz. Sugar ½d. 
½ gill Water 
Total Cost—4½d. Time—Two Hours. 

Sift the flour, chop the suet finely, and mix together. Stir in the sugar and the grated rind of the lemons, beat up the egg, add the juice of one lemon, and mix the pudding into a dough with this, and a little water if required. Dip a cloth in boiling water, tie the pudding in it; plunge into boiling water and boil two hours. Take out of the cloth and turn on to a hot dish, and pour round it the following sauce: Squeeze the juice of the other lemon into a small saucepan, stir in some sugar and a gill of water, and boil up; it is then ready.

BLACK CAP PUDDING

     
1 pint Milk 2d. 
2 Eggs 2d. 
1 oz. Currants 
½ lb. Flour 1d. 
Total Cost—5d. Time—One Hour. 

Put the eggs into a basin, beat in the flour, and then the milk, pour into a buttered basin. Clean the currants and drop them in; steam for one hour, turn out of the basin, sprinkle with sugar, and serve.




  ― 400 ―

ROCK CAKES

        
½ lb. Flour 1d. 
2 oz. Dripping 
¼ lb. Sugar 1d. 
2 oz. Currants 1d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
1 oz. Peel 1d. 
1 teaspoonful Baking Powder ½d. 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—15 Minutes. 

Rub the dripping and flour together, stir in the sugar, currants (well cleaned), the baking powder, and the peel. Beat up the egg and pour it in, and make into a very stiff dough; take up in rough pieces and lay on a greased tin, bake in rather a quick oven for fifteen minutes.

KINGSWOOD PUDDING

        
¼ lb. Flour ½d. 
¼ lb. Bread Crumbs 1d. 
¼ lb. Raisins 2d. 
6 oz. Suet d. 
¼ lb. Sultanas 2d. 
¼ lb. Sugar 1d. 
2 Apples 1d. 
Total Cost—9d. Time—Six Hours. 

Mix the flour and bread crumbs together. Any dry pieces of bread will do if put through the sausage machine; shred the suet finely and mix it in with the sugar. Stone the raisins and pull them in half, and clean the sultanas; mix these in. Peel and core the apples; put in the pips, chop the apples finely, and add them. Let it stand for an hour, and then mix it into a paste; the juice from the apples and the sugar will be found sufficient. Press into a basin, tie down tightly, and boil at


  ― 401 ―
least six hours. This will be found an excellent pudding if well boiled.

DELHI PUDDING

     
1 pint Milk 2d. 
1 oz. Almonds 1d. 
2 oz. Sugar 2d. 
1½ oz. Arrowroot 
Total Cost—5d. Time—5 Minutes. 

Blanch and chop the almonds very small, mix them with the sugar and arrowroot. Put the milk on to boil, and when it boils pour it on to the arrowroot and stir; if it does not get thick enough, pour back into the saucepan and boil for a minute. Turn into a wet mould and stand away till firm; then turn out and serve with jam or custard sauce, or it may be served plainly.

ROTHSAY PUDDING

          
¼ lb. Flour ½d. 
¼ lb. Bread Crumbs 1d. 
¼ lb. Suet 1d. 
1 oz. Sugar ½d. 
1 tablespoonful Vinegar 
1 gill Milk 1d. 
1 tablespoonful Raspberry Jam 2d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
½ teaspoonful Carbonate of Soda 
Total Cost—7d. Time—Two Hours.  

Mix the flour, crumbs, finely chopped suet, and sugar in a basin, then stir in the jam. Beat up the egg and milk, and stir it in. Mix up the carbonate of soda and the vinegar together; beat it in, and when well mixed pour it into a buttered basin. Tie up carefully, and boil for two hours; turn out on to a hot dish, and serve either with sifted sugar or custard sauce.




  ― 402 ―

RHUBARB MOULD

     
1 bundle Rhubarb 3d. 
6 oz. Sugar d. 
¼ lb. Sago d. 
½ pint Water 
Total Cost—6d. Time—20 Minutes 

Wipe and cut up the rhubarb and put it on to boil with one gill water, and boil for about ten minutes. Wash the sago and soak it in one gill warm water, then add to the rhubarb. Stir in also the sugar, and boil for about ten minutes or longer, stirring constantly. Pour into a basin or mould which has been dipped in cold water, and stand away till cold and firm, then turn out and serve. A little boiled custard is a great improvement to this dish.

APPLES AND RICE

       
3 Large Apples 2d. 
2 oz. Rice 1d. 
2 oz. Sugar ½d. 
1 tablespoonful Jam 1d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
½ pint Milk 1d. 
Total Cost—6½d. Time—Half an Hour.  

Peel the apples and scoop out the core and fill in with jam; put into a pie-dish and bake till the apples are soft. While they are baking, boil the rice and milk together till the rice is soft and the milk absorbed. Beat in the egg and sugar, pour over the apples; brush over with milk, and bake till a nice colour. Serve either hot or cold.

RICE BLANCMANGE

     
1 pint Milk 2d. 
1½ oz. Ground Rice ½d. 
1 oz. Sugar 1d. 
Flavouring 
Total Cost—3½d. Time—5 Minutes. 




  ― 403 ―
Put the milk on to boil with a strip of lemon peel in it; when nearly boiling mix the rice in a spoonful of cold water and pour it in. Stir till it boils, and let it boil two or three minutes; pour into a mould which has been dipped in cold water, and stand away till firm. Turn out when cold, and serve with jam, stewed fruit, or custard sauce.

DEVONSHIRE JUNKET

     
1 quart Milk 4d. 
1 tablespoonful Rennet 1d. 
1 oz. Sugar 
Nutmeg ½d. 
Total Cost—5½d. Time—Two Hours. 

Make the milk tepid, stir in the sugar and a spoonful of rennet or a rennet tablet; pour into a dish and stand on the stove till solid. Grate a little nutmeg on top and serve cold. Rennet can be bought at the chemist's ready for use; but rennet tablets, which answer very nicely, can be used instead. These can be bought in many places, and keep good a long time.

BANBURY CAKES

        
½ lb. Pastry 5d. 
1 oz. Currants 2d. 
1 oz. Raisins 
Half a Lemon 
Half an Orange 
1 oz. Cake or Bread Crumbs ½d. 
1 oz. Sugar ½d. 
Total Cost—8d. Time—20 Minutes. 

Stone the raisins and chop them lightly, put them into a basin with the currants cleaned, the sugar, and the cake or bread crumbs. Mix together, grate over the rind of half a lemon, and half an orange. Strain in the juice, and let it stand for an hour. Roll out the pastry and cut into rounds about three inches long. Lay a little of the mixture in the


  ― 404 ―
centre, close over the pastry, turn the cake over, flatten it out in the middle. Brush over with sugar, and bake in rather a quick oven. Serve warm.

LEMON BISCUITS

       
½ lb. Flour 1d. 
3 oz. Dripping 
1 teaspoonful Baking Powder 1d. 
3 oz. Sugar 
1 Lemon 1d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
Total Cost—4d. Time—10 Minutes. 

Rub the dripping into the flour, stir in the sugar and baking powder, and grate over the rind of the lemon. Beat up the egg and strain in the lemon juice; add these to the dry ingredients, mix into a stiff dough, and knead for a few minutes. Roll out, cut into small biscuits, and bake in a quick oven for about ten minutes.

YORKSHIRE TEA CAKES

       
¾ lb. Flour d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
1½ gills Milk 1d. 
1 tablespoonful Yeast ½d. 
½ tablespoonful Sugar 
1 oz. Butter 1d. 
Total Cost—5d. Time—One Hour and a Quarter 

Rub the butter and flour together, make a well in the centre, sprinkle in the sugar, and drop in the egg. Mix the yeast and sugar in a basin, make the milk just tepid, and pour it over the yeast. Strain into the flour and egg and work into a light dough, divide into two parts. Rub a little butter over two small tins, and put one cake in each tin. Cover with thin paper, and stand the tins near the


  ― 405 ―
stove for an hour, or until they have risen to at least three times their original size; then bake in a quick oven for fifteen minutes. Serve either plain, or toasted and buttered.

TEA CAKE

       
1 lb. Flour 2d. 
½ pint Milk 1d. 
2 oz. Butter d. 
1 Egg 1d. 
2 teaspoonsful Baking Powder d. 
1 teaspoonful Sugar 
Total Cost—7d. Time—20 Minutes. 

Rub the butter into the flour, stir in the sugar and baking powder. Beat up the egg and milk, and mix the dry ingredients into a dough with them; divide into two pieces and form each into a flat cake. Cut lightly across into four with a knife, put on to a buttered tin, and bake twenty minutes. Cut open, butter, and serve.

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