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Volume 3: Appendix B. An Annotated Bibliography of the Genera  Tiliqua next hit and Cyclodomorphus

B.1 Introduction

This bibliography attempts to list all (or at least most) of the literature on the bluetongue lizards (genus previous hit Tiliqua next hit) and their sister genus Cyclodomorphus (included by some authors in previous hit Tiliqua next hit). In compiling this bibliography, I have attempted to be as complete as possible for primary literature, but may have been a little less thorough for the secondary literature, due to their often ephemeral nature and low circulation and the derivative nature of the data incorporated. I have not attempted to be selective in citing references, as there does not appear to be any clear-cut differentiation between the scientific and general literature, and I believe that such selectivity is best left to the reader of this bibliography. I have not attempted to search newspapers, although I am aware of a number of references dealing with bluetongues reported therein. Likewise, I have not attempted to list theses, although where these are used as sources for formal publications, they are mentioned in the annotations. The vast majority of the titles cited in this bibliography are not accessible via the various abstracting journals, and have been obtained by painstaking cross-referencing of other literature and volume-by-volume searches of a vast number of journal titles over many years.

In citing references, I have tried to be as accurate as possible in reproducing the title. Hence, only words bearing initial capitals in the original title are so reproduced here. Where the original title is all in capitals, I have capitalised only proper nouns and their adjectival derivatives. Punctuation of the original title has been reproduced as accurately as possible. Journal titles have been reproduced in full, and as given on the title page, as many of the journals have no consistent abbreviation for the title. Where the journal title given on the title


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page is in the form of an abbreviation, or otherwise incomplete, I have sometimes included an expanded title in square parentheses to avoid confusion.

I have generally tried to cite only the first edition of books, unless subsequent editions have involved significant alterations to the first. In a few cases, I have been unable to trace first editions, and have had to be content with citing later editions.

In providing annotations for publications cited, I have used three preliminary fields for all citations, labelled 1, 2 and 3. Field 1 lists the relevant generic names used in the reference, separated by commas. Field 2 lists the specific epithets used, separated by commas. Field 3 lists the localities mentioned, in the same order as field 2, but with localities within species separated by commas and between species separated by semicolons. In a few obvious cases of misidentifications I have added a corrected name in square parentheses. Following these three fields is a block containing more detailed annotations, including cross-references in many cases, particularly for the scientific secondary literature. Square parentheses used in this section indicate either corrections, or in some cases, when used around a chemical compound name, indicate the concentration of that compound. The names used for taxa in the annotations are those recognised as valid taxa by myself. Synonymies for other taxa are available in Cogger et al. (1983), and in the text of Chapters 4–9 of this thesis. A number of abbreviations have been used in the annotations. Included amongst these are:

           


  ― 641 ―
                             
A: Angstroms  mins: minutes 
AC: alternating current  mm: millimetres 
ACTH: adrenocorticotrophic hormone  mo.: months 
14C: Carbon-14  NaCl: sodium chloride 
CTmax: critical thermal maximum  NSW: New South Wales 
CTmin: critical thermal minimum  NT: Northern Territory 
dB: decibels  pmol: picamoles 
DC: direct current  PNG: Papua New Guinea 
F3: third generation  ppm: parts per million 
g: grams  Qld: Queensland 
3H: tritium  SA: South Australia 
ha: hectares  SD: standard deviation 
hrs: hours  sec: seconds 
HS: homestead  SVL: snout-vent length 
Hz: Hertz  T4: thyroxine 
125I: Iodine-125  Tas: Tasmania 
KCl: potassium chloride  Tb: body temperature 
m: metres  Vic: Victoria 
m.: muscle  WA: Western Australia 
meq: milliequivalents 
image
: mean 
mi.: miles  yr: year(s) 

A number of acronyms are used for museum collections. Apart from those used in Volume 1 of this thesis (see Section 2.2), these are:

MHNB: Musée Royal d'Histoire naturelle de Belgique, Brussel

MSNG: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova

MZUT: Museo di Zoologia, Università di Torino

Compilation of this bibliography has been a long-term, tedious project. It could not have been completed without the assistance of a number of people, who have kindly taken time to locate and copy the many references, particularly in foreign journals, that I have not been able to locate myself. Amongst these people are (in alphabetical order): C. Banks, A. Bauer, M. Bull, E. Cameron, H. Cogger, J. Covacevich, J. Coventry, E. Damas, B. Farrow, R. Green, A. Greer, W. Haacke, A.


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Hauschild, R. Hitz, M. Hoogmoed, H.-G. Horn, G. Husband, C. Köppl, E. Mills, W. Mudrack, M. Peterson, U. Proske, P. Robertson, A. Stimson, G. Swan, J. Weigel, R. Wells, and the numerous librarians at the following libraries: Australian Museum, Boerhaave Library, Chicago Herpetological Society, McMaster Library, Macquarie University, Museum of Victoria, Natural History Museum (London), New South Wales State Library, Queen Victoria Museum, Queensland Museum, South Australian Museum, South Australian State Library, University of New South Wales, University of Sydney (including Badham, Burkitt, Camden, Fisher, Geography, Geology and Medical libraries), University of Western Australia, Western Australian Museum, Western Australian State Library.

I especially thank A. Aaso, H. Floriani, P. McCarthy and N. Shea for translating much of the Danish, Dutch, French, German, Italian and Latin literature for me.




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B.2. References and Annotations (Authors A-F)

ABBOTT, I. & BLACK, R. (1978). An ecological reconnaissance of four islands in the Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 60(4): 115–128.

Four individuals seen in ten sunny days.

ABRAHAM, G. (1980). Kopulationsbeobachtung bei previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardi. Sauria 1980(2): 34.

Description of captive copulations observed 11, 15 January; ♂ bites ♀; ♀ bites ♂, hisses; ♂ firmly bites right flank below forelimbs, scratches ♀ on back with forelimb; ♀ resists; ♂ continues, twitches tail; ♀ ceases resistance; ♂ brings cloaca to approach that of ♀; ♀ lifts tail; copulation occurs, lasts 4 minutes.

ABRAMS, R.M. & CALDWELL, F.T. (1967) Regulation of internal body temperature in the blue tongued skink. Federation Proceedings 26(2): 556.

In a gradient, body temperature maintained between 30–37°C; heating brain stem reduced exit temperature, while cooling brain stem increased exit temperature; regulation of body temperature primarily behavioural, but activated by hypothalamic temperature.

ADAMSON, M.L. (1984). Descriptions of Pharyngodon asterostoma n.sp. and P. tiliquae Baylis, 1930 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Egernia cunninghami (Scincidae) in Australia. Systematic Parasitology 6(1): 39–46.

Refers to records of Pharyngodon hindlei and P. tiliquae from T. scincoides by Baylis (1930), Johnston & Mawson (1947) and Thapar (1925).

ADLER, K.K. (1958). Observations on the Australian genera Egernia and previous hit Tiliqua next hit in captivity. Ohio Herpetological Society Trimonthly Report 1(3): 9–12.

Coloration and measurements of several specimens; fed on eggs beaten with milk; T. nigrolutea more secretive than scincoides; displayed by hissing; C. gerrardii very secretive, spent much time basking; one specimen ate a neonate mouse with difficulty; T. multifasciata spent much time basking; description of display.




  ― 644 ―

ADOLPHI, H. (1905). Über die Variationen des Brustkorbes und der Wirbelsäule des Menschen. Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch 33(1): 39–86.

First three vertebrae ribless; vertebrae 4–8 with asternal ribs; first sternal rib on vertebra 9.

AFLALO, F.G. (1896). A sketch of the natural history of Australia with some notes on sport. Macmillan & Co., London. pp. 178–179, 182–184. (307pp.)

Stump Lizard hideous and inoffensive, insectivorous; brief coloration notes for T. occipitalis, T. adelaidensis, C. gerrardii, C. branchialis; T. scincoides lacks eyelids [in error], known as “pete” in WA.

AGASSIZ, L. (1842–46). Nomenclator Zoologicus, continens nomina systematica generum animalium tam virentium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum disposita, adjectis auctoribus, libris, in quibus reperiuntur, anno editionis, etymologia et familiis, ad quas pertinent, in singulis classibus. Fasciculus VI. continens Reptilia. Jent et Gassmann, Soloduri. (pp. vii + 48).

Listing of generic names, with authors and etymologies; Trachydosaurus regarded as an emendation of Trachysaurus.

AGASSIZ, L. (1846). Nomenclatoris Zoologici Index Universalis, continens nomina systematica classium, ordinum, familiarum et generum animalium omnium, tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum unicum disposita, adjectis homonymiis plantarum, nec non variis adnotationibus et emendationibus. Jent et Gassmann, Soloduri. pp. 110, 185, 258, 371, 373, 374, (viii + 393pp.)

Listing of generic names, with authors; Trachydosaurus regarded as an emendation of Trachysaurus.

AHERN, L.D., BROWN, P.R., ROBERTSON, P. & SEEBECK, J.H. (1985). Application of a taxon priority system to some Victorian vertebrate fauna. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report Series (32): 1–48.

Ranked fifteenth on list of Victorian reptiles under threat in national context.




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ALDEN, J.M., BOWDEN, D.C., CHAPMAN, J.C., CLARKE, K.M., FITZGIBBON, J.P. GIBLIN, W.B., MORRIS, G.J. & MOSS, J. (1980) An environmental impact statement on forestry in Newnes State Forest. [Environmental and Urban Studies Report] (62). Centre for Environmental Studies, Macquarie University, Sydney. pp. 15, 71. (86pp. + 3 maps).

Pink-tongued skink and C. casuarinae potentially present in area.

ALEXANDER, W.B. (1914). The History of Zoology in Western Australia. Part I. – Discoveries in the 17th Century. Journal of the Natural History & Science Society of Western Australia 5: 49–64.

Repeats Dampier's (1729) description.

ALEXANDER, W.B. (1916). History of zoology in Western Australia. Part II. – 1791–1829. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Western Australia 1: 83–149 + pl. XV.

Repeats the accounts of Vancouver (1798), Peron (1807), Flinders (1814), Gray (1827) and Nind (1832); Scincus Tropisurus synonymised with T. rugosa; identifies the animals seen by Vancouver, Flinders, Quoy and Gaimard, and Nind as T. rugosa; identifies Gray's previous hit Tiliqua next hit tuberculata as T. scincoides [in error].

ALEXANDER, W.B. (1921). Aboriginal names of the animals of the Lyons River district. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Western Australia 6(1): 37–40.

Native names of T. occipitalis yaralla and T. rugosa palarra.

ALI, J.H., RILEY, J. & SELF, J.T. (1984). Further observations of blunt-hooked raillietiellids (Pentastomida: Cephalobaenida) from lizards with descriptions of three new species. Systematic Parasitology 6(2): 147–160.

Raillietiella scincoides described from material from T. scincoides.

ALI, J.H., RILEY, J. & SELF, J.T. (1985). A review of the taxonomy and systematics of the pentastomid genus Raillietiella Sambon, 1910 with a description of a new species. Systematic Parasitology 7(2): 111–123.




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Refers to Ali et al. (1984).

ALLAN, J.K. (1932). Snails. Australian Museum Magazine 4(10): 355–360.

Bluetongues good snail exterminators for gardens.

ALLISON, A. (1982). Distribution and ecology of New Guinea lizards. pp. 803–813 in Gressitt, J.L. (ed.). Biogeography and Ecology in New Guinea. Monographiae Biologicae (42). Dr W. Junk, The Hague.

Widespread in lowland, from New Guinea west to Sumatra and Celebes, but not Australia; live-bearing.

“AN AMATEUR NATURALIST” (1887). Notes upon additions to the museum of the South Australian Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery. Reprinted from The South Australian Register and Adelaide Observer. W.K. Thomas & Co., Adelaide. pp. 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 22, 35. (37pp.)

General; severe bite; T. rugosa has 3–5 large young in litter; diet insects, bird eggs, vegetation; one observed eating flower head of native yam; probably a few hundred preserved in South Australian Museum.

“AN AMATEUR NATURALIST” (1889). Notes upon additions to the museum of the South Australian Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery. A continuation of the “notes published in 1887. Reprinted from The South Australian Register and Adelaide Observer. W.K. Thomas & Co., Adelaide. pp. 7, 28. (42pp.)

General.

ANDERSON, C. (1931). The Teeth of Reptiles. Australian Museum Magazine 4(7): 227–232.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit have blunt, rounded teeth; partly herbivorous, though mainly insectivorous; photograph of ventral view of skull; T. rugosa omnivorous.

ANDERSON, W. (1967). Appendix 1 - A journal of a voyage in His Majestys Sloop Resolution. pp. 723–986 in Beaglehole, J.C. (ed.). The Journals of Captain James Cook on his voyages of discovery. Vol. III. The voyage of the Resolution and Discovery 1776–1780. Part Two. Cambridge University Press & Hakluyt Society, Cambridge. (1647pp.)

Coloration description of Tasmanian specimen

ANDREW, D.L., LUMSDEN, L.F. & DIXON, J.M. (1984). Sites of zoological significance in the Westernport region. Ministry for Conservation [Victoria] Environmental Studies Series Publication (327): 1–425.

Oak skinks do not reach Westernport Bay; T. nigrolutea common in open habitats; quotes from Wheelwright (1861); spot distribution map for T. nigrolutea in region, including French I.; present in most habitats surveyed.

ANDREWS, R.H. (1982). Mating behaviour and reproductive isolation of three species of reptile tick. Animal Behaviour 30(2): 514–524.

T. rugosa used as experimental host.

ANDREWS, R.H. & BULL, C.M. (1980). Mating behaviour in the Australian reptile tick Aponomma hydrosauri. Animal Behaviour 28(4): 1280–1286.

T. rugosa used as experimental host.

ANDREWS, R.H. & BULL, C.M. (1981). Inhibition of mating behaviour before feeding in the tick Aponomma hydrosauri. Animal Behaviour 29(2): 518–522.

T. rugosa used as experimental host; both sexes of Aponomma hydrosauri require at least 5 days feeding on host before mating.

ANDREWS, R.H. & BULL, C.M. (1982a). An attractant pheromone with common properties in three reptile ticks. Experientia 38(1): 99–100.

T. rugosa used as experimental host.

ANDREWS, R.H. & BULL, C.M. (1982b). A Comparison of Mating Behaviour between Populations of the Reptile Ticks Aponomma hydrosauri and Amblyomma albolimbatum. Australian Journal of Zoology 30(4): 635–642.

T. rugosa main host of Aponomma hydrosauri and Amblyomma albolimbatum;


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used as experimental host.

ANDREWS, R.H. & BULL, C.M. (1983). Premating reproductive isolation between geographically isolated populations of an Australian reptile tick. Journal of Parasitology 69(6): 1125–1130.

Aponomma hydrosauri obtained from sleepy lizards; used as experimental host.

ANDREWS, R.H. & PETNEY, T.N. (1981). Competition for Sites of Attachment to Hosts in Three Parapatric Species of Reptile Tick. Oecologia 51(2): 227–232.

Sites of attachment of Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma albolimbatum and Amblyomma limbatum on T. rugosa; differences in preferred sites of attachment occur at different localities.

ANDREWS, R.H., PETNEY, T.N. & BULL, C.M. (1982a). Reproductive Interference Between Three Parapatric Species of Reptile Tick. Oecologia 52(2): 281–286.

Sites of attachment of Aponomma hydrosauri and Amblyomma albolimbatum on sleepy lizards; ♀ ticks found mostly in axilla, ear and on neck; ♂ ticks usually found under scales.

ANDREWS, R.H., PETNEY, T.N. & BULL, C.M. (1982b). Niche Changes Between Parasite Populations: An Example from Ticks on Reptiles. Oecologia 55(1): 77–80.

Sleepy lizard is main host of Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma albolimbatum and Amblyomma limbatum in field; used as experimental host in laboratory.

ANGAS, G.F. (1859). Donations to the Australian Museum, received during the year 1858. pp. 4–8 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for 1858.). Government Printer, Sydney. (8pp.)

Two sleeping lizards donated by S. Parkins, B.P. Rodd.

ANGAS, G.F. (1860). Donations to the Australian Museum, received during the year 1859. pp. 4–7 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (7pp.)

T. rugosa donated by George Bennett, T. scincoides by G. Abbott.

ANGEL, F. (1949). Petit atlas des amphibiens et reptiles - II Sauriens Ophidiens. N. Boubée & Cie, Paris. Third Edition. p. 48; pl. 6, fig. 31. (141pp.)

T. scincoides herbivorous; spherical crown to teeth; largest skink species; T. rugosa omnivorous, including lizards and snakes; ovoviviparous with a single young; brief general description.

ANGEL, L.M. & MAWSON, P.M. (1968). Helminths from some lizards mostly from South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 92: 59–72.

T. rugosa largely herbivorous; Microphallus sp. in upper small intestine of T. rugosa; Paradistomum crucifer in gall bladder of T. rugosa, T. scincoides; Thelandros trachysauri in large intestine of T. rugosa.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1861). Donations to the Australian Museum, during the year 1860. pp. 4–7 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (9pp.)

“Sleeping lizards” donated by Mr Bernard, E. Goddard, Mr. Macshean.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1879). Vocabulary of the Adelaide and Encounter Bay tribes, with a few words of that of Rapid Bay. pp. 169–181 in, The Native Tribes of South Australia. E.S. Wigg & Son, Adelaide. (xxxviii + 316pp.)

Native name “kalta” used for a skink [same name used by tribes in other areas for T. rugosa; see Bates, 1921; Shürmann, 1844].

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1880a). Donations. pp. 3–8 in Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees for 1879.). Government Printer, Sydney. (15pp.)

Eight specimens of T. scincoides donated by D. Nichols, G. Wright, J. Hall, Mr Thisdon (2), M. Lawler (2), H.G. Pitts; two T. rugosa donated by J. Ramsay.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1880b). Specimens collected by the Museum Collector, A. Morton, at Port Darwin and Port Essington. pp. 10–14 in Australian


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Museum. (Report from Trustees for 1879.). Government Printer, Sydney. (15pp.)

Morton collected two T. s. intermedia; Broadbent collected three T. rugosa.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1880c). Donations. pp. 3–6 in, Queensland Museum. (Report of the Board of Trustees for the year 1879–80.). (8pp.)

Donated by W.G. Johnson.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1883a). Guide to the Contents of the Australian Museum. Australian Museum Trustees, Sydney.

Mentioned as exhibits.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1883b). List of donations, 1882. pp. 8–11 in Australian Museum. (Report of the Trustees, for 1882.). Government Printer, Sydney. (16pp.)

K.H. Bennett donated one T. rugosa.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1884). Donations, 1883. pp. 6–12 in Australian Museum. (Report of the Trustees for 1883.). Government Printer, Sydney. (15pp.)

One T. rugosa donated by H.B. Bradley; two T. scincoides donated by A.W. Reloph, G. Wangenheim.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1885a). Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Proceedings. Victorian Naturalist 1: 2–3.

Sleeping Lizard exhibited.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1885b). Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Annual Conversazione. Victorian Naturalist 2(1): 2–16.

Live blue-tongue and stump-tailed lizards displayed.




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ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1885c). The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 2(7): 81.

Specimen collected during excursion.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1885d). Donations. pp. 10–16 in Australian Museum. (Report of the Trustees for 1884.). Government Printer, Sydney. (46pp.)

A. Toby donated one T. scincoides.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1886). Donations. pp. 7–12 in Australian Museum. (Report of the Trustees for 1885.). Government Printer, Sydney. (17pp.)

C.S. Wilkinson donated one T. rugosa, J.V. Menzies donated one T. scincoides.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1887a). The “camp out”. Victorian Naturalist 3(9): 115–117.

Two found amongst ferns about 100m above high water mark.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1887b). The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 3(10): 129–130.

Live stump-tailed lizard displayed.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1887c). The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. The Annual Conversazione. The Exhibits. Victorian Naturalist 4(2): 30.

Live stump-tailed and blue-tongued lizards exhibited.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1887d). Donations. pp. 5–11 in Australian Museum. (Report of the Trustees for 1886.). Government Printer, Sydney. (20pp.)

Three T. scincoides donated by Mr Shaw, J.C. Cox, C.M. Drew.




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ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1888a). Narrative of the expedition. pp. 146–162 in, Campbell, A.J. (ed.). Expedition to King Island, November, 1887. Victorian Naturalist 4(9): 129–164.

Seen.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1888b). The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 4(10): 165–168.

Live broad-banded cyclodus exhibited.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1888c). The annual conversazione. Victorian Naturalist 5(2): 20–23.

Live stump-tailed and blue-tongued lizards exhibited.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1889). The annual conversazione. Victorian Naturalist 6(3): 45–54.

Specimens displayed.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1890). The Zoological and Acclimatization Society. Victorian Naturalist 7(4): 51–52.

Two donated to Society.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1891a). Report of a visit to the Yarra Falls. Victorian Naturalist 7(11): 157–179.

Two seen during excursion.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1891b). Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 8(9): 117–119.

Specimen exhibited at Club meeting.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1892a). Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Exhibition of specimens. Victorian Naturalist 8(9): 131–132.




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Two specimens exhibited.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1892b). Field Naturalist Club's excursion to the Grampians, 21st November to 5th December, 1891. Victorian Naturalist 8(12): 181–196.

Eaglehawk [Aquila audax?] disturbed feeding on dead stump-tailed lizard; lizard stomach contents Styphelia berries and fungus; T. nigrolutea collected.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1892c). Donations of specimens to the Museum. pp. 10–19 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for the year 1891.). Government Printer, Sydney. (34pp.)

A.J. North donated one T. scincoides.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1893). Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Exhibition of specimens. Victorian Naturalist 10(2): 20.

Female and four young, 27 days old, displayed.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1894). Donations of specimens to the Museum. pp. 8–21 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for the year 1893.). Government Printer, Sydney. (36pp.)

Three T. scincoides donated by T. Barston, C.J. McMaster (2); one C. gerrardii donated by E. Selkirk.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1895). Donations of specimens to the Museum. pp. 15–24 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for the year 1894.). Government Printer, Sydney. (34pp.)

Two C. casuarinae donated by A. Hunter, J. Mitchell; one T. nigrolutea donated by G. Mann; two T. scincoides donated by A.M.N. Rose, A. Shellan.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1896). Donations of specimens to the Museum. pp. 16–27 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for the year 1895.). Government Printer, Sydney. (44pp.)




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Two T. scincoides donated by J.A. Boyd, A.P. Kemp; one T. nigrolutea donated by A.M.N. Rose; one C. gerrardii donated by J.A. Boyd; aboriginal name for T. scincoides in Kempsey area Cō-bōi-yōng.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1897). Donations of specimens to the Museum, 1896. pp. 16–28 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for the year 1896.). Government Printer, Sydney. (46pp.)

One C. casuarinae donated by W. Alli; one C. gerrardii donated by J.A. Boyd; three T. scincoides donated by W.D. Campbell, B. Maddock, A. Reuben.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1898a). Donations of specimens to the Museum, 1897. pp. 16–27 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for the year 1897.). Government Printer, Sydney. (46pp.)

One T. rugosa donated by W.D. Campbell; two T. scincoides donated by D. Carson, W. Taylor.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1898b). Return of information supplied to the public, 1897. p. 29 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for the year 1897.). Government Printer, Sydney. (46pp.)

Identification of specimen.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1899a). Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Exhibits. Victorian Naturalist 15(9): 102–103.

Specimen exhibited.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1899b). Donations of specimens to the Museum, 1898. pp. 17–30 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for the year 1898.). Government Printer, Sydney. (51pp.)

One C. gerrardii donated by F.A. Franks; one C. casuarinae donated by H.L. Hall; one T. scincoides donated by J.W. Woodhead.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1900). Donations of specimens to the Museum, 1899. pp. 15–25 in Australian Museum. (Report of Trustees for the year 1899.). Government Printer, Sydney. (50pp.)




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Three T. nigrolutea donated by R. Grant; one T. scincoides donated by A.W. Weston.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1903). Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. Reports. Victorian Naturalist 19(9): 121–122.

Two specimens found, one carrying several ticks.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1912). Berlin. “Triton”, e.V. 10. ordentliche Sitzung am Freitag, den 8. November 1912. Blätter für Aquarien-und Terrarienkunde 23(50): 811–812.

General.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1914). Jenolan Caves Excursion. Zoology. pp. 30–31 in Excursions Arranged for Members of British Association for Advancement of Science. 1914 Meeting, Sydney, August 20–26. W.A. Gullick, Government Printer, Sydney. (78pp.)

Reportedly present in area.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1921a). München, “Isis”. October 1920. Blätter für Aquarien-und Terrarienkunde 32(1): 15–16.

Two captive-born captives took long time to become tame; captive diet.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1921b). München, “Isis”. (Schluk). Blätter für Aquarien-und Terrarienkunde 32(23): 368.

Females much larger and stronger than males.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1939). Toll of the road. West Australian Naturalist 1(1): 18. (Special Exhibition Number).

Many bobtails killed by cars when sunning on roads.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1940). Old father William of the reptile world. Wild Life 2(8): 23.

Photographic series of blue-tongue maintaining bite on wood even when lifted clear of ground.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1941). Dragons for Pets. Wild Life 3(5): 202.

Photographs of neonate hybrid, and of parents; F2 captive-bred; photograph of T. rugosa.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR [1943]. Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated Sixty-fifth annual report. p. 10 (12pp.)

Albino stump-tail lizard donated by T.C. Jones.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1944). Snake Eats Lizard. Wild Life 6(7): 206.

Photograph of T. rugosa being eaten by large elapid [possibly Pseudechis porphyriacus or Pseudonaja textilis].

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1947). The fauna of Western Australia. pp. 20–28 in, Campbell, J.B. (ed.). Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science Handbook of Western Australia prepared for the use of members of the Association 26th meeting Perth, W.A., August, 1947. Government Printer, Perth. (127pp.)

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR [1949]. Seventy-first annual report of Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated. pp. 24–25. (27pp.)

Sleepy lizards, bluetongues donated by F. Knight (1,1), A.H. Lendon (1,0), R.W. McKechnie (3,8).

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR [1950]. Seventy-second annual report of Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated. pp. 23, 26–27. (28pp.)

Exhibited; four T. rugosa donated by R.W. McKechnie, one bluetongue by E.M. Andrewartha.




  ― 657 ―

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1951). Seventy-third annual report of Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated. pp. 24, 26–27. (28pp.)

Exhibited; T. rugosa donated by A.E. Hannam, bluetongues by F. Eschner, C. Watts. [T. rugosa, T. scincoides, T. occipitalis also listed as exhibited in Annual Reports to 1959–60 (no. 82); former two species also listed as exhibited in Annual Report to date; where no other data are provided, these Reports are not separately listed].

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1954a). Club items. Reptilia 1(1): 6–7.

One exhibited at meeting of Australian Reptile Club.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1954b). For your information. Reptilia 1(2): 5.

Shows preference for yellow flowers, including dandelion, milk thistle, cape weed, flat weed.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1954c). Protection for Certain Reptiles. Australian Wild Life 2(4): 20–21.

Large numbers killed by man, run over on roads; proposed protection of bluetongues in NSW.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1955). Notes and exhibitions. Meetings of the Society for scientific business. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 124: 465.

Exhibited at Zoological Society of London meeting.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1957a). Handbook of the Australian Museum. Australian Museum Trustees, Sydney. p. 91. (135pp.)

General notes; found in gardens; diet in general; T. rugosa especially common in mallee areas.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1957b). Proposed Protection of Harmless Reptiles. Australian Wild Life 3(2): 10.




  ― 658 ―
Blue-tongued lizards often killed, in ignorance of non-venomous nature and value as consumer of snails.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1958). Lizards. pp. 344–348 in Chisolm, A.H. (ed). The Australian Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. (500pp.)

General notes; T. scincoides gives birth to up to 14 young; shingleback also known as double-headed or cone lizard.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1959a). Lake Parramatta Reserve. List of Native Birds, Furred Animals and Reptiles recorded in the area. Australian Wild Life 3(4): 14–15.

Blue-tongued and stumpy-tailed lizard [in error] recorded from area.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1959b). Last month's activities. Darling Downs Naturalist (77): 1.

Examined photograph of “Ramsay rock python” eating bluetongue lizard.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1960). Stumpy Tailed Lizards. Australian Wild Life 3(5): 33.

Stumpy-tailed lizards sold in pet shops in Sydney.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1961). Type specimens in the Western Australian Museum (Part 2). Western Australian Museum Annual Report 1960–61: 35–39.

Holotype listed [in error] for T. o. nossiteri [= T. multifasciata]; holotype listed for T. r. konowi.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1962). Eighty-fourth annual report of Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 1961–62. The Griffin Press. pp. 19–20. (27pp.)

Exhibited; several sleepy lizards bred.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1965). April excursion - to Walyunga Pool. Naturalist News [W.A. Naturalists' Club] May 1965: 5–6.




  ― 659 ―

Collected.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1967a). Bush dwellers of Australia. Rigby Ltd, Adelaide. p. 32. (71pp.)

General; threat display; diet herbage, fruit, blossoms, insects; 1–2 young in litter, each ca4 inches long.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1967b). Laughing Killer. Australasian Post 9.xi.1967: 9.

Photograph of kookaburra carrying dead juvenile T. scincoides.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1967c). Pretty stumpy. Australasian Post 9.xi.1967: 27.

Photograph; pet lizard.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1968). The sun-loving skinks. Nature Walkabout 4(1): 36–38.

Viviparous.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1969a). 91st annual report Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated. The Griffin Press. pp. 23–24. (33pp.)

Exhibited; two T. scincoides bred.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1969b). Taronga Zoological Park Trust Annual Report 1968–69. pp. 12, Appendix 3 pp. 3–4. (47pp.)

Numbers exhibited; three T. scincoides sent to Berlin Aquarium, two to Los Angeles Zoo.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1970a). Taronga Zoological Park Trust Annual Report 1969–70. pp. 21–23, Appendix 3 p. 4. (67pp.)




  ― 660 ―
Numbers exhibited; twelve T. scincoides, one T. rugosa bred; two T. nigrolutea sent to Prague Zoo; three T. rugosa, four T. scincoides sent to Antwerp Zoo.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1970b). Snakes and ladders. Herpetafauna 2(1): 5.

Dermatitis in blotched bluetongues probably due to “pseudomonidales”; treatment regime.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1971a). Annual Report 1970–71 Taronga Zoological Park Trust. pp. 22, xxvi. (25 + xl pp.)

Numbers exhibited; one T. rugosus born.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1971b). Fish, Frogs and Reptiles. pp. 67–75 in, Mountains Slopes and Plains The flora and fauna of the Australian Capital Territory. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. (76pp.)

Photograph of T. rugosa; herbivorous, but also eats grasshoppers, eggs; bluetongues viviparous, omnivorous, eating insects, spiders, soft plants, frogs, egg.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1971). August excursion. Naturalist News [W.A. Naturalists' Club] September 1971: 2.

Bobtails recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1972a). January Exhibits. The Junior Naturalist (Hawthorn Junior Field Naturalists' Club, Victoria) 8(2): 4.

Specimen with six toes on hind feet exhibited.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1972b). Have you seen these? Nature Walkabout 8(1): 28–29.

Neonates appear April; viviparous; usually two large young in litter; diet fruit, grass, leaves, snails, insects; geographic variation in coloration.




  ― 661 ―

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1972c). Baby bobtails. Nature Walkabout 8(3): 85.

Usually two young born late summer/early autumn; 19 ticks removed from one ear; length, mass of gravid ♀; litter of two in April, 17–18cm at birth.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1972d). The fascinating secrets of oceans & islands. Reader's Digest Association, Sydney. pp. 268–269. (368pp.)

Photograph; general.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1972e). Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 94th Annual Report 1971–72. Gillingham. pp. 25, 27. (32pp.)

Exhibited; six T. scincoides bred.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1972f). Annual Report 1971–72 Taronga Zoological Park Trust. p. xxvii (24 + xxxviii pp.)

Numbers exhibited.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1972g). Grolier's Amazing World of Animals. Vol. 10. Reptiles and Amphibians. Grolier Enterprises, USA. pp. 37, 40–42. (144pp.)

General; photographs; T. rugosa gives birth to one, rarely two large young.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1973a). Snakes and ladders. Herpetofauna 6(1): 25–26.

53 young dissected from ♀ C. gerrardii; T. multifasciata at Charters Towers; T. rugosa in hills behind Mackay.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1973b). N.S.W. Fauna Protection Act. Herpetofauna 6(2): 25.

Protected in NSW, but may be kept without registration.




  ― 662 ―

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1973c). Pictorial of Australian wild life. Australian Universities Press Pty. Ltd., Waterloo. p. 44. (95pp.).

Photograph; general; diet snails, insects, herbage.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR [1973d]. Bush Dwellers of Australia. Australian Information Service, Canberra. p. 24. (72pp.)

General.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1974). New national Australian encyclopaedia. Vol. 2. National Literary Association, Sydney. pp. 523, 773. (1009pp.)

General; T. scincoides reaches 24″, has blunt teeth, eats slugs, insects.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1975). [untitled]. South Australian Herpetology Group (Incorporated) Newsletter (1): 1.

Many found shot dead in paddock.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1977). Concise encyclopedia of Australia and New Zealand. Bay Books, Sydney. p. 276. (479pp.)

Mention.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1978a). Trip report November 12th – 15th, 1977 Thompsons Beach and Port Parham. The South Australian Herpetologist. Quarterly Newsletter of the S.A.H.G. April 1978: 4.

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1978b). Report of recent field excursions. V.H.S. “Newsletter” (10): 28–29.

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1978c). Field survey at Cobbeldicks Ford, 11km NNW Werribee, Vic. V.H.S. “Newsletter” (11): 21.




  ― 663 ―

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1979a). Field excursion to Cobbeldicks Ford, 11km NNW Werribee, Vic. V.H.S. “Newsletter” (16): 15–17.

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1979b). 3ft bluetongue lizard. V.H.S. “Newsletter” (16): 19.

Specimen with missing foot exhibited.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1980a). Snakes, tortoises, frogs and other reptiles & amphibians. A guide to Victoria's new wildlife regulations. V.H.S. “Newsletter” (18): 17–22.

May be kept without permits in Victoria.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1980b). A rare birth - then death. Australasian Post 8.v.1980: 32–33.

Photograph of twinned neonate, born in captivity; died at five days.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1980c). Species bred by BHS members. British Herpetological Society Bulletin (2): 3–4.

Bred in captivity in 1980.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1980d). Field trip (No. 5) Kilmore district 31.8.'80. “Victorian Herpetological Society Newsletter” (20): 17–18.

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1980e). Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 102nd Annual Report 1979–80. Gillingham Printers. p. 33. (41pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1981a). [No title]. Monitor. Bulletin of the Victorian Herpetological Society 1(1): 29.

Untitled newspaper clipping from Sunrasia Daily 12 April, 1980; juvenile with two heads collected in 1917; photograph.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1981b). Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 103rd Annual Report 1980–81. Hocknell Printing, Lonsdale. p. 34. (41pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1982a). Report of the April field trip. Nature Territory May, 1982: 2–3.

T. s. intermedia sheltered under rock when disturbed.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1982b). Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 104th Annual Report 1981–82. Gillingham Printers, Adelaide. p. 40. (48pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1983a). Trip Report. Cox's Scrub C.P. & Kyeema C.P. 12/6/83. SAHG Newsletter September '83: 6–7.

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1983b). Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 105th Annual Report 1982–83. Gillingham Printers, Adelaide. p. 34 (48pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; two T. rugosa bred.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1984a). Reptiles and amphibians of Barren Grounds. p. 34 in Barren Grounds Bird Observatory and Field Studies Centre.




  ― 665 ―

Report 1982–84. R.A.O.U. Report (11). (76pp.)

Both recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1984b). be kind to Blue-tongues. North Eastern Naturalist (82): 11.

Threat display; effect of bite; viviparous; lives to 10 years in captivity; captive diet; [C. gerrardii] gives birth to up to 67 young in litter.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1984c). S.A.H.G. trip report. Gawler area, 19/6/83. SAHG Newsletter Feb. '84 (1): 3–4.

Heavy mite infestations on both species; one T. rugosa showed post-fire scarring; SVL (n = 9) 242–292mm (

image
= 274.2mm), mass 225–466.5g (
image
= 356.1g); T. scincoides SVL (n = 7) 104–285mm (
image
[largest 5] = 248.2mm), mass (largest 5) 75.5–352g (
image
= 252.6g).

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1984d). Trip report. Deep Creek Conservation Park. 23/10/83. SAHG Newsletter Feb. '84 (1): 6.

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1984e). Trip report: Tiddy Widdy Beach. 19 – 20th. November 1983. SAHG Newsletter Feb. '84 (1): 8.

More than 50 seen in one day.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1984f). Trip report: Hindmarsh Island. 15th January 1984. SAHG Newsletter Nov. '84: 4.

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1984g). Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 106th Annual Report 1983–84. Gillingham Printers, Adelaide. p. 30. (52pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; three T. rugosa bred.




  ― 666 ―

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1985a). Trip report: Sedan. 15th – 16th December, 1984. SAHG Newsletter Feb. '85: 1–2.

Recorded.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1985b). Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 107th Annual Report 1984–85. Gillingham Printers, Adelaide. p. 32. (52pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1986). Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 108th Annual Report 1985–86. Gillingham Printers, Adelaide. p. 38. (52pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1987). Royal Zoological Society of South Australia Incorporated 109th Annual Report 1986–87. Gillingham Printers, Adelaide. p. 46. (60pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; one T. rugosa bred.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1988a). Sexing lizards. Australasian Herp News (2): 11.

Can be sexed by manually causing ♂♂ to evert hemipenes or seminal plugs.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1988b). [untitled]. South Western Herpetological Society Newsletter (116): 1–2.

Feared by natives.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1989a). [untitled]. A.C.T. Herpetological Association Newsletter May 1989: [9] (unpaginated).

Litter of 11 (3 still-born), born 21 April; litter born one month later than previous year's litter.




  ― 667 ―

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (1989b). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Wildlife. Vol. 27. Orbis Publishing, London. pp. 1592–1593 (70pp [Vol. 27: 1561–1620]).

General; diet; threat display; photograph of T. scincoides; tongues used as insect traps [in error].

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (no date;a). Reptiles and amphibians. SAHG Newsletter (55): 1–8.

Extract from Bowman Park Management Study; T. scincoides common; individuals in spinifex areas had narrower heads, more slender bodies; T. rugosa abundant; often killed by cars when basking on roads.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (no date;b). Australian wildlife. Nucolorvue Productions, Mulgrave. unpaginated [p. 22. (24pp.)]

Photograph.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (no date;c). The lizard with two heads. The Living Australia [Bay Books Pty Ltd, Kensington] (10): 16–18.

General; photographs of all four species; geographic variation in coloration in T. rugosa; diet berries, flowers, fungi, snails, insects, carrion; habitat preferences; breeding in spring; viviparous; usually two large young born after 2–3 months gestation; predation by goannas, dingos, foxes, snakes; can kill snakes; protected by law; popular pet; usage by aborigines; photograph of albino.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR (no date;d). Blue-tongued lizards. The Living Australia [Bay Books Pty Ltd, Kensington] (83): 6–8.

General; threat displays; photographs; distributions [in error]; coloration; diet insects, snails, fruit, berries, occasional mouse; viviparous; up to 24 young; caudal autotomy; photographs of albino T. nigrolutea, dicephalic T. nigrolutea neonate, which died 5hrs after birth.

ANSTIS, M. & PETERSON, M. (1973). Results of collecting on the Wilcannia field trip. Bulletin of Herpetology 1(2): 6–7.

About 20 observed on 29–30 September, mostly on ground near road; many in


  ― 668 ―
pairs.

ANSTIS, M. & RANKIN, P. (1977). Reptiles and amphibians. pp. 79–82 in, Australian Littoral Society, An investigation of management options for Towra Point, Botany Bay. ANPWS, [Canberra]. (396 + 46pp.)

One collected.

ARCHER, M. & BRAYSHAW, H. (1978). Recent local faunas from excavations at Herveys Range, Kennedy, Jourama, and Mount Roundback, north-eastern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 18(2): 165–177.

Subfossil remains of T. scincoides in archaeological excavations; T. scincoides still present in area, in open forest; T. scincoides teeth enlarge more rapidly from rostral to caudal than T. rugosa.

ARCHER, M. & HAND, S. (1984). Background to the search for Australia's oldest mammals. pp. 517–565 in, Archer, M. & Clayton, G. (eds.). Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia. Hesperian Press, Carlisle. (1203pp.)

Refers to Mulvaney (1964), Smith (1976), Wakefield (1964).

ARDLIE, N.G. & SCHWARTZ, C.J. (1965). Arterial pathology in the Australian reptile: a comparative study. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 90(2): 487–494.

Serum cholesterol levels for T. scincoides, T. rugosa; only arterial pathology seen in 18 scincoides, 1 gerrardii and 52 rugosa was fatty streaking in one T. rugosa.

ARENA, P.C. & RICHARDSON, K.C. (1990). The relief of pain in cold-blooded vertebrates. A.C.C.A.R.T. [Australian Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching] News 3(1): 1–4.

Dose rates for surgical anaesthesia by ketamine 180–220mg/kg; at body temperature of 30°C, induction takes 20–30mins, anaesthesia lasts 60–90mins.

ARENA, P.C., RICHARDSON, K.C. & CULLEN, L.K. (1988). Anaesthesia in two species of large Australian skink. Veterinary Record 123(6): 155–158.




  ― 669 ―

Mass of 20 individuals 300–700g; response to varying doses of ketamine hydrochloride; dose rates of ketamine for induction of anaesthesia 180, 210mg/kg at 15°C, 30°C; onset and duration of anaesthesia shorter at higher temperatures; respiratory depression; tachycardia.

ARMSTRONG, G. (1979a). Report of S.A.H.G. herpetofaunal survey of Innes National Park 25th and 26th November 1978. Newsletter of the South Australian Herpetology Group Inc. 2(1): 1–3.

Recorded; one T. rugosa spotlit on road at night.

ARMSTRONG, G. (1979b). Reptiles of the Golden Grove areas in the Adelaide Hills. Newsletter of the South Australian Herpetology Group Inc. 2(1): 5–8.

T. rugosa often observed in open, feeding on flowers and plant seeds; fire had no immediate effect on population; T. scincoides not common; appears to prefer grassy areas.

ARMSTRONG, G. (1987). Trip report: Billiatt Conservation Park 23–25/1/87. S.A.H.G. Newsletter (60): 2–4.

Recorded.

ARMSTRONG, G. (1988a). Trip report: Port Prime/Port Parham area 10/5/87. S.A.H.G. Newsletter (61): 6–7.

Recorded.

ARMSTRONG, G. (1988b). Trip report: Middleback Ranges 6–8/6/87. S.A.H.G. Newsletter (61): 9–10.

Both recorded.

ARMSTRONG, G. (1988c). Trip report: Cherry Gardens 30/8/87. S.A.H.G. Newsletter (63): 3.




  ― 670 ―

Recorded.

ARMSTRONG, G. (no date). Trip report: Mt Remarkable National Park October 7th – 9th 1978. Newsletter of the South Australian Herpetology Group Inc. (unnumbered) [8]: 9.

T. scincoides not common, amongst rocks; T. rugosa common, in low shrub and grassland.

ARNOLD, E.N. (1984). Evolutionary aspects of tail shedding in lizards and their relatives. Journal of Natural History 18(1): 127–169.

ARNOLD, E.N. (1986). Mite pockets of lizards, a possible means of reducing damage by ectoparasites. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 29(1): 1–21.

Chiggers, mite pockets absent.

ARNOLD, E.N. (1988). Caudal Autotomy as a Defense. pp. 235–273 in, Gans, C. & Huey, R.B. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia Volume 16 Ecology B. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York. (659pp.)

Juveniles have well developed autotomy mechanisms in both species, but ability to autotomise lost during ontogeny; T. rugosa tail may mimic head.

ARNOLD, G.W., ALGAR, D., HOBBS, R.J. & ATKINS, L. (1987). A Survey of Vegetation and its Relationship to Vertebrate Fauna Present in Winter on Road Verges in the Kellerberrin District, W.A. Department of Conservation and Land Management Technical Report (18): 1–37.

T. rugosa trapped in roadside verge woodland; T. occipitalis collected in heath/mallee roadside verge.

AUDAS, J.W. (1925). One of Nature's wonderlands the Victorian Grampians. Ramsay Publishing, Melbourne. p. 127. (128pp.)

Mention of blue-tongue lizard.

AUSTIN, P. (1991). The Karangura language. Records of the South Australian Museum 25(2): 129–137.

Refers to Wells (1894); sleepy lizard “kadni” in Karangura language, “kani” in Ngamini language.

AVERY, R.A. (1982). Field Studies of Body Temperatures and Thermoregulation. pp. 93–166 in, Gans, C. & Pough, F.H. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 12 Physiology C Physiological Ecology. Academic Press, London. (536pp.)

Refers to Bartholemew et al. (1965), Hammel et al. (1967), Heatwole (1976), Licht et al. (1966), Rawlinson (1974), Warburg (1965a,b).

BAARSLAG, A. (1982). Captive breeding of the Australian skink: previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardi. pp. 40–42 in, 4th annual reptile symposium on captive propagation & husbandry. Zoological Consortium Inc., Thurmont.

Captive housing, diet; preference for molluscs, including aquarium snails; do not swallow shell; neonates eat within hours of birth; reported to eat earthworms, newborn mice; growth rate may be faster in neonates fed on snails; feed throughout winter in captivity; litters of 11 (to two females), born 1 July, 8, 19 (both 12 June), 20 (14 June), 15 (20 June); copulation 21–23 February; description of copulation; ♂-♂ aggression in February; neonates eat fetal membranes; growth rates.

BACCHUS, J. (1939). Notable Australian Lizards. Walkabout 5(6): 53–54, 57, 59–60.

General; live-bearing; photograph of T. rugosa.

BAEHR, M. (1976). Beiträge zur Verbreitung und Ökologie tasmanischer Reptilien. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Herausgegeben vom Staatlichen Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart Serie A (Biologie) 292: 1–24.

C. casuarinae inhabits open eucalypt forests, especially with heavily grassed undergrowth; T. nigrolutea diurnal, eats snails, slugs, insects, small vertebrates and vegetation; shelter up to 0.5m below ground, between stones; never found under wood in Tasmania, unlike on mainland; viviparous.




  ― 672 ―

BAINES, J.A. (1969). FNCV Grampians Excursion, September, 1968. Part 1. Victorian Naturalist 86(6): 160–163.

Specimen observed.

BAIRD, I.L. (1970). The Anatomy of the Reptilian Ear. pp. 193–275 in, Gans, C. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia. Vol. 2. Morphology B. Academic Press, London. (374pp.)

Listed amongst genera studied; no further comment.

BAKER, G.H. (1986) Coleoptera, Scorpionida and Reptilia collected in pitfall traps in Engelbrook National Trust Reserve, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 110(1): 43–48.

Recorded.

BAKER, M.R. (1981). Redescription of Pneumonema tiliquae Johnston, 1916 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from an Australian Skink. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 48(2): 159–162.

Pneumonema tiliquae redescribed from material from lung of T. scincoides.

BAKER, M.R. (1984). The systematics and zoogeography of Spinicaudinae and Meteterakinae (Heterakoidea: Nematoda) parasitic in reptiles and amphibians. Systematic Parasitology 6(4): 275–287.

Refers to Baylis (1930).

BAKER-GABB, D.J. (1984). The Breeding Ecology of Twelve Species of Diurnal Raptor in North-Western Victoria. Australian Wildlife Research 11(1): 145–160.

Often seen during spring/summer.

BALLANTYNE, R.J. & PEARSON, J.C. (1963). The Taxonomic Position of the Nematode Pneumonema tiliquae. Australian Journal of Science 25(12): 498–499.

Pneumonema tiliquae present in lungs of all 35 T. scincoides examined; life cycle detailed, involves ingestion of third-stage larvae in snails/slugs by lizards and migration in lizards through body cavity.

BAMFORD, M.J. (1982). Bobtail research at Eyre. pp. 49–52 in, Eyre Bird Observatory Report 1979–81. R.A.O.U. Western Australian Group, Perth. (63pp.)

Common names; morphological differences between two populations in SVL, mass, scalation, tail length, coloration; distribution in study sites related to availability of shelter; absent from mallee on Roe Plains; abundant around claypans, east of Burnabbie HS, in densities of 5–10/ha; home range usually less than 1ha; home ranges overlap, not defended; aggression between ♂♂ in breeding season; diet includes plant and animal material, more plant in wet weight, more animal in nutritional value; plant food includes flowers, shoots, grass seedlings, fruit, fungi; animal food includes a range of invertebrates, especially hairy caterpillars, large beetles, and vertebrate carrion; near Perth, activity reduced in winter, peaked in Summer/October; at Eyre, activity probably never reduced; mating in August; viviparous; 1–2, mostly one young born late March near Perth; mass, SVL of neonates; twins smaller than litters of one; maturity reached at end of third year at SVL 250mm; oldest animal ≥12yrs old; predators include Aquila audax, large snakes, Dasyurus; mortality low; dead individuals frequently found under shelter.

BAMFORD, M. (1988). Habitat preferences and morphometrics of some of the reptiles of Eyre. Eyre Bird Observatory Report 1984/1985. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Report (38): 67–81.

Two collected under logs/rocks in September; morphometrics, mass.

BANKS, C. (1980). Keeping Reptiles and Amphibians as Pets. Thomas Nelson Australia, West Melbourne. pp. 9, 12–13, 18, 19, 39, 44, 66–67, 75, 103, 107. (129pp.)

General; captive requirements; T. rugosa susceptible to respiratory infections; will eat small flowers, including dandelions; usually two, rarely three young; T. nigrolutea has 6–10 young; T. scincoides lives for up to 21 yrs in captivity.

BANKS, C. (1988). Institution Reports. Melbourne Zoo. Australasian Herp News (1): 2.

Bred during 1987/88 season.




  ― 674 ―

BARBOUR, T. (1912). A contribution to the zoögeography of the East Indian islands. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 44(1): 1–203 + 8pl.

Collected specimens from first two localities; record from Bantam in ZMB doubted; not known from Buru.

BARKER, J. (1981). Amphibians and reptiles of the Hastings River and Forbes River catchments and the upper Kunderang Brook and Mount Banda Banda. Unpublished report for N.S.W. National Parks and Wildlife Service. pp. 16, 20. (22 + xvii pp., 25 figs.)

Both recorded; steep mountainous areas probably unsuitable for T. scincoides.

BARNES, V.S., MOORE, L.J. & OXENHAM, A. (eds.) (1964). The modern encyclopaedia of Australia and New Zealand. Horwitz-Grahame, Sydney. pp. 610, 921. (1196pp.)

Mention.

[BARNETT, B.] (1977a). [untitled]. “Newsletter” of the Victorian Herpetological Society (1): 3–4.

Litter of 23 born December; tongue blue at birth; litters of 30–40 in Port Macquarie; 53 young in one dead ♀; 67 young purportedly born at Innisfail.

[BARNETT, B.] (1977b). [untitled]. “Newsletter” of the Victorian Herpetological Society (1): 6.

Litter of six young born December; sizes and weights at birth and at five weeks; fed on peas, mixed vegetables and vitamins.

BARNETT, B. (1977c). Additional notes on new-born Centralian Bluetongues (previous hit Tiliqua next hit Multifasciata). “Newsletter” of the Victorian Herpetological Society (1): 10.

Weights and lengths of five litters of 3–6 young, born December/January; young developed eye irritations, which cleared up when humidity dropped;


  ― 675 ―
fed on mashed, tinned peas and mixed vegetables, small crickets and vitamins.

[BARNETT, B.] (1977d). Letter and news from Peter Richardson, Bundaberg Q'land. “Newsletter” of the Victorian Herpetological Society (3): 7–8.

Two litters, of 49 and 21 young.

BARNETT, B. (1977e). “Medi Pulv” antiseptic, fungicidal powder. Victorian Herpetological Society “Newsletter” (5): 6–7.

Necrotic scales on hindlegs of T. multifasciata; captive juvenile T. s. intermedia aggressive to conspecifics, especially when feeding.

BARNETT, B. (1981). Field trip (No. 9) Cobbeldicks Ford & Boundary. Rd Brooklyn. 24.10.'80. “Victorian Herpetological Society Newsletter” (21): 20–21.

One T. scincoides observed at each site in cold, wet weather.

BARRETT, C. (1919). In Australian Wilds The gleanings of a naturalist. Melbourne Publishing Co., Melbourne. pp. 29–30, 133. (230pp.)

T. nigrolutea threat display; commonly found under rubbish on moorland; T. occipitalis photograph; T. rugosa common amongst rocks at Mt Dutton Bay; frequently kills snakes.

BARRETT, C. (1924a). Wild Life of the Mallee. Australian Museum Magazine 2(2): 45–53.

Fox-terrier readily killed T. rugosa; plentiful; Falco berigora eat T. rugosa.

BARRETT, C. (1924b). Reptile Life in Australia. Natural History 24(1): 42–59.

General; threat display; T. rugosa eaten by Falco berigora; photographs of T. rugosa, T. nigrolutea [identified as T. scincoides].




  ― 676 ―

BARRETT, C. (1926). Some Victorian lizards. Victorian Naturalist 43(6): 192.

Released in garden, but soon escaped; recaptured some distance away.

BARRETT, C. (1928). Lizards in Australian wilds. Bulletin of the New York Zoological Society 31(4): 99–111 (as 21(4)).

General description and notes; T. rugosa killer of snakes; viviparous, producing one young; many killed by cars; photographs of T. nigrolutea, T. occipitalis, T. rugosa; blue-tongues feed on milk, meat, vegetable matter; fond of capeweed flowers.

BARRETT, C. (1939). Koonwarra A naturalist's adventures in Australia. Oxford University Press, London. pp. 53–54, 87. (315pp.)

Viviparous, usually two, occasionally one young; eats snails; reputation as snake killer probably unwarranted; common names include stump-tailed lizard, bob-eye, bobby, shingle-back, sleepy lizard, double-header and stumpy.

BARRETT, C. (1942). Pacific Wonderland A Book of Australia. Cassell & Co., London. pp. 124–125. (200pp.)

General description and notes of T. rugosa; many killed by cars; viviparous; snake killers; common names shingle-back, sleepy lizard, stump-tail, bobby, bobtail, stumpy; general notes on bluetongues; give birth to up to 15 young, 9–10 being more usual.

BARRETT, C. (1943). An Australian animal book. Oxford University Press, London. pp. 274–275 (325pp.)

General; common names; many T. rugosa killed by cars; usually two young in litter; T. scincoides usually has 9–10 young, up to 15 recorded.

BARRETT, C. (1950). Reptiles of Australia Crocodiles, Snakes and Lizards. Cassell & Company Limited, London. pp. 22, 26, 67, 70–74. (168pp.)

Remains of several T. rugosa in and under Falco berigora nest; brief colour description; usually two, often one in litter; often killed on


  ― 677 ―
roads; largely herbivorous, especially berries, especially Leptomeria; also strawberries, smaller lizards, insects; in captivity do well on chopped meat, bananas, greens, snails; do not deserve reputation as snake killers; refers to Waite's (1925) discovery of one in stomach of python; T. scincoides omnivorous; likes milk in captivity; 9–15 young in a litter; general notes, descriptions, distributions of other previous hit Tiliqua next hit species; photograph of T. nigrolutea; T. adelaidensis doubtful, may only be a juvenile of one of the other taxa.

BARRETT, C. (1954). Wild Life of Australia and New Guinea. William Heinnemann, Melbourne. pp. 186–187. (229pp.)

Common names for T. rugosa include stumpy, bobtail, shingleback, sleepy lizard, stump-tailed lizard; reputation as snake killer not deserved; mainly herbivorous, especially native berries; in captivity eats raw meat, bananas, greenstuff, insects and snails; description of threat display in blue-tongue; litter sizes of 9–15 [T. scincoides?].

BARRETT, C. (1955). Wild Life in Australia Illustrated. Colorgravure Publications, Melbourne. pp. 210–211, 218, 220, 223. (240pp.)

T. rugosa known as stumpy-tail, shingle-backed lizard, bobtail, sleepy lizard; gives birth to 1–2 young; description of threat display in bluetongues; photographs.

BARRY, D.H. (1984). New herptile and mammal records for Bribie Island. pp. 283–284 in, Coleman, R.J., Covacevich, J. & Davie, P. (eds.). Focus on Stradbroke New Information on North Stradbroke Island and Surrounding Areas, 1974–1984. Boolarong Publications, Brisbane. (420pp.)

Recorded.

BARRY, D.H. & CAMPBELL, P.R. (1977). A survey of the mammals and herptiles of Fraser Island, with comments on the Cooloola Peninsula, North Stradbroke, Moreton and Bribie Islands. Occasional Papers in Anthropology (8): 147–177.

Recorded.

BARTHOLEMEW, G.A. (1982). Physiological Control of Body Temperature. pp. 167–211 in, Gans, C. & Pough, F.H. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 12 Physiology C Physiological Ecology. Academic Press, London. (536pp.)

Refers to Bartholemew et al. (1965), Cabanac et al. (1967), Hammel et al. (1967), Myhre & Hammel (1969).

BARTHOLEMEW, G.A., TUCKER, V.A. & LEE, A.K. (1965). Oxygen Consumption, Thermal Conductance, and Heart Rate in the Australian Skink previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides. Copeia 1965(2): 169–173.

image
body temperature 32.6°C; in laboratory, heating more rapid than cooling; heart rate more rapid during heating than cooling; metabolic heat production more important than changes in circulatory heat transport in controlling heating and cooling rates; oxygen consumption and heart rate values; metabolic scope varies with temperature; at 30°C, increased oxygen pulse and heart rate have equal roles in adjustment of circulation to higher oxygen demands, but at other temperatures, heart rate less important.

BARTHOLOMAI, A. (1977). The fossil vertebrate fauna from Pleistocene deposits at Cement Mills, Gore, southeastern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 18(1): 41–51.

Correction of Longman's (1945) identification of fossil left dentary as Trachysaurus rugosus.

[BARTLETT, A.J., in TERRILL, S.E.] (1948). Flinders Chase, Kangaroo Island. South Australian Ornithologist 18(8): 76–77.

50 released October 1926; as at October 1947 still present.

BARTLETT, R.D. (1984a). Notes on the captive reproduction of the Australian skink, previous hit Tiliqua next hit nigrolutea. British Herpetological Society Bulletin (10): 34–35.

Southern form of T. nigrolutea; coloration; captive diet; no hostility towards conspecifics noted (unlike T. scincoides and T. gigas); diurnal in cooler months, basking even on coldest days; breeding activity at dusk on warm evenings in February/March (northern hemisphere); breeding preceded by ♂ following ♀; description of copulation, which lasts 5–30mins; ♀♀ obviously gravid by late May; litters of 2 and 3 born June; measurements of young; neonates ate placenta; mean clutch sizes for T. s. scincoides 15.5, T. gigas 7, C. gerrardii 18; clutch size possibly increases with age in T. nigrolutea.

BARTLETT, R.D. (1984b). Notes on the captive propagation of the Australian lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit s. scincoides. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 19(1–2): 32–34.




  ― 679 ―

Photographs of T. scincoides, T. gigas, C. gerrardii [captions reversed for latter two]; captive maintenance; shelter in hibernacula in cold conditions; all previous hit Tiliqua next hit show intraspecific aggression; aggression also recorded between “closely related” species, T. multifasciata and T. occipitalis, T. scincoides and T. nigrolutea; aggression greatest during breeding season and at parturition; occurs in both sexes; gravid ♀♀ more aggressive than ♂♂; cannibalism; prone to rapid skeletal decalcification during pregnancy and juvenile growth; breeding during winter in northern hemisphere captives; courtship brief, can become vicious if ♀ not receptive; T. scincoides more placid than T. gigas, C. casuarinae, T. occipitalis; birth between end of May and mid-June, suggesting 6mo gestation; gravid ♀♀ not unusually bulky; largest litter 17, neonates 4.5″ total length; neonates eat foetal membranes; rapid growth, exceeding 12″ total length in 6mo; capable of reproduction at 18months.

BARTON, F. (1931). Habits of Blue-tongue Lizards. Victorian Naturalist 48(3): 47.

Blue-tongue feeding on quail carrion; swimming channel; often killed on roads and by bushfires.

BATEMAN, G.C. (1897). The Vivarium, being a practical guide to The Construction, Arrangement, and Management of Vivaria, containing full informations as to all reptiles suitable as pets, how and where to obtain them, and how to keep them in health. L. Upcott Gill, London. pp. 119–121. (424pp.)

General; descriptions; common names; diet in captivity snails, slugs, fruit, raw meat; T. rugosa very common in WA; found on sandy, stony plains; captive requirements; 3–4 young in litter; T. scincoides often bred in captivity, including at London Zoo; illustration; both T. rugosa and T. scincoides cost around 30 shillings.

BATES, D.M. (1921). Ooldea Water. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia: (South Australian Branch) (Incorporated) 21: 73–78.

Stump-tailed iguana (native name kalda) not present.

BAUDIN, N.-T. (1974). The Journal of Post Captain Nicolas Baudin Commander-in-Chief of the Corvettes Géographe and Naturaliste assigned by order of the Government to a voyage of discovery. (transl. by C. Cornell). Libraries Board of South Australia, Adelaide. p. 220 (xxi + 609pp.)

Two collected.

BAVERSTOCK, F. (1985). Fraser Island sands of time. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney. pp. 84, 87. (144pp.)

Photographs.

BAVERSTOCK, P.R. (1979). A three year study of the mammals and lizards of Billiatt Conservation Park in the Murray Mallee, South Australia. South Australian Naturalist 53(4): 52–58.

Both recorded.

BAVERSTOCK, P.R., CRAMP, N., JOHNSON, A.M. & DONNELLAN, S. (1991). Evolution of the Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA in Higher Vertebrates. Australian Journal of Zoology 39(4): 387–401.

Partial sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA molecule; one, possibly two, expansion segments in section A; sequence of these two expansion segments same as for Phyllodactylus marmoratus; eutherian mammal expansion segment in section C absent; large expansion segment in section D-E shared with Underwoodisaurus milii.

BAVERSTOCK, P.R. & DONNELLAN, S.C. (1990). Molecular evolution in Australian dragons and skinks: a progress report. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 29(2): 323–331.

Albumin immunologic distance of Egernia frerei albumin to T. rugosa 20 units, similar to distance from E. frerei to E. kingii; age of divergence of former pair of species estimated at 12 million years ago.

BAYLIS, H.A. (1930). Some Heterakidae and Oxyuridae [Nematoda] from Queensland. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10)5(28): 354–366.

Pharyngodon hindlei recorded from rectum; Pharyngodon tiliquae described from specimens from rectum; correction of Thapar's (1925) “previous hit Tiliqua next hit senicordis” to scincoides.

BAYLY, C.P. (1978). A Comparison of the Diets of the Red Fox and the Feral Cat in an Arid Environment. South Australian Naturalist 53(2):


  ― 681 ―
20–28.

Present in stomach contents of cat.

BEATTY, B. (1962). Unique to Australia. Ure Smith, Sydney. p. 92 + plate opposite p. 97. (224pp.)

Blue-tongues mentioned.

BECHTEL, H. (1978). Terrarientiere II Schildkröten. Krokodil. Echsen. Landbuch-Verlag GMBH, Hannover. pp. 92–95. (143pp.)

Photograph of T. gigas [identified as intermedia]; brief summary of captive requirements.

BECK, A.B. (1956). The copper content of the liver and blood of some vertebrates. Australian Journal of Zoology 4(1): 1–18.

Liver copper levels 11–20 ppm; blood copper levels in T. rugosa 0.75–0.82 mg/l.

BEDDARD, F.E. (1888). On certain points in the Visceral Anatomy of the Lacertilia, particularly of Monitor. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1888: 98–107.

Umbilical ligament of liver double, right ligament bearing umbilical vein.

BEDDARD, F.E. (1904a). “Abdominal Ribs” in Lacertilia. Nature 70(1801): 6.

Parasternum [inscriptional chevrons] present.

BEDDARD, F.E. (1904b). Contributions to the Anatomy of the Lacertilia. - (1) On the Venous System in certain Lizards. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1904(I)(2): 436–450.

Comparative details of abdominal venous system.




  ― 682 ―

BEDDARD, F.E. (1904c). Contributions to the Anatomy of the Lacertilia. - (3) On some Points in the Vascular System of Chamaeleon and other Lizards. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1904(II)(1): 6–22.

Median epigastric largest of epigastric veins.

BEDDARD, F.E. (1904d). On the Presence of a Parasternum in the Lacertilian Genus previous hit Tiliqua next hit, and on the Poststernal Ribs in that Genus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1904(II)(1): 154–157.

Seven pairs of parasternal ribs [inscriptional chevrons]; Acontias a “near ally” of previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

BEDDARD, F.E. (1905a). A Contribution to the Anatomy of the Frilled Lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingi) and some other Agamidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1905(I)(1): 9–22.

Length of vena cava exposed between right testis and liver.

BEDDARD, F.E. (1905b). Some Notes upon the Anatomy of the Yellow-throated Lizard, Gerrhosaurus flavigularis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1905 (II)(1): 256–267.

Dorsal pulmonary mesentery reaches tip of lung; right lung has a pulmo-hepatic ligament; splenic lobe of pancreas very thin.

BEDDARD, F.E. (1906). [untitled]. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1906 (I)(2): 376–377.

Parasternal ribs [inscriptional chevrons] better chondrified than in previous hit Tiliqua next hit; three pairs joined in midline, fourth pair just separated; rudimentary fifth to seventh pairs; five pairs of sternal ribs, one pair of asternal ribs fused just behind sternum.

BEDDARD, F.E. (1907). Contributions to the Knowledge of the Systematic Arrangement and Anatomy of certain Genera and Species of Squamata. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1907 (I) (1): 35–68.

Refers to Beddard (1905) on pancreas; third postmandibular branchial arch remnants present; description of gastrohepatic veins; T. scincoides has


  ― 683 ―
two mesenteries attaching stomach to liver, but not T. rugosa.

BELAN, I. & BULL, C.M. (1991). Host detection by four Australian tick species. Journal of Parasitology 77(3): 337–340.

Major host of Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma limbatum; used as experimental host; ticks detect hosts passively; refers to Satrawaha and Bull (1981).

BELL, T. (1843). Part V. Reptiles. pp. vi + 51, 20pl. in, Darwin, C. (ed.) Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N. during the years 1832 to 1836. Smith, Elder and Co., Cornhill. Reprinted (1975) by Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Coloration description in life; coleoptera and larvae in stomach of specimen collected; not very active, but moves like a snake; common in open woods near Hobart Town; figured.

BELLAIRS, A.d'A. & BRYANT, S.V. (1985). Autotomy and Regeneration in Reptiles. pp. 301–410 in, Gans, C. & Billett, F. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 15 Development B. John Wiley & Sons, New York. (731pp.)

Refers to Arnold (1984), Etheridge (1967), Hoffstetter & Gasc (1969); T. rugosa an exception to rule that caudal fat layers reduced or lacking in most nonautotomous taxa; in T. rugosa, fracture plane posterior to transverse process; in both species, fracture planes tend to disappear in mature animals.

BELLAIRS, A.d'A & KAMAL, A.M. (1981). The Chondrocranium and the Development of the Skull in Recent Reptiles. pp. 1–263 in, Gans, C. & Parson, T.S. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia. Vol. 11 Morphology F. Academic Press, London. (475pp.)

Refers to Pratt (1949).

BENNETT, A.F. (1982a). A preliminary evaluation of the effect of intensive timber harvesting on the fauna of the Otway region, south-western Victoria: a desk study. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report Series (1): 1–71.

Very common; inhabits foothills forest and low forest/heath habitats.




  ― 684 ―

BENNETT, A.F. (1982b). The Energetics of Reptilian Activity. pp. 155–199 in, Gans, C. & Pough, F.H. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 13 Physiology C Physiological Ecology. Academic Press, London. (345pp.)

Refers to Bartholemew et al. (1965), Tucker (1967), Wilson (1974).

BENNETT, A.F. & DAWSON, W.R. (1976). Metabolism. pp. 127–223 in, Gans, & Dawson, W.R. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 5 Physiology A. Academic Press, London. (556pp.)

Refers to Bartholemew et al. (1965), Martin (1902), Warburg (1965), Wilson (1971 [Ph.D. thesis, Monash University], 1974); tabulates and compares data from these papers.

BENNETT, A.F. & JOHN-ALDER, H. (1986). Thermal Relations of Some Australian Skinks (Sauria: Scincidae). Copeia 1986(1): 57–64.

Refers to Licht et al. (1966), Rawlinson (1974), Spellerberg (1972), Warburg (1965) and Wilson (1974); preferred body temperatures of 1 C. casuarinae 27.8–33.0°C (

image
= 31.2°C), for 10 T. rugosa 29.4–34.3°C (
image
= 31.9°C); preferred body temperature of T. rugosa not affected by feeding; field active body temperature for 10 T. rugosa 32.4–35.9°C (
image
= 34.3°C); critical thermal minimum 3.5°C, critical thermal maximum 43.0°C for T. rugosa.

BENNETT, G. (1834). Wanderings in New South Wales, Batavia, Pedir Coast, Singapore, and China; being the journal of a naturalist in those countries, during 1832, 1833, and 1834. Volume I. Richard Bentley, London. pp. 164–165. (440pp.)

General description of what is evidently T. rugosa; said to be eaten by aborigines.

BENTLEY, P.J. (1959a). Studies on the water and electrolyte metabolism of the lizard Trachysaurus rugosus (Gray). Journal of Physiology 145(1): 37–47.

Lower glomerular volume but similar kidney mass to mammals; renal tubule has proximal, thinner distal segment, no intermediate segment; water loads not excreted as efficiently as mammals; extrarenal water loss small; hypotonic NaCl excreted poorly; hypotonic KCl excreted more efficiently; hypertonic NaCl fails to produce diuresis; hypertonic sucrose produced short-term diuresis that ends before sucrose excreted; very high levels of hypernatraemia tolerated; in summer, higher plasma


  ― 685 ―
[Na] occurs naturally; pitocin, pitressin produce equal antidiuretic effects; pituitary contains antidiuretic factor which is inactivated by sodium thioglycollate; adrenalectomy produces increased plasma [K] but no change in plasma [Na]; deoxycorticosterone acetate produces increased plasma [Na].

BENTLEY, P.J. (1959b). Effects of Elevated Plasma Sodium Concentration on Sodium and Potassium in the Erythrocyte of the Lizard Trachysaurus rugosus (Gray). Nature 184(4696): 1403.

Following repeated injection of NaCl, [Na,K] in erythrocytes increased, haematocrit and erythrocyte size decreased; data suggests active extrusion of sodium from erythrocytes.

BENTLEY, P.J. (1976). Osmoregulation. pp. 365–412 in, Gans, C. & Dawson, W.R. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia. Vol. 5. Physiology A. Academic Press, London. (556pp.)

Weight up to 700g, but usually 250–300g; omnivorous, feeding on vegetation such as leaves, fruit, flowers, and on snails; reference to Warburg (1965), Licht et al. (1966), Bentley (1959), Shoemaker et al. (1966), Braysher (1971), Bentley and Bradshaw (1972); discussion of osmotic balance in T. rugosa.

BENTLEY, P.J. & BRADSHAW, S.D. (1972) Electrical potential difference across the cloaca and colon of the Australian lizards Amphibolurus ornatus and A. inermis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Comparative Physiology 42(2): 465–471.

Cloaca and urinary bladder exhibits a transepithelial potential difference and a short-circuit current in vitro.

BERG, A. (1922). Von meinen Reptillen. Blätter für Aquarien-und Terrarienkunde 33(7): 106.

In hot weather, two captives regularly bathed.

BERG, J. (1897). Zur Kenntniss der Stummelschwanzechse (Trachysaurus rugosus). Der Zoologische Garten 38(9): 277–279.

Refers to von Fischer (1882), Haacke (1883), Sauvage (1875); observations on T. rugosa captive for 2.5yrs; inactive in cool weather, burrowing under shelter box; more omnivorous than T. gigas, eating everything offered except greens and flowers; ecdysis occurred once in winter, every


  ― 686 ―
two months in warm weather; no change in appetite or appearance prior to shedding; high price from English dealers.

BERGAMINI, D. (1965). The land and wild-life of Australasia. Time-Life International, Nederland. pp. 134, 144–145. (198pp.)

General; photograph of T. occipitalis; diet of blue-tongues insects, birds and mice; litter size up to 12.

BERGER, P.J. (1971). The vagal and sympathetic innervation of the heart of the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Australian Journal of experimental Biology and medical Science 49(3): 297–304.

Cervical vagal stimulation depressed isolated auricular function; hyoscine treatment abolished vagal response; altered to augmentor response with high voltage stimulation close to heart; no cardiac response following rostral or caudal stimulation of upper cervical sympathetic chain; stimulation of fibres leaving stellate ganglion augmented cardiac function, effect blocked by bretylium; conclusion that entire cardiac sympathetic supply from stellate complex, independent to vagus.

BERGER, P.J. (1972). The vagal and sympathetic innervation of the isolated pulmonary artery of a lizard and a tortoise. Comparative and general Pharmacology 3(9): 113–124.

Sympathetic nerve sends adrenergic inhibitory fibres to extrinsic pulmonary artery; vagus sends cholinergic excitatory fibres; vagus and sympathetic nerves reach vessel by independent roots.

BERGER, P.J. (1973). Autonomic innervation of the visceral and vascular smooth muscle of the lizard lung. Comparative and general Pharmacology 4(13): 1–10.

Sympathetic nerve supplies visceral and vascular muscle of lung with adrenergic fibres, which usually mediate inhibitory responses via β-receptors, although α-receptor-mediated, excitatory responses sometimes occur; vagus supplies both muscle types with excitatory cholinergic fibres, supplies visceral, and possible vascular muscle with fibres that are inhibitory but non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic.

BERGER, P.J. & BURNSTOCK, G. (1979). Autonomic Nervous System. pp. 1–57 in, Gans, C., Northcutt, R.G. & Ulinski, P. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 10 Neurology B. Academic Press, London. (388pp.)

Refers to Berger (1971, 1972, 1973, 1974), Furness and Moore (1970), Wright et al. (1957), Burnstock and Wood (1967), McLean and Burnstock (1967); sympathetic cardiac fibres apparently absent in upper cervical vagus, but approach and possibly enter in lower cervical region; stimulation of vagi or acetylcholine produces slight negative inotropic effect in ventricle and strongly inhibited auricular contractions; sympathetic stimulation or adrenaline produced positive inotropic effect in ventricles and auricles; sympathetic fibres mediate predominantly vasodilator responses via β-receptors, although α-receptors mediating constriction also present in intrinsic vessels.

BERGER, P.J., EVANS, B.K. & SMITH, D.G. (1980). Localization of baroreceptors and gain of the baroreceptor-heart rate reflex in the lizard Trachydosaurus rugosus. Journal of experimental Biology 86: 197–209.

No experimental evidence for baroreceptors at a site homologous with carotid sinus or aortic arch baroreceptors of mammals and birds; baroreceptors probably in truncus arteriosus; sensitivity of cardiac response to systemic arterial pressure changes greater than in rabbits; sympathetic fibres probably play dominant role in generating gain of cardiac baroreflex.

BERNDT, R. & BERNDT, C. (1942). A preliminary report of field work in the Ooldea region, western South Australia (continued). Oceania 13(2): 143–169.

Stumpy-tailed lizard ('kalda) eaten by aborigines; readily obtained from spinifex.

BERNDT, R.M. & VOGELSANG, T. (1941). Comparative Vocabularies of the Ngadjuri and Dieri tribes, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 65(1): 3–10.

Ngadjuri name for sleep lizard is 'alda.

BERRIDGE, W.S. (1926). Marvels of reptile life. Thornton Butterworth, Ltd., London. pp. 211–212 + pl. facing p. 212. (256pp.)

General; T. rugosa called “sleeping lizard”; photograph; diet snakes, lizards, worms, fruit; single large young in litter; one London Zoo T. scincoides lived for >13yrs; 12 young in litter.

BEST, D. (1898). Notes of a visit to Logan. Victorian Naturalist 15(4):


  ― 688 ―
35–38.

No blue-tongues seen during trip to Logan.

BESTE, H. (1970). Reptiles of the Hattah District Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 87(9): 262–265.

Both species recorded from district.

BESTE, H. (1971). Reptiles of Victoria - 1. Victorian Naturalist 88(5): 117–119.

General description; photograph; confined to western desert areas in Victoria.

BESTE, H. (1973). Reptiles of Victoria - 10. Victorian Naturalist 90(11): 308–309.

General description; photograph; ♂♂ have larger heads, and are more robust than ♀♀ inhabits open and forest country.

BINNS, D.L. & KAVANAGH, R.P. (1990). Flora and fauna survey of Nalbaugh State Forest (Part), Bombala District, Eden Region, south-eastern New South Wales. Forestry Commission of New South Wales Forest Resources Series (9): 1–100.

Recorded.

BISSINGER, B.E. & SIMON, C.A. (1979). Comparison of Tongue Extrusions in Representatives of Six Families of Lizards. Journal of Herpetology 13(2): 133–139.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit had more frequent tongue extrusions than Egernia cunninghami; tongue more bifurcate at tip than E. cunninghami.

BLACKET, R.C. (1926). Birth of blue-tongued lizards. Australian Zoologist 4(5): 293.

11 young born late February over about 8hrs; up to 30mins between births;




  ― 689 ―

neonates eat foetal membranes; will eat offered food within 30mins of birth.

BLACKHALL, S.A. (1990). An unusual observation of a blue-tongued lizard. Tasmanian Naturalist (101): 4.

One observed swimming across a lightly vegetated pool approximately 500m in diameter; swam with leg paddling and tail thrashing.

BLAKE, B.J. (1969). The Kalkatungu Language: A Brief Description. Australian Aboriginal Studies (20): 1–133.

In Kalkatunga language, sleepy lizard is milumanu, bluetongues are pankara, tumparara.

BLANCHARD, B. (1988). Snake mite in a New Zealand zoo. Australasian Herp News (2): 12–13.

Symptoms and treatment of Ophionyssus natricis infestation and haemorrhagic septicaemia.

BLEEKER, P. (1860a). Over de reptilïen-fauna van van Ceram. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 22(1–2): 35–38.

T. gigas recorded.

BLEEKER, P. (1860b). Over de reptiliën-fauna van Amboina. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 22(1–2): 39–43.

T. gigas recorded.

BOARD, P.G., AGAR, N.S., GRUCA, M. & SHINE, R. (1977). Methaemoglobin and its reduction in nucleated erythrocytes from reptiles and birds. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 57(3): 265–267.

0.5–1.3% of haemoglobin in erythrocytes is methaemoglobin.

BODDAERT, P. (1783). Specimen Novae Methodi distinguendi Serpentia. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino Carolinae Naturae




  ― 690 ―

Curiosorum 7: 12–16.

Mention of specimen in Museum Physiophilorum.

BOEHM, E.F. (1943). Reptiles and Amphibians of the Mount Mary Range, S.A. South Australian Naturalist 22(1): 11.

Both species recorded.

BOETTGER, O. (1893). Katalog der Reptilien-Sammlung im Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main. I. Teil (Rhynchocephalen, Schildkröten, Krokodile, Eidechsen, Chamäleons). Gebrüder Knauer, Frankfurt am Main. pp. 96–97. (x + 140pp.)

List of specimens in SMF.

BOETTGER, O. (1895). Liste der Reptilien und Batrachier der Insel Halmaheira nach den Sammlungen Prof. Dr. W. Kükenthal's. Zoologische Anzeiger 18(471): 116–121.

Recorded from island.

BOETTGER, O. (1897). Reptilien und Batrachier aus Deutsch Neu Guinea. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königl. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Ethnograhischen Museums zu Dresden 6(7): 1–3.

Four specimens collected.

BOETTGER, O. (1903). Die Reptilien und Batrachier. Abhandlungen herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 25: 321–407.

Brief descriptions of three specimens of T. gigas.

BÖHME, W. (1988). Zur Genitalmorphologie der Sauria: funktionelle und stammesgeschichtliche aspekte. Bonner Zoologische Monographien (27): 1–176.

Refers to Cope (1896) on hemipenis.

BOLAM, A.G. [1923]. The trans-Australian wonderland. McCubbin James Press, Melbourne. pp. 35–36 (97pp.)

Sleepy lizard/stumpy tail lizard; general notes; brief colour description; insectivorous.

BOND, R.J. (1968). Annual Report 1967–68 Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. p. 35 (36pp.)

Exhibited.

BOND, R.J. (1969). Annual Report 1968–69 Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. p. 35 (36pp.)

Exhibited.

BONNEMAINS, J., FORSYTH, E. & SMITH, B. (1988). Baudin in Australian Waters. The Artwork of the French Voyage of Discovery to the Southern Lands 1800–1804. Oxford University Press, Melbourne in association with the Australian Academy of the Humanities. p. 290. (347pp.)

Reproduction of painting by Lesueur of specimen collected by Peron and Lesueur.

BONYTHON, C.W. & PREISS, K.A. (eds.) (1967). Hambidge Wild Life Reserve A Survey by the Nature Conservation Society of South Australia. South Australian Naturalist 42(2): 35–63.

Recorded from reserve.

BOOTH, P. (1981a). Field trip (No. 8) Anakie district. 19.10.'80. “Victorian Herpetological Society Newsletter” (21): 17–20.

One collected, lodged in MV.




  ― 692 ―

BOOTH, P. (1981b). Field trip (No. 14) Mt. Tarengower, Maldon & Golden Point, Chewton areas. 22.2.'81. “Victorian Herpetological Society Newsletter” (22): 19–20.

Two found.

BOOTH, P. (1981c). Field trip (No. 15). Gisborne district. 29.2.'81. “Victorian Herpetological Society Newsletter” (22): 20–21.

One possibly gravid ♀ collected 29 February.

BOOTH, P. (1981d). Field trip (No. 16). Cobbeldicks Ford, Werribbee district. 12.4.'81. “Victorian Herpetological Society Newsletter” (22): 21–22.

One seen in warm, dry conditions.

BORCHERT, U. (1971). Zur Haltung von Dornschwanz (Uromastyx acanthinurus) und Blauzungenskink (previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides). Die Aquarien-und Terrarien Zeitschrift 24(10): 348–351.

Photograph; long-term captive aggressive to newly-introduced Uromastyx; lived 13.5yrs; mass 270g, total length 38.5cm, tail 13.5cm; strictly terrestrial; captive diet snails, mincemeat with egg yolk, bananas, snails; snails shattered on stone; tongue protrusion, accompanied by quiet snorts, when moving, approaching strange objects.

BORN, G. (1876). Zum Carpus und Tarsus der Saurier. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 2(1): 1–26 + pl. I.

Description of lacertilian carpus based, in part, on T. gigas.

BORN, G. (1880). Nachträge zu “Carpus und Tarsus”. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 6(1): 49–78 + pl. I.

Contra Bruhl (1874) that astragalus and calcaneus distinct in tarsus, “Basenbänder” of metatarsals 1,2 absent.

BÖRNER, A.-R. & SCHUTTLER, B. (1982). Notes on the Australian Lizard Genera Gehyra, Hemidactylus and Heteronotia (Geckonidae). Miscellaneous Articles in Saurology (10): 1–25.




  ― 693 ―

Recorded from both localities.

BOS, G. (1980). De blauwtongskink (previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides). Het Aquarium (Den Haag) 50(9): 236–237.

General; inhabits deserts [in error]; diet insects, fruit, small mammals; up to 50cm long; despite short limbs, can move rapidly; coloration very variable; captive requirements, including housing, heating, diet; enjoy bathing; tame rapidly in captivity.

BOSCACCI, L.J., McKENZIE, N.L. & KEMPER, C.M. (1987). Mammals. pp. 103–137 in, McKenzie, N.L. & Robinson, A.C. (eds.). A biological survey of the Nullarbor region South and Western Australia in 1984. South Australian Department of Environment and Planning, Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management and Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. (413pp.)

Remains in cat stomachs.

BOULENGER, E.G. (1914). Reptiles and batrachians. J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London, & E.P. Dutton & Co., New York. pp. 89–91 + pl. opposite p. 87. (278pp.)

General; photograph of T. rugosa; diet; eats snakes; rapidly tamed; captives suffer from contagious wasting disease; single large young in litter; T. scincoides lived for just over 13yrs in London Zoo; omnivorous.

BOULENGER, G.A. (1887). Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. Trustees of the British Museum, London. pp. 132, 142–149, 211, 221–222, 321–323, pl. xxvi. (575pp + xl pl.)

Keys; descriptions and definitions of genera and species; specimen of T. gigas in ZMB from Bantam, Java; lists of specimens and localities in BMNH; synonymies.




  ― 694 ―

BOULENGER, G.A. (1895). On a Collection of Reptiles and Batrachians from Ferguson Island, D'Entrecasteaux Group, British New Guinea. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6)16(91): 28–32.

Recorded from island.

BOULENGER, G.A. (1897). An account of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Dr. L. Loria in British New Guinea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (2)18: 694–710 + pl. vi–viii.

Recorded, based on specimens in MSNG.

BOULENGER, G.A. (1899). Third Report on Additions to the Lizard Collection in the Natural-History Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1898(4): 912–923.

Type description of L. gastrostigma [=C. melanops].

BOURNE, A.R. (1981a). Blood metabolites of injected [14C]progesterone in the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 70(3): 661–664.

Three blood metabolites of [14C]progesterone identified: 20β-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-one, 5β-pregnane-3β20β-diol, 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one; 20βHP major metabolite; metabolism of progesterone in T. rugosa generally similar to mammals.

BOURNE, A.R. (1981b). Progesterone-like Activity in the Plasma of the Viviparous Skink Trachydosaurus rugosus (Stump-tailed Lizard). pp. 14–16 in, Banks, C.B. & Martin, A.A. (eds.). Proceedings of the Melbourne Herpetological Symposium. Zoological Board of Victoria, Melbourne. (199pp.)

Progesterone-like substances (PLS) in plasma of ♀♀; no increase in [PLS] in pregnant lizards; ovariectomy did not significantly decrease plasma [PLS] in non-pregnant or pregnant lizards; adrenal may be major source of progesterone; mating activity in spring; birth in March; ca150d gestation; maximum of 4 young, about 50g at birth.

BOURNE, A.R. (1984). Occurrence of 20β-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity in the kidney and liver of the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 77(1): 221–222.




  ― 695 ―

Significant 20β-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity occurs in kidney, liver; also present in testis, but absent from adrenal and ovary; pattern of distribution of enzyme in tissues similar to other vertebrates.

BOURNE, A.R., KIRKLAND, J.A. & SEAMARK, R.F. (1971). Seasonal changes in testicular function of the viviparous lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa (Gray). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 24(1): 138–139.

Epitestosterone, testosterone and androstenedione principal androgens formed; 17α-hydroxyprogesterone isolated; conversion of progesterone/pregnenolone to epitestosterone maximal in February; conversion to testosterone/androstenedione maximal in December/January; mating occurs in spring, hibernation in June–August; mean testis weight falls sharply between November and December, and remains low through summer.

BOURNE, A.R. & SEAMARK, R.F. (1972). Progestins in the plasma of a viviparous lizard, previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa (Gray). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 28(1): 156–157.

Progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 20β-hydroxyprogesterone isolated; [progestin] for spring/summer animals higher in ♂♂ than ♀♀; [progestin] in gravid ♀♀ higher than in non-gravid ♀♀; [progestin] increases with decreasing rectal temperature; large variation in [progestin]; castration has no effect on presence of progestins, therefore adrenals probably responsible for most synthesis.

BOURNE, A.R. & SEAMARK, R.F. (1973a). Seasonal changes in testicular function of the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Journal of Endocrinology 57: x.

Mean testicular weight maximal in spring (

image
= 1319mg) and minimal in summer (
image
= 180mg); spermatozoa numerous, seminiferous tubule diameter and wall thickness great in spring, reverse in summer; plasma [androgen] highest in spring; increase [androgen] may bring about change in ♂ sexual characteristics associated with seasonal breedings.

BOURNE, A.R. & SEAMARK, R.F. (1973b). The synthesis of corticosterone by the adrenal tissue of the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 45(1): 275–277.

Corticosterone, 11β-hydroxyprogesterone synthesized by adrenal cortex on a [4-14C]-progesterone substrate; no cortisol, cortisone, deoxycorticosterone identified.




  ― 696 ―

BOURNE, A.R. & SEAMARK, R.F. (1975). Seasonal changes in 17β-hydroxysteroids in the plasma of a male lizard (previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 50(4): 535–536.

Threefold increase in plasma [17β-hydroxysteroid] in mating season (October); majority of 17β-hydroxysteroids probably testosterone; increase in [testosterone] may be involved in initiation of mating behaviour.

BOURNE, A.R. & SEAMARK, R.F. (1978). Seasonal variation in steroid biosynthesis by the testis of the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 59(4): 363–367.

Epitestosterone, testosterone, androstenedione, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 20β-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17α, 20β-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3-one identified; epitestosterone major conversion product; yield higher in summer, lowest in spring; testosterone yield maximal in spring; 20β-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one production highest in spring, undetectable in summer; histology and testis weight indicate spermatogenic activity maximal in spring, followed in summer by testicular regression, which lasted until autumn.

BOURNE, A.R., STEWART, B.J. & WATSON, T.G. (1986). Changes in blood progesterone concentration during pregnancy in the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit (Trachydosaurus) rugosa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Comparative Physiology 84(3): 581–583.

Males have larger heads than females; six gravid ♀♀ collected October–April; gestation estimated at 168±18 days; parturition between late March–early May;

image
litter size 2.8;
image
mass neonates 58g; maximum mass of gravid females 650g between February and parturition; plasma [progesterone] peaked in January; quotes communication from P. Robertson that parturition in late February–mid March in wild.

BOURNE, A.R., TAYLOR, J.L. & WATSON, T.G. (1985). Identification of Epitestosterone in the Plasma and Testis of the Lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit (Trachydosaurus) rugosa. General and Comparative Endocrinology 58(3): 394–401.

Major androgens from blood and testis extracts epitestosterone, testosterone, androstenedione; maximum [epitestosterone] in blood 4x greater than testosterone; no detectable epitestosterone in blood of ♀♀, low levels in castrated ♂♂; both plasma and testicular concentrations showed significant variation.




  ― 697 ―

BOURNE, A.R., TAYLOR, J.L. & WATSON, T.G. (1986a). Annual Cycles of Plasma and Testicular Androgens in the Lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit (Trachydosaurus) rugosa. General and Comparative Endocrinology 61(2): 278–286.

♂♂ have larger heads than ♀♀; testis mass begins to increase in May, peaks in October, falls rapidly in November; similar pattern for seminiferous tubule diameter; spermatogenic activity between March–October; spermatozoa most numerous in spring; mating behaviour in September–October; ♂♂ more active/aggressive during same period; changes in plasma [androgen] parallels changes in testis mass; testicular androgens show two peaks, in October and July.

BOURNE, A.R., TAYLOR, J.L. & WATSON, T.G. (1986b). Effect of temperature on the seasonal production of testicular androgens, in vitro, by the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 85A(3): 527–530.

Androgen production by testes showed seasonality similar to plasma androgen, spermatogenesis; peaks in spring mating period, minimal in summer; epitestosterone production increases with temperature, most prominently in spring/summer; incubation temperature had no effect on testosterone production except in October.

BOWDLER, S. (1974). An account of an archeological reconnaissance of Hunter's Isles, north–west Tasmania, 1973/4. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum (54): 1–22.

Bluetongues present; remains of at least three bluetongues found in aboriginal midden.

BOWLER, J.K. (1977). Longevity of Reptiles and Amphibians in North American Collections as of 1 November, 1975. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular (6): 1–32.

Maximum recorded lifespan of wild-caught adults in captivity in USA 5yrs 3mo 20d, 9yrs 5d, 14yrs 6mo 8d respectively.

BRABY, M.F. (1989). Reptiles of the Northern Section of Kinglake National Park. Victorian Naturalist 106(3) 79–85.

Refers to Hutchinson (1979); single record of road-killed T. nigrolutea.

BRADSHAW, S.D. (1981). Ecophysiology of Australian desert lizards:




  ― 698 ―

Studies on the genus Amphibolurus. pp. 1393–1434 in, Keast, A. (ed.) Ecological Biogeography of Australia Vol. 2. Monographiae Biologicae (41). Dr W. Junk, The Hague. (1434pp.)

Refers to Bartholemew et al. (1965); Bentley (1959), Braysher (1971), Saint Girons et al. (1977) and Shoemaker et al. (1966).

BRADSHAW, S.D. (1984). Seasonal Variations in Corticosteroid Receptors Within the Nasal Gland of previous hit Tiliqua next hit Rugosa. General and Comparative Endocrinology 53(3): 475.

Binding of corticosterone, aldosterone by cytosolic receptors in nasal gland high, but nonspecific outside breeding season; hypothesised that nasal salt gland nonfunctional outside of breeding season; stimulated to secrete hyperosmotic solutions by changes associated with reproduction; breeding season October–November.

BRADSHAW, S.D. (1986). Ecophysiology of Desert Reptiles. Academic Press Australia, North Ryde. pp. 47, 63, 71, 78, 90–91, 121, 129, 149, 167, 185. (324pp.)

Summary of research on nasal salt gland; refers to Bartholemew et al. (1965), Bentley (1959), Bourne & Seamark (1975, 1978), Bradshaw & Grenot (1976), Bradshaw et al. (1984), Braysher (1971), Cabanac et al. (1967), Myhre & Hammel (1969), Saint Girons et al. (1977) and Woolley (1959); queries whether plasma sodium levels regulated; endogenous metabolism may account for differences in heating/cooling rates in T. scincoides.

BRADSHAW, S.D. & FONTAINE-BERTRAND, E. (1970). Measurement of corticosteroids in reptilian and avian plasma by fluorometry and by competitive protein-binding radioassay. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 36(1): 37–48.

Mean plasma [corticosterone] of 6 specimens 0.18–1.74μg/100ml.

BRADSHAW, S.D. & GRENOT, C.J. (1976). Plasma Aldosterone Levels in Two Reptilian Species, Uromastyx acanthinurus and previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa, and the Effect of Several Experimental Treatments. Journal of Comparative Physiology B Metabolic and Transport Functions 111: 71–76.

Normal plasma [aldosterone] 31.74±5.60ng/100ml, similar to mammals; chronic salt loading depressed [aldosterone]; chronic water loading had no effect of [aldosterone]; synthetic ACTH did not increase [aldosterone] but increased [corticosterone].




  ― 699 ―

BRADSHAW, S.D., TOM, J.A. & BUNN, S. (1984a). Corticosteroids and Control of Nasal Salt Gland Function in the Lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. General and Comparative Endocrinology 53(3): 447.

NaCl/KCl-loaded animals secrete hyperosmotic fluid from nasal salt gland; high-affinity binding of aldosterone, corticosterone to nasal gland receptors in breeding season; no binding of aldosterone outside breeding season; corticosterone binding nonspecific outside breeding season.

BRADSHAW, S.D., TOM, J.A. & BUNN, S.E. (1984b). Corticosteroids and Control of Nasal Salt Gland Function in the Lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. General and Comparative Endocrinology 54(2): 308–313.

T. rugosa has well developed nasal gland with mucoserous and salt-secreting cells; spring-collected animals capable of secreting hyperosmotic solution following NaCl or KCl loading; gland capable of varying secretion nature; secretion rates did not vary significantly between NaCl and KCl loaded individuals; high affinity corticosterone and aldosterone binding to nasal gland receptors occurs in breeding season, not in non-breeding animals.

BRAITHWAITE, L.W., CLAYTON, M., MACLEAN, L. & PARKER, B.S. (1984). Vertebrate Fauna of a 144-ha Water Catchment within Eucalypt Forest Being Harvested for Woodpulp at Eden, South-eastern New South Wales. C.S.I.R.O. Division of Wildlife and Rangelands Research Technical Paper (35): 1–47.

One specimen found on dry, sandy northern slope.

BRAITHWAITE, R.W. (1987). Effects of fire regimes on lizards in the wet-dry tropics of Australia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 3(3): 265–275.

Uncommon in wet-dry tropics; probably cope poorly with fire; have difficulty finding refuges from fire in Kakadu.

BRAITHWAITE, R.W., FRIEND, G.R. & WOMBEY, J.C. (1991). Reptiles and amphibians. pp. 109–124 in, Haynes, C.D., Ridpath, M.G. & Williams, M.A.J. (eds.). Monsoonal Australia Landscape, ecology and man in the northern lowlands. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam (231pp.)

Occurs in sedgeland/forest ecotone, lowland monsoon forest, woodland and open forest habitats.




  ― 700 ―

BRAY, J.S. (1906). Yellow Robins as Snake Finders. Emu 5(4): 217.

Bluetongues cause birds to give alarm calls.

BRAYSHER, M. (1971). The structure and function of the nasal salt gland from the Australian sleepy lizard Trachydosaurus (formerly previous hit Tiliqua next hit) rugosus: family Scincidae. Physiological Zoology 44(3): 129–136.

Mass of animals 345±7g; field collected specimens had a perinasal encrustation of Na+, K+, Cl; histology revealed a nasal salt gland; NaCl loading increased relative [Na+] of secretion; KCl loading both increased and decreased the relative [K+]; salt gland of T. rugosus physiologically similar to that of terrestrial iguanids.

BRAYSHER, M. & GREEN, B. (1972). The absorption of inulin by cloacas and bladders in reptiles and the chicken. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Comparative Physiology 43(3): 613–619.

Mass of lizards 270–530g; native inulin disappeared from bladder; 3H radio-label appeared in plasma, peritoneal fluid, vitreous humour after introduction of 3H inulin into cloaca, but 3H label in plasma similar to fructose rather than inulin.

BRAZENOR, C.W. (1935). Reptiles. pp. 70–71 in, Leeper, G.W. (ed.). Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science Handbook for Victoria Prepared for the Members of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science on the occasion of its Meeting held in Melbourne, January, 1935. Government Printer, Melbourne. (151pp.)

General.

BRAZENOR, C.W. (1936). The reptiles and amphibians of Victoria. Victorian Year Book 1934–35: 25–38.

General; T. rugosa omnivorous, fond of berries and toadstools, snails, woodlice and similar animal food; two young; previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. give birth to about ten young.

BRAZENOR, C.W. & KAYE, G. (1953). Anaesthesia for Reptiles. Copeia 1953(3): 165–170.




  ― 701 ―
Used successfully as experimental animal in ether anaesthesia experiments.

BREEDEN, S. & BREEDEN, K. (1967). Animals of Eastern Australia A Photographic Account of the Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibia. Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney. p. 82, pl. 12. (128pp.)

General; photographs; T. rugosa diet includes plants, fruits, spiders, insects and other small invertebrates; C. gerrardii diet largely snails/slugs; prehensile tail; T. scincoides diet insects and fruit.

BREHM, A.E. (1883). Brehms Thierleben. Allgemeine Runde des Thierreichs. Zweite umbearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage. Rolorirte Ausgabe. Dritte Abtheilung - Kreichthiere, Lurche und Fische. Erster Band. Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, Leipzig. pp. 193–194. (673pp.)

General; lists some synonyms; sluggish in captivity; captive diet insect larvae, worms, finely chopped meat; short lifespan in captivity.

BREINL, A. [1913]. Nematodes observed in north Queensland. Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine Report for the year 1911: 39–48.

Nematodes [later described by Johnston as Pneumonema tiliquae] found in lungs of two of five T. scincoides examined; description of worms.

BREWSTER, E.P. (1981). F.N.C.V. Excursion to Flinders Island, 13th to 20th January, 1980. Victorian Naturalist 98(4): 163–168.

Blue-tongued lizard infested with ticks observed.

BRIDGE, G. (1980). A trip to the red heart. “Victorian Herpetological Society Newsletter” (19): 13–15.

Several seen on road.

BROADBENT, J.A. & CRANWELL, I. (1979). Faunal studies for the proposed Mount White-Kariong-Ourimbah sections of the Sydney-Newcastle freeway (no. 3). Prepared for the Department of Main Roads New South Wales. Environmental and Urban Studies Report (45). Centre for Environmental Studies, Macquarie University, Sydney. pp. 114, 119, 120, 122, 123, 277. (293pp.)

C. gerrardii pit-trapped in closed forest; T. scincoides observed in open forest; C. casuarinae may occur in study area.

BRONGERSMA, L.D. (1930). Notes on the list of reptiles of Java. Treubia 12(3–4): 299–303.

Refers to Werner (1909) for record from Sumatra.

BRONGERSMA, L.D. (1933a). Herpetological notes IX. Contribution to the herpetology of the Babber-islands. Zoologische Mededeelingen 16(1–2): 27–29.

Three specimens in RMNH from this island group.

BRONGERSMA, L.D. (1933b). On a young Gymnodactylus marmoratus D.B. from Pulau Berhala. Miscellanea Zoologica Sumatrana (73): 1–3.

Discredits the identification of an egg tooth in T. rugosa by Röse (1892).

BRONGERSMA, L.D. (1933c). Over de reptilienfauna van eenige west-papoeasche eilanden. Vakblad voor Biologen 15(2): 25–32.

Typical Papuan element in fauna.

BRONGERSMA, L.D. (1954a). Zoölogisch onderzoek in Nieuw-Guinea. E.J. Brill, Leiden. p. 24. (52pp.)

T. gigas closely related to T. scincoides, may only be subspecifically distinct; T. gigas known as “oelar kaki ampat”, erroneously considered venomous.

BRONGERSMA, L.D. (1954b). Nieuw-Guinea's Dierenwereld I. Schakels (77): 251–255.

“Oelar kaki ampat” native name; considered highly poisonous by natives, variously with venomous bite, sting in tail, and envenomation by tongue; not venomous; no signs of envenomation in two natives bitten.




  ― 703 ―

BRONGERSMA, L.D. (1956). Reptielen. Schakels Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea (24): 19–29.

Malay name (ular kaki ampat) means snake with four legs; regarded with fear by natives, who variously consider bite poisonous, poisonous sting at end of tail or bites then rubs in poison with tongue; very powerful bite; story of one having bitten off part of screwdriver; illustration.

BRONGERSMA, L.D. (1958). The animal world of Netherlands New Guinea. J.B. Wolters, Groningen. pp. 25–26. (70pp.)

Malay name (ular kaki ampat) means snake with four legs; regarded with fear by natives, who variously consider bite poisonous, poisonous sting at end of tail or bites then rubs in poison with tongue; very powerful bite; story of one having bitten off part of screwdriver; illustration.

BROOKER, M.G. (1978). Some notes on the mammalian fauna of the western Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 14(1): 2–15.

Remains of one individual in 17 fox stomachs collected 17 September 1976.

BROOKER, M.G. (1981). The vegetation and terrestrial vertebrate fauna of the proposed Welcome Reef Dam site on the Shoalhaven River near Braidwood, New South Wales. C.S.I.R.O. Division of Wildlife Research Technical Memorandum (17): 1–38.

Both recorded; one T. nigrolutea in dry sclerophyll forest.

BROOKER, M.G. & BRAITHWAITE, R.W. (1988). The Kakadu Fauna Survey: Description and evaluation of methodology for the census of vertebrates. CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology Technical Memorandum (29): 1–56.

Success rate of different detection methods; not caught in pitfall traps.

BROOKER, M.G. & CAUGHLEY, G. (1966). The vertebrate fauna of “Gilruth Plains”, south-west Queensland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 90(2): 238–241.

Both species recorded.




  ― 704 ―

BROOKER, M.G. & ESTBERGS, A.J. (1976). A survey of terrestrial vertebrates in the Carnarvon region, W.A. Western Australian Naturalist 13(7): 160–170.

Both species recorded.

BROOKER, M.G. & WOMBEY, J.C. (1978). Some notes on the herpetofauna of the western Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 14(2): 36–41.

T. occipitalis in lignum swamp; probably doesn't occur on Nullarbor Plain; T. rugosa seen in all habitats visited on north-west Nullarbor Plain.

BROOKER, M. & WOMBEY, J. (1986). Some Observations on the Herpetofauna of the Macquarie Marshes Region, NSW, with Special Reference to Chelidae. Australian Zoologist 23(1): 1–4.

T. rugosa only recorded in dry country; T. scincoides in both dry- and wetlands.

BROOM, R. (1898). On the lizards of the Chillagoe district, N. Queensland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 22(3): 639–645.

Native name Ngura; not uncommon; when tormented, will bite, then roll over and over.

BROOM, R. (1925). On the Origin of Lizards. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1925(I) (1): 1–16.

Small ossicle external to squamosal above quadrate interpreted as a quadratojugal.

BROOM, R. (1935). On the structure of the temporal region in lizard skulls. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 18(1): 13–22.

Postorbital absent; postfrontal, squamosal and tabular larger than in Mabuya.

BROTHERS, N.P. (1979). Seabird Islands No. 73 Tasman Island, Tasmania.




  ― 705 ―

Corella 3(3): 55–57.

Recorded, quite common.

BROWN, G.W. (1991). Ecological Feeding Analysis of South-eastern Australian Scincids (Reptilia: Lacertilia). Australian Journal of Zoology 39(1): 9–29.

Refers to Rawlinson (1971), Satrawaha & Bull (1981), Brown (1983: Ph.D. thesis, La Trobe): vertebrate prey recorded for T. scincoides; T. rugosa a viviparous, surface-dwelling, posturing heliotherm; maximum SVL of 32 specimens 285.7mm; mean head length 57.9mm; mean mouth length/SVL ratio 0.11; low hindlimb length/SVL ratio compared to other surface-active skinks; males have significantly larger heads, longer hindlimbs; gut contents (n = 32) include sloughed skin, parasites, inorganic material, animal material and plant material, including fungi; contents dominated by plant material (especially flowers, succulent leaves) on volumetric basis; flowers eaten included Helichrysum sp., Microseris scapigera, Astroloma conostephioides, Centaurium pulchellum; main animal prey items were caterpillars and roaches; vertebrate prey items were a feather and decayed bone; ate larger prey items than other skinks.

BROWN, G.W., CARR, G.W., CHERRY, K.A., CRAIG, S.A., HORROCKS, G.F.B., MENKHORST, K.A., OPIE, A.M. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1986). Flora and fauna of the Quadra Forest Block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (6): 1–83.

One seen in wet sclerophyll forest; refers to Carr et al. (1984).

BROWN, G.W., EARL, G.E., GRIFFITHS, R.C., HORROCKS, G.F.B. & WILLIAMS, L.M. (1989). Flora and fauna of the Acheron Forest Block, Central Highlands, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests & Lands Ecological Survey Report (30): 1–93.

T. nigrolutea uncommon; single record of T. scincoides; habitat descriptions.

BROWN, G.W. & HORROCKS, G.F.B. (1988a). The Vertebrate Fauna of Point Nepean, Victoria I. Bat Fauna, with Notes on the Terrestrial Vertebrates. Victorian Naturalist 105(5): 114–123.

Recorded.




  ― 706 ―

BROWN, G.W. & HORROCKS, G.F.B. (1988b). Non-avian Vertebrate Species Known from Point Nepean. Victorian Naturalist 105(6): 141.

Recorded.

BROWN, G.W., HORROCKS, G.F.B., LUNT, I.D., MEGGS, R.A. & SANDIFORD, E.M. (1987). Flora and fauna of the Noorinbee Forest Block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests & Lands Ecological Survey Report (18): 1–114.

Two records from lowland sclerophyll forest.

BROWN, G.W., HORROCKS, G.F.B., MEGGS, R.A., OPIE, A.M. & WESTAWAY, J. (1988). Flora and fauna of proposed timber harvesting areas in the Grampians National Park, Victoria Part 2. Department of Conservation, Forests & Lands Ecological Survey Report (22): 1–113.

Recorded; habitat descriptions for T. scincoides, T. rugosa; refers to Emison et al. (1978), Lunt et al. (1987).

BROWN, I. & MITCHELL, J. (1983). Lane Cove River State Recreation Area. Lane Cover River State Recreation Area Trust, Chatswood. pp. 61, 77. (80pp.)

Recorded.

BROWNE COOPER, R., ROBINSON, D. & MARYAN, B. (1989). The amphibia, reptile and mammal fauna of the Murray-Serpentine River delta, South West, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 18(2): 40–51.

Sparsely distributed throughout delta.

BROWNLIE, J. & BROWNLIE, S. (1971). Wilsons Promontory National Park. Algona Guides, Elsternwick. p. 41 (61pp.)

General; diet berries, leaves, insects; threat display.

BRÜHL, C.B. (1874). Zootomie für Lernende; nach Autopsien. The Author, Wien. Tafel xxxi, xxxii, cxlix. (Tafel i–clx)

Appendicular skeleton and skull of T. rugosa figured and briefly described.

BRUNN, W. (1978). A trip to Alice Springs. The South Australian Herpetologist. Quarterly Newsletter of the S.A.H.G. April 1978: 1–3.

Two seen on road at night; one seen dead on road at second locality.

BRUNN, W. (1980). Beyond the banana curtin. South Australian Herpetology Group Newsletter April, 1980: 2–7.

Recorded.

BRYGOO, É.-R. (1985). Les types des Scincidés (Reptiles, Sauriens) du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle Catalogue critique. Bulletin du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (4) Section A (Zoologie, Biologie et Ecologie animales) 7(3) (supplement): 1–126.

Type material in MHNP listed; no type identified for Scincus crotaphomelas Lacepede.

BUCKINGHAM, N.W., CLARKE, E.D., MEYER, G.R. & SHIELS, M.I. (1961). Introducing Biology. Jacaranda Press, Brisbane. pp. 247–248. (331pp.)

General; brief description; photographs; T. scincoides ovoviviparous; 9–15 young; diet insects, snails, some soft plants; T. rugosa ovoviviparous; usually two young; largely herbivorous, especially grass, berries, also insects.

BULL, C.M. (1978a). Dispersal of the Australian Reptile Tick Aponomma hydrosauri by Host Movement. Australian Journal of Zoology 26(4): 689–697.

Home ranges of T. rugosa from 210–5025m2; overlap extensively; T. rugosa shed skin in late summer; mass of lizards 85–750g, 54% less than 490g; lizards introduced to study site had larger calculated home ranges than resident lizards.

BULL, C.M. (1978b). Heterogeneity of resource utilization in a population


  ― 708 ―
of the Australian reptile tick, Aponomma hydrosauri (Denny). Ecological Entomology 3(3): 171–179

604 captures of T. rugosa in study area over 26 visits included 179 recaptures; number of ticks on lizards; larger lizards had more ticks; hypothesis suggested to account for non-random distribution of ticks on lizards that inexperienced juvenile lizards do not occupy the same sites as adults.

BULL, C.M. (1985). Geographical variation in the morphology of Aponomma hydrosauri (Denny) (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of the Australian entomological Society 24(1): 1–8.

T. rugosa main host of Aponomma hydrosauri in semi-arid areas of SA, WA, northwest Vic; T. nigrolutea main host in southeastern Aust; smaller tick size in southeast may be related to smaller scale size of host.

BULL, C.M. (1987). A Population Study of the Viviparous Australian Lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus (Scincidae). Copeia 1987(3): 749–757.

Eight year study; population density stable at 2–3 lizards/ha; most recaptures within 100m of original capture site, even over 6yrs; activity high in mid spring; fewer captures in late summer, autumn, winter; lizards found in pairs in spring, ♂♂ following behind or contacting ♀♀; pairing lasts for several weeks; copulation between 19 October–2 November; no inter-male aggression observed; ♂♂ more aggressive than ♀♀ when handled; pairs often constant over more than one mating season; ♀♀ may reproduce annually; 1–3 (x = 2.2, n = 9) young born late summer or early autumn; mass of young; mass of adults; growth rates; maturity reached at or after third year; lifespan potentially long (>9yrs); estimates of survivorship; predation on juveniles by Pseudonaja textilis.

BULL, C.M. (1988). Mate fidelity in an Australian lizard Trachydosaurus rugosus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 23(1): 45–49.

Pairing occurs during mating season, in October–November; largely monogamous pair bonds last up to 8 weeks; some pairs recaptured in subsequent years.




  ― 709 ―

BULL, C.M. (1990). Comparisons of Displaced and Retained Partners in a Monogamous Lizard. Australian Wildlife Research 17(2): 135–140.

Population studied for over 7yrs; lizards usually solitary, but form pairs for approximately 8 weeks before mating in spring; pairs showed high fidelity within and between years; males displaced as partners smaller than those retained as partners, but not smaller than replacement partners; no difference in survivorship between displaced and retained partners; population probably includes both large, old males in stable pair bonds, and small, young males exchanging females and fighting to establish pair bonds.

BULL, C.M. & ANDREWS, R.H. (1984). Two different mating signals used by female reptile ticks. pp. 427–430 in, Griffiths, D.A. & Bowman, C.E. (eds.) Acarology VI Volume 1. Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester. (645pp.)

Used as experimental host in observations of mating behaviour of ticks.

BULL, C.M., ANDREWS, R.H. & ADAMS, M. (1984). Patterns of genetic variation in a group of parasites, the Australian reptile ticks. Heredity 53(3): 509–525.

Common tick host; blood from parasitised lizards used to check that ingested blood in ticks not being scored on whole tick electrophoresis.

BULL, C.M., BURZACOTT, D. & SHARRAD, R.D. (1989). No competition for resources between two tick species at their parapatric boundary. Oecologia 79(4): 558–562.

During 60 days between August–December, located 1526 along three road transects; main host of ticks Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma limbatum in area; substantial overlap in feeding sites on T. rugosa by both ticks.

BULL, C.M., CHILTON, N.B. & SHARRAD, R.D. (1988). Risk of Predation for Two Reptile Tick Species. Experimental and Applied Acarology 5(1,2): 93–99.

Refers to Bull et al. (1981), Smyth (1973): T. rugosa most common host for Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma limbatum in SA.

BULL, C.M. & KING, D.R. (1981). A parapatric boundary between two species of reptile ticks in the Albany area, Western Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 105(4):


  ― 710 ―
205–208.

T. rugosa main host of Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma albolimbatum; one T. occipitalis examined had no ticks.

BULL, C.M., McNALLY, A. & DUBAS, G. (1991). Asynchronous Seasonal Activity of Male and Female Sleepy Lizards, previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Journal of Herpetology 25(4): 436–441.

Significant change in adult capture ratio from ♂ bias in spring to ♀ bias in summer; change in bias coincides with end of period when ♂♂, ♀♀ pair; pairs observed between September and December, mostly in October/November; change in bias probably due to greater decline in ♂ activity following mating; ♂♂ more active in spring, prior to mating; ♀♀ more active than ♂♂ in summer, after mating; RCM = 0.35; activity pattern diurnal; estimates of annual survival rates for adults.

BULL, M. & SARA, G.J. (1976). The population structure of an Australian reptile tick, Aponomma hydrosauri (Acari: Ixodidae) I. Evidence from an esterase polymorphism. Journal of Medical Entomology 13(2): 137–142.

41 lizards collected along 80km of road in 4 days at former site; 19 lizards along 5km road on one day at second site; source of ticks for electrophoresis.

BULL, C.M. & SATRAWAHA, R. (1981). Dispersal and Social Organisation in Trachydosaurus rugosus. p. 24 in, Banks, C.B. & Martin, A.A. (eds.). Proceedings of the Melbourne Herpetological Symposium. Zoological Board of Victoria, Melbourne. (199pp.)

Within years, average distance moved less than 50m, independent of time between captures; between years, average distance between recaptures less than 100m; considerable variation in home range area: 136–48000m2,

image
9400m2, independent of body weight; home range larger in spring, early summer; considerable overlap of home ranges; no significant differences between actual home range overlap and overlap generated by random positioning of equivalent size home ranges.

BULL, C.M. & SHARRAD, R.D. (1980). Seasonal activity of the reptile tick, Aponomma hydrosauri (Denny) (Acari: Ixodidae) in experimental enclosures. Journal of the Australian entomological Society 19(1): 47–52.

T. rugosa used as experimental host.




  ― 711 ―

BULL, C.M., SHARRAD, R.D. & PETNEY, T.N. (1981). Parapatric boundaries between Australian reptile ticks. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 11: 95–107.

T. rugosa major host of Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma albolimbatum, Amblyomma limbatum; T. scincoides, T. nigrolutea carry A. hydrosauri; T. occipitalis carries A. hydrosauri, A. albolimbatum; T. rugosa used as experimental host.

BULL, C.M., SHARRAD R.D. & SMYTH, M. (1977). The pre-molt period of larvae and nymphs of the Australian reptile tick Aponomma hydrosauri. Acarologica 19(4): 593–600.

T. rugosa, some T. scincoides used as experimental hosts; ticks developed from larva to nymph faster on T. rugosa than T. scincoides.

BULL, M. & SMYTH, M. (1973). The distribution of three species of reptile ticks, Aponomma hydrosauri (Denny), Amblyomma albolimbatum Neumann, and Amb. limbatum Neumann II. Water balance of nymphs and adults in relation to distribution. Australian Journal of Zoology 21(1): 103–110.

Wild-caught T. rugosa source of ticks for experiment.

BURBIDGE, A.A. (1971). Results of a biological survey of the Millstream area. Department of Fisheries and Fauna Western Australia Report (7): 1–16 + i–iv.

Recorded from area.

BURBIDGE, A.A. (1983). Amphibians and reptiles. pp. 109–120 in, Burbidge, A.A. & McKenzie, N.L. (eds.). Wildlife of the Great Sandy Desert, Western Australia. Wildlife Research Bulletin Western Australia (12).

C. melanops in hummock grass, scrub over hummock grass, on sandplains, dunes; T. multifasciata in trees and/or shrubs over spinifex, on gravelly sand, sandplains, dunes, rocky ranges.

BURBIDGE, A.A., FULLER, P.J. & CASHIN, K. (1980). The Wildlife of the Proposed Toolonga Nature Reserve, Shark Bay Shire, Western Australia. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Western Australia


  ― 712 ―
Report (39): 1–63.

Recorded; T. occipitalis expected to occur in Toolonga Nature Reserve, but not found during survey.

BURBIDGE, A.A., FULLER, P.J. & McCUSKER, A. (1978). The Wildlife of the Proposed Wandana Nature Reserve, near Yuna, Western Australia. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Western Australia Report (32): 1–55.

C. branchialis burnt from Triodia in open low woodland; T. occipitalis, T. rugosa in shrub mallee.

BURBIDGE, A.A. & GEORGE, A.S. (1978). The flora and fauna of Dirk Hartog Island, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 60(3): 71–90.

Both species recorded from island.

BURBIDGE, A.A., McKENZIE, N.L., CHAPMAN, A. & LAMBERT, P.M. (1976). The Wildlife of some Existing and Proposed Reserves in The Great Victoria and Gibson Deserts, Western Australia. Wildlife Research Bulletin Western Australia (5): 1–16.

Both species recorded from area.

BURBIDGE, A.A. & PRINCE, R.I.T. (1972). The fauna, flora and planned usage of the Dampier Archipelago. Department of Fisheries and Fauna Western Australia Report (11): 1–27.

Recorded from island.

BURBIDGE, A.H. & BOSCACCI, L.J. (1989). A Spring Reconnaissance Survey of the Flora and Fauna of the Southern Beekeepers Reserve. Department of Conservation and Land Management WA Technical Report (22): 1–38.

Recorded; habitat data; refers to Dell & Chapman (1977); C. branchialis only recorded from salt-lake samphire mosaics.




  ― 713 ―

BURNS, K. & HARRIS, T. (1984). Proposed army artillery range, Bathurst-Orange region. Australian Wild Life June, 1984: 15–17.

All three species recorded from area.

BURNSTOCK, G. & KIRBY, S. (1968). Absence of inhibitory effects of catecholamines on lower vertebrate arterial strip preparations. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 20(5): 404–406.

Adrenaline tartrate, noradrenaline bitartrate monohydrate, isoprenaline hydrochloride caused contraction of arterial strips; effects blocked by α-blockers (phentolamine methanesulphate; phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride; dibenamine) and β-blocker pronethalol; α-type catecholamine receptors present.

BURNSTOCK, G. & WOOD, M. (1967a). Innervation of the urinary bladder of the sleepy lizard (Trachysaurus rugosus) - II. Physiology and pharmacology. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 20(3): 675–690.

Bladder supplied by nerves via vesical arteries, from sacral plexus; contain excitatory, usually inhibitory fibres; amplitude of inhibitory response increased with frequency of nerves stimulation until minimum critical frequency (20 pulses/sec); abolished by guanethidine, mimicked by catecholamines, therefore adrenergic; two types of excitatory fibres (peaks 20, 35 pulses/sec); low optimal frequency fibres probably cholinergic, reduced by atropine, potentiated by eserine, mimicked by acetylcholine; nature of high optimal frequency fibres unclear, possibly adrenergic, as blocked by guanethidine.

BURNSTOCK, G. & WOOD, M.J. (1967b). Innervation of the lungs of the sleepy lizard (Trachysaurus rugosus) - II. Physiology and pharmacology. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 22(3): 815–831.

Lung innervated by excitatory, inhibitory fibres via vagosympathetic trunk; excitatory fibres cholinergic, contractions potentiated by eserine, blocked by atropine; inhibitory nerves possibly adrenergic, inhibition reduced or blocked by guanethidine, bretylium, mimicked by adrenaline, noradrenaline.

BURROWS, T. (1953). Snakes and lizards. Wildlife and Outdoors 17(5): 468.




  ― 714 ―
Bluetongues common.

BURT, C.E. & BURT, M.D. (1932). Herpetological results of the Whitney South Sea Expedition. VI. Pacific Island amphibians and reptiles in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 63 (5): 461–597.

Brief description of two specimens; possibility of referring south-eastern material to T. g. keiensis if this proves to be a valid race.

BURTON, M. (1962). Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. Odhams Books, London. pp. 82–83. (127pp.)

Photograph; general; often burrows; diet insects, worms, other small animals, eggs fruits, succulent leaves; stores fat in tail; breeds in spring, two young.

BURTON, M. (1967). Reptiles (Class Reptilia). pp. 283–330 in, Larousse Encyclopedia of Animal Life. Paul Hamlyn, London. (640pp.)

General; photograph of T. rugosa; partly carnivorous, eating small lizards; 1–2 young born after 3mo gestation; T. scincoides eats vegetables, fruit, earthworms.

BUSCH, C.H. (1898). Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Gaumenbildung bei den Reptilien. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abtheilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der thiere 11(4): 441–500 + pl. 37–40.

Description of palate of embryo; left palatine lamina dorsally overlaps right, completely separating oral and nasal cavities; palatine processes of maxillae extend caudally against palatines, rostrally against premaxillae; premaxillae have long vomeromaxillary process; description of palatal surface of vomers, choanae, palatines; palatopterygoid cleft narrow, contains sphenoid rostrum; pterygoids completely excluded from infraorbital vacuities; simple tubular palatine glands on palatine laminae and lateral edges of palate.

BUSH, B. (1981). Reptiles of the Kalgoorlie-Esperance region. The author, Esperance. pp. 24, 30–31. (46pp.)

Coloration; average sizes; photographs; threat displays; T. occipitalis diurnal, often burrows beneath rocks, shelters down rabbit burrows; diet insects, young small mammals, carrion, some wild flowers and berries; <10


  ― 715 ―
young in litter; T. rugosa often deliberately killed by motorists; shelters under rocks, down rabbit burrows, under leaf litter/debris beneath thick vegetation; usually two young in litter.

BUSH, B. (1985). Some reptiles and frogs recorded in Stokes National Park. Western Australian Naturalist 16(2/3): 52.

Recorded.

BUSTARD, H.R. (1958). Larger Australian skinks. Fishkeeping and Water Life 13(12): 595–596.

General; captive maintenance.

BUSTARD, R. (1958). Blue-tongued and Stump-tailed Skinks. Fishkeeping and Water Life 13(14): 698–699.

General; long-lived in captivity; captive diet; captive maintenance.

BUSTARD, H.R. (1968). The reptiles of Merriwindi State Forest, Pilliga West, northern New South Wales, Australia. Herpetologica 24(2): 131–140.

Juvenile in hollow log; adult seen.

BUSTARD, H.R. (1970). Australian Lizards. William Collins (Australia), Sydney. pp. 99, 116–119, 127–128, 149, 152. (162pp.)

Photographs of T. multifasciata, T. occipitalis, T. rugosa, T. scincoides, C. gerrardii; general; coloration; colour variation in T. rugosa; largely herbivorous, including herbage, seedlings, blossoms, fruit; also insects, snails; tail used as fat store, becomes thin after droughts; often hibernate with poor fat reserves due to summer drought; if winter rains fail, many die; one litter/yr, usually two, occasionally one young; large size at birth possibly allows survival in adverse climatic conditions; long potential lifespan; enter rabbit warrens to escape summer heat, hibernate; threat display; T. scincoides has up to 20 young; often killed as “puff adders”; T. nigrolutea eat many beetles (Anaplognathus) in summer; vegetable matter an important part of diet; active small skink remains in scat of one; two forms; 4–6 young; T. occipitalis a mallee inhabitant; 3–5 young; C. gerrardii has prehensile tail; semi-arboreal; up to 20 young; C. casuarinae has up to 19 young.




  ― 716 ―

BUTCHER, D.R. (1984). Amphibians, reptiles & mammals. pp. 30–45 in, The Dubbo region A Natural History. Dubbo Field Naturalist and Conservation Society, Dubbo. (80pp.)

Recorded; description; general; diet insects, snails, carrion, wildflowers, native fruits/berries; up to 25 young in a litter for T. scincoides; 1–3 young in a litter for T. rugosa.

BUTLER, H. (1977). In the Wild. Australian Broadcasting Commission, Sydney. pp. 95, 98 (128pp.)

Photographs; general; sexual dimorphism in tail shape; bite not poisonous.

BUTLER, W.H. (1962). Report on the South Bullsbrook excursion. Naturalist News [W.A. Field Naturalists' Club] June 1962: 3–4.

Bobtails seen.

BUTLER, W.H. (1970). A summary of the vertebrate fauna of Barrow Island, W.A. Western Australian Naturalist 11(7): 149–160.

Most specimens taken from Triodia; one under limestone slab.

CABANAC, H.P. & HAMMEL, H.T. (1971). Peripheral Sensitivity and Temperature Regulation in previous hit TILIQUA next hit SCINCOIDES. International Journal of Biometeorology 15(2–4): 239–243.

Experimental reduction in maximum, minimum ambient temperature resulted in increase in mean colonic temperature; core temperature alone does not account for thermoregulatory responses; peripheral temperature probably a factor in controlling thermal responses.

CABANAC, H.P. & HAMMEL, H.T. (1971). Comportement thermorégulateur du lézard previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides: Réponses au froid. Journal de Physiologie 63(3): 222–225.

When lizards given choice to move between hot and cold chambers, the colder the chamber, the sooner the exit and the higher the colonic exit temperature; lizard did not attempt to leave cold chamber when environmental temperature slowly dropped over 4hrs; exit response delayed or blocked if lizard entered low, semidarkened chamber; hot and cold


  ― 717 ―
sensitivity postulated, cold dependent on rate of change of environmental temperature.

CABANAC, M., HAMMEL, T. & HARDY, J.D. (1967). previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides: Temperature-Sensitive Units in Lizard Brain. Science 158(3804): 1050–1051.

Temperature sensitive neurones (both cold-sensitive and heat-sensitive types) detected in preoptic area of brain.

CAGNOLARO, L. (1977). Guida della Sala dei ≪Rettili≫ del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano. 2nd Edn. Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano. p. 18. (40pp.)

General.

CALABY, J.H. (1969). Wedge-tailed eagle Aquila audax. pp. 115, 122 in, Frith, H.J. (ed.). Birds in the Australian high country. A.H. & A.W. Reed, Sydney. (481pp.)

Stumptails, blue-tongues recorded in diet of Aquila audax.

CALABY, J.H. (1988). The Natural History Drawings. pp. 140–197 in, Smith, B. & Wheeler, A. (eds.). The Art of the First Fleet & other early Australian drawings. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, in association with the Australian Academy of the Humanities and the British Museum (Natural History). (256pp.)

Color reproduction of original drawings in Banks Collection [same or identical to that used in type description]; a second illustration in Raper Collection; type still in BMNH.

CAMP, C.L. (1923). Classification of the lizards. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 48(11): 289–481.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit an archaic member of family; second epibranchials, second ceratobranchials present; second epibranchial attached to tubercle on exoccipital; refers to Versluys (1898) on cartilaginous epiphysis on tip of paroccipital process; refers to Milani (1894) on lung morphology; prevomers not fused; four cervical ribs, including pair on third cervical vertebrae; pterygoid teeth absent; refers to Werber (1865) on clavicle of T. rugosa; some previous hit Tiliqua next hit, including T. rugosa, have almost a perforation in expanded end of clavicle; T. rugosa has numerous interdigitating bundles of geniohyoideus, mylohyoideus, almost no separation between


  ― 718 ―
rostral/caudal parts of mylohyoideus; os intermedium present in previous hit Tiliqua next hit (AMNH specimen); lacking in T. rugosa; T. rugosa has rectus superficialis; refers to Siebenrock (1895) on number of true ribs in T. rugosa, T. scincoides; both have seven parasternal ribs; refers to Beddard (1904, 1906); pterygoids well separated; T. rugosa has two transverse ventral scale rows for each body segment; refers to Fürbringer (1900) on biceps brachii; T. rugosa has elevated skull, orbital angle of jugal approaching 90°; refers to Werber (1865) on presence of os hypoischium in T. rugosa, absence in other previous hit Tiliqua next hit; osseous patella ulnaris and patella tibialis; fibular interarticular sesamoid present; no sternal foramen in T. rugosa, T. nigrolutea vide Parker (1868); cites Gegenbaur (1865), Parker (1868) on condition of scapular, scapulocoracoid, primary and secondary coracoid fenestrae in T. rugosa, T. nigrolutea.

CAMPBELL, - (1834). Geographical Memoir of Melville Island and Port Essington, on the Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Australia; with some observations on the Settlements which have been established on the North Coast of New Holland. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 4: 129–181.

Present in stony places.

CANFIELD, P.J. & SHEA, G.M. (1988). Morphological Observations on the Erythrocytes, Leukocytes and Thrombocytes of Blue Tongue Lizards (Lacertilia: Scincidae, previous hit Tiliqua next hit). Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, Reihe C. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 17(4): 328–342.

Few differences between taxa; haematological values for three T. scincoides, six T. rugosa, one captive-bred hybrid; circulating blood contained both mature, immature erythrocytes; erythrocytes oval, with prominent marginal microtubules; thrombocytes oval, often showed vacuolation, had parallel arrays of microtubules, scattered dense granules; lymphocytes small, sometimes difficult to differentiate from thrombocytes, few organelles in cytoplasm; monocytes commonly packed with fine azurophilic, electron-dense granules; type I granulocytes had eccentric, irregularly shaped nuclei, cytoplasm with many orange-brown oval to round granules; ultrastructurally, granules membrane-bound, dense, round to elongate oval; type II granulocytes with eccentric, oval to round nuclei, numerous purple-red, round to irregularly oval granules; ultrastructurally, granules commonly large, light grey, reticulate, often contained a fibrillar rod; type III granulocytes with a central nucleus, numerous round, purple-blue granules; ultrastructurally, granules round, homogeneously dense.

CANN, J. (1974). Collecting in Irian Jaya during 1972. Bulletin of Herpetology 1(3): 4–14.

Believed by natives to be dangerously venomous; can autotomise tail.




  ― 719 ―

CANN, J. (1980). Kimberley reptiles. Geo 2(1): 74–93.

Photograph; inhabits spinifex.

CARPENTER, C.C. & FERGUSON, G.W. (1977). Variation and Evolution of Stereotyped Behaviour in Reptiles. pp. 335–554 in, Gans, C. & Tinkle, D.W. (ed.). Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 7 Ecology and Behaviour A. Academic Press, London. (720pp.)

Refers to Fleay (1937), Cogger (1967), Mertens (1946, 1960), Noble & Bradley (1933), Seftleben (1914); the following behaviour patterns recorded from literature survey: gape, fight, bite, raise head, copulation, neck or shoulder bite, hold, flatten.

CARPENTER, C.C. & MURPHY, J.B. (1978). Tongue display by the Common Blue-Tongue (previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides) Reptilia, Lacertilia, Scincidae. Journal of Herpetology 12(3): 428–429.

Description of gaping threat display; induced by moving hand-held conspecifics closer.

CARR, G.W., HORROCKS, G.F.B., CHERRY, K.A., OPIE, A.M., TRIGGS, B.E. & SCHULZ, M. (1984). Flora and fauna of the Coast Range forest block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands. Ecological Survey Report (4): 1–99.

Uncommon; distribution by habitat in block.

CASHION, T. (1958). The Birds of Cat Island, Furneaux Group, Tasmania. Emu 58(4): 327–332.

Remains of young individual in stomach of Notechis ater; possible predator of young/eggs of Puffinus tenuirostris.

CASHION, T. (1959). Preliminary notes on Notechis scutatus niger Kinghorn, on Cat Island, Furneaux Group, Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 93: 111–112.

Juvenile in stomach of adult Notechis ater.

CAUGHLEY, J. & GALL, B. (1985). Relevance of Zoogeographical Transition


  ― 720 ―
to Conservation of Fauna: Amphibians and Reptiles in the South-western Slopes of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 21(6): 513–529.

Recorded from above localities.

CAWOOD, I. (1977). Ayers Rock-Mount Olga National Park Reptiles. Northern Territory Reserves Board. Leaflet.

All recorded from area.

CHADWICK, N. (1975). A descriptive study of the Djingili language. Australian Aboriginal Studies. Research and Regional Studies (2): i–xiii + 1–130.

Bluetongue lizard = langura, lizard like a bluetongue lizard = langurini in Djingili language.

CHAMPION, G.A., BROOKES, R.A., CAREY, V., MERCER, I.J., JEFFERSON, J.S. & KENNY, P. (no date) [second printing 1974]. Bantry Bay. The case for conservation. Report prepared for the Upper Middle Harbour Conservation Society. p. 15. (48pp.)

Recorded from area.

CHANDLER, L.G. (1912). Field Notes on the White-browed Field-Wren (Calamanthus albiloris). Emu 11(4): 237–239.

Bluetongue found eating nestling Calamanthus albiloris; second nestling found in stomach.

CHAPLIN, -. (1953). Report on the additions to the menagerie during the month of March, 1952. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 122(supplement): 17–19.

Two C. casuarinae purchased for the Menagerie of the Zoological Society of London.

CHAPMAN, A. & DELL, J. (1975). Reptiles, amphibians and fishes. pp. 34–38


  ― 721 ―
in, Kitchener, D.J., Chapman, A. & Dell, J. A biological survey of Cape leGrand National Park. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (1): 1–48.

Both species recorded; December ♀ T. occipitalis had 4R/3L oviducal eggs.

CHAPMAN, A. & DELL, J. (1977). Reptiles and frogs of Bendering and West Bendering Nature Reserves. pp. 47–55 in, Biological survey of the Western Australian wheatbelt Part 3: Vertebrate fauna of Bendering and West Bendering Nature Reserves. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (5): 1–58.

Recorded; T. occipitalis in shrubland, woodland formations; T. rugosa in mallee, shrubland formations.

CHAPMAN, A. & DELL, J. (1978). Reptiles and frogs of Dongolocking Nature Reserve. pp. 71–77 in, Biological survey of the Western Australian Wheatbelt Part 5: Dongolocking Nature Reserve. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (6): 1–79.

Both recorded; habitat descriptions; T. occipitalis in mallee, heath; T. rugosa in shrubland, woodland, mallee; some in cage traps.

CHAPMAN, A. & DELL, J. (1979). Reptiles and frogs of Buntine and Nugadong reserves. pp. 117–125 in, Biological survey of the Western Australian Wheatbelt Part 10: Buntine, Nugadong, and East Nugadong Nature Reserves and Nugadong Forest Reserve. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (9): 1–127.

T. occipitalis in shrubland and mallee on loam soils; stomach contents of one specimen coleopteran and lepidopteran fragments; T. rugosa in woodland, heath and shrubland on clay loams, sandy loams and loams; frequently taken in breakback, Elliott, cage traps.

CHAPMAN, A. & DELL, J. (1980a). Reptiles and frogs of Yorkrakine Rock, East Yorkrakine and North Bungulla Nature Reserves. pp. 69–73 in, Biological survey of the Western Australian Wheatbelt Part 11: Yorkrakine Rock, East Yorkrakine and North Bungulla Nature Reserves. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (12): 1–76.




  ― 722 ―
Both recorded; habitat; November ♀ T. rugosa had a single enlarged yolking ovarian follicle.

CHAPMAN, A. & DELL, J. (1980b). Reptiles and frogs of Badjaling Nature Reserve, South Badjaling Nature Reserve, Yoting Town Reserve and Yoting Water Reserve. pp. 59–64 in, Biological survey of the Western Australian Wheatbelt Part 12: Badjaling Nature Reserve, South Badjaling Nature Reserve, Yoting Town Reserve, Yoting Water Reserve. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (12): 1–66.

Recorded; habitat; one ♀ T. rugosa with one greatly enlarged yolking ovarian follicle; stomach contents of one T. rugosa.

CHAPMAN, A. & DELL, J. (1985). Biology and Zoogeography of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Western Australian Wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum 12(1): 1–46.

Habitat preferences, in decreasing order: C. branchialis: mallee, shrubland; sandy loams; T. occipitalis: mallee, shrubland, woodland, heath; sandy loams, light clays, sands, loams, clay loams; T. rugosa: shrubland, woodland, mallee, heath, lithic complex, salt complex; sandy loams, light clays, sands, loams, clay loams; ♂♂ T. rugosa SVL 163.0±7.17mm (n = 5), ♀♀ 200–230mm (n = 2); two reproductively active ♀♀ with enlarged yolking ovarian follicles, collected May, November; spot distribution maps for C. branchialis [including C. melanops], T. occipitalis, T. rugosa in south-west WA, including wheatbelt.

CHAUMONT, F. (1963). Meine Beobachtungen bei der Geburt kleiner Blauzungenskinke. Die Aquarien und Terrarien Zeitschrift 16(5): 151–152.

Litter of 18, born in captivity 15–16 December; gravid female aggressive towards male, extremely so during parturition; time interval between first two births more than 7hrs; observations on parturition; young ate foetal membranes and placenta; first shed 30mins after birth; second shed within 3 weeks; growth rates very variable; coloration variable, resembling either parent or intermediate; captive diet.




  ― 723 ―

CHAUMONT, F. (1964). Die Aufzucht der jungen Blauzungenskinke. Die Aquarien und Terrarien Zeitschrift 17(1): 28–29.

Problems in raising litter; respiratory problems; spinal curvature; recommend supplementation with calcium and ultraviolet radiation; maximum growth rate 10cm in 8 weeks.

CHERRY, K.A., BROWN, G.W., CARR, G.W., HORROCKS, G.F.B., MENKHORST, K.A., OPIE, A.M. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1987). Flora and fauna of the Freezeout and Pyke Forest Blocks, North-east Region, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (13): 1–102.

Recorded; one C. casuarinae found frozen under snow; sloughed skin only of T. nigrolutea; refers to Ahern et al. (1985), Brown et al. (1986), Jenkins & Bartell (1980), Norris et al. (1983), Norris & Mansergh (1983); C. casuarinae of significant conservation status.

CHERRY, K.A., BROWN, G.W., CARR, G.W., HORROCKS, G.F.B., OPIE, A.M. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1986). Flora and fauna of the Buldah Forest Block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forest and Lands Ecological Survey Report (7): 1–96.

One recorded in wet sclerophyll forest.

CHESSON, P.L. (1977). Reptiles. pp. 55–57 in, Gilbertson, D.D. & Foale, M.R. (eds.). The southern Coorong and lower Younghusband Peninsula of South Australia. Nature Conservation Society of South Australia Inc., Adelaide. (121pp.)

T. rugosa abundant in flat areas not subject to inundation, and in calcreted sands; T. scincoides also in former habitat.

CHESTERFIELD, E.A., HURLEY, V.A., HENRY, S.R., SCHULZ, M. & PYRKE, A.F. (1988). Flora and fauna of the Brodribb Forest Block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests & Lands Ecological Survey Report (19): 1–159.

Recorded; T. nigrolutea in montane wet sclerophyll forest, montane damp sclerophyll forest; one in mammal trap in tall open forest of Eucalyptus obliqua, E. fastigata with open ground layer dominated by ferns; one T. scincoides pitfall trapped in grassy foothill dry sclerophyll forest; usually restricted to drier forest types with poorly developed mid and ground vegetation strata; refers to Jenkins & Bartell (1980).




  ― 724 ―

CHESTERFIELD, E.A., MACFARLANE, M.A., ALLEN, D., HUTCHINSON, M.N., TRIGGS, B. & BARLEY, R. (1983). Flora and fauna of the Rodger Forest Block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Forestry Commission Victoria, Ecological Survey Report (1): 1–107.

Recorded from Leptospermum thickets with overstory of Eucalyptus sieberi, E. radiata, E. obliqua, E. cypellocarpa.

CHEW, R.M. (1961). Water metabolism of desert-inhabiting vertebrates. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 36(1): 1–31.

Refers to Bentley (1959); weight loss 0.57%/day in fasting lizard; 180% increase in water loss between 23.5°C at 52% relative humidity and 34.5°C at 15% relative humidity; urine formation 0.57ml/100g/hr when hydrated; 0.024ml/100g/hr when dehydrated; glomerular volume 1/7 that of mammals; plasma [Na] of hydrated lizards 152meq/1; [Na] increased up to 196meq in dry season; up to 233meq tolerated for days; saline transfusion leads to anuria; high antidiuretic activity of pituitary (destroyed by thioglycollate); pitocin and pitressin equally diuretic; bladder urine approaches isotonicity in dehydrated animals.

CHILD, J. (1969). Australian alpine life. Lansdowne Press, Melbourne. pp. 47, 77–78. (100pp.)

General; photographs; C. casuarinae lives under tussock clumps at high altitudes.

CHILTON, N.B. & ANDREWS, R.H. (1988). Mating behaviour and parapatry in two species of Australian reptile tick. Oecologia 75(1): 146–152.

Used as experimental hosts; mean body temperatures in captivity for several individuals 29.7–32.0°C.

CHISOLM, E.C. (1923). The principal fauna found in District of Marrangaroo. County of Cook, N.S.W. Australian Zoologist 3(2): 60–71.

Occasionally seen.

CHISOLM, E.C. (1924). The principal fauna of Katoomba and district, County of Cook, N.S. Wales. Australian Zoologist 3(6): 206–214.

Seen once in open forest on plateau.

CHISOLM, E.C. (1926). Additional fauna of the Comboyne Plateau, 1925–1926. Australian Zoologist 4(5): 295–298.

Reputed to inhabit edge of plateau [probably in error for Egernia major].

CHRISTENSEN, P., ANNELS, A., LIDDELOW, G. & SKINNER, P. (1985). Vertebrate Fauna in The Southern Forests of Western Australia A Survey. Forests Department of Western Australia Bulletin (94): 1–109.

Common in study area; uncommon in wetter areas; apparent decline in numbers concurrent with increase in fox numbers; remains frequently found in fox scats.

CHRISTENSEN, P. & LIDDELOW, G. (undated). Reptiles, Amphibia and Fishes of south Western Australian Forests. Information Sheet 45, Forests Dept, Western Australia. (4pp.)

Common in jarrah forest, karri forest, wandoo woodland, south coast plant communities, pine plantations.

CHRISTIAN, T. (1977). Notes on Centralian Bluetongues (previous hit Tiliqua next hit Multifasciata). “Newsletter” of the Victorian Herpetological Society (1): 8–9.

Very common between Tennant Creek and Camooweal; inactive in winter (mid-May to mid-August), often unable to display when disturbed at this time; mating period between mid-August and late September, most active, active during warmer parts of day, basking on roads; less active between late September and March, more crepuscular, almost nocturnal, very alert by December; litters of 2–7 (mode 4) born between second week of December and late January; size of young at birth very variable; coloration description.

CLARK, N.B. (1970). The Parathyroid. pp. 235–262 in, Gans, C. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 3 Morphology C. Academic Press, London. (385pp.)

Refers to Rogers (1963).




  ― 726 ―

CLARK, S.S. & RECHER, H.F. (undated). The flora and fauna of the Botany Bay region. pp. 38–43 in, Anderson, D.J. (ed.). The Botany Bay project a handbook of the Botany Bay region - some preliminary background papers. The Botany Bay Project Committee, Sydney. (137pp.)

Successfully lives in many Sydney suburbs.

CLELAND, J.B. (1914). Parasitic Ectozoa and Entozoa met with during the year. pp. 129–131 in, Third Report of the Government Bureau of Microbiology [NSW], for the year 1912. Government Printer, Sydney. (242pp.)

Physaloptera sp. in intestines.

CLELAND, J.B. (1915). A Further Comparison of the Sizes of the Red Cells of Some Australian Vertebrates. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 39: 38–43.

Size of erythrocytes and erythrocyte nuclei.

CLELAND, J.B. (1968). Olive stones, starlings and foxes. South Australian Ornithologist 25(2): 55.

Potential vectors of olive seeds.

CLELAND, J.B. & JOHNSTON, T.H. (1912). Relative Dimensions of the Red Blood Cells of Vertebrates, especially of Birds. Emu 11(3): 188–197.

Dimensions of erythrocytes and nuclei.

CLOUDSLEY-THOMPSON, J.L. (1988). A note on the herpetofauna of central Australia. Bulletin of the British Herpetological Society (23): 7–10.

Recorded.

CLYNE, D. (1982a). Wildlife in the Suburbs. Oxford University Press, Melbourne. pp. 157–159. (205pp.)

Anecdotal account of suburban bluetongues; eat snails and slugs; blue tongue used in threat display; litters usually 10–12, maximum 25; poisoned by metaldehyde snail baits.

CLYNE, D. (1982b). Frogs and Lizards. Methuen Australia, North Ryde (Nature City Series). pp. 16–17. (25pp.)

General; photographs; diet insects, wildflowers and berries; gives birth to up to 25 young.

CLYNE, D. (1988). Densey Clyne's Wildlife of Australia. Reed Books, Frenchs Forest. pp. 132–135, 139, 142 (144pp.)

General; shinglebacks eat flowers of Patterson's Curse; photographs of threat display, pairing; refers to and quotes in part Dampier (1729); common names; difficulties in captive maintenance on east coast; protected fauna; T. scincoides east snails; record of 18 young in litter; photograph.

COATES, M. (1975). Studies on the Interaction of Organic Phosphates with Haemoglobin in an Amphibian (Bufo marinus), a Reptile (Trachydosaurus rugosus) and Man. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 28(4): 367–378.

Primary organic phosphate modifier of haemoglobin function is adenosine triphosphate (ATP); myo-inositol hexaphosphate (myo-IP6) and pentaphosphate more effective than ATP or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) in reducing oxygen affinities of haemoglobin, while ATP and DPG are equally effective; ATP, DPG, myo-IP6 bind to the same sites on haemoglobin.

COBORN, J. (1987). Snakes & Lizards Their Care and Breeding in Captivity. David & Charles, London. pp. 69, 142–143. (208pp.)

General; brief descriptions; habitat and habits; captive requirements; T. scincoides photograph.

COCKBURN, A., FLEMING, M. & WAINER, J. (1979). The Comparative Effectiveness of Drift Fence Pitfall Trapping and Conventional Cage Trapping of Vertebrates in the Big Desert, North-Western Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 96(3): 92–95.

Two trapped in Elliott cage traps.




  ― 728 ―

COGGER, H.G. (1962a). Reptile studies in the Musgrave Ranges. Australian Natural History 14(2): 51–56.

Photograph with caption.

COGGER, H.G. (1962b). Snakes, lizards and chelonians. pp. 35–38 in, The natural history of Sydney. Trustees of the Australian Museum, Sydney. (63pp.)

General.

COGGER, H.G. (1967). Australian reptiles in colour. A.H. & A.W. Reed, Sydney. pp. 66, 68, 70–71 (112pp.)

General; captive diet; coloration; photographs of T. rugosa, T. scincoides; C. gerrardii inhabits forested parts of coast and ranges from Cape York to Sydney; C. casuarinae has snake-like appearance; average litter for bluetongues 6–12; up to 30 for larger species; previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. diurnal; Cyclodomorphus spp. nocturnal; diet of bluetongues insects, snails, slugs, fruit, carrion; 2–3 young for T. rugosa; diet snails, slugs, carrion, native fruits, flowers; mating season October/November; several ♂♂ follow ♀♀ during mating season.

COGGER, H.G. (1972a). Keys to the frogs and reptiles of the central coast of New South Wales Part II Lizards and snakes. Herpetofauna 5(3): 9–13.

Recorded; keys for identification.

COGGER, H.G. (1972b). Lizards. pp. 651–657 in, Ryan, P. (ed.) Encyclopaedia of Papua and New Guinea. Vol. 2. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. (1231pp.)

General; photograph of adult, young; largely confined to coastal districts.

COGGER, H.G. (1973a). Alligator Rivers Region environmental fact-finding study. Amphibians and reptiles. 16pp. in, Alligator Rivers Region environmental fact-finding study. Wildlife. C.S.I.R.O. Division of Wildlife Research. (163pp.)




  ― 729 ―
Uncommon in area.

COGGER, H.G. (1973b). Classifications of Australian Skinks. Herpetofauna 6(2): 7–14.

Listed; photographs of T. occipitalis, T. rugosa.

COGGER, H.G. (1974). Reptiles. pp. 46–56 in, Taronga. Zoological Parks Board of New South Wales, [Sydney]. (56pp.)

Mention.

COGGER, H.G. (1975). Reptiles and amphibians of Australia. A.H. & A.W. Reed, Sydney. pp. 242, 338–343, 520–522, pl. 141–143. (584pp.)

Keys; species and generic descriptions; distribution maps for Australian species; C. branchialis [part melanops] largely crepuscular, nocturnal; shelters in Triodia, leaf-litter, under fallen timber; 2–3 young; C. casuarinae in coastal heaths, sand dunes to dry sclerophyll forest in ranges; common in coastal grazing lands; crepuscular to nocturnal; shelters in leaf litter, under fallen timber; about six young; C. gerrardii ground-dwelling; often climbs low vegetation; prehensile tail; mostly crepuscular, nocturnal; sometimes forages in day; usually in wet sclerophyll forest, rainforest; also monsoon, dry sclerophyll forest; up to 25 young; diet insects, small arthropods; T. multifasciata diurnal; in arid, semi-arid habitats including stony Triodia-covered hills, to sandy deserts; up to about ten young; T. nigrolutea habits similar to T. scincoides, but active at lower temperatures; T. occipitalis in xeric habitats, especially mixed Triodia, mallee; T. scincoides in many habitats, including coastal heaths, forests, woodlands, montane forests, arid woodlands, grasslands; diurnal; diet insects, snails, carrion, wildflowers, native fruits, berries; shelters in hollow logs, ground debris; up to 25 young; T. rugosa diurnal; diet insects, arthropods, snails, carrion, flowers, fruit, berries; 1–3 young; shelters under fallen timber, porcupine grass; photographs of C. melanops, C. branchialis, C. casuarinae, C. gerrardii, T. multifasciata, T. nigrolutea, T. occipitalis, T. scincoides, T. s. intermedia, T. rugosa.

COGGER, H.G. (1977). Lizards. pp. 41–42 in, The Australian Encyclopedia. (3rd Edn.). Vol. 4. Grolier Society of Australia, Sydney. (524pp.)

General; T. rugosa feeds almost exclusively on annual plants and flowers in spring.




  ― 730 ―
COGGER, H.G. (1979a). Reptiles and amphibians of Australia. 2nd Edn. A.H. & A.W. Reed, Sydney. pp. 242, 338–343, 520–522, 584–585 pl. 141–143. (608pp.)

Keys; species and generic descriptions; distribution maps for Australian species [distribution of T. r. rugosa, T. r. asper transposed]; C. branchialis [part melanops] largely crepuscular, nocturnal; shelters in Triodia, leaf-litter, under fallen timber; 2–3 young; C. casuarinae in coastal heaths, sand dunes to dry sclerophyll forest in ranges; common in coastal grazing lands; crepuscular to nocturnal; shelters in leaf litter, under fallen timber; about six young; C. gerrardii ground-dwelling; often climbs low vegetation; prehensile tail; mostly crepuscular, nocturnal; sometimes forages in day; usually in wet sclerophyll forest, rainforest; also monsoon, dry sclerophyll forest; up to 25 young; diet insects, small arthropods; T. multifasciata diurnal; in arid, semi-arid habitats including stony Triodia-covered hills, to sandy deserts; up to about ten young; T. nigrolutea habits similar to T. scincoides, but active at lower temperatures; T. occipitalis in xeric habitats, especially mixed Triodia, mallee; T. scincoides in many habitats, including coastal heaths, forests, woodlands, montane forests, arid woodlands, grasslands; diurnal; diet insects, snails, carrion, wildflowers, native fruits, berries; shelters in hollow logs, ground debris; up to 25 young; T. rugosa diurnal; diet insects, arthropods, snails, carrion, flowers, fruit, berries; 1–3 young; shelters under fallen timber, porcupine grass; photographs of C. melanops, C. branchialis, C. casuarinae, C. gerrardii, T. multifasciata, T. nigrolutea, T. occipitalis, T. scincoides, T. s. intermedia, T. rugosa.

COGGER, H.G. (1979b). Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the Australian Museum. Records of the Australian Museum 32(4): 163–210.

Holotype of previous hit Tiliqua next hit occipitalis auriculaire Kinghorn in AM.

COGGER, H.G. (1980a). Reptiles of Australia Snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodiles. A.H. & A.W. Reed, Sydney. pp. 10–11. (32pp.)

General; T. scincoides photograph; up to 20 young; 1–3 young for T. rugosa.

COGGER, H.G. (1980b). Reptiles and Amphibians. pp. 19, 51–53 in, Booth, M., Catford, J., Csenderits, S., Langshaw, Y. & Peterson, H. A plan of management for South Turramurra bushland. South Turramurra Environmental Protection, Turramurra. (53pp.)




  ― 731 ―
Recorded.

COGGER, H.G. (1981). A Biogeographic Study of the Arnhem Land Herpetofauna. pp. 148–155 in, Banks, C.B. & Martin, A.A. (eds.). Proceedings of the Melbourne Herpetological Symposium. Zoological Board of Victoria, Melbourne. (199pp.)

C. branchialis recorded from sandstone outliers, escarpment, plateau in Arnhem Land [in error]; T. scincoides in tidal flats, lowlands, paperbark riverine system in Arnhem Land.

COGGER, H.G. (1982). The Young Observer's Book of Australian Lizards. Methuen Australia, Sydney. pp. 20–21, 26, 32–33. (48pp.)

General; T. rugosa eats flowers and berries; bluetongues eat snails; viviparous.

COGGER, H.G. (1983a). Reptiles and amphibians of Australia. (3rd Edn) A.H. & A.W. Reed, Sydney. pp. 267, 387–392, 582–584, pl. 165–167 (660pp.)

Keys; species and generic descriptions; distribution maps for Australian species; C. branchialis [part melanops] largely crepuscular, nocturnal; shelters in Triodia, leaf-litter, under fallen timber; 2–3 young; C. casuarinae in coastal heaths, sand dunes to dry sclerophyll forest in ranges; common in coastal grazing lands; crepuscular to nocturnal; shelters in leaf litter, under fallen timber; about six young; C. gerrardii ground-dwelling; often climbs low vegetation; prehensile tail; mostly crepuscular, nocturnal; sometimes forages in day; usually in wet sclerophyll forest, rainforest; also monsoon, dry sclerophyll forest; up to 25 young; diet insects, small arthropods; T. multifasciata diurnal; in arid, semi-arid habitats including stony Triodia-covered hills, to sandy deserts; up to about ten young; T. nigrolutea habits similar to T. scincoides, but active at lower temperatures; T. occipitalis in xeric habitats, especially mixed Triodia, mallee; T. scincoides in many habitats, including coastal heaths, forests, woodlands, montane forests, arid woodlands, grasslands; diurnal; diet insects, snails, carrion, wildflowers, native fruits, berries; shelters in hollow logs, ground debris; up to 25 young; T. rugosa diurnal; diet insects, arthropods, snails, carrion, flowers, fruit, berries; 1–3 young; shelters under fallen timber, porcupine grass; photographs of C. melanops, C. branchialis, C. casuarinae, C. gerrardii, T. multifasciata, T. nigrolutea, T. occipitalis, T. scincoides, T. s. intermedia, T. rugosa.

COGGER, H.G. (1984). Reptiles in the Australian arid zone. pp. 235–252


  ― 732 ―
in, Cogger, H.G. & Cameron, E.E. (eds.). Arid Australia. Australian Museum, Sydney. (338pp.)

All three species present, co-existing in open spinifex, mallee/spinifex, spinifex-free mallee habitats; only T. rugosa present in spinifex-free Callitris forest.

COGGER, H.G. (1986). Reptiles and amphibians of Australia. 4th Edn. Reed Books, Frenchs Forest. pp. 267, 387–392, 582–584, pl. 165–167. (688pp.)

Keys; species and generic descriptions; distribution maps for Australian species; C. branchialis [part melanops] largely crepuscular, nocturnal; shelters in Triodia, leaf-litter, under fallen timber; 2–3 young; C. casuarinae in coastal heaths, sand dunes to dry sclerophyll forest in ranges; common in coastal grazing lands; crepuscular to nocturnal; shelters in leaf litter, under fallen timber; about six young; C. gerrardii ground-dwelling; often climbs low vegetation; prehensile tail; mostly crepuscular, nocturnal; sometimes forages in day; usually in wet sclerophyll forest, rainforest; also monsoon, dry sclerophyll forest; up to 25 young; diet insects, small arthropods; T. multifasciata diurnal; in arid, semi-arid habitats including stony Triodia-covered hills, to sandy deserts; up to about ten young; T. nigrolutea habits similar to T. scincoides, but active at lower temperatures; T. occipitalis in xeric habitats, especially mixed Triodia, mallee; T. scincoides in many habitats, including coastal heaths, forests, woodlands, montane forests, arid woodlands, grasslands; diurnal; diet insects, snails, carrion, wildflowers, native fruits, berries; shelters in hollow logs, ground debris; up to 25 young; T. rugosa diurnal; diet insects, arthropods, snails, carrion, flowers, fruit, berries; 1–3 young; shelters under fallen timber, porcupine grass; photographs of C. melanops, C. branchialis, C. casuarinae, C. gerrardii, T. multifasciata, T. nigrolutea, T. occipitalis, T. scincoides, T. s. intermedia, T. rugosa.

COGGER, H.G. (1989a). Australian Reptiles in Colour. Treasure Press, Port Melbourne. pp. 62–63, 66, 68, 70–71. (112pp.)

General; distribution; coloration; size; bluetongues commonly kept as pets; diet; threat display; bite painful, can lacerate skin; teeth blunt, conical; strong bands on juvenile T. scincoides break up with age; all viviparous; most produce 6–12 young in a litter; large species up to 30 young; T. rugosa 2–3 young; placenta developed; bluetongues diurnal; Cyclodomorphus spp. largely nocturnal; mating season for T. rugosa October–November; females pursued by up to three males in this period.




  ― 733 ―

COGGER, H.G. (1989b). Herpetofauna. pp. 250–265 in, Noble, J.C. & Bradstock, R.A. (eds.). Mediterranean Landscapes in Australia. Mallee Ecosystems and their Management. C.S.I.R.O., [Melbourne]. (485pp.)

All occur in mallee habitats; distribution by state; T. adelaidensis apparently endemic to mallee habitats; T. rugosa ecologically adaptable; refers to Baverstock (1979); Beste (1970); Brooker & Wombey (1978); Chapman & Dell (1977, 1978, 1985); Cheal et al. (1979); Cogger (1984); Dell & Chapman (1978); Dell & How (1984, 1985); Ehmann (1983); Henle (1987); Mather (1979); Menkhorst (1982); Morley & Morley (1984); Rawlinson (1966); Sadlier (1985); Satrawaha & Bull (1981); Schwaner et al. (1985); Shea & Peterson (1981); Shea & Wells (1983); Smith & Chapman (1976); Turner et al. (1976); White (1982).

COGGER, H.G., CAMERON, E.E. & COGGER, H.M. (1983). Zoological Catalogue of Australia Vol. 1 Amphibia and Reptilia. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. pp. 8, 188–193. (313pp.)

Generic and species synonymies; distribution; ecological descriptors; selected bibliography for species; arguments for synonymy of Omolepida with previous hit Tiliqua next hit, recognition of Trachydosaurus.

COGGER, H.G. & HEATWOLE, H. (1981). The Australian reptiles: origins, biogeography, distribution patterns and island evolution. pp. 1331–1373 in, Keast, A. (ed.). Ecological Biogeography of Australia. Vol. 2 Monographiae Biologicae (41). Dr W. Junk, The Hague. (1434pp.) [Reprinted (1984) as pp. 343–360 in, Archer, M. & Clayton, G. (eds.) Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia. Hesperian Press, Carlisle. (1203pp.)].

Pleistocene fossil material known of all four species.

COGGER, H.G. & LINDNER, D.A. (1974). Frogs and Reptiles. pp. 63–107 in, Frith, H.J. & Calaby, J.H. (eds.). Fauna Survey of the Port Essington District, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory of Australia. C.S.I.R.O. Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper (28): 1–208.

Brief coloration and scalation notes; rarely seen in dry season, more often seen in monsoon forest, eucalypt woodland in wet season; one taken in Sherman trap.

COHN, M. (1934). An Owl under Suspicion. Emu 33(4): 317.

Stump-tailed lizards frequently found under bushes containing Yellow-tufted Honeyeater nests; probably not the cause of nest destruction.

COLE, C.E. (1930). Notes on the sleepy lizard. Trachysaurus rugosus (Gray). South Australian Naturalist 12(1): 2–4.

Refers to Waite (1925); three young recorded, but usually two; doubts le Souef's (1907) record of four; mating probably in early spring; young born late autumn; readily kept with snakes in captivity; photograph; threat display; eats snails, and especially African boxthorn berries; readily drown in water.

COLEMAN, E. (1944). Lizards under domestication. Victorian Naturalist 61(8): 137–138.

13 young born, 6 alive, to injured blue-tongue collected February; neonates readily gave threat display; general notes on T. rugosa; diet of both species soft fruits, dandelions and other flowers, snails, egg, milk, banana, raw meat; description of ecdysis [in T. rugosa?].

COMAN, B.J. (1972). Some Observations on the Den Litter of Foxes (Vulpus vulpus L.) in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 89(8): 231–233.

T. scincoides remains in den litter of Vulpes vulpes.

COMAN, B.J. (1973). The diet of red foxes, Vulpes vulpes L., in Victoria. Australian Journal of Zoology 21(3): 391–401.

One previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp. in stomach of fox.

CONANT, R. & HUDSON, R.G. (1949). Longevity records for reptiles and amphibians in the Philadelphia zoological garden. Herpetologica 5(1): 1–8.

Longevity records 8yrs 9 mo, 7yrs 11mo respectively.

CONGREVE, P. (1985). Reptiles recorded from the vicinity of Eyre Bird Observatory. pp. 125–128 in, Eyre Bird Observatory Report No. 3 1981–1983. RAOU Western Australian Group Report (9). Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Moonee Ponds. (130pp.)




  ― 735 ―

Common along coast, behind dunes, along and above escarpment; abundant around claypans.

COOK, D.L. (1960). Some mammal remains found in caves near Margaret River. Western Australian Naturalist 7(4): 107–108.

Possible fossil T. rugosa material from cave deposits.

COOK, D.L. (1963). The fossil vertebrate fauna of Strongs' Cave, Boranup, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 8(7): 153–162.

Right maxilla of subadult in cave deposits.

COOMBE, G.N. (1973). Osborne Scrub Excursion 13th, 14th January, 1973. South Australian Herpetologist 1(1): 12–15.

Nine seen in two-day period; SVL and tail measurements.

COOPER, C.D. & COOPER, R.M. (1981). Observations on the food sources utilised by Pied Currawongs. Australian Birds 15(3): 50–52.

Juvenile eaten by Strepera graculina.

COOPER, C.J., DE LA LANDE, I.S. & TYLER, M.J. (1966). The catecholamines in lizard heart. Australian Journal of experimental Biology and medical Science 44(2): 205–210.

Noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations in auricles; ratio of noradrenaline:adrenaline high, despite much variation in total concentration; high doses of reserpine deplete total catecholamines; noradrenaline probably the sympathetic transmitter in T. rugosa heart.

COOPER, E.L., KLEMPAU, A.E. & ZAPATA, A.G. (1985). Reptilian Immunity. pp. 599–678 in, Gans, C., Billett, F. & Maderson, P.F.A. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 14 Development A John Wiley & Sons, New York. (763pp.)




  ― 736 ―
Refers to Wetherall and Turner (1972).

COPE, E.D. (1864). On the Characters of the higher Groups of Reptilia Squamata - and especially of the Diploglossa. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1864: 224–231.

Clavicle dilated but imperforate.

COPE, E.D. (1892a). On Degenerate Types of Scapular and Pelvic Arches in the Lacertilia. Journal of Morphology 7(2): 223–244.

Keys to scincid genera; Homolepida (as full genus) defined as having 5/5 digits and paired frontoparietals; Trachysaurus, previous hit Tiliqua next hit, Hemisphaeriodon differentiated on basis of dentition and subdigital lamellae.

COPE, E.D. (1892b). The Osteology of the Lacertilia. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 30(138): 185–221.

Proximal end of clavicle dilated but imperforate in T. rugosa; two coracoid emarginations in previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

COPE, E.D. (1896a). The mesenteries of the sauria. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1896: 308–314.

Ventral hepatic mesentery double, only united at cranial end of liver.

COPE, E.D. (1896b). On the hemipenes of the sauria. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1896: 461–467.

Brief description of hemipeneal ornamentation of T. rugosa.

COPE, E.D. (1898). The crocodilians, lizards, and snakes of North America. Report of the U.S. National Museum 1898: 153–1270 + pl 1–36.

T. rugosa: proximal end of clavicle dilated but imperforate; ventral mesentery of liver bifurcate; course of intestine a simple sigmoid, no distinct small intestine; no fat bodies; liver three-lobed, middle lobe superior and striplike; description of hemipeneal ornamentation. T. scincoides: two coracoid emarginations; ventral mesentery of liver double; no fat bodies; small intestine present, but not colon; liver


  ― 737 ―
adjacent to heart, bilobed, right lobe weakly elongate; key to scincid genera; Hemisphaeriodon, previous hit Tiliqua next hit and Trachysaurus differentiated by nature of teeth and subdigital lamellae.

COPLAND, S.J. (1947). Reptiles occurring above the winter snowline at Mt Kosciusko. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 72(1–2): 69–72.

Refers to Loveridge (1934); T. nigrolutea probably does not extend above 5000ft.

COPLAND, S.J. (1953). Recent Australian Herpetology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 78(1–2): v–xxxvii.

Resurrects Trachysaurus from the synonymy of previous hit Tiliqua next hit, on basis of its gross scalation; lists numerous publications dealing with previous hit Tiliqua next hit, Cyclodomorphus species.

CORCORAN, J. (1954). Collecting at Norah Heads, N.S.W. Reptilia 1(1): 9–10.

Recorded.

COULSON, G. (1990). Conservation Biology of the Striped Legless Lizard (Delma impar) An Initial Investigation. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report Series (106): 1–40.

Collected in pitfall traps.

COVACEVICH, J. (1971). Amphibian and reptile type-specimens in the Queensland Museum. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 16(1): 49–67.

Three specimens in QM possible syntypes of previous hit Tiliqua next hit longicauda de Vis; QM J1187 agrees most closely with description.

COVACEVICH, J. (1976). Reptiles. pp. 97–114 in, Mather, P. (ed.). The National Estate in the Moreton and Wide Bay-Burnett Regions, south-east Queensland and recommendations on its management. A report for the Co-ordinator General. (Revised, abridged edn.). Queensland Museum, Brisbane. (272pp.)




  ― 738 ―
T. scincoides in woodland, wallum; C. gerrardii in wet sclerophyll, rainforest.

COVACEVICH, J. (1987). Reptiles of far northern Cape York Peninsula. Queensland Naturalist 28(1–4): 22–30.

Recorded; northern specimens very large, up to 30cm SVL.

COVACEVICH, J.A. & COUPER, P.J. (1991a). The reptile records. pp. 45–140 in, Ingram, G.J. & Raven, R.J. (eds.). An Atlas of Queensland's Frogs, Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. Board of Trustees, Queensland Museum, Brisbane. (391pp.)

Spot distribution maps for Queensland, based on Queensland Museum records.

COVACEVICH, J.A. & COUPER, P.J. (1991b). Checklist of reptiles. pp. 356–359 in, Ingram, G.J. & Raven, R.J. (eds.). An Atlas of Queensland's Frogs, Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. Board of Trustees, Queensland Museum, Brisbane. (391pp.).

All recorded from Queensland.

COVACEVICH, J. & INGRAM, G.J. (1975). The Reptiles of Stradbroke Island. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 86(10): 55–60.

Sight records; apparently common; common in all habitats on mainland except closed forest.

COVACEVICH, J. & LIMPUS, C. (1973). Two large winter aggregations of three species of tree-climbing snakes in south-eastern Queensland. Herpetofauna 6(2): 16–20.

In bases of old rotting trees in paddocks.

COWLED, C. (1974). A check list of reptiles of the Cooranbong area. Hunter Natural History 6(1): 49–50.

C. casuarinae found under logs; T. scincoides very common.




  ― 739 ―

CRAIG, S.A., BROWN, G.W., CARR, G.W., CHERRY, K.A., HORROCKS, G.F.B., MENKHORST, K.A., OPIE, A.M. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1987). Flora and fauna of the Razorback and Dartmouth Forest Blocks, North-east Region, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (12): 1–80.

Recorded.

CROLL, R.D. (1937). An unusual blow-fly victim. Victorian Naturalist 53(9): 160.

Sheep blowfly larvae invaded body cavity of live bluetongue from initial penetrating wound.

CROSSMAN, D.G. & REIMER, D.S. (1986). Mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians of the Taroom Shire, central Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 43(1): 55–72.

T. scincoides recorded from open forest; unconfirmed reports of T. rugosa from area.

CROWLEY, T. (1978). The middle Clarence dialects of Bandjalang. Australian Aboriginal Studies. Research and Regional Studies (12): i–xiv + 1–246.

Bluetongue lizard = gubu(-gubu)gan in Bandjalang language.

CUVIER, [G.L.C.F.D.] (1817). Le Règne Animal distribué d'après son organisation, pour servir de base a l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction a l'anatomie comparée. Deterville, Paris. Vol. 2: 54. (532pp. + pl. v–xi)

Mention.

CUVIER, [G.L.C.F.D.] (1829). Le Règne Animal distribué d'après son organisation, pour servir de base a l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction a l'anatomie comparée. Nouvelle édition, revue et augmentée. Déterville et Crochard, Paris. Vol. 2: 63. (406pp.)

Mention.




  ― 740 ―

CZECHURA, G.V. (1976). Additional notes on the Conondale Range herpetofauna. Herpetofauna 8(2): 2–4.

Both recorded, both “range” species.

CZECHURA, G.V. (1986). Distant exiles: frogs and reptiles recorded from Kroombit Tops, southeastern Queensland. Queensland Naturalist 27(1–4): 61–67.

Distribution by forest types; Cyclodomorphus resurrected, given priority over Omolepida.

CZECHURA, G. & MILES, J. (1983). Lizards. pp. 80–99 in, Davies, W. (ed.). Wildlife of the Brisbane Area. Jacaranda Press, Milton. (216pp.)

General.

DAAN, S. (1968). Lateral bending in lizard locomotion. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 18(3): 428–429.

In locomotion, vertebral axis hardly bends.

DAAN, S. & BELTERMAN, T. (1968). Lateral bending in locomotion of some lower tetrapods. I [and] II. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Series C. Biological and Medical Sciences 71: 245–258; 259–266.

At varying speeds, stride remained constant, but stride rate proportional to speed; T. scincoides a “heel and toe” walker with fixed locomotor pattern; lateral movements of vertebral column very weak and localised.

DAAN, S. & HILLENIUS, D. (1966). Catalogue of the type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the Zoological Museum, Amsterdam. Beaufortia 13(158): 117–144.

Lectotype selected; both lectotype and paralectotype in ZMA; lectotype is better preserved of syntypes.

DAKIN, W.J. (1932). The zoology of the Sydney district. pp. 89–103 in, Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science. Handbook for New South Wales. Government Printer, Sydney.


  ― 741 ―
(103pp.)

Mention.

DAKIN, W.J. & ALEXANDER, W.B. (1914). The Zoology of S.W. Australia. pp. 79–105 in, Handbook and Guide to Western Australia. Fred. Wm. Simpson, Govt. Printer, Perth. (117pp.)

Mention.

DALE, F.D. (1973). Forty Queensland lizards. Queensland Museum Booklet (8). pp. 14–17. (64pp.)

Distribution maps for Qld; coloration; drawings; T. scincoides occurs in Tas [in error]; diet insects, vegetable matter; diet in captivity raw meat, fruit, snails, insects; often confused with Acanthophis; C. gerrardii inhabits rainforest, wet sclerophyll parts of mixed woodland; partly arboreal; noctidiurnal; feeds on snails, slugs; litters of 20 or more; T. rugosa insectivorous, herbivorous; in some areas feeds largely on flowers; usually two large young in litter.

DALEY, C. (1924). Excursion to the National Park, Wilson's Promontory. Victorian Naturalist 40(11): 212–220.

Blue-tongue observed.

DAMPIER, L. (1729). A Voyage to New Holland, & c. In the Year 1699. J & J Knapton, London. pp. 85–86.

Description of what is evidently T. rugosa; [earliest mention of a previous hit Tiliqua next hit].

DAUDIN, F.M. (1802). Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des reptiles. Vol. 4. F. Dufart, Paris. pp. 236–237, 244–245. (397pp.)

Early description of T. scincoides, as “le scinque ordinaire de la nouvelle Hollande”; description of T. gigas based on the accounts of Schneider (1801), Boddaert (1783), Gevers (1787) and Houttuyn (1787).

DAVEY, H.W. (1944). Some lizards I have kept. Victorian Naturalist 61(5): 82–84; (6): 101–103.




  ― 742 ―

T. nigrolutea gives birth to 3–4, rarely 5 young, which eat yolk sac immediately post-partum; one ♀ tried to bite when disturbed immediately post-partum.

DAVEY, K. (1969). Australian desert life. Lansdowne Press, Melbourne. pp. 53–54. (112pp.)

General; coloration; photograph of T. rugosa; C. melanops nocturnal; three in a group under large Triodia clump at sunset.

DAVEY, K. (1970). Australian lizards. Lansdowne Press, Melbourne. pp. 64–65, 68–74. (111pp.)

Photographs of T. rugosa, T. scincoides, C. gerrardii; general; T. scincoides often found under rubbish, sunning by roadside; threat display; 6–20 young; young eat yolk-sac immediately after birth; T. nigrolutea in grassy openings in forested areas; threat display; captive diet; C. gerrardii has pink tongue; inhabits bushland bordering rainforests; tail prehensile; possibly semi-arboreal; diet snails, slugs; C. melanops nocturnal; three found under one Triodia clump; T. rugosa threat display; captive diet; eats dandelions in wild.

DAVIDGE, C. (1979). A census of a community of small terrestrial vertebrates. Australian Journal of Ecology 4(2): 165–170.

Collected infrequently in pit-traps and mammal traps.

DAVIES, S.J.J.F. (1980). The RAOU bird observatory at Eyre. pp. 2–40 in, Eyre Bird Observatory Report 1977–1979. R.A.O.U. Western Australian Group, Perth. (47pp.)

Recorded.

DEBUS, S.J.S. (1983). Food of the Whistling Kite at Armidale, N.S.W. Corella 7(3): 62–63.

Recorded as food items for nesting Haliastur sphenurus.

DEBUS, S.J.S. (1984). Biology of the Little Eagle on the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales. Emu 84(2): 87–92.




  ― 743 ―

Eight T. scincoides brought to Hieraaetus morphnoides nests.

DE FREITAS, J.F.T. (1963). Revisão da familia Mesocoeliidae Dollfus, 1933 (Trematoda). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 61(2): 177–311 + pl. 1–30.

Examined material of Mesocoelium microon taken from T. scincoides duodenum.

DE HAMEL, F.A. & McINNES, H.M. (1971). Lizards as vectors of human salmonellosis. Journal of Hygeine 69(2): 247–253.

Refers to Iveson et al. (1969).

DE JONG, J.K. (1930). Reptiles from Dutch New Guinea. Nova Guinea 15(3): 296–318.

Specimens reported.

DE KONINGH, H.L. (1973). Over regulatie van de lichaamstemperatuur bij reptielen en amfibieën. Lacerta 32(2): 33–36.

Rate of cooling is 75–90% of rate of heating.

DE LA LANDE, I.S., TYLER, M.J. & PRIDMORE, B.R. (1962). Pharmacology of the heart of previous hit Tiliqua next hit [Trachysaurus] rugosa (the sleepy lizard). Australian Journal of experimental Biology and medical Science 40(2): 129–138.

Isolated auricle responds by positive inotropic, chronotropic effects to catecholamines, tyramine, dichlorisoproterenol, histamine, serotonin, bretylium, ganglion blocking agents, atropine, and, in presence of atropine, ganglion stimulants, vagal stimulation; sympathomimetic effects of vagal stimulation due to sympathetic fibres; mechanisms of parasympathetic, sympathetic transmission similar to mammals; actions of tyramine, diphenylmethylpiperazinium iodide, cocaine, bretylium described.

DELEAN, S., FRANCIS, M. & HARVEY, C. (1983). Common lizards of the Adelaide Hills. Arbury Park Outdoor School, Adelaide. pp. 7–8.


  ― 744 ―
(24pp.)

General; coloration; up to 20 young for T. scincoides; 1–3 young for T. rugosa.

DE LISSA, G. (1981). Notes on the skink Sphenomorphus tenuis. Herpetofauna 13(1): 33.

Recorded.

DELL, J. (1968). Other fauna. p. 18 in, S[erventy], D.L. Excursion Hartfield Park, Forrestfield. Western Australian Naturalist 11(1): 14–18.

Three observed.

DELL, J. (1972). Excursion Upper Gingin Brook. Western Australian Naturalist 12(3): 71–72.

Three observed.

DELL, J. & CHAPMAN, A. (1977). Reptiles and frogs of Cockleshell Gully Reserve. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (4): 75–86.

C. branchialis found under deep leaf litter and fallen branches in dense Casuarina obesa; Acacia rostellifera, Calothamnus sp. around saltlakes; October–November ♂♂ had large testes; one October–November ♀ had 2L/2R oviducal eggs; T. occipitalis in sand with travertine limestone outcropping; sand in heath; stomach contents seeds and flowers of Astroloma or Brachyloma, cockroach (Polyzosteria mitchelli), grasshopper (Austacris guttulosa), scarab (Heteronychus); T. rugosa in white sand in heath.

DELL, J. & CHAPMAN, A. (1978). Reptiles and frogs of Durokoppin and Kodj Kodjin Nature Reserves. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (7): 69–74.

Recorded from both reserves.




  ― 745 ―

DELL, J. & CHAPMAN, A. (1979a). Reptiles and frogs of Wilroy Nature Reserve. pp. 47–51 in, Biological survey of the Western Australian Wheatbelt Part 8: Wilroy Nature Reserve. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (8): 1–54.

T. occipitalis caught in Elliott trap; stomach contents insects (Scarabaeidae, Curculionidae, Orthoptera), centipedes, old rabbit bones, fungus, plant remains; T. rugosa stomach contents insects (Curculionidae, Acrididae), plant remains, old rabbit bones.

DELL, J. & CHAPMAN, A. (1979b). Reptiles and frogs of Marchagee Nature Reserve. pp. 43–48 in, Biological Survey of the Western Australian Wheatbelt Part 9: Marchagee Nature Reserve. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (9): 1–50.

T. occipitalis under Triodia scariosa, Plechtrachne danthonioides; T. rugosa in breakback trap among Jacksonia shrubs.

DELL, J. & CHAPMAN, A. (1981). Reptiles and frogs of East Yuna and Bindoo Hill Nature Reserves. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (13): 95–102.

C. branchialis under Plechtrachne danthonioides, under roadside spoil in mallee, active in daytime in shrubland near top of breakaway with surface sandstone fragments; small September ♂ had small testes, larger October ♂ had large testes; T. occipitalis in mallee with Plechtrachne danthonioides; September ♂♂ with enlarged testes; T. rugosa on stony hill among Eucalyptus loxophleba: September ♂♂ had enlarged testes.

DELL, J. & HAROLD, G. (1977). Amphibians and reptiles. pp. 97–99 in, Kenneally, K.F. (ed.). The Natural History of the Wongan Hills. Western Australian Naturalist's Club, Perth (Handbook No. 11). (108pp.)

Recorded from area; one in mallee with dense Casuarina, another in mallee scrub on whitish sand.

DELL, J. & HAROLD, G. (1979). Reptiles and frogs of Yornaning Nature Reserve. pp. 43–47 in, Biological Survey of the Western Australian Wheatbelt Part 7: Yornaning Nature Reserve. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (8): 1–48.

Occurs in woodland and heath.




  ― 746 ―

DELL, J. & HOW, R.A. (1984). Vertebrate Fauna. pp. 57–81 in, The biological survey of the Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia Part 2 Widgiemooltha-Zanthus study area. Records of the Western Museum Supplement (18): 21–157.

Recorded; habitat details.

DELL, J. & HOW, R.A. (1985). Vertebrate Fauna. pp. 39–66 in, The biological survey of the Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia Part 3 Jackson-Kalgoorlie Study Area. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (23): 1–168.

Recorded; habitat details.

DELL, J. & HOW, R.A. (1988). Vertebrate Fauna. pp. 38–68 in, The biological survey of the Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia Part 5 Edjudina-Menzies study area. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (31): 1–137.

Recorded; habitat details.

DEMARZ, H. (1955). Die Tannenzapfenechse (Trachydosaurus rugosus Gray). Die Aquarien-und Terrarien Zeitschrift 8(8): 216–217.

Reputation as snake killers unwarranted; diet plants, flowers, berries, fruit; captive diet eggs and fruit; inhabit scrub, coastal sand dunes, forests, rare in Eucalyptus forests; hiss when approached; bite strong, painful, but not venomous, potential for infection; many killed when basking on roads; during wet season hibernate under old tree trunks, stones, in holes lined with dry leaves; on hot days, emerge from hibernation sites to bask.

DENTON, S.F. (1889). Incidents of a collector's rambles in Australia, New Zealand, and New Guinea. Lee and Shepard, New York. pp. 112–113. (272pp.)

General.

DE ROOIJ, N. (1915). The reptiles of the Indo-Australian archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. E.J. Brill, Leiden. pp. 156– 158. (384pp.)

Key to genus; redescription of T. gigas; T. gigas keiensis diagnosed, short description.

DE ROOIJ, N. (1919). Reptilien aus Nord-Neuguinea gesammelt von Dr. P.N. Van Kampen und Dr. K. Gjellerup in den Jahren 1910 und 1911. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 21: 81–95.

Two specimens recorded, collected by “Exploratie-Detachement West-Neuguinea”; no locality given.

DE ROOY, N. (1909). Reptilien (Eidechsen, Schildkröten und Krokodile). Nova Guinea 5(3): 375–383.

Two specimens reported.

DE ROOY, N. (1922). Reptiles (Lacertilia, Chelonia and Emydosauria). Nova Guinea 13: 133–153.

Lorentz River, Kloof Camp

Recorded; T. gigas possibly rare in Dutch South New Guinea.

DE SMET, W.H.O. (1978). The total protein content in the blood serum of vertebrates. Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia (70): 35–56.

Serum protein concentration 5.00g/100ml (n = 1).

DE SMET, W.H.O. (1981a). Description of the orcein stained karyotypes of 36 lizard species (Lacertilia, Reptilia) belonging to the families Teiidae, Scincidae, Lacertidae, Cordylidae and Varanidae (Autarchoglossa). Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia (76): 73–118.

Karyotype; 2n = 32, 13 pairs macrochromosomes, 3 pairs microchromosomes; pair 6 submetecentric, pairs 9, 15 telocentric, others metacentric; nombre fondamental = 56; chromosome lengths.

DE SMET, W.H.O. (1981b). The nuclear Feulgen-DNA content of the vertebrates (especially reptiles), as measured by fluorescence cytophotometry, with notes on the cell and the chromosome size. Acta


  ― 748 ―
Zoologica et Pathologica Anverpiensia (76): 119–167.

3.1 pg DNA/erythrocyte nucleus; mean value is 52% of value for man.

DESSAUER, H.C. (1970). Blood Chemistry of Reptiles: Physiological and Evolutionary Aspects. pp. 1–72 in, Gans, C. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 3 Morphology C. Academic Press, London (385pp.)

Cardioactive peptides in T. scincoides plasma; refers to Bentley (1959), Fantl (1961), Shoemaker et al. (1966).

DE VIS, C.W. (1885). Appendix I. Donations. pp. 3–8 in, Queensland Museum. (Report of Board of Trustees for the year 1884.) (14pp.)

Specimens donated to museum.

DE VIS, C.W. (1886). Appendix I. Donations. pp. 2–9 in, Queensland Museum. (Report of Board of Trustees for the year 1885.) (14pp.)

Specimens of C. gerrardii and T. scincoides donated by R. Illidge; specimen of Cyclodus ornatus De Vis [nomen nudum, = C. gerrardii] donated by W.N. Jaggard of Rockhampton.

DE VIS, C.W. (1887). Appendix I. Donations. pp. 2–9 in, Queensland Museum. (Report of Board of Trustees for the year 1886.) (14pp.)

Specimens donated by J. Fleet, W.J. Connolly.

DE VIS, C.W. (1888a). Appendix I. Donations. pp. 2–7 in, Queensland Museum. (Annual report of the Trustees of the). (11pp.)

Specimens donated by A. Musgrave, W.N. Jaggard.

DE VIS, C.W. (1888b). A contribution to the herpetology of Queensland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. (2)2(4): 811–826.

Type description of previous hit Tiliqua next hit longicauda [=C. gerrardii].




  ― 749 ―

DE VIS, C.W. (1889). Appendix I. Donations. pp. 3–6 in, Queensland Museum. (Annual report of the Trustees of the). (11pp.)

Specimens donated by L. Cervetto, G. Griffiths, Watson Bros.

DE VIS, C.W. (1890a). Appendix I. Donations. pp. 3–8 in, Queensland Museum. (Annual report of the Trustees of the). (19pp.)

Specimens donated by the Administrator of British New Guinea, G. Redwood.

DE VIS, C.W. (1890b). Reptiles from New Guinea. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 5(3): 497–500.

Recorded.

[DE VIS, C.W.] (1891). Appendix I. Donations. pp. 4–7 in, Queensland Museum. (Annual report of the Trustees of the). (12pp.)

Specimens donated by W. Strickland, J. McKenzie.

DE VIS, C.W. (1892a). Appendix I. Donations. pp. 4–8 in, Queensland Museum. (Annual report of the Trustees of the). (13pp.)

Specimen donated by Mr. Wilson.

DE VIS, C.W. (1892b). Part I.-Vertebrata pp. 1–12 in, Zoology of British New Guinea. Annals of the Queensland Museum (2): 1–24.

Recorded.

DE VIS, C.W. (1892c). Reptiles of New Guinea. pp. 273–282 in, Thomson, J.P. British New Guinea. George Philip & Son, London. (336pp.)

Plant-eating; frequently mistaken for Acanthophis and killed; New Guinea species different to Australian taxa.

DE VIS, C.W. (1893). Appendix I. Donations. pp. 3–6 in, Queensland Museum. (Annual report of the Trustees of the). (11pp.)




  ― 750 ―

Specimens donated by Lady Macgregor, A. Meston, J.H. Boreham, H.E. Cribb.

DE VREE, F. & GANS, C. (1987). Kinetic Movements in the Skull of Adult Trachydosaurus rugosus. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, Reihe C. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 16(3): 206–209.

Radiographic study of effects of bilateral stimulation of mandibular adductor indicated no mesokinesis, minor streptostyly, possible metakinesis.

DE VREE, F. & GANS, C. (1989). Functional morphology of the feeding mechanisms in lower tetrapods. Fortschritte der Zoologie 35: 115–127.

Refers to Gans et al. (1985), Gans & de Vree (1986); acquisition and reduction of food items studied by anatomy, cinematography, cineradiography and electromyography; in crushing snails, T. rugosa places tip of mandible on ground, allowing nuchal muscles to enhance bite due to jaw adductors; crushing bite at hard shell longer, but not more active than bites at soft tissues; electromyographic signature of crushing bite different; no cranial kinesis.

DE WITT, C.B. (1962). Effects of body size and wind speed on rates of cooling of lizards. American Zoologist 2(4): 517–518.

Body temperature asymptotically approaches environmental temperature; relationship of body weight (w grams) and wind speed (v feet/min) to lag coefficient (λmins) is λ=14w0.5v−0.4.

DICKMAN, C.R., HENRY-HALL, N.J., LLOYD, H. & ROMANOW, K.A. (1991). A survey of the terrestrial vertebrate fauna of Mount Walton, Western Goldfields, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 18(7): 200–206.

T. occipitalis recorded; refers to Dell & How (1985); absence of C. melanops from survey site probably due to destruction of Triodia by fire; C. melanops recorded from spinifex heathland.

DINGLE, J.G. (1979). Checklist of Queensland native animals Part 1. Amphibians, reptiles and mammals. School of Environmental and Rural Studies, Queensland Agricultural College, Lawes. unpaginated [p. 12. (23pp.)].

All recorded from the state.

DITMARS, R.L. (1910). Reptiles of the World Tortoises and turtles, crocodilians, lizards and snakes of the eastern and western hemispheres. Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, London. p. 185–186. (373pp.)

General; distribution; coloration; hardy in captivity; captive diet eggs, chopped raw beef; also eats insects, young mice, birds.

DITMARS, R.L. (1928). The Lizards. Bulletin of the New York Zoological Society 31(4): 116–144.

Photograph; general.

DITMARS, R.L. & CRANDALL, L.S. [ca1939]. Guide to the New York Zoological Park. New York Zoological Society, New York. p. 219. (xiv + 258pp.)

General.

DIXON, J.M. (ed.) (1976). Report on the vertebrate fauna of the alpine study area of Victoria. unpublished report by the National Museum of Victoria Vertebrate Department for the Land Conservation Council, Victoria. pp. 104, 111, 113, 114, 123, 127, 128, 130, 132, 173, 264. (312pp.)

Distribution by block and habitat in the alpine region of Victoria; C. casuarinae a rare species in Victoria.

DOHERTY, R.L., STANDFAST, H.A., DOMROW, R., WETTERS, E.J., WHITEHEAD, R.H. & CARLEY, J.G. (1971). Studies of the epidemiology of arthropod-borne virus infections at Mitchell River Mission, Cape York Peninsula, North Queensland IV. Arbovirus infections of mosquitoes and mammals, 1967–1969. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 65(4): 504–513.

Tested for arbovirus infection and previous exposure; all specimens seronegative.

DOLLFUS, R.-P. (1922). Variations dans la forme du corps, la position et la forme des testicules chez Dicrocoelium lanceolatum (Rudolphi). Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 47(8–9): 312–342.




  ― 752 ―

Refers to MacCallum's (1921) description of Paragonimus trachysauri from gall bladder.

DOMROW, R. (1978). The genus Ophiomegistus Banks (Acari: Peramegistidae). Journal of the Australian entomological Society 17(2): 113–124.

Refers to Womersley (1958); Ophiomegistus australis recorded from previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp. [probably T. rugosa or C. melanops].

DONALDSON, M., HEYNEMAN, D., DEMPSTER, R. & GARCIA, L. (1975). Epizootic of Fatal Amebiasis Among Exhibited Snakes: Epidemiologic, Pathologic, and Chemotherapeutic Considerations. American Journal of Veterinary Research 36(6): 807–817.

Entamoeba invadens isolated from T. scincoides specimen that died in Steinhart Aquarium.

DONISTHORPE, H. (1950). Lizards and snakes. pp. 344–361 in, Wild Life Illustrated. A comprehensive survey of the animal life of the world. Odhams Press, London. (512pp.)

Photograph of T. rugosa eating dandelion flower.

DONNELLAN, S.C. (1991a). Chromosomes of Australian lygosomine skinks (Lacertilia: Scincidae) I. The Egernia group: C-banding, silver staining, Hoechst 33258 condensation analysis. Genetica 83(3): 207–222.

Karyotypes of all above species; 2n = 32, no sex chromosome heteromorphism, pairs 10–16 microchromosomes; previous hit Tiliqua next hit and Cyclodomorphus karyotype differs from Egernia in metacentric pair five (vs submetacentric); proximal C-band on pair nine; weaker C-band on long arm of pair two of most preparations; additional C-bands on microchromosomes of C. gerrardii, T. nigrolutea, T. rugosa, T. scincoides; in C. gerrardii, largest pair of microchromosomes metacentric, larger than other species; refers to King (1973a,b), de Smet (1981).




  ― 753 ―

DORIA, G. (1874). Enumerazione dei rettili raccolti Dal Dott. O. Beccari in Amboina, alle isole Aru ed alle isole Kei durante gli anni 1872–73. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 6: 325–357 + pl. x–xi.

58cm specimen collected on island; not significantly different from New Guinean material.

DOUGLAS, A.M. & RIDE, W.D.L. (1962). Reptiles. pp. 113–119 in, Fraser, A.J. (ed.) The Results of an Expedition to Bernier and Dorre Islands Shark Bay, Western Australia in July, 1959. Western Australian Fisheries Department Fauna Bulletin (2): 1–131.

Refers to Peron (1807), Boulenger (1887), Glauert (1960), Dampier (1729); S. Tropisurus a nomen oblitum; T. rugosa common in various environments, “eg., Olearia thicket, open steppe”; on Bernier I., often seen in pairs.

DOUGLAS, M. & OLDMEADOW, D. (1972). Across the top and other places. Rigby Ltd, Adelaide (200pp.)

Anecdote of aboriginal use of bluetongue in making rain.

DOUGLAS, W.H. (1968). The Aboriginal languages of south-west Australia. Australian Aboriginal Studies (14): 1–105.

Bob-tailed lizard yulat, yun in Njunar language.

DOVE, H.S. (1898). Lizards and snakes in Tasmania. Nature Notes: The Selbourne Society's Magazine 9(104): 153–154.

Spends much time basking; often shelters in hollow dry stumps; common names “sleeping-lizard, stump-lizard, goanner”; killer of snakes; flowery description of lizard killing and eating snake.

DOWLING, H.G. & SPENCOOK, S. (1964). Department of reptiles. New York Zoological Society Annual Report (69): 24–27.

One young born 23 July (northern hemisphere captive specimen).

DOWNES, B.J. (1984). Host-Location by the Reptile Tick Aponomma hydrosauri: The Roles of Physical Disturbance and Odor. Journal of


  ― 754 ―
Parasitology 70(1): 164–166.

Aponomma hydrosauri parasitises T. rugosa; used as experimental host.

DOYLE, M.K. (1987). The blue tongue lizard track to success. Control and Therapy (135)(2367)

Details of surgical repair of traumatic injury to abdomen and intestine of bluetongue.

DRANE, C.R. & WEBB, G.J.W. (1980). Functional morphology of the dermal vascular system of the Australian lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides. Herpetologica 36(1): 60–66.

Integumentary vascular system consists of subcutaneous and cutaneous components; subcutaneous component has arterial and venous network; cutaneous component an elaborate network of anastomosing vessels in loose connective tissue of superficial dermis; anatomoses lack muscular walls; system interpreted as adaptation for heat exchange; blood flow through cutaneous vascular system increases during heating, decreases during cooling; no cutaneous vasodilation or vasoconstriction found.

DRUMMOND, F.H. (1947). Pharyngeo-oesophageal Respiration in the Lizard, Trachysaurus rugosus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 116: 225–228 + pl. 1.

Bilateral tracheolaryngeal arteries arise from pulmonary arteries; give off inferior thyroid arteries, tracheal rami, oesophageopharyngeal rami; branches of tracheolaryngeal, carotid, systemic arteries form capillary network just below epithelium of pharynx, oesophagus; corresponding venous system asymmetrical, larger on right; pharynx, oesophagus have respiratory function, responsible for eliminating 6–10% of total CO2 output.

DRURY, S. (1981). Macmillan Pocket Guide Native Animals of Australia. Macmillan Company of Australia, South Melbourne. pp. 21–22. (120pp.)

General; T. rugosa feeds on flowers, fruit, berries, dead animals, insects, snails; shelters under logs, amongst leaf litter; litter size 1–3, born autumn, about 18cm, 85g at birth; adults 46cm, 450g.

DUBAS, G. & BULL, C.M. (1991). Diet Choice and Food Availability in the Omnivorous Lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus. Wildlife Research 18(2): 147–155.




  ― 755 ―

Diet analysed by direct observations, stomach contents, food choice trials; opportunistic feeders, primarily herbivorous; activity in October, December–January, March–April confined to 0800–1800hrs; mean feeding time/d varied from 11.2–14.8mins, depending on season; mean of 12.7 food items eaten/d; wild populations ate range of 19 plant species, one snail species (Theba pisana); diet primarily flowers in spring, berries in summer, flower, leaves and berries in autumn; stomach contents of road-killed animals included flowers, leaves, berries of 12 spp., snails, unidentified invertebrates, rabbit scats; amongst plant food items, preference for nine species (Anagallis arvensis, Arctotheca calendula, Cakile maritima, Enchylaena tomentosa, Eremophila glabra, Goodenia pinnatifida, Gynandra setifolia, Reichardia tingitana, Teucrium sessiliflorum); other food items recorded over 15 year period include small skinks, nestling birds, kangaroo carrion, grasshoppers; food availability not a major determinant of home range size; refers to Bull (1978, 1987), Cogger (1975), Dubas (1987 [Ph.D. thesis, Flinders University]), Satrawaha & Bull (1981), Yeatman (1988 [Ph.D. thesis, Flinders University]).

DUDLEY, A.P. (1989). Notes on Herpetofauna Observed on a Field Trip to south-western Western Australia. Australian Herpetologist (519): 1–3.

Mature and juvenile previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa frequently observed; habitat descriptions; C. melanops in a Triodia clump on sandy soil with thick vegetation.

DUMÉRIL, [A.M.C.] (1837). Rapport sur un ouvrage manuscrit de M. le docteur Cocteau, ayant pour le titre: Tabulae synopticae Scincoideorum. Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 4(1): 14–17.

Mention, as subgenera; higher classification of skinks proposed in manuscript by J. Cocteau.

DUMÉRIL, A.M.C. & BIBRON, G. (1839). Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Volume 5. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris. pp. 515–516, 523, 528, 530, 534, 747–757. (854pp.)

Type descriptions of C. casuarinae, Cyclodus Boddaertii [= T. gigas, T. scincoides]; redescription of T. nigrolutea, T. rugosa; synonymies.

DUMÉRIL, A. & BOCOURT, M. (1870). Études sur les Reptiles et les Batraciens de la région centrale de l'Amérique. pp. 1–1012 in, Duméril, A., Bocourt, M. & Mocquard, D. (1870–1909). Recherches Zoologiques pour servir à l'histoire de la faune de l'Amérique


  ― 756 ―
Centrale et du Mexique or Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches Zoologique. Part 3. Section 1. (1012pp.). Imprimerie Nationale, Paris.

Placed in family Lygosomidae, along with Lygosoma, Mocoa, Hinulia, Heteropus, Ablepharus, Menetia, Cryptoblepharus, Lerista, Tetradactylus, Soridia.

DUMÉRIL, M.C. & DUMÉRIL, M.A. (1851). Catalogue méthodique de la collection des reptiles. Gide et Baudry, Paris. pp. 178–180.

Generic and species definitions, brief descriptions;

DUNBAR, G.K. (1943–44). Notes on the Ngemba Tribe of the Central Darling River, Western New South Wales. Mankind 3(5): 140–148; (6): 172–180.

Aboriginal rock paintings of blue-tongued and stumpy-tailed lizards.

DUNBAR, R. (1988). World of Nature, the animals, plants and landforms of seven continents. Prion (Multimedia Books Ltd.), London. p. 212. (240pp.)

Photograph of parturition.

DUNMALL, W. (1959). March Field excursion. Darling Downs Naturalist (81): 4–5.

Both present in W. Dunmall collection; a “batch” of 13 young [T. scincoides] “a week old” in March; large captive “Ramsay's Rock Python” [Aspidites ramsayi?] will only eat bluetongues.

DUNNE, J. (1953). They hypnotised lizards. Wild Life and Outdoors 17(2): 187–188.

When gently stroked along abdomen, bluetongue “hypnotised”.

DUVALL, D., GUILLETTE, L.J. & JONES, R.E. (1982). Environmental Control of Reptilian Reproductive Cycles. pp. 201–231 in, Gans, C. & Pough,


  ― 757 ―
F.H. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 13 Physiology D Physiological Ecology. Academic Press, London. (345pp.)

Refers to Firth et al. (1979).

DWYER, P.D., KIKKAWA, J. & INGRAM, G.J. (1979). Habitat relations of vertebrates in subtropical heathlands of coastal southeastern Queensland. pp. 281–299 in, Specht, R.L. (ed.). Ecosystems of the world 9A Heathlands and related shrublands Descriptive studies. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam. (497pp.)

Recorded; distribution by habitat.

EADES, D.K. (1976). The Dharawal and Dhurga languages of the New South Wales south coast. Australian Aboriginal Studies. Research and Regional Studies (8): i–ix + 1–97.

Bluetongue lizard = magVdaŋ in Dharawal language.

EARL, G.E., BROWN, G.W., CHERRY, K.A., HORROCKS, G.F.B. & VOLLEBERGH, P.J. (1989). Flora and fauna of the Leinster Forest Block, Alpine Area, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (23): 1–126.

Widespread in East Gippsland; recorded in Leinster Forest Block from montane riparian forest, montane forest, montane sclerophyll woodland, dry sclerophyll forest, cleared land; often found basking on roads.

ECHTERNACHT, A.C. (1977). How Reptiles and Amphibians Live. Phaidon Press, Oxford. p. 85. (142pp.)

Mention.

EDEN, W. (1787). The history of New Holland, from its first discovery in 1616, to the present time. With a particular account of its produce and inhabitants; and a description of Botany Bay: also, A List of the Naval, Marine, Millitary, and Civil Establishment. To which is prefixed, An Introductory Discourse on Banishment. (Second Edn.). John Stockdale, London. p. 66. (254pp.)

Quotes Anderson's [then unpublished] manuscript, including the brief description of a lizard [undoubtedly T. nigrolutea].




  ― 758 ―

EDGAR, P. (1987a). The amphibians and reptiles of Gregory National Park, Northern Territory, Australia. Preliminary Report of a Dry Season Herpetological Survey, May–July 1986. pp. 39–53 in, Coote, J. (ed.). Reptiles: proceedings of the 1986 U.K. Hepetological Societies symposium on captive breeding. British Herpetological Society, London. (97 + [3]pp.)

Recorded; nocturnal in hot weather.

EDGAR, P. (1987b). Notes on some skinks from the Northern Territory of Australia. British Herpetological Society Bulletin (19): 9–17.

Maximum SVL of T. s. intermedia 370mm; prefers habitats with extensive ground debris; diurnal; nocturnal in very warm, humid weather; can move rapidly; bites when handled.

EDGAR, P. (1988). Herpetofauna of Manusela National Park, Seram, Indonesia. South Western Herpetological Society Secretary's Newsletter (116): 1–2.

Recorded; feared by natives; blood poisoning following bite on finger.

EDMUND, A.G. (1960). Tooth Replacement Phenomena in the Lower Vertebrates. Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Division Contributions (52): 1–190.

Tooth replacement pattern figured.

EDMUND, A.G. (1969). Dentition. pp. 117–200 in, Gans, C., Bellairs, A. d'A. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia. Vol. 1 Morphology A. Academic Press, London. (373pp.)

Figures dentition of both species.

EDWARDS, J.E. (1962). Notes on the sloughing in captivity of skinks of the genus previous hit Tiliqua next hit. Western Australian Naturalist 8(3): 75–76.

Captive sloughing preceded by fast of up to 10d, increased consumption of water, restlessness; T. scincoides, T. gigas sloughed in segments, ate sloughed skin; T. rugosa sloughed in one sheath; 4–5 sloughs/yr, fewer in low temperatures.




  ― 759 ―

EHMANN, H. (1974a). The Herpetology Group field work program in 1974. South Australian Herpetologist 2(1): 37–39.

Recorded; color pattern variation.

EHMANN, H. (1974b). The first interstate amateur herpetologists' convention in Australia. South Australian Herpetologist 2(1): 40–44.

Recorded.

EHMANN, H. (1983). The natural history and conservation status of the Adelaide pigmy bluetongue lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit adelaidensis. Herpetofauna 14(1): 61–76.

Summary of available historical and ecological data on T. adelaidensis; suggested Krefft obtained BMNH specimen from R. Schomburgk; “central South Australia” records in SAM possibly came from Gawler Museum and R. Schomburgk; all localities probably inaccurate, erroneous or represent transported specimens; head shape similar to T. scincoides, C. gerrardii, suggests that T. adelaidensis inhabits “hole refuges in unyielding substrates”, e.g. mallee on kunkar/sand ridges; possibly an ambush predator, sheltering in leaf litter; tail vertically compressed, capable of greater lateral flexion than other previous hit Tiliqua next hit; tail largely complete in all known specimens; tail may aid in swimming; recent loss of tail in previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. produces locomotory impairment; coloration description; coloration similar to C. sp. nov.; possibly adaptation to sheltering in chenopod litter, as C. sp. nov. inhabits samphire flats prone to infrequent flooding; previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. have diffuse dark peritoneal pigmentation, black in T. adelaidensis; T. scincoides largely terrestrial, but observed climbing to 2m in sloping trees and dense vines; claw shape and subdigital callosities in previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. described; eyes of T. adelaidensis deeply recessed below projecting supraciliary ridge; pupil round; gut contents suggest mainly invertebrate diet; larger male specimens reproductively active; probably extinct, possible causes of extinction habitat change, predation by mice, introduction of poisonous snails, beetles; two young born to C. sp. nov. on 9 February, measurements, mass of young.

EHMANN, H. & COGGER, H. (1985). Australia's endangered herpetofauna: a review of criteria and policies. pp. 435–447 in, Grigg, G., Shine, R. & Ehmann, H. (eds.) The Biology of Australasian Frogs and Reptiles. Surrey Beatty and Sons and Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney. (527pp.)

On Schedule 8 of Rare Fauna legislation in SA; proposed for Red Data Book


  ― 760 ―
inclusion; not on CONCOM listing of endangered species; refers to Ride and Wilson (1982).

EHMANN, H.F.W. (1973). Reptiles. pp. 100–128 in, Corbett, D. [W.P.] (ed.). Yorke Peninsula A Natural History. Department of Adult Education, University of Adelaide, Adelaide. Publication (36). (211pp.)

T. rugosa, description; diet includes flowers, especially low-growing composites, succulent herbage, fruit, carrion, snails, insects; 1–5 young born mid to late summer; T. occipitalis only known from Brentwood on Yorke Peninsula; description; diet snails, fruit, succulent herbage, low-growing composite flowers; 4–8 young born mid to late summer.

EHMANN, H.F.W. (1974). Braendler's Scrub trip. South Australian Herpetologist 2(1): 22.

Recorded.

EHMANN, H.F.W. (1976a). The reptiles of the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. Part 1. Herpetofauna 8(1): 2–5.

T. scincoides usually associated with rock piles, deep crevices under large embedded rocks.

EHMANN, H.F.W. (1976b). The reptiles of the Mount Lofty Rangers South Australia, Part 2. Herpetofauna 8(2): 5–13.

Distribution in SA, zoogeographic regions; T. scincoides relictual on Eyre Peninsula.

ELFORD, F.G. (1953). Blue-tongued Lizard. Wild Life and Outdoors 18(5): 474–478.

General; photograph; up to 12 young born; omnivorous.

ELTER, O. (1981). Cataloghi V - La collezione Erpetologica del Museo di Zoologia dell'Università di Torino. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino. pp. 100–101 (116pp.)

previous hit Tiliqua next hit specimens in MZUT listed.




  ― 761 ―

EMISON, W.B. (1982). Wildlife. pp. 57–66 in, Duncan, J.S. (ed.). Atlas of Victoria. Government Printer, Melbourne. (239pp.)

Recorded; western blue-tongue occurs through most of Eyrean zoogeographic region of northwestern Victoria, but seldom seen further south.

EMISON, W.B., PORTER, J.W., NORRIS, K.C. & APPS, G.J. (1975). Ecological Distribution of the Vertebrate Animals of the Volcanic Plains-Otway Range Area of Victoria. Fisheries and Wildlife Paper, Victoria (6): 1–93.

Zoogeographic affinities; abundance; T. nigrolutea prefers forests, woodlands, heaths, coastal scrubs, but absent in very dense wet sclerophyll forest, temperate rainforest; T. scincoides has complementary habitat preferences: grassland, grassy woodland.

EMISON, W.B., PORTER, J.W., NORRIS, K.C. & APPS, G.J. (1978). Survey of the vertebrate fauna in the Grampians-Edenhope area of southwestern Victoria. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria (39): 281–363 + pl. 19–21.

T. nigrolutea uncommon, widespread; inhabits tall open forest, sub-alpine heath, coastal heath; most recent record about 1970; T. scincoides uncommon, widespread; inhabits woodland, grasslands; most recent record about 1970; T. rugosa common, widespread; inhabits most habitats except high cool ranges in Grampians; habitats include open forest, shrubland, woodland, pasture land, heath; recorded 1974–75.

ENGEL, H. (1952). Proposed use of plenary powers to suppress for nomenclatural purposes the catalogue of the collection of animals formed by Martinus Houttuyn prepared under the title “Animalium Musaei Houttuiniani Index” in connection with the sale of the collection which took place in 1787. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 6(10): 292–303.

Refers to Houttuyn [1787].

ERREY, E.G. (1968). Question of the Month. Geelong Naturalist 5(2): 52–53.

Bluetongue diet includes berries, leaves, insects, snails; refers to McPhee (1959), Hyett (1961); bananas relished by captives; strawberries


  ― 762 ―
licked but not eaten by captives.

ESCH, H. (1936). Eigentümliche Reliefbildungen der tiefen Wandschichten im Enddarm der Saurier, ihre Entstehung und Bedeutung. Anatomischer Anzeiger 82(9/12): 162–190.

Rectum differentiated [from colon?] by a constriction; course sigmoidal; wall initially thick, then thinner; lumen invaded by thick annular folds of mucosa, tunica propria and tela submucosa; thick circular muscle layer; fibres in longitudinal muscle layer arranged in bundles, some contracted, some relaxed; refers to Jacobshagen (1920).

ESTES, R. (1980). Fish, Amphibians and Reptiles from the Etadunna Formation, Miocene of South Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics Record 1980/67: 21–22.

Differ from Egernia in having enlarged, molariform teeth.

ESTES, R. (1983). Sauria terrestria, Amphisbaenia. Teil 10A in, Wellnhofer, P. (ed.). Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. p. 113. (249pp.)

Refers to Etheridge (1917) and Molnar's (1980) suggestion of a more recent age for this material.

ESTES, R. (1984). Fish, Amphibians and Reptiles from the Etadunna Formation, Miocene of South Australia. Australian Zoologist 21(4): 335–343.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit have enlarged molariform teeth; previous hit Tiliqua next hit fossils recorded.

ESTES, R., DE QUEIROZ, K. & GAUTHIER, J. (1988). Phylogenetic Relationships within Squamata. pp. 119–281 in, Estes, R. & Pregill, G. (eds.). Phylogenetic relationships of the lizard families Essays commemorating Charles L. Camp. Stanford University Press, Stanford. (631pp.)

Reproduces figure of cervical vertebrae 2–4 from Hoffstetter & Gasc (1969).

ESTES, R. & WILLIAMS, E.E. (1984). Ontogenetic variation in the molariform teeth of lizards. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 4(1): 96–107.

Refers to Owen (1866), Boulenger (1887), Cogger (1975), Mitchell (1950); dentition descriptions of one adult C. melanops, two adult T. nigrolutea, one adult T. rugosa, adult and juvenile T. scincoides, T. gigas; dentition of T. scincoides, T. gigas, C. melanops figured; pers. comm. from H. Greene that all sizes of captive C. gerrardii eat snails.

ETHERIDGE, R. (1917). Reptilian Notes: Megalania prisca Owen, and Notiosaurus dentatus, Owen; Lacertilian dermal armor; Opalized remains from Lightning Ridge. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (n.s.)29(2): 127–133.

Fossil osteoderms, purportedly from Cretaceous [marine] beds, very similar to T. rugosa, but slightly larger.

ETHERIDGE, R. (1967). Lizard Caudal Vertebrae. Copeia 1967(4): 699–721.

Transverse processes of caudal vertebrae single, pass laterally.

EVARTS, P.W. (1979). The captive propagation of blue-tongued skinks fact or fantasy? pp. 26–30 in, 2nd Annual Reptile Symposium on Captive Propagation and Husbandry. ZCI Inc., Thurmont.

Refers to Cogger (1967); general; coloration; T. gigas more aggressive than Australian species; captive breeding of [T. scincoides]; ♀ larger than ♂; no evident sexual dimorphism; mature ♂-♂ aggression common; juveniles, ♀♀, not aggressive; litters of seven (6 Jan.), nine (three live, all deformed, showing anophthalmia, cyclopia, neurological deficits, five dead, one unfertilised ovum; 7 Feb.); ♀ inactive during gestation, more active immediately prior to parturition; post-parturient ♀ emaciated; rapid recovery from parturition; gestation “at least seven months and most likely eight to nine months” [in error].

EWERS, W.H. (1968). Blood Parasites of Some New Guinea Reptiles and Amphibia. Journal of Parasitology 54(1): 172–174.

No blood parasites found in three individuals examined.

FAHR, A. (1910). Trachysaurus rugosus, die Stutzechse. Blätter für Aquarien-und Terrarienkunde 21(42): 674–675; (43): 691–692.

Captive observations: housing, heating requirements; captive diet;


  ― 764 ―
usually sluggish; occasional tongue protrusion and hissing while moving; drinks rarely; digestion takes 6–8 days; ecdysis annual.

FAIRLEY, A. (1977). A Complete Guide to Warrumbungle National Park. Murray Child, Sydney. pp. 69–70. (134pp.)

Recorded; threat display.

FAIRLEY, A. (1982). A field guide to the National Parks of Victoria. Rigby Publishers, Adelaide. pp. 84, 94, 102, 126. (363pp.)

Bluetongues, western bluetongues and shinglebacks recorded from above localities.

FANTL, P. (1961). A comparative study of blood coagulation in vertebrates. Australian Journal of experimental Biology and medical Science 39(5): 403–412.

In vitro clotting times following incubation with phospholipid/kaolin; reduced thromboplastin formation; plasma clotting time similar to mammals; adequate amounts of prothrombin, factors V, VII, X; thrombin clotting time.

FEAKES, M.J., HODGKIN, E.P., STRAHAN, R. & WARING, H. (1950). The effect of posterior lobe pituitary extracts on the blood pressure of Ornithorhynchus (duck-billed platypus). Journal of experimental Biology 27(1): 50–58.

Pitocin depresses blood pressure; pitressin raises blood pressure.

FENNER, C. (1956). Australian reptiles. Walkabout 22(11): 37–38.

Often killed on roads.

FERGUSON, E.W. (1926). Australian ticks. Australian Zoologist 4(1): 24–35.

Amblyomma albolimbatum recorded from T. rugosa from Geraldton; Trachysaurusscaber” (Lucas, 1861) probably a lapsus for T. rugosa.




  ― 765 ―

FERGUSSON, B. & ALGAR, D. (1986). Home Range and Activity Patterns of Pregnant Female Skinks, previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Australian Wildlife Research 13(2): 287–294.

No obvious sexual dimorphism; breeding in October–November; young born in March–April; up to 40% of mass of gravid ♀♀ due to embryo, associated tissues; activity patterns; refuge sites; home range estimates 5607–13289m2.

FERGUSSON, B. & BRADSHAW, S.D. (1991). Plasma Arginine Vasotocin, Progesterone, and Luteal Development during Pregnancy in the Viviparous Lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. General and Comparative Endocrinology 82(1): 140–151.

Plasma arginine vasotocin levels increase, plasma progesterone levels decrease between parturition and 30d before; decrease in progesterone associated with degenerative changes in corpus luteum; major source of progesterone in pregnancy is ovarian; corpus luteum formation occurs in November.

FIELD, R. (1980). The Pink-Tongued skink (previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardii) in captivity. Herpetofauna 11(2): 6–10.

Captive C. gerrardii developed territories; little evidence of territorial dispute; coloration, SVL of adults; crepuscular; some activity in middle of morning; usually all four legs used; in some situations, hindlegs dragged; tail prehensile, but little used in climbing; adept climbers; preference for snails, slugs; no interest in skinks, fruit, little interest in insects; one ate a small mouse; meal and egg mix fed as substitute; severe deformities, poor survival in young of C. gerrardii, T. scincoides fed only on raw meat; C. gerrardii has three methods of removing snail from shell; slugs less liked; courtship in early September, lasted for 6wks; ♂♂ fight during this time; fighting not as severe as in T. scincoides; copulation description; litters of 14, 17 on 5, 13 January; young of banded, unbanded adults all strongly banded; growth rates in captivity; young ate more insects and worms than adults; juveniles initially diurnal.

FIELD NATURALISTS' SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA (INC.) (1972). Reptile conservation in the Mount Lofty Ranges. South Australian Naturalist 46(4): 53–54.

Recorded.

FIELDING, J.W. [1928]. Australasian Ticks. Commonwealth of Australia Department of Health Service Publication (Tropical Division) (9): 1–114.




  ― 766 ―

Amblyomma albolimbatum, Aponomma hydrosauri recorded from T. rugosa.

FIGUIER, L. (undated). Reptiles and Birds. A Popular Account of their various orders. (translated by P. Gillmore). Cassell, Pelter, Galpin & Co., London. p. 98. (624pp.)

General: T. scincoides bred at London Zoo; viviparous.

FIRTH, B.T & KENNAWAY, D.J. (1980). Plasma melatonin levels in the scincid lizard Trachydosaurus rugosus. The effects of parietal eye and lateral eye impairment. Journal of experimental Biology 85: 311–321.

At constant temperature, a diel fluctuation in plasma [melatonin]; maximal titres in dark phase of reversed light cycle; under these conditions, parietalectomy did not affect melatonin titres; when photoperiod combined with thermoperiod, nocturnal melatonin levels almost double that in constant temperature; under these conditions, capping lateral eyes did not alter rhythm; parietalectomy abolished rhythm; melatonin levels probably regulated extraretinally, mediated by parietal eye; thermal and photic information may be mediated by parietal eye.

FIRTH, B.T. & KENNAWAY, D.J. (1987). Melatonin content of the pineal, parietal eye and blood plasma of the lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus: effect of constant and fluctuating temperature. Brain Research 404(1/2): 313–318.

Lizards acclimated to light cycle and thermocycle of 30°/15°C had more robust pineal and plasma melatonin rhythm than those acclimated to constant 30°C; at constant 15°C, melatonin rhythm abolished; similar thermosensitivity in melatonin content in parietal eye, indicating that parietal eye may also be capable of synthesizing methoxyindoles.

FIRTH, B.T. & KENNAWAY, D.J. (1989). Thermoperiod and photoperiod interact to affect the phase of the plasma melatonin rhythm in the lizard, previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Neuroscience Letters 106(1,2): 125–130.

Mass of [120?] lizards 495±8.5g; peak of melatonin rhythm either shifted at different rates or inhibited by photophase, depending on phase relationship between thermocycle and photocycle; pineal organ part of a circadian pacemaker system.

FIRTH, B.T., KENNAWAY, D.J. & BELAN, I. (1991). Thermoperiodic influences


  ― 767 ―
on plasma melatonin rhythms in the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa: effect of thermophase duration. Neuroscience Letters 121(1,2): 139–142.

Melatonin secretion rate maximal at thermoperiods (33°C thermophase vs 15°C cryophase) of thermophase duration from 1.5–21h; thermoperiod as well as photoperiod may influence melatonin rhythms; refers to Firth & Kennaway (1980, 1987, 1989), Firth et al. (1979, 1989).

FIRTH, B.T., KENNAWAY, D.J. & ROZENBILDS, M.A.M. (1979). Plasma Melatonin in the Scincid Lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus: Diel Rhythm, Seasonality, and the Effect of Constant Light and Constant Darkness. General and Comparative Endocrinology 37(4): 493–500.

Daily fluctuations in plasma [melatonin]; pattern similar to other vertebrates; titres low in light phase, elevated in dark phase; spring-collected specimens transferred to 13:11 light:dark regimen showed damped amplitude of oscillation vis-à-vis autumn specimens; inverse correlation between size and plasma [melatonin]; rhythm abolished by constant light or dark under constant temperatures.

FIRTH, B.T., THOMPSON, M.B., KENNAWAY, D.J. & BELAN, I. (1989). Thermal sensitivity of reptilian melatonin rhythms: “cold” tuatara vs. “warm” skink. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 256(5/2): R1160–R1163.

Melatonin rhythm of higher amplitude than Sphenodon; capable of reaching melatonin peak of 780pmol/l; threshold temperature for a significant melatonin rhythm ca25°C; behaviourally elevated body temperature to 32.5°C during day, with a gradual return to ambient levels at night.

FIRTH, B.T. & TURNER, J.S. (1982). Sensory, Neural, and Hormonal Aspects of Thermoregulation. pp. 213–274 in, Gans, C. & Pough, F.H. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 12 Physiology C Physiological Ecology. Academic Press, London. (536pp.)

Refers to de la Lande et al. (1962), Drane & Webb (1980), Firth & Kennaway (1980), Firth et al. (1979), Hammel et al. (1967), Kirby & Burnstock (1969a,b), Myhre & Hammel (1969), Woolley (1959).

FIRTH, B.T., WEBB, G.J.W. & JOHNSON, C.R. (1972). Effect of time of day and photoperiod on heart rate in the scincid lizard, previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Comparative Physiology 43(4): 805–808.

Diel variation in basal heart rate not demonstrable; heart rate inversely


  ― 768 ―
related to body weight; resting heart rate lower in constant dark than in constant light.

FISCHTHAL, J.H. & KUNTZ, R.E. (1967). Digenetic Trematodes of Amphibians and Reptiles from Fiji, New Hebrides, and British Solomon Islands. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 34(2): 244–251.

Paradistomum trachysauri from gall bladder [same specimens as described by MacCallum, 1921].

FITZINGER, L.J. (1826). Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren naturlichen verwandtschaften nebst einer verwandtschafts-tafel und einem verzeichnisse der reptilien-sammlung des K.K. zoologischem Museum's zu Wien. J.G. Heubner, Wien. pp. 23, 52. (66pp.)

Listed.

FITZINGER, L. (1843). Systema reptilium. Fasciculus primus Amblyglossae. Braümuller et Seidel, Vindobonae. pp. 22–23. (106 + ix pp.)

Listing; Cyclodomorphus subgen. nov. erected, type species C. casuarinae.

FITZINGER, L.J. (1860). Die Ausbeute der österreichischen Naturforscher an Säugethieren und Reptilien während der Weltumsegelung sr. Majestät Fregatte Novara. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe 42(24): 383–416.

Collected by Novara expedition.

FLEAY, D. (1931). Blue-tongued lizards. Victorian Naturalist 48(1): 9–10 + pl. I. (reprinted (1954), without plate, in Reptilia 1(1): 1–4).

T. nigrolutea gave birth to three young, photograph; feeds on berries, snails, insects; 19″ specimen total length largest seen; up to 12 young born towards late March; gestation 3 months, gravid ♀♀ bask continuously; 3–4 yrs to maturity; neonates shed skin within 24hrs of birth; aggression between neonates; often killed by cars; T. scincoides common in basalt country and sea coast, in drier localities; 12 oviducal “eggs” recorded; T. occipitalis walks with body and tail clear of ground; photograph.

FLEAY, D. (1937). Black snakes in combat. Proceedings of the Royal


  ― 769 ―
Zoological Society of New South Wales 1936–37: 40–42 + pl. II–III.

Aggression between males in mating season (October–November).

FLEAY, D. (1950). Goannas Giant Lizards of the Australian Bush. Animal Kingdom 53(3): 92–96.

Three bluetongues regurgitated by very large Varanus varius.

FLEAY, D. (1951). Savage battles between snakes. Walkabout 17(5): 10–14.

Aggression between males in mating season (October–November).

FLEAY, D. (1952a). Big lizards of the trees and sand. Walkabout 18(3): 32–35.

Three bluetongues regurgitated by very large Varanus varius.

FLEAY, D. (1952b). The Tasmanian or Marsupial Devil - Its Habits and Family Life. Australian Museum Magazine 10(9): 275–280.

Remains recorded in scats of Sarcophilus harrisii.

FLEMING, M.R., TEMBY, I.D. & THOMSON, R.L. (1979). Sites of zoological significance in the upper Yarra region. Ministry for Conservation, Victoria. Environmental Studies Program Task Report (247). p. 120. (127pp.)

Recorded.

FLETCHER, J.J. (1883). Note on a Viviparous Lizard (Hinulia elegans.). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 8(2): 215–217.

Quotes Krefft (1866, 1871) on viviparity in previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

FLINDERS, M. (1814). A Voyage to Terra Australis; undertaken for the purpose of completing the discovery of that vast country, and


  ― 770 ―
prosecuted in the years 1801, 1802, and 1803, in His Majesty's Ship. The Investigator, and subsequently in the armed vessel Porpoise and Cumberland schooner. With an account of the shipwreck of the Porpoise, arrival of the Cumberland at Mauritius, and imprisonment of the commander during six years and a half in that island. Vol. I. G. and W. Nicol, London. pp. 64–65. (cciv + 269pp.)

Observed; repeats Dampier's (1729) account.

FLOWER, S.S (1925). Contributions to our Knowledge of the Duration of Life in Vertebrate Animals. - III. Reptiles. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1925(2): 911–981.

Five longevity records of 4yrs 6mo 16d to 7yrs 1mo 14d for T. rugosa; five longevity records of 6yrs 3mo 22d to 9yrs 10mo 20d for T. gigas; five longevity records of 5yrs 5mo 7d to 11yrs 6mo 25d for T. nigrolutea; maximum longevity for T. scincoides more than 17yrs, average of 20 individuals 5yrs 4mo 20d, six other records of 8–14yrs.

FLYNN, T.T. (1914). Lower vertebrate and the invertebrate fauna of Tasmania. pp. 89–92 in, British Association for the Advancement of Science Australian Meeting, 1914 Tasmanian Handbook. John Vail, Government Printer, Hobart. (345pp.)

Both recorded.

FLYNN, T.T. (1923). On the occurrence of a true allantoplacenta of the conjoint type in an Australian lizard. Records of the Australian Museum 14(1): 72–77.

15 and 11 embryos in two gravid T. scincoides; description of embryonic membranes, placentation.

FODEN, J. & SUTTON, M. (1976). Reptiles including crocodilians, chelonians, snakes, and lizards,. John Bartholomew & Son, Edinburgh. pp. 51–52. (95pp.)

General.

FOLEY, D. (1985). Faunal analysis of Anbangbang I and Djuwarr I. pp. 97–102 in, Jones, R. (ed.). Archaeological Research in Kakadu National Park. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Special Publication (13): 1–317.

Remains (mandibles) found at two aboriginal rockshelter sites; presumed to be food remains; uncommon, but widely distributed throughout region.

FORCART, L. (1953). Amphibien und Reptilien von Neuguinea, mit der Beschreibung eines neuen Laubfrosches, Nyctimystes flavomaculata n. sp. Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 64(1): 58–68.

Two juveniles collected.

FORD, J. (1963). The reptilian fauna of the islands between Dongara and Lancelin, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 8(6): 135–142.

Common under slabs of limestone

FOUNTAIN, P. (from notes and journals of T. Ward) (1907). Rambles of an Australian Naturalist. John Murray, London. pp. 240–241. (343pp.)

General; basks in sun; spends most time in shallow burrows, often in colonies; omnivorous, diet includes flies, worms, slugs; does not eat beetles [in error].

FOX, H. (1977). The Urogenital System of Reptiles. pp. 1–157 in, Gans, C. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Volume 6 Morphology E. Academic Press, London. (505pp.)

Refers to Bentley (1959), Pak Poy (1959), Schmidt-Nielsen & Davis (1968).

FOWLER, J. (1973). Reptiles and amphibians of Sturt Gorge. South Australian Herpetologist 1(1): 18–19.

T. scincoides uncommon, in flat areas; T. rugosa common on flat high ground.

FOWLER, J. (1978). Breeding. The South Australian Herpetologist. Quarterly Newsletter of the S.A.H.G. April 1978: 1–3.

Two captive-bred litters of 4,5; ♀ parents highland x lowland form.




  ― 772 ―

FOWLER, J. (1982). Trip report: Port Parham and the Gawler area. 31/1/82–1/2/82. South Australian Herpetology Group [Incorporated] Newsletter november '82: 5.

Recorded.

FRANK, W. (1969). Regenerationsvermögen biem Blauzungenskink (previous hit Tiliqua next hit skink). Salamandra 5(1): 15–17.

Regenerated tail 1.5cm one year after amputation of 12cm of tail.

FRANKENBERG, J. (1971). Nature conservation in Victoria. Victorian National Parks Association, [Melbourne]. pp. 90–91. (145pp.)

All recorded from Victoria; T. occipitalis restricted to Little Desert, Wyperfield, Hattah in Victoria.

FRAUCA, H. (1965). The book of Australian wild life. William Heinemann, London. pp. 57–58. (170pp.)

General.

FRAUCA, H. (1966). Harry Frauca's book of reptiles. Jacaranda Press, Brisbane. pp. 33, 41, 43–47. (101pp.) Reprinted (1973) as Australian reptile wonders. Rigby Limited, Adelaide.

Photographs of T. scincoides, T. rugosa, C. gerrardii; general; up to 20 young for T. scincoides; litter of six for C. casuarinae; up to 24 young for C. gerrardii; bluetongues omnivorous; coloration blends with undergrowth; C. gerrardii moves with hindlegs tucked against body; other previous hit Tiliqua next hit use both legs; 1–2 young for T. rugosa; one born March, total length “over 5 inches”, measured 11.5 inches 10 months later; coloration variable; many black in western Qld, NSW; brown, yellow, grey in northern SA; one escape travelled ca1.6km in two weeks; in wild, observed eating dandelions, other plant material; captive diet.

FRAUCA, H. (1973a). Golden Stamp Book of Australian Reptiles. Golden Press, Sydney.

General; photographs; Qld T. scincoides larger than southern specimens; up to 20 young; no maternal behaviour; C. gerrardii mainly active at night.




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FRAUCA, H. (1973b). Golden Stamp Book of More Australian Reptiles. Golden Press, Sydney. p. 11.

General; photograph.

FRAUCA, H. (1982). What animal is that? A guide to Australian amphibians, insects, mammals, reptiles and spiders. Doubleday Australia, Lane Cove. pp. 164, 167–171. (229pp.)

Colour descriptions; general; photographs of T. scincoides, T. nigrolutea, T. rugosa, C. gerrardii; T. scincoides shelters under brush, grass, logs; eats carrion, wild flowers, insects, snails; up to 25 young; T. occipitalis sympatric with T. scincoides, T. multifasciata; T. multifasciata said to produce ten young; C. gerrardii tail prehensile, used when climbing; potential snake mimicry; litter of 36 recorded; T. rugosa shelters under bushes, grass tussocks; 1–2 young; coloration variable.

FRAZETTA, T.H. (1962). A Functional Consideration of Cranial Kinesis in Lizards. Journal of Morphology 111(3): 287–319.

Skull amphikinetic.

FRENCH, C. (1888a). Notes on the zoology of Lake Albacutya district. Victorian Naturalist 5(3): 35–42.

Local name for T. rugosa “wallops”.

FRENCH, C. (1888b). Notes on a trip to the upper Murray. Victorian Naturalist 5 (3): 47; (4): 51–53.

Several blue-tongued lizards seen.

FRENCH, C. (1889a). Notes on the natural history of the western Wimmera. Victorian Naturalist 5(10): 145–152.

“Wallops” very common; severe bruising following bite on finger.

FRENCH, C. (1889b). Notes on a collecting trip to Swan Hill district. Victorian Naturalist 6(6): 95–98.

Stump-tailed lizards common.

FRENCH, C. (1901). A naturalist in the Mallee. Victorian Naturalist 18(1): 8–14.

Observed eating flowers of Wahlenbergia gracilis.

FRIEDERICH, U. (1978). Der Pileus der Squamata. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Herausgegeben vom Staatlichen Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart (A) (Biologie) (307): 1–64.

Full complement of head shields; T. rugosa has an occipital behind interparietal, not differentiated from dorsal scales; occipital absent in other previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

FRIEND, G.R., SMITH, G.T., MITCHELL, D.S. & DICKMAN, C.R. (1989). Influence of Pitfall and Drift Fence Design on Capture Rates of Small Vertebrates in Semi-arid Habitats of Western Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 16(1): 1–10.

Three and five individuals respectively captured in large pitfall traps, either without associated drift fences, or with long (7m) drift fences.

FRITH, C. & FRITH, D. (1987). Australian Tropical Reptiles & Frogs. Tropical Australia Graphics, Paluma. p. 45. (71pp.)

Photographs of threat displays; general; distribution maps; tail of C. gerrardii prehensile, although species predominantly ground-dwelling; habitat preferences; coloration variation; half-grown individual had blue tongue; diurnal at high altitudes (875m, Paluma); T. scincoides diet slugs, snails, insects, spiders, fruit, some vegetation; up to 25 young in litter.

FRITH, H.J. (1962). Conservation of the Mallee Fowl, Leipoa ocellata Gould (Megapodiidae). C.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Research 7(1): 33–49.

One observed in open mallee fowl nest eating egg.

FROST, C. & LUCAS, A.H.S. (1894). On a new skink lizard from Tasmania. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (2)8(2): 227–228.




  ― 775 ―

Type description of H. tasmanicum.

FUHN, I.E. (1975). The Skinks. pp. 242–263 in, Grzimek, B., Hediger, H., Klemmer, K., Kuhn, O. & Wermuth, H. (eds.) Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia Volume 6 Reptiles. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. (589pp.)

General; illustrations; Rottnest I. populations of T. rugosa very dark; near Adelaide, inhabits sandy dunes; can burrow into upper sand layers; can move nimbly if necessary; diet plants; in captivity also eats mealworms, earthworms, caterpillars, meat, small snails; swallows small stones, possibly aids digestion; 2–3 young; great enlargement of one cheek tooth in C. gerrardii, probably for crushing snails; previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. primarily herbivorous, eat stones.

FULTON, S.W. (1902). General. pp. 109–110 in, The Shoreham Camp-Out. Victorian Naturalist 19(8): 107–115.

Collected.

FÜRBRINGER, M. (1876). Zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Schultermuskeln. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 1(4): 636–816 + pl. XXIII–XXVII.

Medial portion of clavicle dilated; brachial plexus involves spinal nerve roots 6–9; ventral branch of spinal n. 7 first sends off successively n. supracoracoideus and n. inferior thoracic; n. supracoracoideus composed of contributions from spinal nn. 6–7; n. inferior thoracic represented by two nerves, first from spinal n. 7 to m. sternocoracoid, other from ventral branch of spinal n. 7 to m. sternocostoscapularis; n. brachialis longus inferior arises from the most distal inferior ansa, composed of elements of spinal nn. 7–9; cranial branch of n. latissimus dorsi gives off a n. teres major very early; division between long, narrow, cranioventral m. capiti-cleido-episternalis and broad dorsocaudal m. capiti-dorso-clavicularis via a long cleft in cranial origin; origin extends caudally to third vertebrum; superficial division of m. collo-thoraci-scapularis profundus arises from ribs of vertebrae 6–7, stronger deep division from ribs of vertebrae 5–7; m. sternocosto-scapularis arises also from lateral edge of sternum, lies on and joins internal sternoscapular ligament; caudal part of coracoid origin of m. coraco-antebrachialis predominantly fibrous; m. teres major arises from caudal part of lateral surface of scapula; coracoid portion of m. subcoracoscapularis a homogeneous muscle layer, scapular portion smaller.

FÜRBRINGER, M. (1900). Zur vergleichenden Anatomie des


  ― 776 ―
Brustschulterapparates und der Schultermuskeln. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft (n.s.)27(2/3): 215–718 + pl. 13–17.

Refers to Cope (1892), Gegenbaur (1865), Parker (1868), Siebenrock (1895) and Werber (1865); reprints figures of pectoral girdle of both species from Parker (1868); medial ends of clavicles broadly expanded, in T. rugosa with or without a fenestra; small metasternal fenestra; in T. rugosa: origin of superficial part of m. levator scapulae et serratus profundus from cervical ribs 6–7; origin of deep part from cervical vertebrae 5–7; origin of m. sternocostoscapularis extensive, from first sternal rib; muscular part of m. biceps brachii predominates.

FÜRBRINGER, M. (1919). Über das Zungenbein der Reptilien. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 21: 195–212.

Refers to Beddard (1907), Zavattari (1908); well-developed dorsal part of second branchial cornu.

FURNESS, J.B. & MOORE, J. (1970). The Adrenergic Innervation of the Cardio-Vascular System of the Lizard Trachysaurus rugosus. Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und microskopische Anatomie 108: 150–176.

Cardiac muscle of caval veins, sinus venosus, auricle and papillary muscle of ventricle heavily innervated; some areas of ventricles uninnervated; aortic arches and elastic arteries adrenergically innervated, with fibres in tunica media, innervated vasa vasorum at medio-adventitial border; adrenergic nerves usually don't penetrate media of muscular arteries; pattern of innervation of peripheral arteries similar to mammals except for very dense innervation of pulmonary arteries; all major veins innervated, but more sparsely than arteries; many small veins have little or no adrenergic innervation.

FYFE, G. (1980a). A trench as an aid towards reptile captures. V.H.S. ‘Newsletter’ (17): 14–17.

More than ten of each found in construction trench over one month period.

FYFE, G. (1980b). “Reptiles & amphibians in your suburb”. “Victorian Herpetological Society Newsletter” (19): 18–19.

Recorded.




  ― 777 ―

FYFE, G. (1980c). The effect of fire on lizard communities in central Australia. Herpetofauna 12(1): 1–9.

Both species only recorded in unburnt sites.

FYFE, G. (1981). Predation on reptiles by the Brown Falcon (Falco berigora). Herpetofauna 13(1): 31.

Adult attacked by Falco berigora.

FYFE, G. (1985). Some notes on sympatry between previous hit Tiliqua next hit occipitalis and previous hit Tiliqua next hit multifasciata in the Ayers Rock Region and their Associations with Aboriginal People of the Area. Herpetofauna 15(1): 18–19.

Sympatry between the two species recorded in several habitats; T. multifasciata, rarely T. occipitalis occurs on sand dunes; T. occipitalis only, occurs in mulga with Triodia; Mountford's (1965) description of aboriginal legends composite; T. occipitalis is “mita”, T. multifasciata is “lungata”; both used as food.




  ― 643 ―

B.2. References and Annotations (Authors G-Q)

G., J.C. (1925). Blue-tongued lizard and snails. Victorian Naturalist 42(3): 64.

T. scincoides eating numerous Helix aspera under house; houses said to be “protected” against snakes by bluetongues, T. rugosa.

GABE, M. (1970). The Adrenal. pp. 263–318 in, Gans, C. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Volume 3 Morphology C. Academic Press, London. (385pp.)

Refers to Gabe et al. (1964).

GABE, M., MARTOJA, M. & SAINT GIRONS, H. (1964). État actuel des connaissances sur la glande surrénale des reptiles. Année Biologique 3(7–8): 303–376.

Adrenal histology examined; [presumably similar to other skinks examined].




  ― 778 ―

GABE, M. & SAINT-GIRONS, H. (1970). Glandes endocrines III. - Glande parathyroïde. pp. 759–770 in, Grassé, P.-P. (ed.). Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Vol. 14. Reptiles. Part 3. Glandes endocrines-embryologie-systematique-paléontologie. Masson et Cie, Paris. (1428pp.)

Refers to Rogers (1963).

GADOW, H. (1882a). Untersuchungen über die Bauchmuskeln der Krokodile, Eidechsen und Schildkröten. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 7(1): 57–100 + pl. VI.

Seven true thoracic ribs, from vertebrae 9–15; remainder false ribs, noticeably shorter; from vertebra 34, forming lumbar ribs; sacrum involves vertebrae 39–40; superficial layer of m. external abdominal oblique arises from lateral surfaces of ribs of vertebrae 10–34, inserts caudally via a strong tendon on lateral process of pubis, close to acetabulum; internal intercostal rapidly take on characteristic fibre direction; scalaris mm. in 16 segments, last originating from end of rib of vertebra 31; ventrolateral part of ribs internally covered with partly confluent muscle bundles, running more transversely than internal intercostal mm., from edge of m. quadratus lumborum and cranial edge of ilium to rib of vertebra 33, then towards ventral midline; m. retrohentes costarum broad, extends fleshily to vertebra 37, last insertion on rib of vertebra 33; m. rectus abdominis divided into three portions, description of lateral portion; long intercostal mm. well-developed.

GADOW, H. (1882b). Beiträge zur Myologie der hinteren Extremität der Reptilien. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 7(3): 329–466 + pl. XVII–XXI.

Longitudinal branch of ilium nearly at right angles to body, anterior spine scarcely developed; dorsal part narrow in cross-section; thigh muscles innervated by branches of spinal nerves 37–41; pattern of spinal nerve contributions to crural and ischiatic plexuses and obturator n.; metameric septa in m. ilio-ischio-caudalis clear, ilio-caudal and superficial head of ischio-caudal part to ischial symphysis with zig-zag lines, deeper head to tuber ischii independent; anal mm. well-developed, including a small bundle from superficial part of m. ischio-caudalis; description of m. transverse perinei; m. ambiens connected to internal head of m. femorotibialis; description of m. extensor iliotibialis; origin of m. femorotibialis extends almost to femoral trochanter; m. iliofemoralis inserts to first half of femur; description of m. caudi-ilio-femoralis; m. caudifemoralis short due to reduction of tail, origin from vertebrae 40–48, a distinct thin accessory slip present; description of distribution of fat in tail; proximal half of m. flexor tibialis externus closely connected to m. pubi-ischio-tibialis; description of three parts of m. flexor tibialis internus; description of division of m. pubi-ischio-tibialis into three segments; m. ischiofemoralis incorporated into m. pubi-ischio-tibialis and m. flexor tibialis internus; m. pubi-tibialis has two distinct heads; first two parts of m. pubi-ischio-femoralis internus fused initially, third part


  ― 779 ―
contains a small nerve from obturator n.; pubi-ischiadic ligament firmly attached by ischiadic symphysis to caudal edge of ischium; division in tendons of insertion of m. long digital extensor extends to metatarsals 2–3; cranial and caudal peroneal mm. largely fused; tibial head of m. gastrocnemius largely a continuation of cranial portion of m. pubi-ischio-tibialis; division of heads of m. long digital flexor weak.

GADOW, H. (1894). On the Remains of some Gigantic Land-Tortoises, and of an extinct Lizard, recently discovered in Mauritius. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 13(8): 313–324 + pl. XLII–XLIV.

Didosaurus resembles previous hit Tiliqua next hit in shape of skull, based on similarities in mandibles, frontal bone and basis cranii.

GADOW, H. (1896). On the Evolution of the Vertebral Column of Amphibia and Amniota. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 187(B): 1–57.

First three cervical vertebrae figured; second basiventral and odontoid fused to atlas.

GADOW, H. (1901). Volume VIII. Amphibia and Reptiles. In, Harmer, S.F. & Shipley, A.E. (eds.). The Cambridge Natural History. MacMillan & Co., London. pp. 560–562. (668pp.)

General; T. rugosa embryos have yellow transverse bands on back, often fade before birth; 2–3 young born April after 3mo gestation; sloughing six times per year, requiring 8–10 days; diet mainly worms, lizards, snakes; in captivity, meat, cabbage, lettuce; previous hit Tiliqua next hit teeth have spherical crowns.

GANS, C. (1975). Reptiles of the World. Ridge Press Inc./Bantam Books Inc., Toronto. p. 76. (159pp.)

General; diet snails, insects, fruits; diurnal; 6–20 young in litter; photograph of T. nigrolutea.

GANS, C. & DE VREE, F. (1984). Temporal summation in the adductor musculature of the lizard Trachydosaurus: Treppe and tetanus in the crushing of snails. American Zoologist 24: 108A.

Crushes large snails; crushing events always involve three or more synchronous pulses of all jaw adductors at frequency 7–9Hz; summation starts above 3Hz, unfused tetanus between 4–11Hz, fused tetanus >11Hz;


  ― 780 ―
frequencies of 6–8Hz showed treppe.

GANS, C. & DE VREE, F. (1986). Shingle-back lizards crush snail shells using temporal summation (tetanus) to increase the force of the adductor muscles. Experientia 42(4): 387–389.

During crushing of hard objects, adductor muscles activated in unfused tetanus with tetanic pulses of the several motor units occurring in synchrony.

GANS, C. & DE VREE, F. (1987). Functional Bases of Fiber Length and Angulation in Muscle. Journal of Morphology 192(1): 63–85.

Fibre length and placement in m. adductor medialis externus part 2.

GANS, C., DE VREE, F. & CARRIER, D.R. (1984). Muscle architecture, activity and biological role in the masticatory system of a lizard. Anatomical Record 208: 59A.

Adductor musculature complex, more than ten major compartments, six connective tissue divisions; jax closure simple, without cranial kinesis or streptostyly; complex aponeurosis of adductor musculature simulates elevated coronoid, permitting non-standard insertions; external adductors 80% of dorsal adductor volume; only lateral portion of external adductor pinnate; most remaining fibres “pseudopinnate”, action lines changing gradually from rostral to caudal; local angle of attachment changing with mandibular position; some fibres attach to moveable tendons, maintaining straight line between origin, insertion; electromyogram confirmation of anatomical mechanics; rostral-caudal dichotomy in activation transcends anatomical subdivisions; “straight-line” muscles act differently to “pseudopinnate” muscles; horizontal reaction of external adductors balanced by pterygoid muscles.

GANS, C., DE VREE, F. & CARRIER, D. (1985). Usage Pattern of the Complex Masticatory Muscles in the Shingleback Lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus: A Model for Muscle Placement. American Journal of Anatomy 173(3): 219–240.

Adductor musculature complex, fibres differing in length by factor of three, insertion angle by 90°; maximum moment of stimulated muscles when mouth almost fully open; opening mechanism simple rotation without mandibular translation; entire adductor mass activated equivalently in crushing without temporal subdivisions matching activity to opening angle; chin in contact with ground when crushing hard objects, subvertebral muscles aiding buccal closure; muscle activation in pulsatile staircase leading to unfused tetanus generating forces several times twitch level; application of maximum sarcomere number in parallel


  ― 781 ―
to crushing bite a major design characteristic; for primary adductor muscles, angle of fibre insertion relative to lines connecting insertion with jaw joint equivalent; relationship persisting as mouth opens; fibre lengths proportional to distance between jaw joint and insertion site, each sarcomere contributing equally to movement; complex tendons provide additional space for muscle placement, some extending beyond osseous attachments to produce tendinous “coronoid process”; lateral and ventral fibres short relative to entire muscle length, insert at short moment arms, undergo short excursion during opening, many such fibres; muscles with low incident angle crossed, protecting jaw joint from horizontal forces; T. rugosa eats tomatoes in agricultural areas; WA populations eat Helix pomacia.

GASON, S. (1879). The manners and customs of the Dieyerie Tribe of Australian aborigines. Embracing an account of the character of the race; the country it inhabits; its rites, ceremonies, and superstitions; its social usages and laws; the diseases peculiar to it. A catalogue of the animals, plants, weapons, and ornaments, accompanied by the native names. Together with examples of the construction of the dialect, and a complete vocabulary. pp. 253–307 in, The Native Tribes of South Australia. E.S. Wigg & Son, Adelaide. (xxxviii + 316pp.).

Dieri aboriginal name “womaloora” refers to a small, smooth-skinned lizard, about 4” long [=Cyclodomorphus melanops, vide Johnston, 1943].

GAUKRODGER, D.W. (1924). The Way of an Eagle. Emu 24(1): 3–12.

Young bluetongue killed.

GAUTHIER, J., ESTES, R. & DE QUEIROZ, K. (1988). A Phylogenetic Analysis of Lepidosauromorpha. pp. 15–98 in, Estes, R. & Pregill, G. (eds.). Phylogenetic relationships of the lizard families Essays commemorating Charles L. Camp. Stanford University Press, Stanford. (631pp.)

Exoccipital sutured to opisthotic in some late embryos.

GEARY, N. (1932). Notes on the Wedge-tailed Eagle. Emu 31(4): 288–289.

Remains of both species under Aquila audax nests.

GEGENBAUR, C. (1865). Untersuchungen zur Vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbelthiere. Zweites heft, Erster Abschnitt. Schultergürtel der Wirbelthiere. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. p. 48, pl. 2, fig. 13–14. (176pp. + 9pl.)




  ― 782 ―

Figure of pectoral girdle; medial end of clavicles broadly expanded, extending towards lateral proceses of interclavicle; cranial process of interclavicle meets medial end of clavicles, which are synchondrotically connected.

GEGENBAUR, C. (1898). Vergleichende anatomie der wirbelthiere mit berücksichtigung der wirbellosen. Erster Band Einleitung, integument, skeletsystem, muskelsystem, nervensystem und sinnesorgane. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. pp. 487, 931. (974pp.)

Refers to Manz (1857): a network of vessels from optic n. to hind edge of lens, resembling falciform process; episternal part of clavicle broad in previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

GEISSLER, K. (1948). Beobachtungen bei der Pflege einer australischen Glattechse (Egernia species). Die Aquarien- und Terrarien Zeitschrift 1(2): 21–22.

Author bred T. scincoides three times; captive success with both species attributed to housing in a small outdoor enclosure in sunny weather.

GEORGE, N. (1987). Effect of water deprivation on plasma sodium and potassium concentrations and on the mean preferred temperature of previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosus. p. 10 in, Collins, B.G. (ed.). Undergraduate research within the School of Biology at Curtin University of Technology 1973–1981. Curtin University of Technology School of Biology Bulletin (15).

Following five weeks of water deprivation with occasional salt loading, mean preferred body temperature decreased by 0.8°C, mean plasma [Na+] increased by 13.7meq/l, plasma [K+] did not change; no sexual or circadian differences detected.

GEORGES, A. (1979). Head-body temperature differences in the Australian blue-tongued lizard, previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides during radiant heating. Journal of thermal Biology 4(3): 213–217.

Head-body temperature gradients develop following radiant heating; differences larger in live material, indicating physiological component; lag effect in initial heating, head heating faster initially, followed by more rapid body heating than head, due to greater surface area/unit mass; in living lizards, head-body temperature difference maintained until maximum voluntary temperature approached.




  ― 783 ―

GERRITSEN, J. (1976). “Mootwingee - The Rockholes”. The author, Tibooburra. pp. 53–54. (69pp.)

Both species present.

GEVERS, A. (1787). Museum Geversianum sive index rerum naturalium continens instructissimam copiam pretiosissimorum omnis generis ex tribus regnis naturae objectorum quam dum in vivis erat magna diligentia multaque cura comparavit vir amplissimus. P. & J. Holsteyn, Rotterdam. pp. 10–11. (i–iv + 659pp.)

Early mention of T. gigas [vide Schneider (1801)]; specimen in Museum Geversianum.

GEYTENBEEK, B. & GEYTENBEEK, H. (1971). Gidabal Grammar and Dictionary. Australian Aboriginal Studies (43): 1–85.

“Gubagan” in Gidabal vocabulary.

GIBSON, D.B. & COLE, J.R. (1988). A biological survey of the northern Simpson Desert. Conservation Commission Northern Territory Technical Report (40): 1–205.

Uncommon but widespread between Hay River and east of Todd River; inhabits sand dunes vegetated with Zygochloa paradoxa and Triodia basedowii; corrects Lucas & Frost's (1896) record of T. occipitalis to T. multifasciata.

GIBSON, D.F. (1986). A biological survey of the Tanami Desert in the Northern Territory. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory Technical Report (30): 1–258.

Widespread, abundant in Tanami Desert; native names lungkarda, luma; habitat preferences; carcasses common below black-breasted buzzard nests; eagerly sought by aborigines as food.

GIDDINGS, S. (1979). Treatment of parasitic worm infections in reptiles. Newsletter of the South Australian Herpetology Group Inc. 2(1): 8.

Symptoms and postmortem findings of gastrointestinal helminthiasis.

GIDDINGS, S. (1983a). Survey of Yorke Peninsula, 24 – 26/4/82. SAHG Newsletter May '83: 5–6.

Recorded.

GIDDINGS, S. (1983b). Easter Trip to Noonning Homestead. SAHG Newsletter September '83: 2–3.

Recorded; C. melanops burnt from Triodia.

GIDDINGS, S. (1984). An Observation of Parturition of a Blotched-Bluetongue. (previous hit Tiliqua next hit nigrolutea). SAHG Newsletter May '84: 4.

Observations on parturition; ♀ removed fetal membranes, but these eaten by young; litter of 3; ♀ aggressive post-parturition.

GILLESPIE, G.R., HENRY, S.R., MUECK, S.G., SCOTTS, D. & WESTAWAY, J. (1990). Flora and fauna of the Pheasant Creek and Upper Buenba Forest Blocks, Alpine Area, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests & Lands Ecological Survey Report (29): 1–141.

Recorded; commonly seen basking; collected in pit traps, mammal traps; not found in riparian forest; most abundant in montane wet woodland.

GILMORE, A.M. (1977). A survey of Vertebrate Animals in the Stradbroke Area of South Gippsland, Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 94(3): 123–128.

One in open forest; one dead on road in woodland with dense bracken understory.

GILMORE, A.M., EMISON, W.B. & WHEELER, J.R. (1979). Vertebrate fauna of the Ballarat area, Victoria. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria (40): 51–104 + pl. 3–4.




  ― 785 ―
T. nigrolutea uncommon, probably widespread in N, E of Ballarat area; in open forest; T. scincoides uncommon, probably widespread in Ballarat area; in grassland, sheltering beneath basalt boulders; T. rugosa uncommon, restricted to NW of Ballarat area; in woodland, open forest.

GIRARD, C. (1858). United States Exploring Expedition. During the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. Under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Herpetology. J.B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia. pp. 232–235. (496pp.)

Generic and species definitions, species synonymy; description of a single stuffed specimen.

GIRAUD, A.S., HUNTER, C.R. & ST. JOHN, D.J.B. (1978). Epithelial Surfaces of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of the Blue-Tongued Lizard, previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study. Australian Journal of Zoology 26(2): 241–247.

Oesophagus lined by ciliated, goblet, microvillous cell types; topographically similar to trachea, major bronchi of mammals, birds; microvillous cells uniformly arranged on gastric rugae throughout stomach; cells slightly convex, sparsely populated by microvilli, which were more numerous at intercellular margins; swollen epithelial cells, twice size of adjacent cells, scattered throughout gastric epithelium; cells with focal apical erosions in isolated regions, more numerous in distal stomach; gastric gland openings as invaginations of epithelial surface, most prominent near top of gastric rugae; small intestine lined by epithelial cells with long densely packed microvilli; goblet cells interspersed along surface of intestinal villi; all areas except oesophagus similar to mammalian gut.

GIRAUD, A.S. & YEOMANS, N.D. (1982). Comparative distribution of pepsinogen in the chordate gastric mucosa from representatives of five classes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 72(1): 145–147.

Pepsinogen present, concentration higher in proximal than distal stomach; may be produced by glandular mucous cells as well as oxynticopeptic cells.

GIRAUD, A.S., YEOMANS, N.D. & ST. JOHN, D.J.B. (1979). Ultrastructure and Cytochemistry of the Gastic Mucosa of a Reptile, previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides. Cell and Tissue Research 197(2): 281–294.

Gastric pits lead into glands, extensively coiled in proximal stomach, progressively shorter and straighter in distal stomach; surface mucous cells line entire lumenal surface and pits; contain mucus granules that


  ― 786 ―
stain with periodic acid-Schiff and like mammals, commonly contain non-mucus electron dense core; glandular mucous cells in glands throughout mucosa, probably homologues of mucous neck and antral gland cells of mammals; mucus granules contain non-glycoprotein cores; oxynticopeptic cells predominant cell type in proximal glands, infrequent distally; fine structure similar to other non-mammalian oxynticopeptic cells, with features like parietal cells and zymogen cells of mammals; three types of endocrine cells, two with similarities to mammalian EC, ECL cells.

GLADSTONE, R.J. & WAKELEY, C.P.G. (1940). The pineal organ. Baillière, Tindall and Cox, London. p. 281. (528pp.)

Refers to Spencer's (1886) description of pineal organ and Studnička's (1905) criticisms.

GLAUERT, L. (1923). Contributions to the Fauna of Western Australia No. 3. Annotated List of Lizards from Wallal. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 9(1): 57–60.

Type description of previous hit Tiliqua next hit occipitalis nossiteri.

GLAUERT, L. (1929). Contributions to the Fauna of Rottnest Island. No. 1. Introduction and Vertebrates. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 15: 37–46.

Seven seen in one afternoon.

GLAUERT, L. (1939). Notes on Rottnest Island. West Australian Naturalist 1(1): 7 (Special Exhibition Number).

Bob-tails present.

GLAUERT, L. (1947). A two-headed bob-tailed lizard. Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1946–47: 34.

Description and photograph of partially twinned juvenile T. rugosa.

GLAUERT, L. (1954). Reptiles and frogs. pp. 29–35 in, The Archipelago of the Recherche. Australian Geographical Society Report (1): 1–63.




  ― 787 ―
Recorded; refers to Dampier (1729).

GLAUERT, L. (1958). Mammals and Reptiles of King's Park. Western Australian Naturalist 6(6): 155–156.

Recorded.

GLAUERT, L. (1960). Herpetological Miscellanea. XII. The family Scincidae in Western Australia. Part I - The genera previous hit Tiliqua next hit, Trachysaurus and Egernia. Western Australian Naturalist 7(2): 67–77.

Diagnosis of previous hit Tiliqua next hit; key to species; description and general distribution in WA of each taxon; T. o. nossiteri synonymised with T. multifasciata; Abrolhos Is T. rugosa typically coloured [no specimens known from Abrolhos except one in BMNH].

GLAUERT, L. (1961). A Handbook of the Lizards of Western Australia. Handbook (6). Western Australian Naturalists' Club, Perth. pp. 53–58 (100pp.)

Diagnosis of previous hit Tiliqua next hit; key to species; description and general distribution in WA of each taxon; T. o. nossiteri synonymised with T. multifasciata; Abrolhos Is T. rugosa typically coloured [no specimens known from Abrolhos except one in BMNH].

GLAZEBROOK, R. (1977). Old man goanna. North Queensland Naturalist 44(170): 4–6.

Mention.

GODDARD, C.K. (1969). Mechanics of the urinary bladder of the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides scincoides (Shaw). Australian Journal of experimental Biology and medical Science 47(6): 701–711.

Bladder capacity one sixth body mass, three times that of cat; pressure traces from bladder and lung similar, attributed partly to lack of


  ― 788 ―
diaphragm; two pressure curves experimentally, one characterised by gradual pressure increase up to 60ml volume, second shows plateau over most of physiological range, similar to mammal; second type an experimental artefact; lack of significant degree of pressure adaptation during discontinuous infusion; hysteresis during discharge; first curve metabolically more economical; back pressure against respiratory system may be crucial factor favouring first-type curve.

GOIN, C.J., GOIN, O.B. & ZUG, G.R. (1978). Introduction to herpetology. 3rd Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. pp. 118, 301–303.

Chorioallantoic placenta in previous hit Tiliqua next hit; 5–18 young born January for T. scincoides; neonates eat foetal membranes; young 130–152mm total length; photograph of T. rugosa.

GOLD, H. & PRINEAS, P. (1978). Colo Wilderness. Kalianna Press, Sydney. p. 50. (112pp.)

Blue-tongue lizard present.

GOLDMAN, J., HILL, L. & STANBURY, P.J. (1969). Type specimens in the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney. II. Amphibians and Reptiles. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 93(3): 427–438.

Holotype of Hinulia picta not found in MMus; refers to Mitchell (1950) for synonymy with T. gerrardii.

GOMES, N. (1974). Anatomie comparée de la musculature trigéminale des lacertiliens. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris) Serie A, Zoologie 90: 1–107.

Description of trigeminal musculature of skinks based in part on T. rugosa; schemae of adductor aponeurosis, trigeminal nerve, dorsal constrictor muscles; insertion of m. levator anguli oris on both medial face of rictal area and external face of superficial aponeurosis 2; no posterior aponeurosis dividing posterior portion of m. adductor mandibulae externus medialis; origin of m. pterygomandibularis by aponeurotic plate and fleshy fibres; m. adductor mandibulae posterior covered by two small aponeuroses, one dorsal, one medial; origin of m. protractor pterygoidei from ventral border of prootic; two tendons of origin of m. levator pterygoidei, from ventral border of descending process of parietal and dura mater below; origin of m. levator bulbi from dura mater below m. levator pterygoidei; middle and superficial parts of m. adductor mandibulae externus inserting on lateral face of mandible; ground-aponeurosis divided; aponeurosis covers m. pseudotemporalis


  ― 789 ―
superficialis; insertion of m. adductor mandibulae posterior on Meckelian fossa; m. levator bulbi undivided; temporal fenestra covered by postfrontal; squamosal forms entire temporal arch; jugal present; coronoid process, retroarticular process, Meckelian fossa well-developed.

GOODE, J. & CANN, J. (1974). Practical Nature Study and Collection. Sun Books, Melbourne. pp. 49–50. (134pp.). Reprinted (1974) as Reptiles, freshwater animals and you.

General; C. gerrardii from Cape York to Blue Mountains; seminocturnal; C. casuarinae very aggressive to other lizards; T. rugosa common names; occurs from Lithgow to west coast; usually two young.

GÖPPERT, E. (1899). Der Kehlkopf der Amphibien und Reptilien. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 28(1): 1–27 + pl. I–II.

Two halves of laryngeal sphincter originate ventrally from raphe from hyoid body; superior laryngeal n. originates from vagus, caudal to crossing of hypoglossal; ganglion at origin; course of superior laryngeal n.; second branchial branch of vagus small, arises from ganglion trunci; course of recurrent laryngeal n.; asymmetry in course of superior and inferior laryngeal nn., uniting on left; glossopharyngeal n. doesn't join laryngeal nn., but does join one of two terminal branches of hypoglossal n.; not clear anatomically whether superior or inferior laryngeal n. carries motor fibres.

[GOSSE, P.H.] (undated). A popular history of reptiles; or, an introduction to the study of the class Reptilia, on Scientific Principles. The Religious Tract Society, London. p. 187, pl. opp. p. 188. (328pp.)

Mention; drawing purporting to depict T. rugosa [in error].

GOVE, D. & BURGHARDT, G.M. (1983). Context-correlated parameters of snake and lizard tongue-flicking. Animal Behaviour 31(3): 718–723.

Exploratory tongue flicks have shorter oscillation duration, smaller relative circumscribed area than defensive tongue flicks.

GOW, G.F. (1976). Amphibians and Reptiles of Katherine Gorge National Park. Northern Territory Reserves Board. Leaflet.

Recorded.




  ― 790 ―

GOW, G.F. (1977). Howard Springs Recreation Reserve Amphibians and Reptiles. Northern Territory Reserves Board. Leaflet.

Recorded.

GOW, G. (1981a). Checklist of reptiles and amphibians of the southern sector of the N.T. Northern Territory Naturalist (4): 14–16.

All recorded.

GOW, G. (1981b). Checklist of reptiles and amphibians of the northern sector of the N.T. Northern Territory Naturalist (4): 16–19.

All recorded.

GOW, G.F. (1981c). Herpetofauna of Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory. Australian Journal of Herpetology 1(2): 62–70.

Reasonably common; shelters under litter or in clumps of Triodia microstachya.

GOWLAND, P.N. & SONNEMANN, N. (1981). North East Kimberley Reptile and Amphibia List. Western Australian Department of Agriculture. (4pp.)

C. melanops uncommon; T. multifasciata, T. s. intermedia common.

GRASSÉ, P.-P. (1965a). Reproduction et développement embryonnaire des vertébrés. pp. 441–541 in, Grassé, P.-P. and Devillers, C. (eds.) Zoologie. Tome II Vertébrés. Masson et Cie, Paris. (1129pp.)

Allantoplacenta well-developed.

GRASSÉ, P.-P. (1965b). Les classes de vertébrés. pp. 543–1073 in, Grassé, P.P. and Devillers, C. (eds.) Zoologie. Tome II Vertébrés. Masson et Cie, Paris. (1129pp.)

T. rugosa urine production 5cm3/kg/hr when normally hydrated; 0.24cm3/kg/hr when dehydrated; previous hit Tiliqua next hit viviparous.




  ― 791 ―

GRAVES, B.M. & HALPERN, M. (1991). Discrimination of Self from Conspecific Chemical Cues in previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides (Sauria: Scincidae). Journal of Herpetology 25(1): 125–126.

SVL 27–33cm, mass 414–615g (n = 5); sex can only be determined by laparotomy; frequency of tongue extrusions; can discriminate own odour from that of conspecific animals; conspecific odours elicit higher tongue extrusion rates than food odours.

GRAY, J.E. (1825). A Synopsis of the Genera of Reptiles and Amphibia, with a Description of some new Species. Annals of Philosophy (2)10(3): 193–217.

Erection, diagnosis of genera previous hit Tiliqua next hit and Trachydosaurus; type description of T. rugosa [although evidently not intentional: see Gray, 1827].

GRAY, J.E. (1827). Reptilia. pp. 424–434 in, King, P.P. Narrative of a survey of the intertropical and western coasts of Australia. Performed between the years 1818 and 1822. Volume II. John Murray, London. (637pp.)

Diagnosis and description of T. rugosa as new, based on specimen from King George Sound, collected P.P. King, in BMNH; type in poor condition; second specimen in Linnean Society of London collection; diagnosis of previous hit Tiliqua next hit; description of purported T. scincoides as T. tuberculata [although specimen probably misidentified Egernia kingii].

GRAY, J.E. (1831). A synopsis of the species of the Class Reptilia, pp. 483–600 in, Griffith, E. & Pidgeon, E., The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of France, &c. &c. &c. with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed. Volume 9. The class Reptilia arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with specific descriptions. Whittaker, Treacher, and Co., London. (481 + 110pp.)

Definitions of genera; Scincus Pachyurus introduced in synonymy of T. rugosa, ex Peron MS; T. Whitii introduced, apparently replacement name for T. scincoides; Cyclodeus Flacigularis [lapsus pro Cyclodus flavigularis = T. gigas] differs little from T. scincoides.

GRAY, J.E. (1838). Catalogue of the Slender-tongued Saurians, with Descriptions of many new Genera and Species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (2)2(10): 287–293.

Definitions of genera; Brachydactylus typicus Smith placed in synonymy of T. rugosa; Scinc. erucotis introduced in synonymy of T. nigrolutea, ex Peron MS.

GRAY, J.E. (1841). A Catalogue of the Species of Reptiles and Amphibia hitherto described as inhabiting Australia, with a description of some New Species from Western Australia, and some remarks on their geographical distribution. pp. 422–449 in, Grey, G. Journals of two expenditions of discovery in North-west and Western Australia, during the years 1837, 38, and 39, Under the Authority of Her Majesty's Government. Volume 2. T. and W. Boone, London. (482pp.)

Partial synonymies; listing.

GRAY, J.E. (1842). Australian reptiles and amphibia. Catalogue of the Species of Reptiles and Amphibia hitherto described as inhabiting Australia. Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 1(5): 385–387.

Listing [taken direct from Gray (1841)].

GRAY, J.E. (1845a). Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Edward Newman, London. pp. xii–xiii, xxi–xxii, 71–72, 75, 87–88, 102–104. (xxviii + 289pp.)

Erection of Omolepida; diagnoses of Trachydosaurus, Cyclodus; T. asper described from four specimens in BMNH; generic and species synonymies; Lacerta scincoides var. australis ex Shaw MS [nomen nudum] listed in synonymy of T. gigas; two varieties of T. nigrolutea mentioned.

GRAY, G.R. [J.E.] (1845b). Reptiles. pp. 1–8 in, Richardson, J. & Gray, J.E. (eds.) (1844–1875). The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror, under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, R.N., F.R.S., during the years 1839 to 1843. Volume 2. E.W. Janson, London.

Description and lithographic figure of syntype of C. gerrardii.

GRAY, J.E. (1867). The lizards of Australia and New Zealand in the collection of the British Museum. (with 18 plates of the new species, by Mr. Ford.). Bernard Quaritich, London. pp. 4–5 + pl. 9. (8pp + 18pl.)

Listing, with localities; lithographic figure of syntype of C. gerrardii.

GREEN, D. (1973a). The reptiles of the outer north-western suburbs of Sydney. Herpetofauna 6(2): 2–5.

Generally common, especially in farming areas.

GREEN, D. (1973b). Observations on the southern leaf-tailed gecko Phyllurus platurus (Shaw). Herpetofauna 6(2): 21–24.

Threat display of Phyllurus platurus to subadult T. scincoides.

GREEN, R.H. (1969). The birds of Flinders Island with references to other eastern Bass Strait islands and annotated lists of other vertebrate fauna. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum (34): 1–32.

Several seen dead on road; one caught in trap baited with red meat.

GREEN, R.H. (1977). The vertebrate fauna of Maggs Mountain, Tasmania. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum (58): 1–40.

T. nigrolutea common in wet, dry sclerophyll forests, plateau regeneration, grassland, plateau clear-cut, in open sunny situations Nov–Mar; C. casuarinae uncommon, in wet, dry sclerophyll forest, plateau regeneration; small juvenile collected March.

GREEN, R.H. (1984). The fauna of Ordnance Point, North-western Tasmania. pp. 32–52 in, Green, R.H. (ed.). The vegetation, fauna and archaeology of Ordnance Point, North-western Tasmania. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum (84): 1–67.

Uncommon; gravid ♀ with three full-term embryos collected 6 March.

GREEN, R.H. & McGARVIE, A.M. (1971). The birds of King Island with reference to other western Bass Strait islands and annotated lists of the vertebrate fauna. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum (40): 1–42.

GREEN, R.H. & MUNDAY, B.L. (1971). Parasites of Tasmanian native and feral fauna Part 1, Arthropoda. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum (41): 1–16.

Refers to Roberts' (1964) records of Aponomma hydrosauri from both species [although Roberts does not record it from C. casuarinae].

GREEN, R.H., SCARBOROUGH, T.J. & McQUILLAN, P.B. (1988). Food and feeding of the Laughing Kookaburra and Tawny Frogmouth in Tasmania. Tasmanian Naturalist (93): 5–8.

One juvenile in stomach of Dacelo gigas.

GREENE, H.W. (1988). Antipredator Mechanisms in Reptiles. pp. 1–152 in Gans, C. & Huey, R.B. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia Volume 16 Ecology B. Alan Rl Liss, Inc., New York. (659pp.)

Refers to Carpenter & Murphy (1978), Mebs (1974), Tschambers (1949); biting recorded for C. casuarinae; surface movement away from predator, hissing, lateral face-off, gaping, biting recorded for T. gigas; hissing, tongue extension, inflation of body, gaping, biting recorded in T. scincoides; gaping also recorded in neonate T. scincoides.

GREENUP, A. & DEVESON, T. [1989]. [untitled]. A.C.T. Herpetological Association Newsletter (November): [9] (unpaginated).

Sixty seen in one hour of driving; pairing (in October).

GREER, A.E. (1970a). A Subfamilial Classification of Scincid Lizards. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 139(3): 151–184.

Refers to Bruhl (1874) [as 1886], Mitchell (1950), Mittleman (1952), Waite (1929); previous hit Tiliqua next hit placed in subfamily Lygosominae.

GREER, A.E. (1970b). The relationships of the skinks referred to the genus Dasia. Breviora (348): 1–30.




  ― 795 ―
C. gerrardii, especially juveniles, and some T. occipitalis have very strongly pronounced crossbanded patterns.

GREER, A.E. (1976a). On the evolution of the giant Cape Verde scincid lizard Macroscincus coctei. Journal of natural History 10( ): 691–712.

Refers to Boulenger (1887), Hoffstetter (1949) and Waite (1929); previous hit Tiliqua next hit, Egernia and Corucia related; maximum snout-vent lengths, based partly on literature.

GREER, A.E. (1976b). A most successful invasion. The diversity of Australia's skinks. Australian Natural History 18(12): 428–433.

Photographs of T. rugosa, T. s. intermedia; usually two young for T. rugosa; previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. hiss; some live in burrows.

GREER, A.E. (1979a). A phylogenetic subdivision of Australian skinks. Records of the Australian Museum 32(8): 339–371.

Premaxillary teeth modally seven, except C. casuarinae (mode eight); Meckel's groove obliterated by overlapping, fusion of dentary; interparietal separates parietals; two or more temporals and a nuchal bordering each parietal; medial and lateral preanals subequal; scales on dorsal surface of fourth toe mostly single; hemipenis has short columnar base and bulbous cap; iris light; some T. rugosa have dark grey iris; Omolepida and Trachydosaurus placed in synonymy of previous hit Tiliqua next hit; previous hit Tiliqua next hit placed with Egernia, Corucia, possibly Tribolonotus in Egernia generic grouping within subfamily Lygosominae.

GREER, A.E. (1980). Critical Thermal Maximum Temperatures in Australian Scincid Lizards: their Ecological and Evolutionary Significance. Australian Journal of Zoology 28(1): 91–102.

Refers to Warburg (1965a,b), Spellerberg (1972), Heatwole et al. (1973) for CTmax for previous hit Tiliqua next hit species; CTmax for one C. branchialis 43.6°C; panting recorded in C. branchialis; panting probably re-evolved in previous hit Tiliqua next hit, Cyclodomorphus.

GREER, A.E. (1986a). Lygosomine (Scincidae) Monophyly: A Third, Corroborating Character and a Reply to Critics. Journal of Herpetology 20(1): 123–126.

Refutes suggestions of King (1973), Rawlinson (1974) that previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincine rather than lygosomine; length of median rostral frontal groove.

GREER, A.E. (1986b). On the Absence of Visceral Fat Bodies Within a Major Lineage of Scincid Lizards. Journal of Herpetology 20(2): 267–269.

Refutes Cope's (1900) observation of absence of visceral fat bodies in previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

GREER, A.E. (1989). The Biology and Evolution of Australian Lizards. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton. pp. 4, 6, 117, 125, 126, 127, 128, 131–136, 171, 174, 175, 179–180, 181, 184, 186, 188, 191. (xvi + 264pp.)

Refers to Adler (1958), Alexander (1914), Anon (1954, 1973), Anstis & Peterson (1973), Bamford (1980 [B.Sc. (Hons.) thesis, Murdoch University]), Barnett (1977a,b), Bartlett (1984), Belan (1980 [M.Sc. (prelim.) thesis, University of New England]), Bennett & John-Alder (1986), Blacket (1926), Bowler (1977), Bradshaw et al. (1984), Braysher (1971), Brown (1983 [Ph.D. thesis, La Trobe University]), Bull (1978, 1987), Bull & Satrawaha (1981), Bustard (1970), Cabanac et al. (1967), Carpenter & Murphy (1978), Chapman & Dell (1975, 1979, 1980a,b), Chaumont (1963), Christian (1977), Cogger (1967), Cole (1930), Coleman (1944), Daan & Belterman (1968), Dampier (1729), Dell & Chapman (1977, 1979), Edwards (1978 [B.Sc. (Hons.) thesis, Flinders University]), Ehmann (1983), Estes (1984), Estes & Williams (1984), Fergusson & Algar (1986), Field (1980), Fleay (1931, 1937, 1951), Flower (1925), Flynn (1923), Fowler (1978), Fyfe (1985); Gadow (1901), Green (1984), Green & McGarvie (1971), Greer (1980), Giddings (1984), Haacke (1883, 1885), Haacke (1982), Hamel et al. (1967), Heatwole et al. (1973), Hewer (1948), Hewer & Mollison (1974), Hill (1923), Hitz (1983), Holmes & Light (1983), Honegger & Schmidt (1964), John-Alder et al. (1986), Lambert (1985), Le Souëf (1918), Licht et al. (1986), Longley (1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1944a–b, 1947), Longman (1915), Matz (1968), Mebs (1974), Meredith (1954), Miles (1973), Milewski (1981), Morris et al. (1963), Mudrack (1974), Phillips (1986), Pianka (1986), Rankin (1973), Rawlinson (1974), Robertson (1980), Roesch (1956), A. Rose (1974), S. Rose (1985), Saint-Girons et al. (1977), Satrawaha & Bull (1981), Schafer (1979), Shea (1980, 1981, 1982), Shea & Peterson (1981), Shugg (1983), Simpson (1973), L. Smith (1976), M.J. Smith (1976, 1982), Spellerberg (1972), Stephenson (1977), Storr (1976), Swan (1972), Timms (1977), Tschambers (1949), Tubb (1938), Vestjens (1977), Wakefield (1956), Warburg (1965a, b), Webb (1983), Webb & Simpson (1986), Weekes (1930), Wilhoft (1960), Wilson (1974), Worrell (1963); mating grip in previous hit Tiliqua next hit between head and shoulder; simple placentation; snorting and hissing recorded; previous hit Tiliqua next hit referred, with Egernia, to the Mabuya group of the Lygosominae; Mabuya group may only be an assemblage; maximum size of T. adelaidensis 88mm SVL; maximum size of T. scincoides intermedia 371mm SVL; differences between species in body


  ― 797 ―
form; most species diurnal, terrestrial; C. gerrardii crepuscular-nocturnal, semi-arboreal; two lineages in previous hit Tiliqua next hit, one corresponding to Cyclodomorphus, with C. gerrardii intermediate between the two; tongue dark or blue, used in threat display; C. gerrardii usually born with blue tongue, becomes pink with age; phalangeal formula of manus and pes 2.3.4.4.3/2.3.4.4.3 in all previous hit Tiliqua next hit [in error]; 32 or more presacral vertebrae; lateral undulation assists in movement; enlarged molariform teeth; longer claws, limbs and tail of C. gerrardii related to semi-arboreal habits; C. branchialis climbs in tussock grass; T. rugosa and T. scincoides can also climb; C. branchialis, C. casuarinae primarily feed on arthropods; previous hit Tiliqua next hit species omnivorous; flowers eaten by T. rugosa; most large previous hit Tiliqua next hit eat snails; pairing of T. rugosa during breeding season, including photograph; ♂♂ will fight if put together, more aggressive than ♀♀; positive correlation between litter size and maternal size in C. casuarinae; ontogenetic change in coloration in C. branchialis, C. casuarinae, C. gerrardii, T. rugosa; defensive display of previous hit Tiliqua next hit, C. casuarinae, with photograph of T. occipitalis; previous hit Tiliqua next hit are posturing heliotherms; nasal salt encrustation and gland in T. rugosa; capable of tolerating high levels of salt in blood; previous hit Tiliqua next hit not capable of digging own burrows, although will shelter in burrows of other animals; hybridisation reported; high frequency of hybridisation may be due to numbers of captive animals; captive-bred T. gigas x Egernia cunninghami was still alive after seven years; C. casuarinae, C. gerrardii, T. scincoides often tuck hindlimbs agains body and use forelimbs only in propulsion, both in grass and when climbing; captive longevity of C. gerrardii up to 9yrs; drawing of teeth of C. casuarinae; tabulates data on diet, reproduction, thermal biology.

GREER, A.E. (1991). Limb Reduction in Squamates: Identification of the Lineages and Discussion of the Trends. Journal of Herpetology 25(2): 166–173.

Phalangeal formula for manus and pes 2.3.4.4.3/2.3.4.4.3.

GREER, A.E., THORPE, R. & MALHOTRA, A. (1991). Natural history notes on lizards from the Roe Plain, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 18(7): 178–184.

Recorded; habitat descriptions; coloration brown with white flecks and mottling.

GREGORY, J.B. & LUCAS, A.H.S. (1886). To Wilson's Promontory overland. Part 4. Victorian Naturalist 2(12): 150–154.

Two seen, one feeding on fungus, other feeding on dead bird.

GREGORY, J.E., HARVEY, R.J. & PROSKE, U. (1977). A model which simulates the responses of stretch receptors near threshold. Journal of


  ― 798 ―
Physiology 266(1): 101P–102P.

Tendon organs fired more regularly than frog sartorius spindles, possessed “late supernormal period” in recovery of excitability following discharge.

GREGORY, J.E. & PROSKE, U. (1974). Tendon organs in a lizard. Proceedings of the Australian Physiological and Pharmacological Society 5(1): 73–74.

Group of tendon organs some distance from musculotendinous junction in one of tendons of insertion of caudo-femoralis muscle; 12–15 myelinated fibres in nerve supplying tendon organs; responses of all units qualitatively similar; none showed resting discharge in absence of applied tension; stretch response an initial burst of action potentials at about 300 impulses/sec, falling to 11–45 impulses/sec for duration of stimulus; firing rates (initial and adapted) depended on tension level; initial firing rate varied with rate of change of tension at given tension; tendon organs sensitive to rate of tension development as well as amplitude.

GREGORY, J.E. & PROSKE, U. (1975). Responses of tendon organs in a lizard. Journal of Physiology 248(2): 519–529.

Caudo-femoralis tendons supplied by nerve distinct from nerve to muscle; afferent discharges in tendon nerve showed stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in tendon which responded to passive changes in limb position and muscle contraction; minimum tendon tension for maintained receptor response 5–35g (

image
= 16g), firing rates at this tension 5–14 impulses/sec (
image
= 9); steep increase in firing rate with tension increase up to 120g; maximum firing rate 30sec post-onset of tension change 40 impulses/sec; burst of receptor impulses during tension change, frequency dependent on stretch velocity; large, rapidly rising tension steps gave firing rates up to 300 impulses/sec; tension, length changes during rapid tendon-stretches similar, little sag in tension at new length, but unit response fell throughout stretch.

GREGORY, P.T. (1982). Reptilian Hibernation. pp. 53–154 in, Gans, C. & Pough, F.H. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia Volume 13 Physiology D Physiological Ecology. Academic Press, London. (345pp.)

Refers to Bustard (1970): T. rugosa reported to aestivate.

GRIFFITHS, K. (1984). Reptiles and frogs of Australia. View Productions Pty Ltd, Sydney. pp. 10–11, 54–60, 62–63. (96pp.)

General; photographs; two color morphs of T. nigrolutea; usually 5–6 young, average 160mm; T. scincoides usually has around 20 young, up to 25 young in litter, average 80mm; many T. rugosa seen dead at end of 1983 drought in western NSW.

GRIFFITHS, K. (1987). Reptiles of the Sydney Region. Three Sisters Productions Pty Ltd, Winmalee. pp. 12, 104–109. (120pp.)

General; photographs; distribution maps; size; coloration; C. casuarinae drags hindlimbs when moving through grass; aggressive; C. gerrardii diet generally invertebrates and probably selected vegetation [in error]; nocturnal but will bask; T. nigrolutea often killed when basking on roads; T. scincoides often mistaken for death adder; T. rugosa develops respiratory and skin infections on east coast due to humidity.

GRIGG, G.C., DRANE, C.R. & COURTICE, G.P. (1979). Time constants of heating and cooling in the eastern water dragon, Physignathus lesueruii and some generalizations about heating and cooling in reptiles. Journal of thermal Biology 4(1): 95–103.

Refers to Bartholemew et al. (1965) for thermal time constants.

GRIMM, H.-D. (1965). Die Blauzunge. Die Aquarien-und Terrarien Zeitschrift 18(8): 243–244.

General; captive fed on grasshoppers, slugs; swam well when accidentally dropped in water.

GROOM, S. (1972). The fate of the shinglebacks. Herpetofauna 5(2): 8.

Numerous shinglebacks dead on road; combined with numbers collected for pet trade, probably a major drain on population.

GROOMBRIDGE, B. (1988). World checklist of threatened amphibians and reptiles. Nature Conservancy Council, Cambridge. (138pp.)

Listed in red data book; status indeterminate.

GROSS, J. (1989). Pflege, Geschlechtsbestimmung und Zucht der Tannenzapfenechse Trachydosaurus rugosus. Die Aquarien- und


  ― 800 ―
Terrarien Zeitschrift 42(10): 612–613.

Refers to Hitz (1984); captive requirements; difficulties in breeding northern hemisphere captives due to reversal of seasons; humidity kept low, but cage sprayed once a day; captive diet crickets, cockroaches, dandelion leaves, fruit and vegetables; probing for hemipenes inaccurate in determining sex; ♂♂ have narrow pelvis, rump rounded in cross-section, broad head; following hibernation, ♂–♂ aggression, but ♂♂ sniff and follow ♀♀; mating between middle and late November; gestation approximately 4months; no obvious increase in bulk in gravid females, ate throughout gestation; single young born 27 March; neonate 75g, ca17cm long; after 5 months, 190g, 24cm long; neonate first ate at 2d; colour paled with every shed.

GROSS, L.H. (undated). Cytosystematics of the Australian Scincidae. A preliminary report. Unpublished report for B.Sc. (Hons.) Dept of Genetics, University of Melbourne. 74pp.

Karyotype: 2n = 32; five pairs metacentric or submetacentric macrochromosomes; four pairs metacentric or submetacentric microchromosomes; four pairs acrocentric microchromosomes; three pairs indeterminate microchromosomes.

GUGG, W. (1939). Der Skleralring der plagiotremen Reptilien. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere 65(3): 339–416.

Descriptions and formulae of scleral rings; T. gigas unusual among skinks in having 13 ossicles rather than 14.

GUIBÉ, J. (1954). Catalogue des types de lézards du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Colas imp., Bayeux. pp. 85, 101. (119pp.)

Syntype of Cyclodus Boddaerti [=T. gigas], holotype of C. casuarinae in MHNP.

GUIBÉ, J. (1970a). Le squelette du tronc et des membres. pp. 33–77 in, Grassé, P.-P. (ed.). Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Volume 14. Reptiles. Part 2. Caractéres généraux et anatomie. Masson et Cie, Paris. (680 + xxxii pp.)

Reprints illustrations of median pectoral girdle/sternal elements, clavicle from Camp (1923).




  ― 801 ―

GUIBÉ, J. (1970b). La musculature. pp. 144–180 in, Grassé, P.-P. (ed.). Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Volume 14. Reptiles. Part 2. Caractères généraux et anatomie. Masson et Cie, Paris. (680 + xxxii pp.)

Observations on m. caudo-ilio-femoralis, m. pubo-tibialis.

GUIBÉ, J. (1970c). L'appareil respiratoire. pp. 499–520 in, Grassé, P.-P. (ed.). Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Volume 14. Reptiles. Part 2. Caractères généraux et anatomie. Masson et Cie, Paris. (680 + xxxii pp.)

Illustrates larynx, trachea (after Göppert, 1899).

GUIBÉ, J. (1970d). La systématique des reptiles actuels. pp. 1054–1160 in, Grassé, P.-P. (ed.). Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Vol. 14. Reptiles. Part 3. Glandes endocrines-embryologie-systematique-paléontologie. Masson et Cie, Paris. (1428pp.)

General; photograph of T. rugosa; two young; T. scincoides has 15 young in litter; previous hit Tiliqua next hit partially herbivorous, including leaves, fruits, mushrooms; teeth large, molariform.

GUILER, E.R. (1961). The Cat Island Gannetry. Tasmanian Fauna Bulletin (2): 1–12.

Refers to Cashion (1959); T. nigrolutea very common; eaten by Notechis; probably eats bird eggs, young birds.

GUILER, E.R. (1970). Observations on the Tasmanian Devil, Sarcophilus harrisii (Marsupiala: Dasyuridae) I. Numbers, home range, movements, and food in two populations. Australian Journal of Zoology 18(1): 49–62.

Refers to Fleay (1952).

GUILLETE, L.J. (1985). The evolution of egg retention in lizards: a physiological model. pp. 379–386 in, Grigg, G., Shine, R. & Ehmann, H. (eds.) The Biology of Australasian Frogs and Reptiles. Surrey Beatty and Sons and Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney. 527pp.

Refers to Bourne (1972, 1981): bilateral ovariectomy causes embryonic resorption, stillbirth, delayed parturition; surgical stress stimulates adrenal, ovarian progesterone production.

GULLAN, P.K. & NORRIS, K.C. (1981). An investigation of environmentally significant features (botanical and zoological) of Mt. Hotham, Victoria. Ministry for Conservation, Victoria. Environmental Studies Series Publication (315). pp. 36, 63. (67pp.)

Recorded; habitat preferences.

GUNDY, G.C. & WURST, G.Z. (1976). The Occurrence of Parietal Eyes in Recent Lacertilia (Reptilia). Journal of Herpetology 10(2): 113–121.

Parietal eye spot absent in C. gerrardii, present in T. gigas, T. rugosa, T. scincoides.

GÜNTHER, A. (1863). Contribution to the Herpetology of Ceram. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863: 58–60.

Type description of Cyclodus carinatus [= T. gigas], based on specimens in BMNH; differentiated from T. scincoides [as T. gigas, in error].

GÜNTHER, A. (1867). Additions to the knowledge of Australian Reptiles and Fishes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)20(115): 45–68.

Receipt of specimens by BMNH; type description of C. branchialis, based on three specimens; T. adelaidensis specimen sent by Krefft; T. scincoides stomach contained remains of crabs and a fungus.

GÜNTHER, A. (1875). A List of the Saurians of Australia and New Zealand. pp. 9–19 in, Richardson, J. & Gray, J.E. (eds.) (1844–1875). The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror, under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, R.N., F.R.S., during the years 1839 to 1843. Vol. 2. E.W. Janson, London.




  ― 803 ―
Listing of species and localities.

GÜNTHER, A. (1877). Description of three new Species of Lizards from Islands of Torres Straits. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)19(113): 413–415.

Specimen recorded.

GÜNTHER, A. (1887). Guide to the Galleries of Reptiles and Fishes in the Department of Zoology of the British Museum (Natural History). Trustees of the British Museum, London. p. 10. (iv + 119pp.)

Mention.

GUPPY, M. (1988). Limiting carbohydrate stores: alleviating the problem in the marathon runner, a hibernating lizard, and the neonate brain. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66(5): 1090–1097.

Refers to Fergusson & Algar (1986), Guppy et al. (1987); non-burrowing; hibernates in winter, relying on “on board” fuel supplies during this period; conserves carbohydrate by minimising tissues relying on carbohydrate and producing lactate; resting lactate turnover low, less than 0.1% of mammal.

GUPPY, M., BRADSHAW, S.D., FERGUSSON, B., HANSEN, I.A. & ATWOOD, C. (1987). Metabolism in lizards: low lactate turnover and advantages of heterothermy. American Journal of Physiology 253 (Regulatory Intergrative Comparative Physiology 22): R77–R82.

Mass of animals; T. rugosa lacks ecological specialisations; active predatory behaviour on highly mobile insects; refers to Wineski & Gans (1984); experiences environmental temperatures of 7–40°C; at 35°C turnover rates of glucose, fatty acid account for majority of O2 uptake; reflects low metabolic fate cf. mammals; resting lactate turnover low; correlated with relative lack of mammalian tissues producing lactate; Q10 values for turnover rates of glucose, fatty acid increase as temperature decreases; inverse temperature effect that minimises fuel usage during torpor hypothesised.

GURSKI, D.R., LEE, J.J. & PIERCE, S. (1961). Isolation of Balantidium sp. from the Blue-Tongued Skink (previous hit Tiliqua next hit nigrolutea) in Axenic Culture. Journal of Protozoology 8(supplement): 11.

Balantidium sp. isolated from T. nigrolutea.




  ― 804 ―

GUTHE, K.F. (1981). Reptilian Muscle: Fine Structure and Physiological Parameters. pp. 265–354 in, Gans, C. & Parsons, T.F. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Volume 11 Morphology F. Academic Press, London. (475pp.)

Refers to Gregory & Proske (1975), Proske (1969a,b, 1973), Proske & Gregory (1976), Proske & Rack (1976), Proske & Ridge (1975), Proske & Vaughan (1968).

GUTGESELL, V.J. (1976). Seasonal variation in the anoxia sensitivity of the lizard saccule. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Comparative Physiology 54(4): 407–408.

Mass of 60 specimens 77–724g (

image
= 431g); small positive or near positive saccular potential recorded throughout year; response of saccular potential to anoxia differed significantly between summer and winter, summer saccular potential decreased 23mV in 17min post-anoxia, winter saccular potential decreased 7mV in 28min post-anoxia.

HAACKE, W. (1883). Zur Naturgeschichte der Stummelschwanzeidechsen. Der Zoologische Garten 24(8): 225–227.

The two species may be conspecific; viviparous, litter size 2–3 (n = 6,

image
= 2.5); gestation >3 months; an oviduct cannot accommodate more than two embryos without difficulty; maximum length of oviduct 17cm; April animals contained late embryos; late embryos of T. r. asper yellow banded, like adult T. r. rugosa, but bands disappear before birth; sexual dimorphism in tail shape: ♂♂ tail long and narrow, ♀♀ tail short and fat; dimorphism particularly pronounced in young individuals.

HAACKE, W. (1885). Über eine neue Art uterinaler Brutpflege bei Reptilien. Zoologische Anzeiger 8(200): 435–439.

Both viviparous; T. rugosa: partial description of gross anatomical relationships of oviduct, foetal membranes and cardiovascular supply; embryos in constant position within oviducts, litter size 1–3 in over 30♀♀; birth not due to either uterine contraction or embryonic activity; egg-tooth absent; young very large at birth (in one example single young 18cm, ♀ 30cm); single young often larger than twins; gestation >3 months; parturition around March; excellent subjects for embryological research.

HAACKE, W.D. (1982). Australian reptiles through South African eyes. Transvaal Museum Bulletin (18): 28–30.

T. rugosa the ecological analogue of small land tortoise of other


  ― 805 ―
continents.

HAAS, G. (1973). Muscles of the Jaws and Associated Structures in the Rhynchocephalia and Squamata. pp. 285–496 in, Gans, C. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Volume 4 Morphology D. Academic Press, London. (539pp.)

Refers to Camp (1923), Kesteven (1944), Lakjer (1926), Lightoller (1939), Poglayen-Neuwall (1954).

HACKETT, - (1960). Comparative Studies in Vertebrate Blood Coagulation. (b) The stumpy-tail or sleepy lizard, Trachysaurus rugosus. Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science. Twenty-second annual report of the council: 20.

Powerful anticoagulant in blood; tentative scheme of blood coagulation mechanism.

HACKETT, E. & HANN, C. (1967). Slow clotting of reptile bloods. Journal of Comparative Pathology 77: 175–180.

Very slow clotting in vitro; “viscous metamorphosis” of thrombocytes; intrinsic thromboplastin generation poor; chloroform accelerated coagulation times, probably due to destruction of a clotting inhibitor; inhibitor not heparin or a heparin co-factor, but probably anti-thrombin.

HALE, H.M. (1936). The Reptiles of the National Park. pp. 63–71 in, National Park Morialta and Waterfall Gully Reserves Containing an Account of their Natural History. South Australian Naturalist 17(1–4):1–127.

General; twins usual for T. rugosa; eats strawberries; numbers killed by cars and wire mesh; T. scincoides often erroneously considered venomous; photographs of T. rugosa, T. occipitalis [as T. scincoides].

HALE, H.M. & TINDALE, N.B. (1925). Observations on Aborigines of the Flinders Ranges, and Records of Rock Carvings and Paintings. Records of the South Australian Museum 3(1): 45–60 + pl. II–V.

Food item of Wailpi people; native name mudlu or ardnu.

HALE, H.M. & TINDALE, N.B. (1930). Notes on Some Human Remains in the


  ― 806 ―
Lower Murray Valley, South Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum 4(2): 145–218.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit remains in layers I, III, IV, V, VI, VII of excavation; T. rugosa remains in layers VI, VII, VIII, IX of excavation.

HALL, H.A. (1971). A partial vocabulary of the Ngalooma aboriginal tribe. Australian Aboriginal Studies (46): 1–80.

Thalee-warroo in language of Ngalooma tribe.

HALL, T.S. (1898). “What's in a name?” Victorian Naturalist 15(2): 15–18.

Cyclodus gigas of earlier Australian literature is T. scincoides.

HALL, T.S. (1914). Reptiles of Flinders Island. Victorian Naturalist 31(3): 47.

Criticises Zeitz' (1914) distribution for T. nigrolutea; occurs in Victoria, some distance into NSW as well as SA and Tas.

HALL, T.S. & KERSHAW, J.A. (1917). The fauna of Victoria. Victorian Year-Book 1916–17: 68–78.

Recorded.

HALSE, S.A., MORRIS, K.D., NICHOLS, O.G. & RICE, G.E. (1985). Vertebrate fauna along the Marchagee track, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 16(4): 57–69.

Both recorded.

HAMERTON, A.E. (1932). Report on the Deaths occurring in the Society's Gardens during the year 1931. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1932(2): 613–638.

Balantidium coli, Proteomonas lacertae isolated from two dead specimens.




  ― 807 ―

HAMERTON, A.E. (1933). Report on Deaths occurring in the Society's Gardens during the year 1932. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1933(1): 451–482.

Captive died of septic stomatitis, secondary septic pneumonia.

HAMERTON, A.E. (1934). Report on deaths occurring in the Society's Gardens during the year 1933. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1934(1): 389–422.

Pneumonema tiliquae caused pulmonitis, death; Physaloptera sp. present in small and large intestine.

HAMERTON, A.E. (1935). Report on the Deaths occurring in the Society's Gardens during the Year 1934. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1935(1): 443–474.

Amoebae isolated from captives.

HAMERTON, A.E. (1936). Report on the Deaths occurring in the Society's Gardens during the Year 1935. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1936(2): 659–686.

Captive died of septicaemia from multiple subcutaneous abscesses.

HAMERTON, A.E. (1938). Report on the Deaths occurring in the Society's Gardens during the Year 1937. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (B)108(3): 489–526.

One died from anaemia due to inanition.

HAMERTON, A.E. (1939). Review of Mortality Rates and Report on the Deaths occurring in the Society's Gardens during the Year 1938. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (B)109(3–4): 281–327.

One died from cloacal impaction with faecoliths.

HAMILTON, A.G. (1937). Bush rambles. Angus & Robertson, Sydney. p. 224. (253pp.)

Sleeping lizards feed on fruit on a large-leafed geebung species and other fruits; brief colour description of T. nigrolutea.

HAMMEL, H.T., CALDWELL, F.T. & ABRAMS, R.M. (1967). Regulation of Body Temperature in the Blue-Tongued Lizard. Science 156(3779): 1260–1262.

Shuttled between 15° and 45°C compartments to maintain colonic, brain temperature at 30–37°C; heating brain stem to 41°C activated exit response from hot environment at colonic temperature 1–2°C lower than normal; cooling brain stem to 25°C delayed exit from hot environment until colonic temperature 1–2°C higher than normal; behavioural thermoregulation activated by combination of hypothalamic and other body temperatures.

HAND, S., DAWSON, L. & AUGEE, M. (1988). Macroderma koppa, a new Tertiary species of false vampire bat (Microchiroptera: Megadermatidae) from Wellington Caves, New South Wales. Records of the Australian Museum 40(5/6): 343–351.

Fossil remains, probably mid-Pliocene.

HANN, C.S. (1966). Fibrinopeptides in one lizard and four bird species. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 124: 398–399.

Two fibrinopeptides obtained following coagulation of fibrinogen with mammalian thrombin.

HANN, C.S. (1969). Peptides released during coagulation of avian and reptilian fibrogens. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 181: 342–344.

Amino acid composition of one of two peptides isolated following fibrinogen coagulation.

HARLOW, P. (1990). Reptiles. pp. 41–52 in, Hand, S.J. (ed.). Care and Handling of Australian Native Animals Emergency Care and Captive Management. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, and Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney. (210pp.)

Captive requirements; meat should not be fed as sole diet.

HARLOW, P. & VAN DER STRAATEN, M. (1976). Reptiles of the Oxford Falls


  ― 809 ―
area. Herpetofauna 8(1): 6–7.

In open areas adjacent to watercourses.

HARMAN, I. (1950). Reptiles as pets. Blandford Press, London. p. 51–53. (115pp.)

General; captive requirements; descriptions; T. rugosus eats raw meat, fruit, grubs, large insects; 3–4 young in litter; captive diet of T. scincoides worms, slugs, small soft-shelled snails, raw meat; no evidence that T. scincoides eats snakes.

HARRIS, A.E. (1982). The 1981–82 Annual Report of Taronga Zoo and Western Plains Zoo by the Zoological Parks Board of N.S.W. p. 58 (74pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

HARRIS, A.E. (1983). Zoological Parks Board of New South Wales 1982–83 Annual Report. p. 53. (64pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; 13 T. scincoides born.

HARRIS, A.E. (1984). Zoological Parks Board of New South Wales Annual Report 1983–84. p. 60. (68pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

HARRIS, A.E. (1985). Zoological Parks Board of N.S.W. Annual Report 1984–85. p. 68 (80pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

HARRIS, A.E. (1986). Zoological Parks Board of NSW Annual Report 1985–86. Beaver Press. p. 51. (65pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; one T. scincoides born.

HARRIS, T.Y. (1956). Naturecraft in Australia. Angus and Robertson,


  ― 810 ―
Sydney. pp. 67, 69. (323pp.)

General; diet insects, snails, some soft plants.

HARRISON, L. & WEEKES, H.C. (1925). On the occurrence of placentation in the scincid lizard Lygosoma entrecasteauxi. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 50(4): 470–486.

All viviparous; refers to Haake (1885), Lucas and le Souef (1909), Flynn (1923); in gravid T. scincoides (140mm embryos), no villous folding of uterine wall or major modification of chorionic epithelium.

HARVEY, C. & MOVER, A. (undated). Darwin trip report - January 1978. Newsletter of the South Australian Herpetology Group Inc. (unnumbered): 2–4.

Northern blue-tongue seen in garden.

HASWELL, W.A. (1914). The animal life of Australia. pp. 210–240 in, Knibbs, G.H. (ed.). Federal Handbook prepared in connection with the eighty-fourth meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science held in Australia, August, 1914. Government Printer, Melbourne. (598pp.)

General.

HAUCHECORNE, F. (1929). Zuchterfolge bei der Blauzunge (previous hit Tiliqua next hit scinoides) im Zoologischen Garten zu Halle. Der Zoologische Garten (n.s.)2(1/3): 50–51.

Mating in January in northern hemisphere; litter of 7 young, one dead, and an infertile yolk born 26 May; all first shed on day after birth, second shed on day 40; one individual very pale coloration; two had bent tails, common in captive-bred bluetongues; range of lengths and weights at birth and at ten day intervals to 70 days.

HAUSCHILD, A. (1988). Bemerkungen zu Haltung und Zucht des Schneckenskinks previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardii (Gray, 1845). Salamandra 24(4): 248–257.

Refers to Bustard (1970), Cogger (1983), Cogger et al. (1983), Joger et al. (1986), Matz (1972), Mudrack (1974), Münsch (1980), Schildger &


  ― 811 ―
Wicker (1987), Schmida (1985), Shea (1982), Suhr (1967), Weekes (1935), Worrell (1963); general; C. gerrardii crepuscular, viviparous; distribution; inhabits coastal rainforests, plantations and dry sclerophyll forest; semi-arboreal; coloration; ontogenetic change in coloration; unbanded morph; tongue blue in neonates, changes to pink after 2yrs; oral mucosa cobalt blue in neonates, paler in adults; single enlarged molariform tooth in each jaw; tail regeneration; ♂♂ have broader heads, tail base than ♀♀; sex determination by probing for hemipeneal pockets not accurate; diet snails; captive diet includes beef heart, dog flakes, cooked buckwheat, vitamins and minerals; captives will eat marine muscle flesh, after washing; drink free water; captive housing; crepuscular-nocturnal in captivity; simulating rainfall did not lead to increased activity; description of methods of crushing large snail shells, removing live snails from whole shells; following winter hibernation, captive ♂♂ aggressive, presumed mating in November; description of mating, 5 December; litters of 7 born 20 April to 1.5yr old parents, 16 born over 2d, 25–26 May to same parents at 2.5yrs, 26 to 2yr old ♀; young of latter litter small (4cm), only six survived; young of second litter larger (7–8cm) than first litter; growth rates; neonates ate fetal membranes, placenta.

HAY, A. (1975). Bobtail. Wildlife in Australia 12(4): 139.

Two bobtails shed skin, one taking 30mins, other 4d.

HAY, M. (1972). Notes on growth and breeding of Acanthophis antarcticus a. Herpetofauna 4(4): 14–15.

Bluetongues eaten by captive Acanthophis antarcticus.

HAYES, D. (1970). An ideal field trip. Herpetafauna 2(2): 4–5.

Individuals of both collected.

HAZELL, S.L., EAMENS, G.J. & PERRY, R.A. (1985). Progressive Digital Necrosis in the Eastern Blue-Tongued Skink, previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides (Shaw). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 21(2): 186–188.

Trichophyton terrestre cultured from necrotic digits of several captive T. scincoides; may be a causative agent in digital necrosis, previously reported to be solely due to dysecdysis.

HEATH, A.C.G. (1986). First occurrence of the reptile mite, Ophionyssus natricis (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 34(5): 78–79.

Ophionyssus natricis recorded from dead juvenile in Wellington Zoo.

HEATWOLE, H. (1970). Thermal ecology of the desert dragon Amphibolurus inermis. Ecological Monographs 40(4): 425–457.

T. scincoides flattens body at low temperatures to increase surface area exposed to sun; refers to Cabanac et al. (1967), Hammel et al. (1967), Warburg (1965a,b).

HEATWOLE, H. (1976). Reptile Ecology. University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia. pp. 41, 49–50, 54, 57, 61, 70, 77, 84, 97, 145 + pl. IV, VI. (178pp.)

Field and laboratory body temperatures and thermal minima and maxima of all above species; survival times at high temperatures of C. melanops, T. rugosa; thermal safety margins of T. rugosa; rates of evaporative water loss in C. melanops, T. rugosa; refers to Bentley (1959), Cabanac & Hammel (1971), Firth (1974 [Ph.D. thesis, University of New England]), Hammel et al. (1967), Heatwole (1970), Heatwole et al. (1973), Licht et al. (1966), Myhre & Hammel (1969), Spellerberg (1972), Warburg (1965a,b); Pleistocene to Recent fossil material resembling previous hit Tiliqua next hit; photographs of T. rugosa, T. scincoides.

HEATWOLE, H. & BUTLER, H. (1981). Structure of an Assemblage of Lizards on Barrow Island, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Herpetology 1(2): 37–44.

One February ♀ with one nearly full-term embryo; has greatest biomass of herpetofauna on study plot; one of three most abundant species on plot.

HEATWOLE, H., FIRTH, B.T. & WEBB, G.J.W. (1973). Panting thresholds of lizards - I. Some methodological and internal influences on the panting threshold of an agamid, Amphibolurus muricatus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Comparative Physiology 46(4): 799–826.

Gulping of air by T. scincoides when TB ≥40.5°C; probably similar to response reported for T. rugosa by Warburg (1965); panting probably independently derived in previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

HEATWOLE, H. & TAYLOR, J. (1987). Ecology of reptiles. Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton. pp. 61, 66, 73–74, 87, 91, 101, 117, 121, 136, 187, 259 + p. IV. (325pp.)

Field and laboratory body temperatures and thermal maxima for T. rugosa, T. scincoides; thermal safety margins for T. rugosa; refers to Bartholemew et al. (1965), Bennett & John-Alder (1986), Bentley (1959), Cabanac & Hamel (1971), Cabanac et al. (1967), Georges (1979), Greer (1980), Hammel et al. (1967), Heatwole et al. (1973), Holmes et al. (1984), Licht et al. (1966), Molnar (1982, 1984), Myhre & Hammel (1969), Rawlinson (1974), Satrawaha & Bull (1981), Spellerberg (1972), Warburg (1965a,b), Webb et al. (1972), Wilson (1974).

HEAZLEWOOD, P. (1977a). “An excursion to Darwin, N.T.” Victorian Herpetological Society “Newsletter” (4): 7–13. (reprinted (1978) in Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 13(2)).

One T. rugosa collected under rail sleepers at Lake Hart; T. s. intermedia common on road between Katherine and Three-Ways.

HEAZLEWOOD, P. (1977b). Report on V.H.S. Field Trip. Victorian Herpetological Society “Newsletter” (6): 13–15.

Two juveniles found in rainy conditions in October.

HEDIGER, H. (1934). Beitrag zur Herpetologie und Zoogeographie Neu Britanniens und einiger umliegender Gebiete. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere 65(5/6): 441–585.

One adult collected

HEDLEY, C. (1923). Wild animals of the world being a Popular Guide to Taronga Zoological Park. Trustees of Taronga Zoological Park, Sydney. pp. 41–42. (128 + vii pp.)

General; T. nigrolutea common in Blue Mountains.

HEMMING, F. (ed.) (1956). Opinion 380 Suppression for nomenclatural purposes under the Plenary Powers of the catalogue of the collection of animals formed by Martinus Houttuyn prepared under the title Animalium Musaei Houttuiniani Index in connection with the sale of the collection in 1787. Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 12(1): 1–32.

Refers to Houttuyn [1787] and Engel (1952); L. fasciata Houttuyn placed


  ― 814 ―
on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology; 1787 is date of publication attributed to Houttuyn [1787].

HENLE, K. (1987). A survey of the Herpetofauna of the Yathong Nature Reserve New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 24(2): 94–99.

Recorded from grassland habitats.

HENLE, K. (1989). Ecological Segregation in an Assemblage of Diurnal Lizards in Arid Australia. Acta Oecologica Oecologia Generalis 10(1): 19–35.

Distribution by habitat type within study area; density low; SVL, mass for 26 adults; stomach contents of 12 individuals by volume 99% plants, 1% beetles.

HENLE, K. (1990). Notes on the Population Ecology of the Large Herbivorous Lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus, in Arid Australia. Journal of Herpetology 24(1): 100–103.

Refers to Bull (1987), Fergusson & Algar (1986), Satrawaha & Bull (1981); found in most habitats within study site, only absent from riverine red gum gallery forests; population density 1 lizard/ha; peak activity period September-November; proportion of juveniles and subadults at this time 6–14%; three juveniles only individuals found active in summer; growth for one subadult over 75d, 12d intervals; masses of smallest juveniles found at 3 month intervals indicates rapid growth; mean adult mass of 26 lizards 821g; sexual maturity probably reached in second year; juveniles may have higher mortality than adults; Aquila audax, Vulpes vulpes potential predators; all but one of 12 faecal pellets contained plants exclusively; list of plant food items; no chenopods in diet, despite abundance in area; animal food items; included large beetles and monitor carrion; foraging animals continued to move; most animals were recaptured close to initial capture point; food plant availability may be an important factor determining activity; pre-mating behaviour commonly observed in September, rare in November; agonistic behaviour rare; shelter sites.

HENLE, K. (1991). Life history patterns in lizards of the arid and semiarid zone of Australia. Oecologia 88(3): 347–358.

Refers to Bull (1987), Cogger et al. (1983), Greer (1979a), Henle (1990), Pianka (1986); both viviparous, diurnal, terrestrial, with one clutch per year; average SVL of mature ♀♀ 91.3mm, 300/305mm respectively; average clutch size of C. melanops 2.2; age to maturity modally 20 or 36 months in T. rugosa.




  ― 815 ―

HENNELL, E.H. (1890). Notes of a collecting trip to Pyramid Hill. Victorian Naturalist 7(7): 92–95.

One young specimen collected.

HENRY, S.R., CHERRY, K.A., HURLEY, V.A., OPIE, A.M. & SCHULZ, M. (1988). Flora and fauna of the Tennyson Forest Block East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests & Lands Ecological Survey Report (21): 1–106.

Uncommon; recorded from damp and wet sclerophyll forest in higher altitude areas.

HERCOCK, M. (1975). Excursion reports Intermediates and seniors - Collie River survey - 26 to 28 September. Naturalist News [W.A. Naturalists' Club] November [as October] 1975: 7–8.

Recorded.

HERCUS, L.A. (1969). The Languages of Victoria: A Late Survey. Australian Aboriginal Studies (17): 1–490.

Native name for “yellow sleepy lizard”, [possibly T. rugosa], jugun; native name for blue-tongue lizard walab.

HERSEY, P. (1973). The Wilcannia expedition - Sept./Oct. '73. Bulletin of Herpetology 1(2): 4–5.

Many seen on road.

HERVEY, G.F. & HEMS, J. (1967). The Vivarium. Faber and Faber, London. p. 74. (88pp.)

General.

HEWER, A. (1948). Vegetarian Lizards. Wild Life 10(3): 132.

Bluetongues like berry fruits, apricots, plums; C. casuarinae would not eat fruit, readily ate slugs.




  ― 816 ―

HEWER, A. & MOLLISON, B.C. (1974). Reptiles and amphibians of Tasmania. Tasmanian Year Book (8): 51–60.

Both common and widespread throughout Tasmania.

HEWER, A.M. (1948). Tasmanian lizards. Tasmanian Naturalist (n.s.)1(3): 8–11.

T. rugosa introduced to Tasmania, occasionally found in north of state; T. scincoides usually seen in north Tasmania [in error]; diet snails, slugs, grubs, small fruits, berries; T. nigrolutea commonly known in Tasmania as goanna, jew lizard, sleepy lizard; prefers open scrub country, rare in heavily-timbered areas; C. casuarinae flickers tongue and strikes like snake when threatened; Tasman I. specimens larger than usual, often have short tails.

HICKS, S. (1986). SAHG trip report. Port Prime. 25/8/85. SAHG Newsletter (54): 6.

Recorded.

HILL, J. (1923). An Exciting Contest Between two Lizards. Victorian Naturalist 40(5): 96–97.

Detailed description of conflict between two adult ♂ T. rugosa observed 15 December; aggression lasted over 1hr.

HILL, W.C.O. & NEAL, R.A. (1954). An epizootic due to Entamoeba invadens at the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 123: 731–737.

Refers to Ratcliffe and Geiman (1938).

HITZ, R. (1983). Pflege und Nachzucht von Trachydosaurus rugosus Gray, 1827 im Terrarium (Sauria: Scincidae). Salamandra 19(4): 198–210.

Easy to keep in captivity, but captive breeding not known in northern hemisphere; difficulty in breeding probably due to reversal of seasons; captive requirements, including housing, lighting, heating, humidity, diet; difficult to determine sex by external characters; growth rates of captives; aggression (♂–♂; ♂–♀; ♀–♂) in October; mating observed 13 times between 30 October and 9 November; description of copulation; mass of


  ― 817 ―
females through gestation; females reduced food intake in March; litters of one and two, born 6 March, and 5 and 15 March; interval between births of twins assumed to be due to ovulation following different matings; description of parturition; young ate placenta, although female showed interest; young shed within 2hrs of birth, ate nothing for first week; growth rates of neonates; refers to Bustard (1970), Cogger (1967), Nietzke (1977–78), Roesch (1956), Stettler (1953, 1978), Worrell (1970).

HITZ, R. (1984). Geschlechtsbestimmung bei Echsen der Gattungen previous hit Tiliqua next hit und Trachydosaurus mittels der Sondenmethode (Sauria: Scincidae). Salamandra 20(1): 39–42.

♂♂ purported to have larger, heavier heads and thicker tail base than ♀♀; probing hemipeneal pockets an accurate method of sex determination; probe values for ♂♂ and ♀♀; pair of T. scincoides, both 48cm, mated following probing, 13 young born (12 alive); captive breeding, no further details, for T. gigas, T. rugosa, C. gerrardii following probing; repeated mating of T. nigrolutea, but no offspring.

HITZ, R. (1985). [untitled] in, Kweekresultaten. Lacerta Mededelingenblad 15(8): 14.

Two born 9 March.

HOBSON, H.R. (1961). Brown snake and stumpy-tail lizard. Victorian Naturalist 77(9): 259.

Attempted predation of young shingleback by large Pseudonaja textilis.

HOCHSTETTER, F. (1898). Über die Arterien des Darmkanals der Saurier. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 26(2): 213–273 + pl. V–VII.

Refers to Rathke (1863); intestinal arterial supply of T. scincoides similar to Eumeces, except that only a single gastic artery, first branch of intestinal artery arises close to origin from aorta, cecal artery sends small intestinal branch to terminal part of small intestine.

HOFF, G.L. & WHITE, F.H. (1977). Salmonella in Reptiles: Isolation from Free-ranging Lizards (Reptilia, Lacertilia) In Florida. Journal of Herpetology 11(2): 123–129.

Literature search: 15 Salmonella serotypes isolated from five previous hit Tiliqua next hit species [not including T. rugosa]; nine serotypes isolated from T. rugosa.




  ― 818 ―

HOFFMANN, C.K. (1890). Reptilien. II Eidechsen und wasserechsen. pp. 443–1397 + pl. lii–cvii in, Bronn, H.G. (ed.) Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wart und Bild. Band VI. Abtheilung III. C.F. Winter, Leipzig und Heidelberg. pp. 471, 513, 514, 619, 624, 638, 640, 907, 1027, 1044, 1047, 1049, 1052, 1133, 1134, 1158–59, 1164, 1345–46 + pl. LXVII, LXXIII, LXXXVII, CVI. (1399pp. & cvii pl.)

Refers to Duméril & Bibron (1839), Fitzinger (1826), Fürbringer (1876), Gadow (1882a,b), Gegenbaur (1865), Gray (1845), Henle (1839), Hyrtl (1853), Strauch (1866), von Fischer (1882), Wagler (1830), Wiegmann (1834); summarises literature on anatomy, systematics and natural history; blunt protuberances on crown of teeth in Cyclodus; diagnoses of genera; reprints figures of body wall musculature and lumbosacral plexus from Gadow (1882a,b), laryngeal cartilages from Henle (1839).

HOFFSTETTER, R. (1945). Sur les Scincidae fossiles. II.-Formes subfossiles de l'Ile Maurice. Bulletin du Muséum Nationale d'histoire Naturelle, Paris (2)17(1): 80–86.

Comparison of osteology of Didosaurus with previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp., T. rugosa, Macroscincus; unspecified differences in vomer, parietal, jugal, ectopterygoid; femur is 0.5x mandible length; humerus = femur length; osteoderms large, thick.

HOFFSTETTER, R. (1949). Les reptiles subfossiles de l'ile Maurice I. - Les Scincidae. Annales de Paléontologie 35: 45–72.

Comparison of osteology with Didosaurus, Macroscincus; sutures of occipitootic capsule rapidly lost, except between basioccipital and basisphenoid; swelling rostral to auditory canal (corresponding to inner ear) prominent; hypophyseal fossa deep; T. scincoides has rostral foramina of Vidian canal and internal carotid foraminae approaching trabecular process; T. rugosa has the two pairs of foraminae fused into one pair, trabecular process largely lost, presphenoid articulates with basisphenoid via a slender fork; rostral descending process of parietal long, caudal descending process present (inconstant in T. scincoides); very narrow separation of pre- and postfrontal; ventral face of descending process of frontal curved; internal lateral face of squamosal well developed, producing marked dorsal crest, large excavation in caudal part of bone; squamosal and jugal contact; prefrontal overlaps frontal laterally in T. rugosa; lacrimal absent; jugal flattened with sharp caudal margin; postfrontal-frontal articulation elongate; single internal foramen for entry of superior alveolar nerve in maxilla; ventral zygomatic process of maxilla more elongate than dorsal; vomers fused [in error]; ectopteryoid flat ventrally, triangular at minimum section, extended border with maxilla; epipterygoid short; quadrate large; crista tympani less rounded; lateral face of dentary arched; coronoid process of dentary extensively overlaps coronoid; variation in caudal sinus of dentary; medial face of dentary depressed; internal foramen for inferior alveolar nerve completely within splenial; angular visible on lateral


  ― 819 ―
face of mandible; retroarticular process almost horizontal; T. scincoides has cylindrical vertebral centra, neural arch less enclosed caudally, hemal pad visible throughout spine, strong condyles; T. rugosa has short vertebrae, neural arch less embraced by zygapophyses, loss of caudal autotomy planes, axis very short, odontoid scarcely projecting, hypapophyses generally fused, weaker hemal pads; sacral foramen largely open; slender arched transverse process of second sacral vertebrum; T. scincoides has caudal autotomy planes caudal to C6 in front of transverse process; ratio of femur/mandible length 0.45–0.5, humerus/femur length 1.02–1.06 in T. scincoides; clavicle non-fenestrate in T. rugosa; scapular fenestra present in T. scincoides, often present in T. rugosa; deep bicipital fossa of humerus; T. rugosa has high deltoid ridge of humerus; lateral epicondyle truncate; distal epiphysis of radius has external tubercle on articular face; phalangeal formula of manus, pes; ilial crest pronounced; cordiform foramen large but short; tibia short, evenly enlarged proximally; osteoderms large, thick.

HOFFSTETTER, R. & GASC, J.-P. (1969). Vertebrae and Ribs of Modern Reptiles. pp. 201–310 in Gans, C., Bellairs, A.d'A. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia. Vol. 1 Morphology A. Academic Press, London. (373pp.)

Dorsal vertebrae, atlas, C3–4 of T. rugosa figured; centrum length curve; fusion of intercentra depends on age; caudal autotomy plane disappears in adults; nine cervical vertebrae recorded as individual variation in T. nigrolutea; previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp. has nodules equivalent to ribs on C3; caudal autotomy septum caudal to transverse processes in T. rugosa, divides transverse processes in previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp., cranial to transverse processes in C. gerrardii.

HOFMANN, O. (1905). Das Munddach der Saurier. Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch 33(1): 3–38 + pl. I.

Critical of Busch (1898); soft palate greatly developed; “palate” developed from horizontal lamellae of maxillae, vomers and palatine processes of palatine bones not homologous with true palate; phagodaeum separated from rhinodaeum; nasopharyngeal duct enclosed; drawing of ventral view of palatal region of T. gigas.

HOLLOLEY, K. [1989]. [untitled] in, Reptile projects at Canberra CAE. A.C.T. Herpetological Society Newsletter (November): [12] (unpaginated).

Highland populations have larger bodies, broader heads, shorter forelimbs than lowland populations; discontinuity in data possibly represents a taxonomic difference.

HOLMER, N.M. (1967). An attempt towards a comparative grammar of two Australian languages Part II. Indices and vocabularies of Kattang


  ― 820 ―
and Thangatti. Occasional Papers in Aboriginal Studies (5): 1–73.

Sleepy lizard is gutji in Kattang language; bluetongue is gupu in Thangatti language.

HOLMES, R.M., FERGUSSON, B. & JOHNSTONE, B.M. (1984). Seasonal changes in hydration of the skink previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. An effect on the evoked potentials recorded from the round window of the cochlea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Comparative Physiology 78(1): 197–200.

Cochlear potentials high-pass filtered when measured from surface of round window; differential changes in magnitude of evoked DC potential from cochlear round window, scala tympani in spring explained as change in filtering characteristics, in turn potentially affected by hydration state of animal; changes in hydration state in wild population matched predictions from auditory studies; seasonal changes in weights of animals in captive colony indicated food, possibly water intake regulated other than by availability.

HOLMES, R.M. & JOHNSTONE, B.M. (1984a). Gross potentials recorded from the cochlea of the skink previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa I. Characterization of evoked responses with regard to morphology. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory, Neural, and Behavioural Physiology 154(5): 719–727.

Compound action potentials, summating potentials, fundamental and second harmonic components of cochlear microphonic recorded from round window, scala tympani in response to gated and continuous pure tones; high-pass characteristics of round window distorted evoked DC response and superimposed compound action potential, some cancellation of summating potential, first negative component of compound action potential; summating potential sensitivity estimates from scala tympani more sensitive than from round window; AC potentials unaffected; summating potential intensity curves most reproducible of gross response components; considerable variation in group cochlear microphonic data; reproducible idiosynchrasies in individual intensity curves attributed to unique asymmetries of basilar papilla producing asymmetrical stimulation of hair cells; general shapes of cochlear microphonic and summating potential sensitivity curves in agreement with previous studies.

HOLMES, R.M. & JOHNSTONE, B.M. (1984b). Gross potentials recorded from the cochlea of the skink previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa II. Increases in metabolic rate and hearing responsiveness during austral spring. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory, Neural, and Behavioural Physiology 154(5): 729–738.

Summating potential recorded from scala tympani increased eight to


  ― 821 ―
ten-fold during spring; hearing sensitivity also increased in spring; from spring optimum, a shift in intensity curves of all gross response components to poorer responses at other times of year; change to electrical tuning properties of cochlear hair cells evident in shift in intensity curves, increased temperature sensitivity of summating potential, change in relationship between fundamental and frequency doubling AC response with overall changes in sensitivity, and significant association between increased hearing responsiveness and metabolic rate.

HOLMES, R. & LIGHT, A. (1983). A serendipitous age estimation of a lizard, previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa (Lacertilia: Scincidae). Western Australian Naturalist 15(7): 159–160.

Minimum age estimate of a wild-caught specimen 20 years from retained shed skin layers in auditory meatus, assuming annual shed; captive animals regularly slough in mid to late summer, young born in early autumn; weight 535–617g, SVL 310mm of above individual during year in captivity; ♂♂ recorded up to 830g, gravid ♀♀ over 700g.

HONDERS, J. (1975). The World of Reptiles and Amphibians. Peebles Press, New York. p. 122. (160pp.)

General; usually two, occasionally three young for T. rugosa; diet flowers, fruit, snails, slugs.

HONEGGER, R.E. & SCHMIDT, C.R. (1964). Herpetologisches aus dem Zürcher Zoo I. Beiträge zur Haltung und Zucht verschiedener Reptilien. Die Aquarien-und Terrarien Zeitschrift 17(11): 339–342.

Captive breeding; mating observed 31 October; ten young born 19 March; weights and length of young at one day, 64 days; no egg tooth seen; young ate soon after birth; diet of young and adults includes fruit, mince meat, egg, vitamin/mineral supplements.

HOOPER, P.T., SALLAWAY, M.M., LATZ, P.K., MACONOCHIE, J.R., HYDE, K.W. & CORBETT, L.K. (1973). Ayers Rock-Mt Olga National Park environmental study, 1972. Arid Zone Research Institute, Dept of the Northern Territory, Land Conservation Series (2). Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. p. 51 (v + 52pp.)

Recorded.

HOPE, J. (1981). A goanna in the works. Australian Archaeology (12): 115–122.

Refers to Allen (1972: [Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University]): T. rugosa fossil remains present, not numerous at Burkes Cave; T. rugosa, T. nigrolutea, while common in fossil deposits at Seton Rock Shelter, now extinct on island; refers to Beaton (1977: [Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University]): two T. scincoides in fossil deposits in Cathedral Cave; refers to Archer & Brayshaw (1978), Hope et al. (1977), Mulvaney et al. (1964), Ryder (1974).

HOPE, J., BROWN, G. & McINTOSH, B.S. (1974). Natural history of the Hogan Group 1. Physical environment and vertebrate fauna. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 107: 65–72.

Recorded.

HOPE, J.H., LAMPERT, R.J., EDMONDSON, E., SMITH, M.J. & VAN TETS, G.F. (1977). Late Pleistocene faunal remains from Seton rock shelter, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Journal of Biogeography 4(4): 363–385.

Late Pleistocene fossil remains of T. rugosa, T. nigrolutea; osteological differences between T. nigrolutea and T. scincoides; introduction of T. rugosa to Kangaroo I. apparently unsuccessful; refers to Cogger (1975), Douglas and Ride (1962), Rawlinson (1974), Waite (1929), Worrell (1963).

HOPPER, S.D. (1981). A Pit Trap Survey of Small Mammals, Lizards and Frogs on Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Western Australia Report (43): 1–21.

Recorded.

HORN, H.-G. (1980). Die Riesen mit den kleinen Beinchen: Echsen der Gattungen previous hit Tiliqua next hit und Trachydosaurus. Vivarium Darmstadt, Informationen 1980(2): 7–12.

Refers to Bartholemew et al. (1965), Cogger (1975), Horton (1976), Klingelhoffer (1957), Matz (1972), Mebs (1974, 1975), Mudrack (1974), Schade (1977), Swanson (1976); some C. gerrardii have a blue tongue; all bluetongues viviparous; most species have up to three young, but T. scincoides has an average of ten, and C. gerrardii has up to 24; C. branchialis buries itself in loose sand in captivity; C. casuarinae possibly solitary, one living under each Casuarina; C. gerrardii inhabits


  ― 823 ―
tropical rainforest; climbs amongst branches; feeds on snails; easy to breed in captivity, even over several generations; T. nigrolutea glides through undergrowth with feet pressed against sides; coloration; distribution; roadkilled T. s. scincoides in black soil plain habitat; two young T. multifasciata active on edge of road at dusk; live adult on road being attacked by crows; habitat description for T. occipitalis, T. rugosa; threat display for T. rugosa; eastern T. rugosa typically black; yellow markings associated with environment, as yellow-patterned captives said to revert to black coloration; pairing of adults often seen; males thin-tailed; diet predominantly plants, but also snails, crickets and other insects; readily tamed.

HORROCKS, G.F.B., BROWN, G.W., CARR, G.W., CHERRY, K.A., CRAIG, S.A., OPIE, A.M. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1987). Flora and fauna of the Beloka and Gibbo River Forest Blocks, Alpine Area, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (10): 1–90.

Two gravid females collected January; one in small cage trap, one in pitfall trap; habitats montane forest, swamp sedgeland.

HORROCKS, G.F.B., CHERRY, K.A., HURLEY, V.A., KEVIN, P.M., NORRIS, K.C., OPIE, A.M. & SCHULZ, M. (1987). Flora and fauna of the Lockup Forest Block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (16): 1–104.

T. nigrolutea recorded from Swamp gum open forest; T. scincoides recorded from low woodland dominated by Acacia mearnsii with moderate grass ground layer.

HORROCKS, G.F.B., OPIE, A.M., CARR, G.W., CHERRY, K.A., BROWN, G.W., CRAIG, S.A. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1984). Flora and fauna of the Ellery Forest Block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forest and Lands Ecological Survey Report (3): 1–82.

HORTON, D.R. (1972). Evolution in the Genus Egernia (Lacertilia: Scincidae). Journal of Herpetology 6(2): 101–109.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit implied to be more primitive than Egernia; close to ancestry of Scincidae.

HOSER, R. (1981). Reptiles of the Pilabara region, Western Australia. Journal of NOAH 7(1): 12–32.




  ― 824 ―

Photograph; coloration; active at dusk in hotter months; diurnal in cooler weather; often killed on roads; in wild, mainly herbivorous, but will feed on insects; captive diet; susceptible to respiratory infections in captivity; about nine young in a litter, <15cm long.

HOSER, R. (1983). Australian reptiles and amphibians. Rephiberary (66): 9.

General notes accompanying issue of stamp by Australia Post; distribution; inhabits arid rocky hills, sandy deserts; up to ten young in litter.

HOSER, R.T. (1980). Further records of aggregations of various species of Australian snakes. Herpetofauna 12(1): 16–22.

One T. scincoides found with 13 Pseudonaja textilis hibernating under large concrete slab.

HOSER, R.T. (1989). Australian Reptiles & Frogs. Pierson & Co., Mosman. pp. 11, 106–113, 207, 210, 212, 220, 222, 225, 229–230. (238pp.)

Threat display; bluetongues omnivorous; distributions; brief descriptions; size; habitat preferences; photographs; C. casuarinae ♀♀ much larger than ♂♂; readily autotomise tails; diurnal in cold climates, crepuscular in warmer climates; mating in October–November; gestation 8–10 weeks; 5–7 young, 4–5cm long, born December–January; C. gerrardii, especially juveniles, may have blue tongues; nocturnal in warm weather, diurnal in cool weather; diet snails, slugs; 12–25 young, 6cm long, born summer; T. multifasciata crepuscular and nocturnal in hotter months; diet believed to be flowers, small vertebrates, insects; 2–5 young, 10cm long, in a litter; two geographic forms of T. nigrolutea; in some areas feed predominantly on Christmas beetles in December; 4–10 young, 15cm long, born summer; occasionally hybridises in wild with T. scincoides, offspring intermediate in coloration, apparently fertile; T. occipitalis sympatric with T. scincoides, T. multifasciata in various areas; diet berries, arthropods, spiders; 5–10 young in a litter; T. s. scincoides geographically variable; western populations subspecifically distinct; often killed in mistake for Acanthophis; inhabits suburban gardens, commonly kept in captivity; rapidly tamed; captive diet bananas, petfood; average 12 10cm young in summer; T. s. intermedia diurnal; 5–20 young in wet season; common names for T. rugosa; geographic variation in


  ― 825 ―
coloration; tail used a food and moisture store, not able to be autotomised; diet insects, snails, carrion, vegetation, flowers, especially yellow flowers; cannot be maintained in high humidity; captives in east coast cities rapidly die; 1–2 young, 16cm long, in litter; well-developed placenta.

HOSER, R.T. (1991). Endangered animals of Australia. Pierson & Co., Mosman. pp. 92–93. (240pp.)

Account of T. adelaidensis; diagnosis; photograph of preserved specimen; only eleven specimens known [in error]; presumed to be an inhabitant of mallee woodland or scrub; known localities may represent accidentally transported specimens; diet invertebrates; viviparous, litter size presumably fewer than four; captive specimen lost weight rapidly; extinct; probably in decline prior to European settlement; decline possibly hastened by mice, habitat destruction, introduced toxic food species.

HOUSTON, T.F. (1973). The reptiles of South Australia. South Australian Year Book (8): 32–42.

All occur in SA, all omnivorous.

HOUSTON, T.F. (1976). Vertebrate type-specimens in the South Australian Museum III. Reptiles. Records of the South Australian Museum 17(9): 181–187.

Syntypes of Lygosoma melanops reported to be registered as SAM R2732 by Mitchell (1950), but only one specimen under that number; specimen not found; SAM R8139 listed as paratype in register; holotype and paratype of T. s. intermedia in SAM.

HOUSTON, T.F. (1980). Reptiles. pp. 233–262 in, Corbett, D. (ed.) A field guide to the Flinders Ranges. Rigby, Adelaide. (368pp.)

T. rugosa non-habitat specific, eats succulent vegetation, snails, insects; in Flinders Ranges, T. scincoides confined to hill country while T. occipitalis confined to bordering soil plains; T. melanops prefers spinifex habitats.

HOUSTON, T.F. & TYLER, M.J. (1979). Reptiles and amphibians. pp. 115–122 in, Tyler, M.J., Twidale, C.R. & Ling, J.K. (eds.). Natural History of Kangaroo Island. Royal Society of South Australia Inc., Adelaide. (184pp.)

T. rugosa introduced in 1926, T. scincoides introduced later, occasional specimens of both still seen.

HOUTMAN, H. (1988a). [untitled] in, Kweekresultaten. Lacerta Mededelingenblad 18(5): 13.

Six young born 3 June.

HOUTMAN, H. (1988b). De verzorging en voortplanting van Gerrards blauwtongskink (previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardii). Lacerta 46(6): 92–95.

Refers to Fuhn (1973) [as Grzimek (1973)], Matz & Vanderhaeghe (1977) and Zimmermann (1983); captive observations on breeding C. gerrardii: coloration; distribution; habitat; captive housing; diet snails, slugs, cat food, ox heart, mussel-meat; mating, resulting in bite marks on ♀ neck, in ten month old captives in March; gravid ♀ retained appetite; six young born 3 June; after two months, body bands changed from black to brown; tongue blue-black in neonates, pink in adults; adult ♀ completely lost body bands, adult ♂ from same litter retained edges of bands.

HOUTMAN, H. (1988c). [untitled] in, Kweekresultaten. Lacerta Mededelingenblad 19(1): 13.

Twenty young born 21 April.

HOUTTUYN, M. [1787]. Catalogus Van eene uitmuntende Verzameling van allerley Soort van Dieren en Dierlyke Zaaken, Tot opheldering der Natuurlyke Historie In meer dan dertig jaaren vergaderd en, volgens het Samenstel van den wydberoemden Linnaeus, in orde geschikt. (no publisher), Amsterdam. p. 22. (viii + 170pp.)

Brief description of Lacerta scincoides fasciata [= T. gigas vide Schneider (1801); not the same as L. fasciata Linnaeus].

HOW, R.A., BRADLEY, A.J., IVESON, J.B., KEMPER, C.M., KITCHENER, D.J. & HUMPHREYS, W.F. (1983). The natural history of salmonellae in mammals of the tropical Kimberley region, Western Australia. Ecology of Disease 2(1): 9–32.

No salmonellae isolated from one C. maximus; Salmonella serotypes bootle, urbana + untyped Arizona isolated from two T. s. intermedia; [first record of C. maximus from Mitchell Plateau].




  ― 827 ―

HOW, R.A. & DELL, J. (1989). Vertebrate fauna of Banksia woodlands. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 71(4): 97–98.

T. rugosa widespread and common in Banksia woodlands; C. branchialis only present where woodlands adjacent to denser, moister vegetation.

HOW, R.A. & DELL, J. (1990). Vertebrate fauna of Bold Park, Perth. Western Australian Naturalist 18(4/5): 122–131.

Recorded; T. rugosa found in all habitats; C. branchialis restricted to low heaths.

HOW, R.A., DELL, J. & COOPER, N.K. (1991). Vertebrate fauna. pp. 78–125 in, Ecological survey of Abydos-Woodstock Reserve, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (37).

Recorded; sex ratio of dissected specimens 6♂♂:7♀♀; mature ♀♀ 210–250mm SVL; mean litter size 4.5 (n = 2); gravid ♀♀ collected September, October; non-gravid ♀ collected February; collected both before and after fires;

HOW, R.A., DELL, J. & HUMPHREYS, W.F. (1987). The ground vertebrate fauna of coastal areas between Busselton and Albany, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 13(4): 553–574.

T. occipitalis only recorded in two subregions (Denmark and Two Peoples Bay); T. r. rugosa recorded from all subregions except Pt D'Entrecasteaux.

HOW, R.A., DELL, J. & MUIR, B.G. (1988). Vertebrate Fauna. pp. 44–83 in, The biological survey of the Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia Part 4 Lake Johnston-Hyden study area. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement (30): 1–233.

Recorded; habitat descriptions.

HOWE, F.E. & TREGELLAS, T.H. (1914). Rarer Birds of the Mallee. Emu 14(2): 71–84.

Fight between two observed 28 September.




  ― 828 ―

HOWITT, A.W. (1904). The Native Tribes of South-East Australia. MacMillen and Co., London. pp. 803–806. (819pp.)

Aboriginal mythology: Dieri legend of Ngura-wordu-punnuna [= T. rugosa; see Stirling & Waite (1919) and Johnstone (1943)].

HOWITT, A.W. & SIEBERT, O. (1903). Two legends of the Lake Eyre Tribes. Report of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science 9: 525–532.

Aboriginal mythology: Dieri legend of Nura-wordu-bununa [=T. rugosa; see Stirling & Waite (1919) and Johnstone (1943)].

HUDSON, P., MIRTSCHIN, P. & GARRETT, C. (1981). Notes on Flinders Island (S.A.) Its Reptiles and Birds. South Australian Naturalist 56(2): 21–31.

C. melanops recorded in 1893, not found during authors' visit in 1979; three T. rugosa found under rubbish in dump adjacent to sand dunes; photograph.

HUF, P.A., BOURNE, A.R. & WATSON, T.G. (1987a). Identification of Testosterone Sulfate in the Plasma of the Male Lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. General and Comparative Endocrinology 66(3): 364–368.

Testosterone identified in solvolysed plasma, detected in unsolvolysed plasma, not detected in female plasma; steroid glucuronides absent from plasma; epitestosterone conjugates not detected, despite high concentration of free steroid.

HUF, P.A., BOURNE, A.R. & WATSON, T.G. (1987b). Metabolism of androgens in the brain of the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa, in vitro. Proceedings of the Australian Society for Reproductive Biology. 19th Annual Conference: 79.

Refers to Bourne et al. (1985); 17α-oxidoreductase activity high, aromatase, 17β-oxidoreductase activity low, 5α-reductase activity absent in brain; brain 17α-oxidoreductase may make a significant contribution to plasma epitestosterone levels.

HUF, P.A., BOURNE, A.R. & WATSON, T.G. (1989). The in Vitro Biosynthesis of Epitestosterone and Testosterone from C19 Steroid Precursors in the Testis of the Lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. General and Comparative Endocrinology 75(2): 280–286.




  ― 829 ―

17α- and 17β-oxidoreductase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase activity in testis; no aromatase, 5α-reductase, 17α/β-epimerase activity detected; 17α-oxidoreductase activity temperature dependent, unlike 17β-oxidoreductase activity; testosterone biosynthesis mainly via 4-ene pathway; epitestosterone biosynthesis via both 4-ene and 5-ene pathways.

HUGHES, C. (1981). Report on trip to Uno Range, Eyre Peninsula June 12–14, 1976. South Australian Herpetology Group [Incorporated] newsletter, june 1981: 5–6.

Recorded; C. melanops in/under Triodia.

HULBERT, A.J. (1985). A comparative study of thyroid function in reptiles and mammals. pp. 105–115 in, Follett, B.K., Ishii, S. & Chandola, A. (eds.). The endocrine system and the environment. Japanese Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo & Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (xiii+329pp.)

Distinct area of 125I accumulation, assumed to be thyroid; radioiodine uptake independent of temperature; 125I release from thyroid observed at 30°C; thyroidectomy leads to significant reduction in metabolic rate in lizards at 30°C, not at 20°C; T4 injection showed calorigenic effect at 30°C, not at 20°C.

HULBERT, A.J. & WILLIAMS, C.A. (1988). Thyroid function in a lizard, a tortoise and a crocodile, compared with mammals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 90A(1): 41–48.

Distinct area of 125I accumulation intraperitoneally, assumed to be thyroid; radioiodine uptake independent of temperature; 125I release from thyroid observed at 30°C; thyroidectomy leads to significant reduction in metabolic rate in lizards at 30°C, not at 20°C; T4 injection showed calorigenic effect at 30°C, not at 20°C.

HUNT, J. (1968). Blue tongue lizard. Geelong Naturalist 5(2): 53.

Adult in garden for a decade; readily drinks milk, eats rolled oats.

[HUNTER, J.] (1790). [untitled] in, White, J. Journal of a Voyage to new South Wales with Sixty-five Plates of Non descript Animals, Birds, Lizards, Serpents, curious Cones of Trees and other Natural Productions. J. Debrett, Picadilly. pp. 242–243 + pl. 30. (299pp. + [35]pl.).




  ― 830 ―

Type description of T. scincoides, based on two specimens.

HUNTER, J. (1861). Essays and observations on natural history, anatomy, physiology, psychology, and geology. Being his posthumous papers on those subjects, arranged and revised, with notes. Vol. 2. John van Voorst, London. pp. 368–370. (507pp.).

Anatomical observations on external morphology, dentition, tongue, alimentary tract, liver, gall bladder, spleen, mesenteries, kidneys, bladder, testes, heart and lungs of specimen [first part reprinted by White (1790) as type description of Lacerta scincoides]; stomach of this specimen [a syntype] contained seeds and vegetable material; description of alimentary tract, heart, lungs and hemipenes of a second specimen; stomach of this specimen contained snails, lizard skin, grubs and fruit.

HUSBAND, G. (1989). Institution news. Australian Reptile Park. Australasian Herp News (3): 10.

C. gerrardii, T. s. scincoides both bred during 1988/89 season; T. s. scincoides, T. rugosa young born to wild-caught gravid ♀♀.

HUSBAND, G. & SMITH, K. (1988). Institution Reports. Australian Reptile Park, Gosford. Australasian Herp News (1): 2.

T. scincoides bred during 1987/88 season; C. gerrardii young born to wild-caught gravid ♀.

HUTCHINSON, M.N. (1979). The Reptiles of Kinglake National Park. Victorian Naturalist 96(4): 124–134.

Recorded; T. nigrolutea in type II, III open forests; T. scincoides in type I open forest, probably in heathy woodland.

HUTCHINSON, M.N. (1981). The Systematic Relationships of the Genera Egernia and previous hit Tiliqua next hit (Lacertilia: Scincidae). A Review and Immunological Reassessment. pp. 176–193 in, Banks, C.B. & Martin, A.A. (eds.). Proceedings of the Melbourne Herpetological Symposium. Zoological Board of Victoria, Melbourne. (199pp.)




  ― 831 ―
Generic synonymy, diagnosis; T. casuarinae complex (branchialis, casuarinae, maxima) lack occipital scales, have expanded mid-dorsal scales; taxonomic literature review; skull of T. rugosa, T. nigrolutea figured; immunoelectrophoresis of plasma supports existence of an Egernia group of genera (Egernia, previous hit Tiliqua next hit, Corucia); C. casuarinae, C. gerrardii successively more distant to T. rugosa and T. scincoides; Cyclodomorphus, Trachydosaurus not considered generically distinct from previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

HUXLEY, T.H. (1864). Lectures on the elements of comparative anatomy. On the classification of animals and on the vertebrate skull. John Churchill and Sons, London. pp. 68, 225, 230–231. (303pp.). First part reprinted (1869) as An introduction to the classification of animals. p. 69. (147pp.)

Figures of skull from several aspects.

HUXLEY, T.H. (1882). A manual of the anatomy of vertebrated animals. J. & A. Churchill, London. pp. 186, 189, 191, 193. (431pp.)

Dermal ossifications present, may coalesce with bones of head; lateral, ventral views of skull; teeth have broad, crushing, spheroidal crowns.

HUXLEY, T.H. & HAWKINS, B.W. (1864). An elementary atlas of comparative osteology, in twelve plates. Williams and Norgate, London. pl. 4. (12pl., unpaginated)

Skull figured [probably not a previous hit Tiliqua next hit].

HVASS, H. (1964). Reptiles and Amphibians of the World (translated from the German by G. Vevers). Eyre Methuen, London. pp. 15–16. (125pp.). Originally published (1958) as Alverdens Krybdyr, by Politikens Forlag.

General; 2–4 young for T. gigas; T. rugosa feeds on green plants, fruit, smaller lizards, insects, snails; 1–2 young.

HYETT, J. (1961). A bushman's harvest. F.W. Cheshire, Melbourne. pp. 23, 25–26, 140–141, 143–144, 166. (169pp.)

General; T. rugosa often trapped by head in wire netting; largely herbivorous, eating berries, fungi, snails; in captivity, bananas, strawberries, tomatoes, other fruits; usually two young; reputation as snake killers probably unwarranted; captive previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp. juvenile ate flies, wasps, beetles.




  ― 832 ―

HYRTLE, [J.] (1853). Über normale Quertheilung der Saurierwirbel. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe 10(2): 185–192.

T. scincoides: 29 postsacral vertebrae, autotomy planes present in all but first five, lying proximal to middle proximally and at middle distally; transverse processes of vertebrae 6–11 long, narrow, contain fracture plane; transverse processes of vertebrae 12–15 short, largely proximal to fracture plane; remaining transverse processes represented by low tubercles, divided by fracture planes; in last four vertebrae, fracture planes largely closed; T. rugosa: 19 postsacral vertebrae, only last eight with any hint of fracture plane.

ILLIDGE, R. (1915). Notes on a visit to West Australia. Queensland Naturalist 2(1): 24–29.

Recorded; not uncommon on sand plains.

INGRAM, G.J. (1990). The works of Charles Walter De Vis, alias ‘Devis’, alias ‘Thickthorn’. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 28(1): 1–34.

Refers to Cogger et al.'s (1983) placement of previous hit Tiliqua next hit longicauda De Vis, 1888 [in error as Egernia longicauda] in synonymy of C. gerrardii.

INGRAM, G.J. & COVACEVICH, J. (1981). Frog and reptile type specimens in the Queensland Museum, with a checklist of frogs and reptiles in Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 20(2): 291–306.

IORDANSKY, N.N. (1966). Cranial kinetism in lizards. Contribution to the problem of the adaptive significance of the skull kinetism. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 45(9): 1398–1410. (translation by L. Kelso published (1968) as Cranial kinesis in lizards; contribution to the problem of the adaptive significance of skull kinesis. Smithsonian Herpetological Information Services (14): 1–7).

Skull examined; no further comments.

IRWIN-SMITH, V.A. (1921). Notes on nematodes of the genus Physaloptera, with special reference to those parasitic in reptiles. Part i. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 46(4): 492–502.




  ― 833 ―

Refers to Duméril & Bibron (1839), Johnston (1910, 1912), Krefft (1871), von Linstow (1899), Stossich (1902); Cyclodus boddaertii a composite name, including both T. gigas and T. scincoides; host of Stossich's Physaloptera alba corrected to T. scincoides.

IRWIN-SMITH, V. (1922). Notes on nematodes of the genus Physaloptera. Part iii. The Physaloptera of Australian Lizards. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 47(3): 232–244.

Refers to Stossich (1902); Physaloptera alba synonymised with P. antarctica; T. scincoides used for class dissections at Sydney University; Physaloptera antarctica var. typica, var. lata from T. scincoides intestine.

IUCN (1990). 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland & Cambridge. p. 78. (228pp.)

Of indeterminate status.

IVESON, J.B. & HART, R.P. (1983). Salmonella on Rottnest Island: Implications for public health and wildlife management. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 66(1–2): 15–20.

Nine Salmonella serotypes in T. rugosa.

IVESON, J.B., MACKAY-SCOLLAY, E.M. & BAMFORD, V. (1969). Salmonella and Arizona in reptiles and man in Western Australia. Journal of Hygiene 67(1): 135–145.

Salmonella serotypes: muenchen from C. branchialis; alsterdorf, lindern from T. occipitalis; 47:k from T. multifasciata; charity, give from Victorian T. rugosa; chester, saintpaul from Victorian T. scincoides; adelaide, muenchen, orion, seftenberg from WA T. scincoides; give, ohlstedt, orientalis, singapore from WA T. rugosa; isolations from stomach, cloaca, intestine.

JACKSON, S.W. (1912). Haunts of the Spotted Bower-Bird (Chlamydodera maculata, Gld.). Emu 12(2): 65–104.

Locally known as “scaly-backs”; eaten by eagles, Falco berigora; two


  ― 834 ―
F. berigora harassing T. rugosa.

JACOBSEN, K. (1973). Reptiles of the Tamworth area. Herpetofauna 6(1): 20–22.

Common in Tamworth district.

JACOBSHAGEN, E. (1920). Zur Morphologie des Oberflächenreliefs der Rumpfdarmschleimhaut der Reptilien - Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft 56(3): 361–430 + pl. 17–30.

Proportions of intestine/body; two rectal caecae present; mucosal sculpture in intestine and rectum; hardly any communication between longitudinal mucosal folds.

JACOBSHAGEN, E. (1937). Mittel- und Enddarm. Rumpfdarm. pp. 563–724 in, Bolk, L., Göppert, E., Kallius, E. & Lubosch, W. (eds.). Handbuch der Vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. Vol. 3. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin & Wien (1018pp.) (Reprint, 1967, A. Asher & Co., Amsterdam).

Drawings of T. rugosa gastrointestinal tract, histology of rectal wall; refers to Kostanecki (1926), Esch (1936).

JAMES, C.D., MORTON, S.R., BRAITHWAITE, R.W. & WOMBEY, J.C. (1984). Dietary Pathways through Lizards of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory. Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region Technical Memorandum (6): iv + 11pp.

No stomach contents in one specimen examined.

JAMES, C.T. (1963). Ticks on Ground Goanna - Varanus gouldii. South Australian Naturalist 38(2): 38.

Ticks common, in ears and behind forelegs.

JAMES, G. (1981). Outdoor reptile enclosures. “Victorian Herpetological Society Newsletter” (22): 7–9.

Bluetongues successfully held in outdoor enclosures in Melbourne year-round; T. rugosa does not survive in outdoor enclosures.




  ― 835 ―

JAMES, J.W. (1974). A survey of the vertebrate fauna of Southwood National Park. Queensland Department of Forestry Technical Paper (1): 1–13.

Both occur in brigalow habitat.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1970). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1970. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. pp. 16, 33 (34pp.)

Exhibited.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1971). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1971. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. p. 30 (32pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1972). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1972. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. pp. 17, 33. (34pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; three T. rugosa bred.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1973). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1973. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. pp. 18, 33. (34pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1974). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1974. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. p. 34. (35pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1975). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia


  ― 836 ―
Annual Report 30th June 1975. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. pp. 33–34. (34pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1976). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1976. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. p. 30. (32pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1977). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1977. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth] p. 35 (36pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; three T. rugosa, four T. multifasciata sent to Chester Zoo; four T. rugosa sent to Rotterdam Zoo.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1978). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1978. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. p. 41. (42pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

JENKINS, C.F.H. (1979). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1979. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. p. 42. (44pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

JENKINS, R.W.G. & BARTELL, R.J. (1980). A field guide to Reptiles of the Australian High Country. Inkata Press, Melbourne. pp. 27, 62, 123, 125, 192–202. (278pp.)

JENSEN, A. & WILSON, A. (1980). An Environmental Profile Study of the Stuart Shelf - Central Tablelands - Western Sandplains - Nullarbor Plain Region in South Australia. Assessments Section, South Australian Department for the Environment, Adelaide. p. 95. (278pp.)

Distribution of all four species on the extended Stuart Shelf region, based on Cogger (1979).

JESSUP, C.G. (1939). A Naturalist in the Avon Valley. West Australian Naturalist 1(1): 18 (Special Exhibition Number).

Blue-tongue recorded.

JOGER, U., WALLIKEWITZ, E. & HAUSCHILD, A. (1986). Hormon- und serochemische untersuchungen zur Bestimmung des Geschlechtes und zur Uberprüfung des Gesundheitszustands bei Trachydosaurus rugosus (Gray, 1827). Salamandra 22(1): 21–28.

Refers to Bourne & Seamark (1975), Cogger (1979), Hitz (1984); venipuncture method from subcaudal veins; probing for hemipenes unreliable in sexing T. rugosa; males have higher serum testosterone levels; levels of serum thyroxin, estradiol, albumin, cholesterol, calcium, glucose, creatinine; serum electrophoretograms show differences in mobility of albumin, corresponding to coloration and geography, warranting two subspecies; one protein band restricted to males.

JOHN-ALDER, H.B., GARLAND, T. & BENNETT, A.F. (1986). Locomotory capacities, oxygen consumption, and the cost of locomotion of the shingle-back lizard (Trachydosaurus rugosus). Physiological Zoology


  ― 838 ―
59(5): 523–531.

Mass; maximal spring velocity of T. rugosa 2.7km/hr; limited by poorly muscled, short legs; metabolic rate, maximal O2 consumption; maximal aerobic speed, endurance, net cost of locomotion; locomotory and energetic capacities of T. rugosa describe an unusually slow lizard with limited stamina.

JOHNSTON, G.R. (1983). The herpetofauna of the Middleback Range area, South Australia 1. An annotated checklist. Herpetofauna 14(1): 52–60.

All four species recorded; C. melanops in Triodia, diurnal, slate-grey-brown colour.

JOHNSTON, G.R. & ELLINS, P. (1979). The Reptiles of the Sir Joseph Banks Islands, South Australia. Herpetofauna 10(2): 9–12.

JOHNSTON, T.H. (1910). [untitled]. Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales 44: xi–xii.

Physaloptera sp. recorded from intestine.

JOHNSTON, T.H. (1912). A census of Australian reptilian entozoa. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 23(2): 233–249.

Refers to Boulenger (1887), Krefft (1871), Johnston (1910). Johnston & Cleland (1911), von Linstow (1889, 1904); records of Oxyuris tuberculata from T. rugosa, Haemogregarina tiliquae, Physaloptera sp. from T. scincoides, Physaloptera antarctica from T. occipitalis.

JOHNSTON, T.H. (1916). A census of the endoparasites recorded as occurring in Queensland, arranged under their hosts. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 28: 31–79.

Mesocoelium microon, Tetracotyle tiliquae, Pneumonema tiliquae gen. et sp. nov. recorded.




  ― 839 ―

JOHNSTON, T.H. (1918). Notes on miscellaneous endoparasites. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 30: 209–218.

Pneumonema tiliquae from T. scincoides lungs from both localities.

JOHNSTON, T.H. (1932). The parasites of the “stumpy-tail” lizard, Trachysaurus rugosus. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 56: 62–70.

Ticks (Aponomma trachysauri [=A. hydrosauri], Amblyomma albolimbatum [= part A. limbatum]), flagellates (Copromonas sp., Bodo sp., Trichomastix or Trichomonas sp.), Sarcodina (two species of Endamoeba), ciliates (Nyctotherus trachysauri sp. nov.), trematodes (Paradistoma trachysauri, Paradistomum maccallumi nom. nov. pro Cephalogonimus trachysauri MacCallum), cestodes (Oochoristica trachysauri), nematodes (Veversia tuberculata, Oxyuris sp.) recorded from T. rugosa.

JOHNSTON, T.H. (1943). Aboriginal names and utilization of the fauna in the Eyrean region. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 67(2): 244–311.

Refers to Hale & Tindale (1925), Berndt & Vogelsang (1941), Shürmann (1844), Howitt (1904), Stirling & Waite (1919), Gason (1879); T. rugosa is mudlu, arnu, alda in Wailpi language, kalla in Pangkala language, ngura-wordu-punnuna, nurawordubununa in Dieri language; appearance in Aboriginal legends; T. scincoides is karrenye in Pangkala language; C. melanops is womaloora in Dieri language [although this species is not known from the area in which this language was spoken; identification based on South Australian Museum specimens identified by T. Vogelsang].

JOHNSTON, T.H. & CLELAND, J.B. (1911). The haematozoa of Australian reptilia. No. ii. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 36(3): 479–491 + pl. xiii–xvi.

Haemogregarina tiliquae described from erythrocytes of T. scincoides.

JOHNSTON, T.H. & MAWSON, P.M. (1942). The Gallard collection of parasitic nematodes in the Australian Museum. Records of the Australian Museum 21(2): 110–115.

Description of Pharyngodon australis from T. scincoides.

JOHNSTON, T.H. & MAWSON, P.M. (1947). Some nematodes from Australian lizards. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 71(1):


  ― 840 ―
22–27.

Pneumonema tiliquae, Physaloptera antarctica, Pharyngodon australe, Pharyngodon tiliquae from T. scincoides; Physaloptera antarctica, Physaloptera sp., Pharyngodon australe from T. nigrolutea; Thelandros trachysauri from T. rugosa.

JOHNSTONE, J.R. & JOHNSTONE, B.M. (1969a). Electrophysiology of the Lizard Cochlea. Experimental Neurology 24(1): 99–109.

Cochlear potential measured at round window, scala tympani; round window membrane causes attenuation, differentiation of summating potential; large summating potential, smaller neural response, cochlear microphonics; probable best hearing range 750–3000 cycles/sec; Q10 of summating potential 1.5 (high sound pressures) to 3.5 (low sound pressures); when pairs of tone pips applied, amplitude, latency of neural response to second tone pip greatly increased; summating potential increases ten-fold in spring.

JOHNSTONE, J.R. & JOHNSTONE, B.M. (1969b). Unit Responses from the Lizard Auditory Nerve. Experimental Neurology 24(4): 528–537.

Mass 50–500g; spontaneous, nonspontaneous fibres in primary auditory nerve; spontaneous nerves exhibit multimodal interval histograms, responded to tone pip by initial rate increase, afterinhibition, rebound; tuning curves with peaks between 700Hz and 3kHz, corresponding to “cochlear audiogram” derived from cochlear potentials; marked seasonal dependence on number of active fibres, correlating well with increased summating potential in early spring; absolute sensitivity high, thresholds below 25db SPL; most sensitive fibre responded to rustling clothing few feet away.

JOHNSTONE, R.E. (1983). Herpetofauna of the Hamersley Range National Park Western Australia. pp. 7–11 in, Muir, B.G. (ed.). A Fauna Survey of the Hamersley Range National Park Western Australia 1980. National Parks Authority of Western Australia Bulletin (1): 1–37.

Both recorded; C. melanops common in dense Triodia, Plectrachne.

JONES, S. (1987). A report on a reproducible and sustainable system for the captive propagation of the genus previous hit Tiliqua next hit Gray 1825. pp. 17–25 in, Coote, J. (ed.). Reptiles: proceeding of the 1986 U.K. Herpetological Societies symposium on captive breeding. British Herpetological Society, London. (97+[3]pp.)

Refers to Baarslag (1980), Barnett (1977), Bartlett (1984), Bustard (1970), Cogger (1975), Evarts (1979), Hutchinson (1981), Longley (1939), Loveridge (1946), Room (1974), Shea (1981, 1982), Swanson (1976); captive requirements for successful breeding, up to F3 generation; C. gerrardii semiarboreal; semi-prehensile tail; diet molluscs; observations on snail-eating; slower growth rates in captives fed prepared foods; captive diets for other previous hit Tiliqua next hit; neonates fed higher-protein diet; T. rugosa scours if fed high protein/low fibre diet/ad lib water; all previous hit Tiliqua next hit thigmothermic; sexual dimorphism: males have a long, slender body, head as broad as or broader than body, male T. rugosa have much larger heads than females, female T. gigas often develop jowls; neonates as easy to sex as adults; mating in T. gigas from March–April; young usually born September; gestation 127–170d, average about 150d; one litter of 12 born 14 November, 257d after mating, possibly due to sperm storage or retarded fetal development; gestation period for T. scincoides, T. nigrolutea, C. gerrardii 90–140d; gestation period longer for T. rugosa; wild-caught Australian species mate September–November in first season, later (late December–early February) in subsequent years and in captive-bred individuals; captives more active in evening, mating more successful at this time; increased activity, fasting, territoriality in males approaching breeding season; description of mating; duration of copulation less than 4mins in Australian species, up to 90mins in T. gigas; many females breed only biennially; often difficult to detect pregnancy, no change in appearance, food intake or behaviour; gravid females may bask more, some may decrease food intake later in gestation; near parturition, females may become listless and aggressive; neonates eat yolk sac and membranes; undeveloped ova eaten by female; litter sizes for T. gigas 6–12, C. gerrardii 12–25, T. nigrolutea 5–10, T. rugosa 1–2, T. s. scincoides 8–12, T. s. intermedia 6–10; size of young at birth; litter size increases with maternal size; maturity a function of size; usual age to maturity 18 months, minimum in T. gigas 5 months on ad lib diet; captives live over 10yrs, possibly up to 20yrs.

JORGENSEN, L. & WELCH, J.B.st.V. (1953). Pregnancy test: Australian reptiles as test animals. Medical Journal of Australia 40(II)(15): 564–565.

Considered as potential pregnancy test animal; able to absorb massive doses of urine, proved accurate in eleven experimental cases.

JULLIEN, R. & RENOUS-LÉCURU, S. (1972). Variations du trajet du nerf ulnaire (ulnaris) et de l'innervation des muscles dorsaux de la jambe chez les Lacertiliens (Reptiles, Squamates): valeur systématique et application phylogénique. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire naturelle, Paris (3)(29) Zoologie 23: 207–245.

“Lacertid”-type course of ulnar nerve; innervation of dorsal hindlimb muscles tending towards type A (innervation by nn. peroneus and interosseous).




  ― 842 ―

KAAL, J.W.H. (1984). [untitled] in, Kweekresultaten. Lacerta Mededelingen 15(1): 8.

Five young (one dead) born 27 August.

KACZAN, C. (1981). The Southern Flinders Ranges. Nature Conservation Society of South Australia Inc., Adelaide. pp. 48–49. (93pp.)

T. scincoides recorded from above two localities; T. rugosa common throughout southern Flinders Ranges.

KANTZ, H. (1990). Die Achatschnecke, ein immer zur Verfügung stehendes Futter, nicht nur für Skinke. Sauria 12(2): 30.

Meat of African giant snails (Achatina fulica), mixed with beef heart, eaten by C. gerrardii.

KÄSTLE, W. (1980). Echsen im Terrarium. Kosmos-Vivarium, Stuttgart. pp. 84–85, 89. (96pp.)

General; captive requirements; C. gerrardii tear up slugs for their young [in error].

KEAST, A. (1953). Port Keats. Australian Museum Magazine 11(2): 47–55.

Photograph of head.

KEAST, A. (1959a). Window to Bushland. Educational Press, Sydney. pp. 95–96, 190. (192pp.)

General; T. scincoides gives birth to up to 12 young in Jan–Feb, 3–4 at a time, with a few days separating each batch; previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. probably live 12–15yrs.

KEAST, A. (1959b). The reptiles of Australia. pp. 115–135 in, Keast, A., Crocker, R.L. & Christian, C.S. (eds.). Biogeography and ecology in Australia. Monographiae Biologicae (8). W. Junk, The Hague. (640pp.)




  ― 843 ―
T. gigas reaches Sumatra, Java; C. melanops very closely associated with spinifex-covered sandy desert; T. rugosa extends east to western slopes of Great Dividing Range.

KEAST, A. (1962). Vertebrate speciation in Australia: Some comparisons between birds, marsupials, and reptiles. pp. 380–407 in, Leeper, G.W. (ed.). The evolution of living organisms. A Symposium to mark the Centenary of Darwin's ‘origin of Species’ and of the Royal Society of Victoria held in Melbourne, December 1959. Melbourne University Press, Parkville. (459pp.)

Some evidence of differentiation between south-east and south-west populations of T. rugosa; T. nigrolutea possibly originated in Tas.

KEAST, A. (1966). Australia and the Pacific Islands A natural history. Chanticleer Press, New York. pp. 34, 47. (298pp.)

T. nigrolutea shelters beneath boulders, grass tussocks.

KEELING, C.H. (1964). Meet the reptiles. George G. Harrap, London. pp. 70–71. (158pp.)

General; drawing of T. rugosa; two large young in litter; often bred in captivity; bluetongues have 8–10 young in litter.

KEIGHERY, G. (1984). Natural History Notes on Fauna of Kings Park. Western Australian Naturalist 16(1): 23.

Eats fruits of Astroloma macrocalyx; seed passes through gut.

KEIRANS, J.E. (1982). The tick collection (Acarina: Ixodoidea) of the Hon. Nathaniel Charles Rothschild deposited in the Nuttall and general collections of the British Museum (Natural History). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology Series 42(1): 1–36.

25 Amblyomma albolimbatum, 2 Haemaphysalis spp. from T. rugosa.

KEMPER, C. & BILLS, M. (1980). Faunal studies for the proposed Murrumbidgee River Weir near Hay. Prepared for the Water Resources Commission of N.S.W. Environmental and Urban Studies Report (63). Centre for Environmental Studies, Macquarie University, North Ryde. Appendix 9 (partly unpaginated) (19pp. + 9 tables).




  ― 844 ―

Recorded.

KENINS, P. (1972). Central pathway of a reptilian stretch reflex. Proceedings of the Australian Physiological and Pharmacological Society 3(2): 134.

Minimum synaptic delay in stretch reflex of iliofibularis muscle 1.05msec; latency of earliest deflection in segmental reflex discharges evoked by dorsal root stimulation 2.4–3.lmsec; little reduction in latency during potentiation of response (up to 300%) after short conditioning tetanus; monosynaptic depolarization occurring lmsec or less after dorsal root stimulus; monosynaptic firing usually 1–2msec after onset of synaptic depolarization; earliest components of stretch reflex elicited through monosynaptic pathway.

KENINS, P. (1977). Reflex response to stretch of limb muscles in the Australian blue tongue lizard. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Comparative Physiology 57(4): 383–390.

Hind limb muscle stretch in decerebrate lizards evoked autogenic reflex contraction; monosynaptic, polysynaptic pathways between dorsal root fibres, motor neurones; monosynaptic excitation of motor neurones evoked by electrically or stretch-evoked afferent input from muscle, but not from skin.

KENNEDY, M. (1990). Australia's endangered species The Extinction Dilemma. Simon & Schuster Australia, Brookvale. p. 113. (192pp.)

Believed extinct; most recent record 1959; maximum SVL 90mm; coloration; biology little known; demise assumed to be through habitat modification.

KENNERSON, K.J. (1979). Remarks on the longevity of Varanus varius. Herpetofauna 10(2): 32.

Captive Varanus varius ate dead T. scincoides.

KENNIS, P., McINTYRE, A.K. & PROSKE, U. (1970). Stretch-evoked reflex response in the lizard, previous hit Tiliqua next hit nigrolutea. Proceedings of the Australian Physiological and Pharmacological Society 1(1): 61–62.

Ether anaesthesia increased muscle tone; iliofibularis muscle-nerve


  ― 845 ―
preparation; severing iliofibularis nerve reduced tension produced by muscle stretch; interruption of dorsal nerve roots had same effect as total denervation; reflex response to stretch probably present in lizard skeletal muscle.

KERR, J.G. (1919). Textbook of Embryology Volume II Vertebrata with the exception of Mammalia. MacMillan and Co., London. p. 482. (591pp.)

Refers to Haacke (1885).

KERSHAW, J.A. (1899). Excursion to Lower Ferntree Gully. Victorian Naturalist 15(10): 124–126.

One juvenile seen.

KERSHAW, J.A. (1901). Schedule B. Specimens Purchased for the National Museum during the year 1900. p. 38 in, Report of the trustees of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria, for 1900, with a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1899–1900. Government Printer, Melbourne. (42pp.)

One specimen donated by A. Ross.

KERSHAW, J.A. (1906). General Zoology (except Mollusca). pp. 197–207 in, Excursion to Wilson's Promontory. Victorian Naturalist 22(12): 191–223.

One T. rugosa observed [in error] on track at Oberon Bay; T. nigrolutea observed.

KERSHAW, J. (1908). Excursion to Plenty Ranges. Victorian Naturalist 25(8): 130–135.

One adult observed.

KERSHAW, J.A. (1915). Excursion to National Park, Wilson's Promontory. Victorian Naturalist 31(10): 143–152.

Several seen.




  ― 846 ―

KERSHAW, J.A. (1927). Victorian Reptiles. Victorian Naturalist 43(12): 335–344.

General; usually only one young for T. rugosa, two recorded; feeds on small reptiles, insects, vegetable matter; said to eat fungus, Styphelia berries; T. scincoides occurs in Tas [in error]; 12–15 eggs laid [in error]; T. nigrolutea litters of 12–14 young.

KESTEVEN, H.L. (1940). The osteogenesis of the base of the saurian cranium and a search for the parasphenoid bone. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 65(5–6): 447–467.

Description of several sections of base of late embryonic head; no trace of parasphenoid; parabasal canal entirely within basisphenoid.

KESTEVEN, H.L. (1944). The evolution of the skull and the cephalic muscles. A Comparative Study of their Development and Adult Morphology. Part III. The Sauria (Reptilia). Memoirs of the Australian Museum 8(3): 237–269.

Refers to Lightoller (1939); submentalis muscle, pars notognathica of depressor mandibulae described; muscles of mastication almost completely fused, only one division, into temporomasseteric, pterygoid portions; other cephalic muscles similar to other skinks.

KIKKAWA, J., INGRAM, G.J. & DWYER, P.D. (1979). The vertebrate fauna of Australian heathlands - an evolutionary perspective. pp. 231–279 in, Specht, R.L. (ed.). Ecosystems of the World 9A Heathlands and related shrublands Descriptive studies. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam. (497pp.)

Seeds probably form part of diet of previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp.; all above species occur in heathlands; C. maximus specially associated with heathlands.

KING, D. (1964). The osteology of the water skink, Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) quoyii. Australian Journal of Zoology 12(2): 201–216.

Refers to Camp (1923), Parker (1868); no scapular fenestration noted in two T. rugosa.

KING, D. (1982). How toxic 1080 selects its targets. Australian Natural History 20(10): 329–333.




  ― 847 ―

1080 LD50 for T. rugosa almost 500mg/kg.

KING, L. (1948). Lizard Diet. Wild Life 10(4): 181.

Observed eating strawberries in garden.

KING, M. (1973a). Chromosomes of Two Australian Lizards of the Families Scincidae and Gekkonidae. Cytologia 38(2): 205–210.

Karyotype presented; 2n=32, no heteromorphic sex chromosomes; pairs 6, 9, 11 submetacentric or acrocentric, all other pairs lower than pair 11 metacentric; pairs 12–16 microchromosomes.

KING, M. (1973b). Karyotypic studies of some Australian Scincidae (Reptilia). Australian Journal of Zoology 21(1): 21–32.

Karyotype presented; 2n=32, extra pair of microchromosomes over most other lygosomines; pair 6 more acrocentric, pairs 8–10 larger than in Lygosominae; no heteromorphic sex chromosomes.

KINGHORN, J.R. (1924a). Reptiles and batrachians From south and south-west Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 14(3): 163–183.

Descriptive notes, measurements; one T. occipitalis dug from burrow.

KINGHORN, J.R. (1924b). Cannibalism among Snakes. Australian Museum Magazine 2(2): 53–54.

Photograph, reprinted from newspaper, of 5′3″ Pseudechis porphyriacus swallowing adult T. scincoides.

KINGHORN, J.R. (1928). Faunal problems. Australian Zoologist 5(3): 205–216.

Insectivorous; when kept in garden, snails, slugs, slaters disappear.

KINGHORN, J.R. (1931). Herpetological notes. No. 2. Records of the


  ― 848 ―
Australian Museum 18(3): 85–91.

Type description of T. o. auriculare [=T. multifasciata]; measurements of three specimens of T. occipitalis for comparison; T. scincoides recorded from Groote Eylandt.

KINGHORN, J.R. (1943). Some New Guinea Reptiles. Australian Museum Magazine 8(4): 112–117.

Most common in Port Moresby district.

KINGHORN, J.R. [1949]. (text) in, Poignant, A. Bush Animals of Australia. The Shepherd Press, Sydney. (unpaginated)

Photographs; general; reputation as egg-eater unwarranted, as captive specimens won't break egg shell; many killed due to resemblance to death adders.

KINGHORN, J.R. (1968). Reptiles. pp. 98–123 in, Animals of the World Australia. Paul Hamlyn, London. (125pp.)

Photographs; general; T. scincoides often mistaken for death adder; insectivorous, will also eat snails; captive diet.

KINGSTON, T.J., PULSFORD, I.F. & SMITH, P. (1979). Faunal survey of the Newnes Plateau/Colo River area carried out for the Electricity Commission of New South Wales. The Australian Museum, Sydney. (45pp., 14 tables, 11 figs, 20pl.)

C. gerrardii uncommon in tall open-forest; T. nigrolutea, T. rugosa uncommon in pine plantation, specimens recorded from dam edge; T. scincoides uncommon in open-forest, cleared/regenerating habitats, associated with log piles; C. casuarinae may occur in Newnes State Forest.

KINSELLA, D. (1981).…what to do with a lizard. Koolewong 10(3): 7–8.

Care and housing of bluetongues; captive diet banana, meat, egg yolk, tomato; no interest shown in snail, dandelion flowers, worms; flatten body when basking; T. rugosa requires direct sunlight and dry conditions; previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. will move without using hindlimbs.




  ― 849 ―

KIRBY, S. & BURNSTOCK, G. (1969a). Comparative pharmacological studies of isolated spiral strips of large arteries from lower vertebrates. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 28(1): 307–319.

Transmural electrical stimulation produced contraction of arterial strips, mediated by post-ganglionic nerves; adrenergic plexus in inner margin of adventitia demonstrated; density of plexus comparable to guinea pig aorta; noradrenaline, adrenaline mimicked effects of electrical stimulation; isoprenaline contracted arterial strips less strongly; α- and β-blockers blocked effects of catecholamines, reduced effect of electrical stimulation; response to electrical stimulation reduced, but not abolished by bretylium or guanethidine; tyramine, amphetamine ineffective on arterial strips; very low concentrations of acetylcholine mimicked electrical stimulation; atropine blocked acetylcholine response, reduced electrical stimulation response; both adrenergic and cholinergic intramural postganglionic excitatory nerves innervate systemic artery of T. rugosa.

KIRBY, S. & BURNSTOCK, G. (1969b). Pharmacological studies of the cardiovascular system in the anaesthetized sleepy lizard (previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa) and toad (Bufo marinus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 28(1): 321–331.

Acetylcholine, carbachol decrease arterial pressure, heart rate, increase pulse pressure; vagal trunk stimulation decreases heart rate; catecholamines increase heart rate, arterial pressure, pulse pressure, central venous pressure; isoprenaline, dopamine increase heart rate, decrease pulse pressure; tyramine, amphetamine increase heart rate, arterial pressure; α-blockers (phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, piperoxane) blocked pressor effects of catecholamines, sympathomimetic amines (atropine short-acting, blocked acetylcholine, carbachol; physostigmine sometimes potentiated acetylcholine); atropine, physostigmine also reduced excitatory effects of amines on heart; ponethalol blocked positive inotropic, chronotropic, pressor effects of catecholamines, sympathomimetic amines; dichloroisopropylnoradrenaline hydrochloride produced specific blockade of β-effects on heart, vascular system.

KIRKPATRICK, J. & HANCOCK, N. (1981). Field trip to Coopers Creek, Queensland. Monitor. Bulletin of the Victorian Herpetological Society 1(1): 5–7.

Several seen on road.

KIRKPATRICK, T.H. (1968). Mammals, birds and reptiles of the Warwick district, Queensland. 3. Reptiles and general conclusions. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 25(4): 235–241.

Common in open forest and grassland.

KITCHENER, D.J., CHAPMAN, A., DELL, J., MUIR, B.G. & PALMER, M. (1980). Lizard assemblage and reserve size and structure in the Western Australian wheatbelt - some implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 17(1): 25–62.

T. occipitalis, T. rugosa recorded from woodland, mallee, shrubland, heathland; C. branchialis recorded from mallee, shrubland.

KITCHENER, D.J. & HOW, R.A. (1982). Lizard Species in Small Mainland Habitat Isolates and Islands off South-western Western Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 9(2): 357–363.

Recorded.

KLEEFISCH, T. (1989). BNA-Nachzucht-Statistik. Bundesverband für fachgerechten Natur- und Artenschutz e. V., Köln. p. 30. (131pp.)

Numbers bred by German member organisations; 82 C. gerrardii bred from six breedings 1986, 69 from five in 1987; ten T. gigas bred in one breeding in 1986, 13 in one in 1987; two T. rugosa in one breeding in 1985; three T. r. asper in one breeding in 1987; 24 T. scincoides from two breedings in 1986; nine T. s. intermedia from single breedings in each of 1986, 1987.

KLINGELHÖFFER, W. (1917). Australische Landschaft im Terrarium. Blätter für Aquarien-und Terrarienkunde 28(24): 363–367.

General; captive T. rugosa sluggish, becoming active only when both enclosure heating and sunlight shining on them; ecdysis occurs about 3x/yr, skin coming off in large pieces; ticks under eyelid led to conjunctivitis; T. scincoides more lively; young individuals aggressive towards smaller cage inhabitants; captive preferred edible snails, breaking shells.




  ― 851 ―

KLINGELHÖFFER, W. (1957). Terrarienkunde. 3. Teil: Echsen. Alfred Kernen Verlag, Stuttgart. pp. 167–172. (264pp.)

General; captive requirements; literature review, citing Anon. (1911a-c, 1921), A. Berg (1922), J. Berg (1876), Demarz (1955), Geissler (1948), Leiker (1952, 1953), Roesch (1956), Senftleben (1914), Schnee (1900), Stettler (1953a, b), Tofohr (1908), von Fischer (1882); T. rugosa coloration; males have longer, narrower tails; ecdysis occurs about 3x/yr, skin coming off in large pieces; only once observed skin removed in one piece, in young individual; wild-caught individuals often have scarring on head and dorsal scales, purportedly due to fire; sluggish; only active in hot conditions; captives peaceable, never aggressive; captive diet; observations on eating; small stones eaten to aid digestion; do not like being sprinkled with water; 2–3 young in litter; placentation present; T. scincoides more active; coloration; moves by gliding over small irregularities; gestation approximately 4 months; neonates 13–14cm long; captive diet; captives preferred mealworms, earthworms, snails; secondary dentition; eat shed skin; spend much time digging; can be aggressive to cagemates; captive ♂ bit off upper jaw of cagemate; neonates smaller than in T. rugosa; over 3 month period, captive juvenile increased length 4x.

KLOMP, N.I. & BULL, C.M. (1987). Responses to environmental cues by unfed larvae of the Australian reptile ticks Aponomma hydrosauri and Amblyomma limbatum. Journal of Parasitology 73(3): 462–466.

Common host of Amblyomma limbatum, Aponomma hydrosauri; diurnal activity during warm, dry seasons; inactive in cool, wet conditions.

KLUGE, A.G. (1963). Herpetology in Australia. Copeia 1963(1): 219–220.

B.C. Mollison (Tasmanian Museum) engaged in population studies of C. casuarinae.

KLUGE, A.G. & SCHUETT, G. (1986). Lizards. pp. 86–111 in, Halliday, T.R. & Adler, K. (eds.). The encyclopaedia of reptiles and amphibians. Equinox (Oxford) Ltd, Oxford. (143+xvi pp.)

General; photograph of T. scincoides.

KNIGHTS, P. (1980). Macquarie Marshes Wetlands and Management Requirements. Total Environment Centre, Sydney. p. 25. (87pp.)

Possibly occur in area.




  ― 852 ―

KOCH-ISENBURG, L. (1977). Gerrards Blauzungenskink previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardii (GRAY). Vivarium Darmstadt, Informationen 1976(2): 7–8.

Photograph; general; tongue pink; inhabits rainforests of Cape York Peninsula [in error]; largely nocturnal; diet snails, slugs; semi-arboreal, climbing facilitated by sharp claws, prehensile tail; enlarged, flattened molars in lower jaw; 12–24 young born annually.

KOLAR, K. (1969). Continent of Curiosities. (translated by G.F. & P.A. van Tets). Souvenir Press, London. pp. 109–110, 207. (213pp.)

General; numbers killed on roads.

KÖPPL, C. (1988). Morphology of the basilar papilla of the bobtail lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa. Hearing Research 35: 209–228.

Basilar papilla of inner ear divisible into two parts: a small apical segment, uniform in structure, and a long basal segment with changes along length in density of hair cells, height and shape of hair-cell stereovillar bundles, number of stereovilli/bundle, size of tectorial structure; tectorial structures overlying the two segments different in size, morphology; both tectorial structures probably sensitive to changes in ionic environment; several individual variants observed.

KÖPPL, C. & MANLEY, G.A. (1990). Peripheral auditory processing in the bobtail lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa II. Tonotopic organization and innervation pattern of the basilar papilla. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory, Neural, and Behavioural Physiology 167(1): 101–112.

Low frequencies processed in smaller apical segment of basilar papilla; medium to high frequencies processed in longer basal segment; tonotopic organization of basal segment described by exponential relationship; characteristic frequency increases towards basal end; characteristic frequency appears to increase across epithelium, from abneural to neural; neurones branched within basilar papilla to typically innervate 4–14 hair cells; fibres innervating apical segment innervate hair cells with same morphological polarity, often branch extensively along segment; basal fibres innervate about equal numbers of hair cells of opposing polarity, more restricted in longitudinal branching.

KÖPPL, C. & MANLEY, G.A. (1990). Peripheral auditory processing in the bobtail lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa III. Patterns of spontaneous and tone-evoked nerve-fibre activity. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory, Neural, and Behavioural Physiology 167(1): 113–127.

70% of primary afferent fibres in auditory nerve were irregularly spontaneously active; rate distribution bimodal; mid-frequency fibres with lower thresholds tend to have higher spontaneous rates; about 1/3 of fibres show more prominent mode in inter-spike interval histogram than expected from quasi-Poisson distribution; preferred intervals in spontaneous discharge patterns not normally seen, presumably due to lack of exclusive innervation of hair cells; primary fibres mostly respond to sound with discharge rate increase; three different response types described.

KÖPPL, C., MANLEY, G.A. & JOHNSTONE, B.M. (1990). Peripheral auditory processing in the bobtail lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa V. Seasonal effects of anaesthesia. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory, Neural, and Behavioural Physiology 167(1): 139–144.

No pronounced changes in hearing ability across year, contra Johnstone & Johnstone (1969a,b), Holmes & Johnstone (1984a, b); seasonal changes in anaesthetic requirements detected account for previously reported seasonal variation in hearing ability.

KOPSTEIN, P.F. (1926). Reptilien von den Molukken und den benachbarten inseln. Zoologische Mededeelingen 9(2–3): 71–112.

Four specimens recorded; brief description, taxonomic notes.

KOSTANECKI, K. (1926). Le caecum des vertébrés. (y compris l'>>appendice vermiculaire<<) morphologie et signification fonctionelle. Bulletin International de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences et des Lettres. Classe des Sciences Mathématiques et Naturelles. Série B: Sciences Naturelles. No. Supplémentaire. (295pp.)

Caecum present, better developed on right side.

KRATZING, J.E. (1972). The Structure of Olfactory Cilia in a Lizard. Journal of Ultrastructure Research 39(3/4): 295–300.

Olfactory cilia have basal bodies in elevated area of cytoplasm; cell membrane over this area, and base of cilia for about 0.25μ, ornamented by nine rows of short setulae, coinciding with nine peripheral tubular elements of basal body, cilium; individual setulae 300A long, each row about 5–6 setulae wide over basal body; number and distance between rows reduced at base of cilium; basal bodies have nine triple fibres, end in dense footplate; basal 0.25μ of cilium has fibre pattern 9+0, central pair of filaments begin at level of smooth ciliary membrane; main body of cilia has typical 9+2 filament pattern.




  ― 854 ―

KRATZING, J.E. (1975). The Fine Structure of the Olfactory and Vomeronasal Organs of a Lizard (previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides scincoides). Cell and Tissue Research 156: 239–252.

Olfactory epithelium loosely packed, pseudostratified; receives secretion from supporting cells, underlying glands of Bowman; surface microvilli, cilia from sensory cells, microvilli from supporting cells; vomeronasal epithelium pseudostratified, but higher, more densely packed; surface microvilli from sensory, supporting cells, no cilia; penetrated by vascular connective tissue almost to epithelial surface; always outlined by basal cell processes, basal lamina; no secretory cells in or under sensory epithelium; some cells in mushroom body epithelium contain secretion granules; sensory cells of both epithelia are bipolar neurons; perikarya of vomeronasal cells more neuronal; axonic processes similar in both; olfactory dendrites end in rounded rods bearing unusual microvilli, cilia; vomeronasal dendrites have microvilli with filamentous cores, no cilia, but 2–6 centrioles below cell surface; basal cells structurally similar in both epithelia, but axonic processes of olfactory cells surrounded by supporting cell processes; vomeronasal axonic processes surrounded by basal cells before leaving epithelium.

KREFFT, G. (1862). Donations to the Australian Museum, during the year 1861. pp. 3–6 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer. Sydney. (6pp.)

Two T. scincoides donated by E. Hill, G. Buchanan.

KREFFT, G. (1864a). Donations to the Australian Museum, during the year 1862. pp. 3–6 in Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (7pp.)

Ten T. scincoides donated by A. Boyd, Mr Chuck, T. Barry, E. Hill (2), A. Rositer, G.T. Stuart, W. Wright, C. Chelinor, W. Macleay.

KREFFT, G. (1864b). Donations to the Australian Museum, during the year 1863. pp. 4–6 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (8pp.)

Four T. scincoides donated by G. Sirkett, E.S. Hill, D. Hurley, J.B. Bagster; one T. rugosa donated by G. Angas; four C. casuarinae donated by J. Hokin, W.S. Macleay, Mr Foster, W. Gannon.

KREFFT, G. (1864c). List of specimens sent in exchange to various persons and institutions, during the year 1863. pp. 7–8 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (8pp.)

One C. gerrardii, one C. casuarinae sent to C.L. Salmin at Hamburg.

KREFFT, G. (1865). Donations to the Australian Museum, during the year 1864. pp. 4–7 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (9pp.)

Seven T. scincoides donated by J. Owens, J.B. Holdsworth, J. M'Donough, J. Kean, S. Bossley, D. Fletcher, C. Muddert.

KREFFT, G. (1866a). Donations to the Australian Museum, during the year 1865. pp. 5–7 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (21pp.)

Three T. scincoides donated by R. Newman, E.S. Hill, W.H. Cerrick; one C. casuarinae donated by E. M'Intosh.

KREFFT, G. (1866b). Specimens sent in exchange, during the year 1865. pp. 8–9 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (21pp.)

Two T. scincoides sent to MHNP, one T. rugosa sent to J.C. Puls in Belgium.

KREFFT, G. (1866c). List of specimens collected by Mr. George Masters, Assistant Curator, during the year 1865. pp. 9–10 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (21pp.)

G. Masters collected six T. occipitalis, 19 T. rugosa (as eight rugosus, eleven asper).

KREFFT, G. (1866d). On the Vertebrated Animals of the Lower Murray and Darling, their habits, economy, and geographical distribution. Transactions of the Philosophical Society of New South Wales (1862–65): 1–33.

T. rugosa common on hot days on open sandy plains; two embryos in three dissected; probably no more than 4 young; common about King George Sound; a couple of T. scincoides(?) collected by natives, prized as food; 15 young in dissected ♀; pers. comm. from R. Schomburgk that T. scincoides does not occur around Adelaide [in error]; Murray previous hit Tiliqua next hit might be T.


  ― 856 ―
occipitalis.

KREFFT, G. (1867a). Donations to the Australian Museum, during the year 1866. pp. 3–5 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees.). Government Printer, Sydney. (7pp.)

One T. scincoides donated by W. Macleay.

KREFFT, G. (1867b). Fossil remains of mammals, birds, and reptiles, from the caves of Wellington Valley. Thomas Richards, Government Printer, Sydney. p. 5. (14pp.) [also printed as pp. 111–124 of Krefft (1867)]

Left mandible amongst subfossil remains from Wellington Caves.

KREFFT, G. (1867c). Australian Vertebrata, (recent and fossil), representing all the genera known up to the present time. Appendix, pp. 91–110 in, Catalogue of the Natural and Industrial Products of New South Wales, forwarded to the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867, by the New South Wales Exhibition Commissioners. Thomas Richards, Government Printer, Sydney. (49 + 2 + 124pp.)

Listing of specimens exhibited at Exhibition.

KREFFT, G. (1868a). The Vertebrata of Tasmania, recent and fossil. Transactions of the Royal Society of New South Wales 1: 30–41.

Both recorded.

KREFFT, G. (1868b). Donations to the Australian Museum, during the year 1867. pp. 5–7 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees for 1867.). Government Printer, Sydney. (10pp.)

Two T. scincoides donated by Mr Bradley, W. Davison.

KREFFT, G. (1868c). Notes on the fauna of Tasmania. F. White, Sydney. p. 11. (14pp.)

Both recorded.

KREFFT, G. (1869a). Donations to the Australian Museum, during the year


  ― 857 ―
1868. pp. 3–5 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees, for 1868.). Government Printer, Sydney. (8pp.)

One T. scincoides donated by J. Bray.

KREFFT, G. (1869b). The snakes of Australia: an illustrated and descriptive catalogue of all of the known species. Thomas Richards, Government Printer, Sydney. p. 12. (100pp. + xii pl.)

Young individual bitten by Acanthophis antarcticus lived for more than 12hrs.

KREFFT, G. (1870a). Donations to the Australian Museum during the year 1869. pp. 3–5 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees, for 1869.). Government Printer, Sydney. (8pp.)

One T. scincoides donated by W.H. Barnett.

KREFFT, G. (1870b). Guide to the Australian fossil remains, exhibited by the Trustees of the Australian Museum. F. White, Sydney. p. 9. (15pp.)

Subfossil remains exhibited.

KREFFT, G. (1871a). Donations to the Australian Museum during the year 1870. pp. 3–5 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees, for 1870.). Government Printer, Sydney. (8pp.)

One T. rugosa donated by E. Turing.

KREFFT, G. (1871b). List of specimens collected by Mr. George Masters (Assistant Curator). pp. 6–8 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees, for 1870.). Government Printer, Sydney. (8pp.)

Three T. scincoides collected by G. Masters.

KREFFT, G. (1871c). Australian Vertebrata - fossil and recent. Thomas Richards, Government Printer, Sydney. pp. 40, 42–44, 49. (96pp.)

Listing; C. casuarinae common near Botany; up to 14″ total length; T. rugosa inhabits plains of interior; two large young born about end of January; often considered venomous; previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides eats “jeebung” berry, other berries, leaves, insects; previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp., T. rugosa remains in Wellington Caves deposits.

KREFFT, G. (1872a). List of donations to the Australian Museum during the year 1871. pp. 4–5 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees, for 1871.). Government Printer, Sydney. (7pp.)

One T. scincoides donated by S. Butt.

KREFFT, G. (1872b). Specimens sent in exchange during the year 1871. p. 6 in, Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees, for 1871.). Government Printer, Sydney. (7pp.)

C. gerrardii, T. scincoides, T. sp. sent to W. Peters in Berlin.

KREFFT, G. (1873a). List of donations to the Australian Museum during the year 1872. pp. 3–5 in Australian Museum. (Report from Trustees, for 1872.). Government Printer, Sydney. (6pp.)

Two T. scincoides donated by Captain Stackhouse, J.D. Cox.

KREFFT, G. (1873b). On Australian Entozoa, with descriptions of new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of New South Wales 2(2): 206–232.

Physaloptera sp. recorded from T. scincoides.

KREIGLER, W. (1961). Zur Myologie des Beckens und der Hinterextremität der Reptilien. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 101(4): 541–625.

Myology of hindlimb of T. rugosa; part I of m. pub-ischio-femoralis internus same as in Sphenodon and several other lizards; part II absent; insertion of part II independent, by strong tendons in trochanteric fossa of femur [!]; muscle does not arise from middle third of puboischiadic foramen; insertion single [!]; m. ischio-femoralis posterior inserts on external trochanter of femur; function to move thigh caudomedially; m. pubo-ischio-tibialis divided into narrow cranial, wide caudal part; m. ischio-femoralis arises from ischiadic symphysis; insertion on internal trochanter of femur; m. pubo-tibialis insertion typical of lizards;


  ― 859 ―
innervated by femoral n. branches; m. femoro-tibialis tendon of insertion contains bony deposit [patella tibialis]; m. caudi-femoralis reduced due to tail reduction, arises from six caudal vertebra; m. caud-ilio-femoralis arises from both caudal vertebrae and iliac process; m. ilio-ischio-caudalis poorly defined; tendon of insertion of caput femorale of m. flexor longus digitorum not distinct from that of caput fibulare superius; tendon encloses a sesamoid as it passes over intertarsal joint; m. extensor longus digitorum arises from extensor side of proximal tibia; only one peroneal m.; arises via long tendons from lateral condyle of fibula, inserts to hamate process of fifth metatarsal; m. extensor hallucis proprius single, inserts on lateral side of first metatarsal; m. flexor digitorum connumis sublimis undivided; inserts via two tendons under longus tendon at base of proximal phalanx; m. adductor digitorum communis inserts on first phalanx of digits 2–4; m. tarsometa-tarsalis poorly developed; m. tibialis very strong, appropriate for digging action; refers to Gadow (1882) on single m. peroneus in T. gigas.

LACÉPÈDE, [B.G.E.] (1804). Mémoire sur plusiers Animaux de la Nouvelle-Hollande dont la description n'a pas encore été publiée. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 4: 184–211.

Type description of Scincus crotaphomelas.

LAIRD, N. (1946). Goannas. Walkabout 12(5): 6–13.

T. nigrolutea commonly regarded as a goanna in Tas.

LAKJER, T. (1926). Studien über die Trigeminus-versorgte Kaumuskulatur der Sauropsiden. C.A. Reitzel, Kopenhagen. pp. 13, 15, 33, 36, 53, 57, 58, 59, 90. (155pp + 26pl.)

M. levator pterygoidei insertion on both dorsal surface of medial process of pterygoid and ventral part of medial surface of epipterygoid; long descending parietal process and short m. levator pterygoidei; comments on m. levator bulbi; Mundwinkel of m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis a long way caudal; outer section covers entire temporal aperture; fibres converge to a tendon inserting both on medial surface of inner Mundplatte and caudoventral process of jugal; inner layer divided in two, one portion passing ventrally into large aponeurosis to surangular, dentary, angular, reaching ventral margin of mandible, and to medial surface of caudal part of inner Mundplatte; rostral head of m. adductor mandibulae externus profundus originates on caudodorsal part of prootic body, leaving alae free, and on crista prootica and membrane between this and pterygoid; origin includes margin of parietal, squamosal, postfrontal, covering m. pseudotemporalis; fibres of mm. adductor mandibulae posterior and pseudotemporalis cross; m. adductor mandibulae posterior lies medial to aditus canalis primordialis; m. pseudotemporalis moderate, cylindrical; tendon of insertion to medial surface of coronoid process, immediately medial to Bodenaponeurosis; origin includes ventral edge of parietal; deep portion of m. pterygoideus


  ― 860 ―
weak, only inserts on ventral edge of mandible, on angular; superficial portion strong, extending dorsally, inserting on quadratojugal ligament and an aponeurosis of m. adductor externus superficialis; large size of pterygoideus related to omnivorous diet of previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

LAKJER, T. (1927). Studien über die Gaumenregion bei Sauriern im Vergleich mit Anamniern und primitiven Sauropsiden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere 49(1): 57–356.

Refers to Bruhl (1876), Seibenrock (1892); base of basisphenoid alae and adjacent body of basisphenoid narrow in previous hit Tiliqua next hit; basisphenoid alae evenly dilated; in both species, dorsal end of epipterygoid lies on rostral end of prootic alae and ventral end of long descending process of parietal; in T. scincoides, lateral process of pterygoid covered ventrally by ectopterygoid, which also contacts palatine, excluding pterygoid from infraorbial vacuity; vomer most extensive dorsally; hemipterygoid present; description of palatine; medial lamella of maxilla broad; interpterygoid suture present in previous hit Tiliqua next hit; quadratomaxillary ligament originates from jugal.

LAMBERT, M.R.K. (1985). A few of the herpetofauna in the Commonwealth (Oriental and Australasian zones). British Herpetological Society Bulletin (14): 15–19.

Several T. rugosa seen active or basking at 27°C or more, 1200–1430hr EST on 2–3 November, often on gum tree stumps; diet includes vegetable matter; T. scincoides basking in late afternoon 15 November.

LAMPE, E. (1901). Catalog der Reptilien-Sammlung (Schildkröten, Crocodile, Eidechsen und Chamaeleons) des Naturhistorischen Museums zu Wiesbaden. Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde 54: 177–222.

Catalogue of specimens in Weisbaden Natural History Museum.

LAMPERT, R.J. (1971). Burrill Lake and Currarong. Coastal sites in southern New South Wales. Terra Australis (1): 1–85.

Remains in aboriginal shelters.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1972a). Report on the North-eastern Area, District 1, Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 256. (256pp.)

Both recorded from wet open-forest; both viviparous heliotherms; Bassian, cool temperate zone species; T. scincoides also a warm temperate zone species.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1972b). Report on the South Gippsland Area, District 1. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 123. (123pp.)

All likely to be recorded; all viviparous heliotherms; C. casuarinae a warm temperate, cool temperate species; T. nigrolutea a cool temperate species; T. rugosa, T. scincoides both warm temperate species.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1972c). Report on the South West Area, District 1. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 254. (254pp.)

All recorded; all viviparious heliotherms; T. nigrolutea a cool temperate species; T. rugosa, T. scincoides both warm temperate species.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1973a). Report on the North-east Area, District 2. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 238. (238pp.)

Both viviparous heliotherms; T. nigrolutea recorded from wet, dry open-forest; a cool temperate zone Bassian species; T. scincoides recorded from woodland; an Eyrean and warm temperate zone Bassian species.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1973b). Report on the Melbourne Area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 440. (444pp.)

T. nigrolutea common in wet open forest, dry open forest, grassy woodland; a cool temperate species; T. scincoides common in dry open forest, grassy woodland; a warm temperate species; both diurnal ground-dwelling viviparous heliotherms.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1974a). Report on the East Gippsland study area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. pp. 70, 233. (236pp.)

All occur in dry forest; T. nigrolutea, T. scincoides also in coastal dunes, agricultural land; T. nigrolutea also in wet forest, heath.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1974b). Report on the North-East area districts 3, 4 & 5. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. pp. 76–77, 79–81, 302. (311pp.)

T. nigrolutea common in dry, wet open forest, agricultural land; T. scincoides uncommon, in dry open forest/woodland, agricultural land.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1974c). Report on the Mallee study area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. pp. 77, 79, 261. (263pp.)

Distribution by habitat and zoogeographic regions; abundance; diurnal, ground-dwelling heliotherms; viviparous.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1976). Report on the Corangamite Area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 300. (310pp.)

Both diurnal, heliothermic, viviparous; T. nigrolutea a cool temperate Bassian species, very common and widespread in southern districts; inhabits virtually all forests, woodlands, heaths, coast scrubs; not found in very dense wet open forest II, wet closed forest; most recently recorded 1972; T. scincoides an Eyrean, warm temperate Bassian species; common, widespread in northern districts; mostly in grassland, grassy woodland of volcanic plains; not recorded in collections.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1977). Report on the Alpine Area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 366. (480pp.)

C. casuarinae inhabits sup-alpine woodland; T. nigrolutea inhabits sub-alpine woodland, wet, dry open forest, semi-cleared areas, forest margins.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1978). Report on the North Central Area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 239. (252pp.)

Both widespread, uncommon, recorded from open-forest, woodland, pasture/grassland/suburban; T. rugosa also from mallee.




  ― 863 ―

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1979). Report on the South-western Area, District 2. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 341. (363pp.)

T. nigrolutea uncommon but widespread in forest, heath; T. scincoides uncommon but widespread in agricultural land, woodland; T. rugosa common and widespread, in agricultural land, forest, woodland, heath.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1980a). Report on the Ballarat Area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 295. (302pp.)

T. nigrolutea common, widespread in open forest; T. scincoides uncommon, widespread in grassland; T. rugosa uncommon, restricted distribution in woodland, open forest.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1980b). Report on the South Gippsland Area, District 2. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 352. (361pp.)

T. nigrolutea common, widespread, recorded from forests, coastal communities, heathland, agricultural land/grassland, wetlands, softwood plantations; T. scincoides uncommon, restricted distribution, recorded from forest habitats and agricultural lands/grasslands in eastern part of study area.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1982a). Report on the Gippsland Lakes Hinterland Area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 335. (345pp.)

T. nigrolutea common in open forest, riverine forest, foothill woodlands, coastal woodland, farmland, towns; T. scincoides common in foothill woodlands, coastal woodland, farmland, towns.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1982b). Special investigation Melbourne area - Hill End. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. pp. 16, 18, Appendix 3. (40pp. + 3 unpaginated appendices).

T. nigrolutea inhabits wet open forest, woodland, agricultural land; both taxa inhabit dry open forest, overlapping in distribution; both possibly inhabit pine plantations.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1983). Report on the Murray Valley Area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 316. (349pp.)




  ― 864 ―

T. rugosa in mixed box woodland, black box woodland, mallee, grassland; T. scincoides in Blakely's red gum woodland, grassland.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1984). Report on the Benalla-Upper Murray Area (Review). Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 213. (228pp.)

T. nigrolutea recorded from wet, dry open forest; T. scincoides recorded from dry open forest, farmland.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1985a). Report on the East Gippsland Area Review. Land Conservation Council, Vioctoria, Melbourne. p. 101, 271, 282, 291. (310pp.)

C. casuarinae uncommon throughout distribution; rare with restricted distribution in Victoria; population declining; inhabits blocks 2, 3 in East Gippsland, in coastal heathland, lowland sclerophyll forest; T. nigrolutea in blocks 5, 6 in East Gippsland, in snow gum woodland, montane forest, wet sclerophyll forest, montane sclerophyll woodland, agricultural land; T. scincoides in blocks 1, 2, 4 of East Gippsland area, in Banksia woodland, agricultural land.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1985b). Report on the Wimmera Area. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. p. 323. (332pp.)

T. occipitalis rare, with restricted distribution; inhabits mallee-broombush shrubby open scrub; T. rugosa widespread, common; inhabits river red gum open forest and woodland, gum-box-bulloak woodland, brown stringybark woodland/open scrub, mallee-broombush shrubby open scrub, mallee open scrub, heathland.

LAND CONSERVATION COUNCIL (1987). Report on the Mallee Area Review. Land Conservation Council, Victoria, Melbourne. pp. 153, 428–429, 438–439. (465pp.)

T. occipitalis restricted to mallee-Triodia habitats; photograph; inhabits east-west dune mallee, shallow-sand mallee, deep-sand mallee, mallee heath, broom-bush mallee, red-swale mallee habitats; uncommon, moderately widespread in study area; T. scincoides inhabits lunettes and ridges, agricultural/urban habitats; moderately widespread but rare in study area; T. rugosa inhabits all dune-field habitats in Sunset Country, dune-crest tree heath, mallee heath in Big Desert, broombush mallee, red-swale mallee, big mallee, yellow gum woodland, pine-buloke woodland, helah woodland, savannah woodland, saline shrubland, alluvial-plain


  ― 865 ―
shrubland, alluvial-rise shrubland, black-box chenopod woodland, agricultural/urban habitats; widespread, common in study area.

LANE, C.G. (undated). Creature-life in Australian wilds. Henry J. Drane, London. pp. 286–287. (304pp.)

Photograph of T. nigrolutea biting Pseudonaja [possibly posed]; “snakes recognize in blue-tongued lizards natural enemies” [in error]; bluetongues possess “needle-pointed teeth” [in error].

LAPTHORNE, T.A. & LAPTHORNE, A.A. (1987). Some notes on the captive reproduction of the New Guinea blue-tongued skink. SWHS [South Western Herpetological Society] Journal 1(1): 32–33.

Description of mating; captive mating activity peaks in late March, may begin in late February, terminate in early May; gestation usually lasts five months; captive litter born 6.5 months after mating; litter of 11 young + 2–3 infertile yolks born over 160mins on 27 November; measurements; young ate foetal membranes and yolk sac; ♀ ate remaining material; observations on parturition; growth rapid; maturity in approximately six months; separate housing, correct timing of introduction believed to be keys to successful propogation.

LAVERY, H.J. (1976). Terrestrial animals. Queensland Year Book (36): 45–54.

Eyrean faunal element.

LEACH, J.A. (1943). Australian Nature Studies A book of reference for those interested in nature-study. MacMillan & Co, London. p. 364. (525pp.)

Stumpy-tailed and blue-tongued lizards mentioned.

LEAKE, B.W. (1962) [1963]. Eastern Wheatbelt Wildlife Experiences of a W.A. Naturalist. The author, Perth. pp. 102–103. (114pp.)

T. rugosa: native name “gillet”; has extended distribution into wheatbelt since settlement, beginning in 1920's following several good seasons; prior to settlement, rarely found east of Avon R. and in areas without thick scrub undergrowth; prior absence may be due to predation by aboriginals; insectivorous, will also eat vegetable matter, e.g. apricots; shelter under vegetation in hot weather; aggression between ♂♂ during mating season; hibernate during winter; become sluggish from end


  ― 866 ―
of March; 2–4 young born at this time; neonates shed 2d post-birth; T. occipitalis entered wheatbelt at same time as T. rugosa, but population much lower; coloration brighter in strong sunlight; when running raises tail above ground.

LEARMONTH, A.T.A. & LEARMONTH, A.M. (1968). Encyclopaedia of Australia. Frederick Warne & Co., London. p. 486. (606pp.)

General.

LEBRETON, M. (1990). Reproductive notes on the Eastern Blue-Tongue Lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides (White 1790). Herpetofauna 20(1): 30–32.

Two live, one dead neonate, ca15 unfertilized ova produced by ♀ on 28 February; ♀ ate some unfertilised ova; measurements, masses of live young; young and ♀ ate within 2d of parturition; refers to Barrett (1950), Davey (1970), Dowling & Spencook (1964), Griffiths (1984), Hunter (1790) [as White, 1790], Jenkins & Bartell (1980), McPhee (1959, 1979), Swan (1972), Weigel (1988), Wilson & Knowles (1988).

LÉCURU, S. (1968a). Constitution du Plexus Brachial des Lacertiliens (Reptilia). Journal für Hirnforschung 10(6): 499–513.

Three short, two long cervical ribs; nodule on third cervical vertebra in T. rugosa; five spinal nerves (6–10) contribute to brachial plexus in T. rugosa, four (6–9) in T. scincoides.

LÉCURU, S. (1968b). Myologie et innervation du membre antérieur des lacertiliens. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (n.s.) Série A. Zoologie 48(3): 127–215.

Three short, two long cervical ribs; nodule on third cervical vertebra in T. rugosa; five spinal nerves (6–10) contribute to brachial plexus in T. rugosa, four (6–9) in T. scincoides; comparative study of musculature of pectoral limb.

LÉCURU, S. (1968c). Remarques sur le scapulo-coracoïde des lacertiliens. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie et Biologie Animale (12)10(4): 475–510.

Scapular fenestra present in T. rugosa, reduced in T. scincoides; posterior coracoid fenestra absent in T. rugosa, present in T. scincoides; suprascapular acromion present; scapulocoracoid suture absent; scapulocoracoid, anterior coracoid fenestra present.




  ― 867 ―

LÉCURU, S. (1968d). Étude des variations morphologiques du sternum, des clavicules et de l'interclavicule des lacertiliens. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie et Biologie Animale (12)10(4): 511–544.

Illustrations of clavicles, interclavicle, sternal apparatus; sternum longer than wide; mesosternum perforate, separated from presternum.

LÉCURU, S (1969). Étude morphologique de l'humérus des lacertiliens. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie et Biologie Animale (12)11(4): 515–558.

Ratio of length to maximum middle diaphyseal diameter; ratio of size of proximal and distal extremities; diaphyseal index; angle of deltopectoral crest; angle of torsion.

LEE, P.E. & MACKERRAS, I.M. (1955). Salmonella infections of Australian native animals. Australian Journal of experimental Biology and medical Science 33(1): 117–126.

Tested for Salmonella, all negative.

LEES, T. (1986). Catalogue of type, figured and mentioned fossil fish, amphibians and reptiles held by the Queensland Museum. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 22(2): 265–288.

Queensland Museum registration number for Pleistocene fossil material cited by Molnar (1978).

LEGG, M. (1980). The egg and I.V.H.S. ‘Newsletter’ (18): 12–13.

T. occipitalis observed.

LEIKER, D.L. (1953a). Hagedissen van Nieuw-Guinea. Lacerta 11(6): 37–40.

Recorded; native name “kaki ampat”.

LEIKER, D.L. (1953b). Hagedissen van Nieuw-Guinea III. Lacerta 11(7): 48–50.

Photograph; native name “kaki ampat”; considered venomous; newly caught subadult initially very aggesssive, gaping and hissing, displaying blue mucous membranes and tongue; become tame after a few weeks of captivity; captive diet flowers, banana, grasshoppers, spiders, butterflies, caterpillars, mice; in wild probably eats carrion; captive suspected of eating small skinks; bitten repeatedly by snake (Aspidomorphus sp.) but not envenomated.

LEOPOLD, A.S. & WOLFE, T.O. (1970). Food habits of nesting Wedge-tailed Eagles, Aquila audax, in south-eastern Australia. C.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Research 15(1): 1–17.

Remains in nests, pellets of Aquila audax.

LE ROI, D. (1958). Tortoises, Lizards and other Reptiles. Nicholas Vane, London. pp. 54–55. (96pp.)

General; diet; captive requirements; “inveterate burrowers”.

LE SOUEF, D. (1887). Trip to Lake Albacutya. Victorian Naturalist 4(3): 44–47.

Several stump-tailed lizards seen.

LE SOUEF, D. (1888). Reptilia. pp. 138–139 in, Campbell, A.J. (ed.). Expedition to King Island, November, 1887. Victorian Naturalist 4(9): 129–164.

Numerous specimens seen.

LE SOUEF, D. (1890). A few remarks about snakes. Victorian Naturalist 7(1): 11–12.

Not affected by bite of Notechis scutatus.

LE SOUEF, D. (1891). Report of Expedition to Kent Group. pp. 122–131 in, Expedition of Field Naturalists' Club to Kent Group, Bass Straits. Victorian Naturalist 7(9): 121–139.




  ― 869 ―
Three seen.

LE SOUËF, D. (1900). A visit to Western Australia. Victorian Naturalist 16(12): 185–200.

General; often killed by carts; ♀ hibernates in hollows of burrows just before young born; generally four young, which do not emerge for 2–3 months; shed skins at about 2d old.

LE SOUËF, D. (1918a). The Blue-Tongued Lizard. Victorian Naturalist 35(1): 15.

Captive litter; 17 young born in 1.5hrs; observations on parturition; neonates ate foetal membranes.

LE SOUËF, D. (1918b). Food of Diurnal Birds of Prey. Emu 18(2): 88–95.

Remains of stump-tailed lizards in Aquila audax nest.

LE SOUEF, W.H.D. (1907). Wild Life in Australia. Whitcombe and Tombs, Christchurch. pp. 406, 408, 434. (439pp.)

General; T. rugosa often killed by carts; ♀ hibernates in hollows or burrows just before young born; generally four young, which do not emerge for 2–3months; shed skins at about 2d old.

LESSMANN, M.H. (1952). Zur labialen Pleurodontie an Lacertilier-Gebissen. Anatomischer Anzeiger 99(3/5): 35–67.

Dental morphology, tooth implantation of T. rugosa, T. scincoides; photograph of lingual aspects of mandibular dentition of T. rugosa.

LESTER, J.W. (1954). [untitled] in, Notes and exhibitions. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 124(2): 465–467.

Exhibited at meeting of Zoological Society of London.

LESTER, J.W. & BELLAIRS, A.d'A. (1954). Australian Reptiles. Zoo Life 9(2): 50–54.

General, photographs.

LEUTSCHER, A. (undated). The Wonderful World of Nature Reptiles. Bruce & Gawthorn, Watford. p. 44. (79pp.)

General; photograph of T. rugosa.

LEYLAND, M. & LEYLAND, M. (1976). Leyland Brothers Australian Wildlife. Golden Press, Sydney. p. 84. (88pp.)

Photograph; general.

LICHT, P. (1961). Effects of temperature on heart rates of lizards during rest and activity. American Zoologist 1(3): 369–370.

Increment between resting, maximum heart rate at varying temperature used as index of cardiac reserve; maximum rates more than double resting rates; maximum increment at 32°C, ca10°C below lethal temperature; heart rate during spontaneous activity rarely reached level associated with stimulation except at temperature exceeding that at maximal increment.

LICHT, P. (1965). Effects of temperature on heart rates of lizards during rest and activity. Physiological Zoology 38(2): 129–137.

Body temperature in field 27.0–36.5°C,

image
= 32.7°C, in laboratory 29.0–33.9°C,
image
= 33.9°C; heart rates during rest and maximal heart rates following stimulation increased with temperature; rate of increase of resting heart rate relatively uniform for individuals; maximal rates had higher Q10 below 25–30°C, decreasing progressively at higher temperatures, and eventually lower than for resting rates; maximum heart rate increments maximal at level (35°C) near thermal preference.

LIGHT, P., DAWSON, W.R., SHOEMAKER, V.H. & MAIN, A.R. (1966). Observations on the Thermal Relations of Western Australian Lizards. Copeia 1966(1): 97–110.

Both use shrubs, understory for cover; T. occipitalis inhabits woodland, sclerophyll mallee, semiarid mallee; T. rugosa very common in dry sclerophyll forest, extending through woodlands to semiarid mallee; in thermal gradients, mean preferred temperature of T. occipitalis 32.9±2.73°C, minimum 29.2±2.73°C, maximum 35.3±0.64°C; for T. rugosa, mean 33.8±1.10°C, minimum 31.2±2.39°C, maximum 36.0±1.48°C; in wild, body


  ― 871 ―
temperature of T. occipitalis 30.5–35.5°C,

image
= 33.7±1.93°C at air temperature 22.2±3.85°C; for T. rugosa 25.0–37.0°C,
image
= 32.7±2.63°C at air temperature 22.8±3.30°C.

LIGHTOLLER, G.H.S. (1939). Probable Homologues. A Study of the Comparative Anatomy of the Mandibular and Hyoid Arches and their Musculature. Part I. Comparative Myology. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 24(5): 349–444.

Pars noto-gnathica, cephalognathica of m. depressor mandibulae, pars mandibularis, inscriptionalis of ventral diaphragm, m. brachi-mandibularis described and figured; pars mandibularis of ventral diaphragm innervated by cranial nerves V, VII; deep ophthalmic ramus of trigeminal n. deep to mm. pterygoidei; description of cavum tympani.

LIM, B.C., McARDLE, H.J. & MORGAN, E.H. (1987). Transferrin-receptor interaction and iron uptake by reticulocytes of vertebrate animals - a comparative study. Journal of Comparative Physiology B Biochemical, Systematic, and Environmental Physiology 157(3): 363–371.

Transferrin from T. rugosa taken up by reticulocytes of eutherian mammals, possum, chicken, toad; T. rugosa reticulocytes only take up iron from toad transferrin.

LINDGREN, E. (1961). Natural history notes from Jigalong V. Aboriginal flora and fauna names. Western Australian Naturalist 7(8): 195–201.

Lungkuta in Katatjara dialect; eaten by natives.

LINDLEY, M. (1974). The Pink-tongued Skink (previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardii). Herpetofauna 7(1): 16–17.

General; tail prehensile; arboreal; found under sheets of iron or in holes dug in damp soil; in captivity shelter under pine bark floor of cage; juvenile found in small mound of loam; inhabits wet sclerophyll forest, rainforest; emerges from beneath roots of dying, dead trees at dusk; basks in sun, but main activity at dusk; hisses when annoyed.

LINLEY, M. (1990). Oxford Scientific Films. Reptiles. Mallard Press, Moorebank. p. 22. (32pp.)

Photograph of threat display; tongue used to scare off predators.




  ― 872 ―

LITTLEJOHN, M.J. (1962). Zoology of the High Plains: Part I-Ichthyology and herpetology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (n.s.) 75(2): 311–313.

Refers to Copland (1947).

[LITTLEJOHN, M.J. & RAWLINSON, P.A.] (1971). Amphibians and reptiles. Victorian Year Book (85): 1–36.

General; T. occipitalis, T. rugosa, T. scincoides utilise superficial microenvironments when hibernating; T. casuarinae, T. nigrolutea use deep microenvironments.

LOBERT, B. & GELL, P. (1984). Mammals and Reptiles of Holey Plains State Park. Victorian Naturalist 101(6): 242–247.

Both recorded.

LONGLEY, G. (1938). Notes on a pink-tongued skink (Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii). Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1937–8: 19–21.

Brief description; tongue flickering similar to snakes; diet in captivity snails; partly arboreal; will also eat some meat; fond of warmth, but does not like hot sunshine; at least 18 young born 27 December; coloration of young; muzzle not black in juveniles (contra adults); tongue black; did not feed for few days; by 23 February, tongue mauve; by 16 March tongue of largest distinctly pink; growth rates of young; sometimes move with forelimbs only, holding hind pair against body.

LONGLEY, G. (1939). The blue-tongued lizard (previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides). Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1938–9: 39–42.

Photographs of T. scincoides, T. nigrolutea, C. gerrardii; 18 young T. scincoides born 9–10 February 1935 to 50cm ♀ acquired 21 January; young refused to hibernate, most died over winter; one ♀ from this litter mated October 1936; ten young born 30–31 December; diet snails, slugs, cicadas, beetles, lepidopteran larvae, crickets, grasshoppers; captive diet includes meat raw egg, fruit, milk, gravy; will not crack hen eggs; about Sydney, hibernate between May and August; one ♀ of second generation litter mated October 1938 with T. nigrolutea; three hybrids born 11–12 January; another litter of 14 born 10 January to mating 3 October; C. gerrardii tail prehensile.




  ― 873 ―

LONGLEY, G. (1940). Notes on certain lizards. Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1939–40: 34–39.

Recorded litters of 17 (27 December 1937), five (14 January 1940) for C. gerrardii; 11 young born to 2 ♀♀ 31 December 1939; latter three litters born to ♀♀ born 27 December 1937; frequent sloughing of young; T. rugosa eats snails, meat, fruit (apples, bananas, plums, grapes, sultana raisins), milk, raw eggs, beetles (esp. chafers), caterpillars, cut worms, dandelion flowers; poor survival rate overwintering outdoors in Sydney, especially if fat reserves poor.

LONGLEY, G. (1941). Notes on some Australian lizards. Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1940–41: 30–35.

Captive ♂ T. nigrolutea fighting 9–10 October 1940; five young born 7 February 1941; size at birth; growth rates; diet meat, snails; photographs of T. nigrolutea and hybrid; captive Pogona barbata did not attack neonate previous hit Tiliqua next hit; 18 young C. gerrardii born 27 December 1937; two ♀♀ of this litter gave birth to 11 young (one stillborn, five weak; 31 December 1939); one ♀ of first litter gave birth to six young (14 January 1940); at least nine young born ca7 January 1941 to original ♀.

LONGLEY, G. (1944a). A note on the Shingle back Lizard (Trachysaurus rugosus). Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1943–44: 20.

Captives avidly ate mushrooms.

LONGLEY, G. (1944b). Notes on a hybrid Blue tongue Lizard. Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1943–44: 23–24.

Hybrids between ♂ T. nigrolutea, ♀ T. scincoides born 29 January 1941; bred with ♂ T. nigrolutea 29 October 1943; ten young born 16 February 1944; five stillborn, three weak, subsequently died; two survived; hybrid litters of 11 (31 January 1943), nine (7–10 January 1944); photographs.

LONGLEY, G. (1947). Gould's monitor (Varanus gouldii) in the vivarium. Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1946–47: 27–28.

Captive Varanus gouldii attacked T. scincoides.

LONGMAN, H.A. (1915). Reptiles from Queensland and the Northern Territory. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 3: 30–34.




  ― 874 ―

Tail prehensile; previous hit Tiliqua next hit longicauda de Vis a synonym of C. gerrardii; coloration variation, occasionally throat markings absent.

L[ONGMAN], H.A. (1925). Lizards. pp. 748–751 in, Jose, A.W. & Carter, H.J. (eds.). The Illustrated Australian Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. (768pp.)

General; T. scincoides eats fungi; C. gerrardii has prehensile tail.

LONGMAN, H.A. [1930]. The Vertebrate Fauna of Queensland. pp. 63–70 in Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science Handbook for Queensland Prepared for the Members of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, for the Brisbane Meeting, May–June, 1930. Government Printer, Brisbane. (116pp.)

General.

LONGMAN, H.A. (1945). Fossil vertebrates from Gore Quarries. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 12(3): 164.

Lower jaw fragment from Pleistocene deposits.

LONGMORE, R. & LEE, P. (1981). Some Observations on Techniques for Assessing the Effects of Fire on Reptile Populations in Sturt National Park. Australian Journal of Herpetology 1(1): 17–22.

One killed by fire.

LÖNNBERG, E. & ANDERSSON, L.G. (1913). Results of Dr. E. Mjöbergs Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia 1910–13 III. Reptiles. Kunglia Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 52(3): 1–17.

Recorded.

LORD, C. (1924). “Some Tasmanian Reptiles”. Tasmanian Naturalist (n.s.)1(1): 22–23.

Two species [in error; only one] of bluetongue often found in Tas;


  ― 875 ―
referred to as goannas or iguanas.

LORD, C. (1927). The Vertebrate Fauna of Tasmania. pp. 82–99 in, Handbook to Tasmania Prepared for the Members of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science on the occasion of its Meeting in Hobart January, 1928. John Vail, Government Printer, Hobart. (135pp.)

T. rugosa introduced to Tasmania “some years ago”, still occasionally seen; T. nigrolutea, T. scincoides present in Tas [latter in error].

LORD, C.E. & SCOTT, H.H. (1924). A Synopsis of the Vertebrate Animals of Tasmania. Oldham, Beddome and Meredith, Hobart. pp. 114–115, 117. (340pp.)

T. rugosa introduced to Tasmania, still occasionally seen in north of state; coloration, scalation descriptions; T. nigrolutea known as “goanna”.

LORRAWAY, D.E. (1951). “Hairy” death adder. Wild Life 13(1): 62.

Death adder resembled bluetongue.

LOVERIDGE, A. (1934). Australian Reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 77(6): 243–383 + plate.

Measurements, scalation; copros of T. rugosa contained fragments of large weevil; T. o. auriculaire Kinghorn synonymised with T. multifasciata; native name near Anningie, “lulga”; one dug from shallow burrow, active by day; one vomited seeds, mainly small white split type, when captured; C. melanops not synonymous with C. branchialis; C. casuarinae from Daners Gap taken from Myrmecia pilusula nest; Lygosoma petersi Sternfeld reduced to race of C. casuarinae.

LOVERIDGE, A. (1938). On some reptiles and amphibians from the central region of Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 62(2): 183–191.

Brief scalation and measurement description of T. multifasciata; native name “culameer”; several species of ant in stomach contents; Lygosoma petersi reduced to subspecies of C. casuarinae.

LOVERIDGE, A. (1945). Reptiles of the Pacific World. MacMillan, New York. pp. 95, 98. (259pp.)

General; coloration; diet in wild insects, young birds, small mice; survived in captivity for nearly 9 yrs; up to 12 young.

LOVERIDGE, A. (1948). New Guinean Reptiles and Amphibians in the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy and United States National Museum. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 101(2): 305–430.

Brief scalation description of three specimens; measurements; T. gigas reduced to race of T. scincoides on basis of intermediate characters in T. g. keiensis; Gusiko specimen under pile of lumber on grassy flats adjacent coral cliff.

LOVERIDGE, A. (1949). On some Reptiles and Amphibians from the Northern Territory. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 72(2): 208–215.

Brief description of juvenile in MCZ.

LOWE, D.W. (1982). The analysis of 701 fox scats from Morialta Conservation Park, South Australia. South Australian Naturalist 56(4): 52–57.

Remains in fox scats, largely in warmer months.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1890). Zoology: Vertebrata. pp. 56–73 in Spencer, W.B. (ed.). Handbook of Melbourne. For the use of members of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, Melbourne Meeting, 1890. Spectator Publishing Company Limited, Melbourne. (137pp.)

General; all recorded.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1914). The reptiles and amphibia. pp. 314–321 in, British


  ― 877 ―
Association for the Advancement of Science, 1914. Handbook for New South Wales. New South Wales Committee & Edward Lee & Co., Sydney. (621pp.)

General; T. rugosa has reputation as enemy to snakes.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & FROST, C. (1894). The lizards indigenous to Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (n.s.)6: 24–92 + pl. II.

Generic, species synonymies, descriptions (after Boulenger, 1887); T. rugosa in dry open country, herbivorous, stomach of one containing fungus, Styphelia berries; litter size one (after McCoy, 1885); teeth of T. adelaidensis more conical than other previous hit Tiliqua next hit species; T. scincoides in sandy heath country, hill slopes in lightly timbered districts; November ♀ carried 15 full-sized eggs, without any trace of embryos; T. nigrolutea similar to T. scincoides but more active; threat display; diet insects, fungus, probably fruit of small shrubs; litter size 12–14.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & FROST, C. (1896a). Description of a new species of Ablepharus from Victoria, with critical notes on two other Australian lizards. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21(3): 281–283.

Hemisphaeriodon tasmanicum synonymised with C. casuarinae; differences between Hemisphaeriodon and Homolepida; C. casuarinae dentition similar to young C. gerrardii.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & FROST, C. (1896b). Reptilia. pp. 112–175 in, Spencer, B. (ed.) Report on the work of the Horn Scientific Expedition to central Australia. Dulau and Co., London and Melville, Mullen and Slade, Melbourne. (431pp.)

Description of T. multifasciata [as T. occipitalis]; found under logs, not seen in open during daytime; two varieties, sympatric at one of above localities, might be differentiated [T. occipitalis, T. multifasciata].

LUCAS, A.H.S. & FROST, C. (1901). A census of Australian lizards. Report of the eighth meeting of the Australian Association for the Advancement of Science: 256–261.

Distribution by state.




  ― 878 ―

LUCAS, A.H.S. & LE SOUËF, W.H.D. (1909). The Animals of Australia. Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians. Whitcombe and Tombs, Melbourne. pp. 176, 245–248, 255, 324. (327pp.)

General; coloration descriptions; photographs; T. rugosa has reputation as snake killer; litter size one; T. adelaidensis possible young of one of the other species; T. nigrolutea diet insects, fungi, fleshy-leaved vegetation; T. scincoides oviparous [in error], T. nigrolutea viviparous, 6–15 young in each case; previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. eaten by Pseudechis porphyriacus.

LUCAS, M.H. (1861). Note sur une nouvelle espèce du genre Ixodes. Société Entomologique de France Annales (4)1: 225–226.

Ixodes trachysauri sp. nov. [= Aponomma hydrosauri] described from T. rugosa.

LUMSDEN, L.F., ALEXANDER, J.S.A., HILL, F.A.R., KRASNA, S.P. & SILVEIRA, C.E. (1991). The Vertebrate Fauna of the Land Conservation Council Melbourne-2 Study Area. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report Series (115): 1–125.

T. nigrolutea widespread in region; inhabits damp sclerophyll forest, riparian forest, foothill forest complex, heathy dry forest, dry sclerophyll forest, box woodland, sand heathland, coastal heathland, coastal grassy forest; occasionally trapped in cage traps, Elliott traps, pitfall traps in central highlands; T. scincoides inhabits dry sclerophyll forest, rocky outcrops, floodplain riparian woodland, heathlands, swamp scrub, farmland.

LUNNEY, D. & BARKER, J. (1986). Survey of Reptiles and Amphibians of the Coastal Forests near Bega, NSW. Australian Zoologist 22(3): 1–9.

Rare in area; four sightings on roads; one caught in small mammal trap.

LUNDSTED, K. (1968). Blåtungen (previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides). Nordisk Herpetologisk Forening 11(3): 37–43.

General; description; geographic and other variation in coloration; both eyelids moveable; gestation around 4–6 months; 1–2 young in litter, about 15cm at birth [in error]; placenta present, eaten by neonates; litters of 10–12 young in captivity rarely recorded; offspring in these cases small, high mortality; change in dentition at about 6 months; inhabits wide range of habitats, including suburban environments; often found on roads; good at climbing, digging, swimming; does not like water; diurnal; prefer


  ― 879 ―
very high body temperatures; will not eat vegetable material [in error]; wide range of foods, but prefers snails; also eats eggs, fruit, crabs, dead beachwashed fish, venomous snakes, grasshoppers; German price 90–120 Deutschmarks for captives, Danish price 200 Kronen; captive requirements; ecdysis occurs at 1.5–2 month intervals; lizards unwell 10–14d before moulting; ecdysis takes 2–3hrs; captive aggressive towards similar sized cagemates, both conspecific and non-conspecific.

LUNT, I.D., BROWN, G.W., CHERRY, K.A., HENRY, S.R. & YUGOVIC, J.V. (1987). Flora and fauna of proposed timber harvesting areas in the Grampians National Park, Victoria Part 1. Department of Conservation, Forests & Lands Ecological Survey Report (15): 1–130.

T. nigrolutea uncommon; recorded from heathland, rocky woodland, dry sclerophyll forest, red gum forest; T. rugosa widespread, inhabits dry sclerophyll forests, heathland, red gum forest, paperbark scrub; frequently seen in pairs in late October; one pit-trapped.

LÜTKEN, C. (1863). Nogle nye Krybdyr og Padder. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den naturhistoriske Forening i Kjobenhaun 1862(20–22): 292–311.

Type description of Cyclodus fasciatus [=T. occipitalis]; first use of Homolepida (pro Omolepida Gray).

LYDEKKER, R. (ed.) (1896). The Royal Natural History. Vol. 5. Frederick Warne & Co., London. pp. 167–168.

General; bluetongues have spheroidal tooth crowns; drawing of T. rugosa; description; teeth have subconical crowns; a burrowing species in the wild; diet worms and insects, occasionally fruit and vegetables; can endure long fasts; one ate only 2–3 flies during voyage between Australia and England.

LYDEKKER, R. (undated) [ca. 1937?]. Class III. Reptilia Characteristics and Classification of Reptiles. pp. 1469–1636 in, Harmsworth Natural History. Vol. 3. Amalgamated Press, Limited, London.

General; photographs of T. rugosa, T. scincoides; general descriptions; T. rugosa teeth have subconical crowns; diet worms, insects, occasionally fruit, vegetables; a burrower; bluetongue teeth have broad, flat crowns.

LYNN, W.G. & ZMICH, J. (1967). Thyroid Morphology in Lizards of the


  ― 880 ―
Family Scincidae. American Midland Naturalist 77(1): 245–247.

Thyroid morphology not noted as different to other skinks.

LYON, B. (1972). Area survey of reptiles in the outer north-eastern Brisbane suburbs:- Geebung, Wavell Heights, Virginia, part Zillmere and Boondall. Herpetofauna 5(3): 2–4.

Six specimens found; under sheet iron and other debris in grassy areas.

LYON, J. (1952). Death Adder at Jarrahdale. Western Australian Naturalist 3(6): 142.

Acanthophis antarcticus resembled T. rugosa.

M., I.C. (1978). Blue-tongue Lizard survives a Jonah-like experience. Victorian Naturalist 95(6): 250.

20cm bluetongue swallowed and regurgitated alive by labrador.

MACCALLUM, G.A. (1921). Studies in helminthology Part 1 - Trematodes Part 2 - Cestodes Part 3 - Nematodes. Zoopathologica 1(6): 135–284.

Paragonimus trachysauri sp. nov., Cephalogonimus trachysauri sp. nov. described from gall bladder of T. rugosa; Taenia trachysauri sp. nov. from intestine.

MACFARLANE, C.W. & TRIEBEL, L.A. (1937). French explorers in Tasmania and in southern seas. Australasian Publishing Co., Sydney. p. 54. (120pp.)

Translation of Peron (1807) on C. casuarinae from Bruny Island.

MACFARLANE, M.A., LOYN, R.H., CHESTERFIELD, E.A., TRAILL, B.J. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1984). Flora and fauna of the Scorpion and Dawson Forest Blocks, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (5): 1–65.

Reported from farmland adjacent to Scorpion Block; likely to occur on


  ― 881 ―
timbered river flats, dry slopes.

MACFARLANE, M.A., SCHULZ, M., PARKES, D.M., TRAILL, B.J. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1987). Flora and fauna of the Buckland Forest Block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (8): 1–93.

Two records of C. casuarinae, from heathland; habitat descriptions; both under logs; distribution very localised in Vic, where only known from six 5 minute grid squares; refers to Cogger (1983), Jenkins & Bartell (1980); one T. nigrolutea under large rock on rocky slope in damp sclerophyll forest; two T. scincoides collected, one in Elliott trap, one basking; both in Eucalyptus cephalocarpa heathland.

MACGILLIVRAY, W. (1910). The Region of the Barrier Range. An oologist's holiday Part II. Emu 10(1): 88–102.

Stump-tails common; early October is mating season; mostly in pairs; diet green vegetable matter; must aestivate during droughts.

MACGILLIVRAY, W. (1924). An excursion in south-west Queensland. Victorian Naturalist 41(6): 103–120, (7): 126–140.

T. rugosa herbivorous, viviparous, capable of aestivating for long dry periods of two or more years, remaining buried in ground; dead T. scincoides observed.

MACKAY, R. (1949a). The Lizards of Eastlakes Golf Links. Australian Museum Magazine 9(12): 404–407.

T. scincoides often found, under sheet iron on sandy ground; probably shelters in mammal burrows; diet flies, beetles, snails, grasshoppers, berries; C. casuarinae abundant under boards or sheet iron; will attack anything when threatened; insectivorous but may eat berries, fruit.

MACKAY, R. (1949b). The Snakes of Eastlakes Golf Links. Australian Museum Magazine 10(1): 24–27.

Six foot Pseudonaja textilis eating full grown bluetongue.

MACKAY, R.D. (1954a). Scientific data. Reptilia 1(3): 3–4.

Reference to Mitchell (1950).

MACKAY, R.D. (1954b). Cape York reptiles. Reptilia 1(3): 22–24.

Recorded.

MACKAY, R.D. (1954c). Scientific data No. 2. Reptilia 1(6): 10–12.

Refers to generic reassignments by Loveridge (1934), Smith (1937), Mitchell (1950); one C. gerrardii in rat's nest in sapling, 10 feet from ground.

MACKAY, R.D. (1955). Notes on a Collection of Reptiles and Amphibians from the Furneaux Islands, Bass Strait. Australian Zoologist 12(2): 160–164.

Six found on Babel I.; largest specimen 385mm [total length], noticeably smaller than NSW specimens; all found in open, attempted to shelter in mutton-bird burrows; slough found on Big Dog I.

MACKAY, R.D. (1960). Australian reptiles in captivity. Bulletin of the Philadelphia Herpetological Society 8(6): 17–19.

T. scincoides, T. nigrolutea commonly exported; do well in captivity; often hybridise in captivity but not in wild; thrive on diet of snails, slugs, banana, berries, meat, milk, egg; T. rugosa often exported; does not do well in captivity, possibly due to excess meat in diet; photograph of T. scincoides.

MACKENZIE, W.C. & OWEN, W.J. (1923). Studies on the Comparative Anatomy of the Alimentary Canal of Australian Reptiles. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (n.s.)36(1): 41–49.

General description of entire alimentary tract; palate apparently more complete in T. rugosa than T. scincoides; cardiac sphincter almost absent in one T. rugosa; no differentiation of duodenum; no caecum in T. rugosa, occasionally present in T. scincoides; terminal portion of colon in T. rugosa differentiated into 1.5cm long compartment defined by two sphincters.

MACLEAN, G.S., LEE, A.K. & WILSON, K.J. (1973). A simple method of


  ― 883 ―
obtaining blood from lizards. Copeia 1973(2): 338–339.

Blood successfully collected from orbital sinus of 317.8–636.5g T. rugosa, 55.9g T. nigrolutea.

MACLEAY, W. (1885). On some Reptilia lately received from the Herbert River district, Queensland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 10(1): 64–68.

Type description of Hinulia picta.

MACLEAY, W. (1888). Notes on Mr. Froggatt's collections made during the year 1887, in the vicinity of Derby, King's Sound, N.W. Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (2)2(4): 1017–1020.

New species of previous hit Tiliqua next hit collected [= T. s. intermedia, at that time undescribed; specimen still in MMus].

MACLURCAN, D.C.B. (1973). Taronga Zoological Park Trust and the Zoological Parks Board of N.S.W. Annual Report 1972–73. pp. 32, 33, 35, xxvii. (37 + xxxx pp.)

C. gerrardii, T. scincoides exhibited; numbers present; four T. scincoides born; 16 C. gerrardii born; T. scincoides, T. rugosa sent to Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Austria; C. gerrardii sent to Australian Reptile Park, Gosford; T. scincoides received from Dept of Customs.

MACLURCAN, D.C.B. (1974). Annual Report 1973–74 Zoological Parks Board of N.S.W. pp. 27, 30, xxv. (31 + xxxv pp.)

T. scincoides, T. nigrolutea, C. gerrardii exhibited; numbers present; T. scincoides, T. rugosa sent to Australian Museum; specimens of T. scincoides, T. nigrolutea, T. multifasciata confiscated by Dept of Customs sent to Taronga Zoo.

MACLURCAN, D.C.B. (1975). Zoological Parks Board of N.S.W. Annual Report 1974–75. pp. 21, xix. (26 + xxvi pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; T. scincoides, T. rugosa donated to Zoo; two T. multifasciata received from Dept of Customs as confiscations.




  ― 884 ―

MACMILLEN, R.E., AUGEE, M.L. & ELLIS, B.A. (1989). Thermal ecology and diet of some xerophilous lizards from western New South Wales. Journal of Arid Environments 16(2): 193–201.

Mass 714.2±122.8g (n = 19); diurnally active; during hot December weather, observed active between 0800–1130hrs; during very hot February weather, none observed; during September, observed active from mid-morning to mid-afternoon; body temperature of active animals; stomach contents of seven individuals mainly plant material; faeces, carrion also eaten.

MAIN, A.R. (1980). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1980. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. p. 42 (44pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

MAIN, A.R. (1982). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1982. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. pp. 13, 43. (47pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; one T. occipitalis bred.

MAIN, A.R. (1983). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1983. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. pp. 11, 36. (40pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; one T. occipitalis bred.

MAIN, A.R. (1984). Zoological Gardens Board Perth, Western Australia Annual Report 30th June 1984. [Zoological Gardens Board, Perth]. pp. 12, 36. (40pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; one T. occipitalis bred.

MAIN, A.R. (1987). Evolution and radiation of the terrestrial fauna. pp. 136–155 in, Dyne, G.R. & Walton, D.W. (eds.). Fauna of Australia. Vol. 1A General Articles. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. (x + 339pp.)

Widespread monotypic genus showing no indication of incipient divergence.




  ― 885 ―

MAIN, B.Y. (1967). Between wodjil and tor. Jacaranda Press, Brisbane and Landfall Press, Perth. pp. 9, 11–12. (161pp.)

T. rugosa active in morning in late summer; cites Dampier (1729); one seen “foraging for fruits and seeds”.

MALAN, J.R. (1939). Some Helminths of South African Lizards. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 12(1): 21–74.

Refers to Baylis (1930), Dollfus (1922), Johnston (1932), MacCallum (1921), Thapar (1925); Paradistomum trachysauri recorded from T. rugosa gall-bladder; Cephalogonimus trachysauri MacCallum considered synonymous with P. trachysauri; Pharyngodon tiliquae recorded from T. scincoides rectum; P. hindlei from T. scincoides intestine; Thelandros sp. from T. rugosa intestine.

MALCOLM, M. (1979). Letter to the editor. V.H.S. ‘Newsletter’ (12): 7.

Two ♂♂ fighting in spring; head scales and mouth damaged; initial treatment with sulphamezathine and gentian violet ineffective; treatment with Listerine effective.

MANLEY, G.A., KÖPPL, C & JOHNSTONE, B.M. (1990). Peripheral auditory processing in the bobtail lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa I. Frequency tuning of auditory-nerve fibres. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory, Neural, and Behavioural Physiology 167(1): 89–99.

Primary auditory nerve fibres have asymmetrical, V-shaped frequency-threshold tuning curves; fibre characteristic frequencies ranged from 0.2–4.5kHz; most sensitive fibres had characteristic frequency near 1.2kHz, threshold of 6dB; fibres with characteristic frequencies below 0.85kHz had simple U-shaped tuning curves; higher characteristic frequency fibres had tuning curves with obvious sharp tips near characteristic frequency; similar division of low and high characteristic frequency groups apparent on other parameters; tuning sharpness, thresholds of both fibre groups hypoxia-sensitive, loss of sensitivity greatest at characteristic frequency; only low characteristic frequency group showed two-tone rate suppression.

MANLEY, G.A., YATES, G.K. & KÖPPL, C. (1988). Auditory peripheral tuning; evidence for a simple resonance phenomenon in the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit. Hearing Research 33: 181–190.

Literature review on auditory phenomena in T. rugosa; mechanical


  ― 886 ―
displacement of basilar membrane contributes to frequency selection by neurons; tuning resembles high-pass resonant filter, arising subsequent to basilar membrane motion; data suggest that frequency selectivity increased by involvement of tectorial membrane in a mechanical resonance.

MANLEY, G.A., YATES, G.K., KÖPPL, C. & JOHNSTONE, B.M. (1990). Peripheral auditory processing in the bobtail lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit rugosa IV. Phase locking of auditory-nerve fibres. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory, Neural, and Behavioural Physiology 167(1): 129–138.

Primary auditory fibres phase-lock up to maximal frequency of 1.0–1.3kHz at 30°C Tb; phase histograms have two peaks, 180° apart; vector strength of phase histograms falls more rapidly with increasing frequency in high characteristic frequency fibres; membrane time constants of high frequency fibres longer than low frequency fibres; phase delays of fibre phase responses below characteristic frequency vary with characteristic frequency, from ca3ms for high frequency cells to 6ms for low frequency cells; delays mainly due to response times of hair cell filters.

MANSERGH, I. & BENNETT, S. (1989). ‘Greenhouse’ and Wildlife Management in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 106(6): 243–252.

Spot distribution map in Victoria; two Victorian forms: alpine and coastal; has most disparate range of any Victorian reptile.

MANSERGH, I. & HERCUS, L.A. (1981). An aboriginal vocabulary of the fauna of Gippsland. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria (42)(2): 107–122.

Sleepy lizard is “gungwan”; refers to Mathews (1902).

MANSERGH, I.M. & NORRIS, K.C. (1982). Sites of zoological significance in central Gippsland. Volume I: report. Ministry for Conservation, Victoria. Environmental Studies Program (359): 1–236.

Recorded from above blocks; T. scincoides uncommon in central Gippsland, restricted distribution in South Gippsland; inhabits grassland and shrub woodland.

MANSERGH, I.M. & WATSON, L.M. (1984). Vertebrate Fauna of the National Parks of Gippsland. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Internal Report. pp. 28, 30, 39, 43, 48, 63, 93, 95, 149, 167, 194, 215, 218, 220, 232, 234, 235, 245, 258, 279, 328, 335,


  ― 887 ―
353, 377. (395pp.)

Distribution in central Gippsland based on 5′ blocks in reserves.

MARCUS, L.F. (1976). The Bingara Fauna A Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna from Murchison County, New South Wales, Australia. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 114: 1–145.

Right humerus in Pleistocene deposits in Murchison County from skink-like lizard “possibly the size of the blue-tailed skink, previous hit Tiliqua next hit” [dimensions far too large for previous hit Tiliqua next hit].

MARKWELL, K. & KNIGHT, R. (1986). An inventory of the herpetofauna of the south eastern section of Myall Lakes National Park, N.S.W. Hunter Wetlands Trust Scientific Paper (1): 1–19.

Several recorded; coloration differences in adjoining populations.

MARSACK, P. & CAMPBELL, G. (1990). Feeding Behaviour and Diet of Dingoes in the Nullarbor Region, Western Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 17(4): 349–357.

Remains present in two of 49 dingo stomachs examined.

MARSHALL, L.G. (1973). Fossil vertebrate faunas from the Lake Victoria region, S.W. New South Wales, Australia. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria (34): 151–171 + pl. 14–16.

Fossil remains (late Pleistocene-Holocene) in Lake Victoria lunette sediments.

MARTENSZ, P.N. (1971). Observations on the food of the fox, Vulpes vulpes (L.), in an arid environment. C.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Research 16(1): 73–75.




  ― 888 ―
Remains of two T. rugosa in fox stomachs.

MARTIN, C.J. (1902). Thermal Adjustment and Respiratory Exchange in Monotremes and Marsupials. - A Study in the Development of Homoeothermism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 195: 1–37.

Mass of five lizards 265–421g; pooled CO2 production of all lizards at varying temperatures; CO2 production increases sharply between 35–40°C.

MARTIN, K. (1975). Reptiles of the Alice Springs area. Herpetofauna 7(2): 6–7.

T. multifasciata uncommon near Alice Springs; very common to north.

MARYAN, B. (1982). Senior excursion to Fitzgerald River National Park 13.4.1982. Naturalist News [W.A. Naturalists' Club] May: 6–7.

Recorded.

MARYAN, B. (1984). Reptiles of the Canning Vale-Lynwood area. SAHG Newsletter Nov. '84: 1–2.

Common in both areas; shelters under tin.

MARYAN, B. (1985). The occurrence of the Childrens Python (Liasis childreni) on Dirk Hartog Island, W.A. Herpetofauna 15(2): 48.

Recorded.

MASON, J. (1982). Australia Naturally. Western Colour Print, Marrickville. pp. 38, 40. (64pp.)

Mention of shinglebacks and bluetongues; photograph of T. rugosa.

MASSOLA, A. (1968). Aboriginal place names of south-east Australia and their meanings. Lansdowne Press, Melbourne. p. 51. (62pp.)




  ― 889 ―
Wallup is aboriginal name for stumpy lizard.

MATHER, P.B. (1979). An Examination of the Reptile Fauna of Wyperfield National Park using Pitfall Trapping. Victorian Naturalist 96(3): 98–101.

Recorded.

MATHEW, J. (1914). Note on the Gurang Gurang tribe of Queensland, with vocabulary. Report of the Fourteenth Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: 433–443.

Sleepy lizard is “kulinugal” in Gurang Gurang dialect.

MATHEWS, R.H. (1901). The Thurrawal Language. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 35: 127–160.

In Thurrawal language, sleepy lizard is muggadung.

MATHEWS, R.H. (1902a). The aboriginal languages of Victoria. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 36: 71–106.

In Tyattyalla language, sleepy lizard is wallūp; in Brabirrawulung language, sleepy lizard is gungwun.

MATHEWS, R.H. (1902b). Languages of some native tribes of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 36: 135–190.

In Yualeai language, sleepy lizard [previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp.] is ubun; shingleback [T. rugosa] is Kurbali; in Yota-yota language, shingleback is mutirr.

MATHEWS, R.H. (1910). Language and sociology of the Kumbainggeri tribe, New South Wales. Report of the Twelfth Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: 485–493.

Sleepy lizard is “wandŭrga” in Kumbainggeri language.

MATTHEWS, C.D., KENNAWAY, D.J., FRITH, R.G., PHILLIPOU, G., LeCORNU, A. & SEAMARK, R.F. (1977). Plasma melatonin values in man and some


  ― 890 ―
domestic animals: initial observations on the effects of pregnancy in man and pinealectomy in sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 73(3): 41P–42P.

Plasma [melatonin] in mid-light 35±5.9 pg/ml; in mid-darkness 240±43 pg/ml.

MATTINGLEY, A.H.E. (1909). In the heart of the Mallee. Victorian Naturalist 26(6): 64–77.

Common; observed eating cape weed (Cryptostemma calendulaceum) flowers; possible predator of young birds and eggs.

MATTISON, C. (1982). The Care of Reptiles and Amphibians in Captivity. Blandford Press, Poole. pp. 225–226, pl. 31. (304pp.)

Photograph; general; thrives in captivity, often bred; up to 20 young in litter.

MATTISON, C. (1989). Lizards of the World. Blandford Press, London. pp. 26, 28, 56, 69, 83, 152–154, 156. (192pp.)

Large, irregular scales in T. rugosa; photographs of T. scincoides, T. rugosa scales; C. gerrardii partially arboreal, molluscivorous; bluetongues protrude tongue from open mouth if molested, or in ♂-♂ interactions; T. nigrolutea produces 5–10 large young, C. gerrardii 12–25, up to 67, small young, but relative litter mass similar; photograph of T. gigas; large previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. diurnal, omnivorous; T. rugosa color variation; 1–3 very large young in litter.

MATZ, G. (1968). Les scinques australiens. Aquarama 2(1): 27–29.

General; common names; distribution; coloration; refers to Worrell (1963); T. scincoides dig in captivity, burying themselves overnight; longevity over 10yrs; one captive obtained as subadult still alive after 8yrs; T. rugosa never aggressive.

MATZ, G. (1972a). Les scinques australiens II Egernia Gray, 1838 et previous hit Tiliqua next hit Gray, 1825. Aquarama 6(17): 45–47.

C. gerrardii: coloration; inhabits humid tropical forests from Sydney to Cape York; climb readily amongst low branches; tail prehensile; peaceable


  ― 891 ―
in captivity, fighting never observed; feed almost exclusively on snails/slugs; shell crushed between jaws while pressing shell against ground; in captivity, will eat canned dog food, waxmoth larvae; mating probably occurs at night; one litter of one in April; possibly cannibalistic.

MATZ, G. (1972b). Einige australische Skinke der Gattungen Egernia und previous hit Tiliqua next hit. Die Aquarien-und Terrarien Zeitschrift 25(4): 136–139.

C. gerrardii: coloration; inhabits humid tropical forests from Sydney to Cape York; climb readily amongst low branches; tail prehensile; peaceable in captivity, fighting never observed; feed almost exclusively on snails/slugs; shell crushed between jaws while pressing shell against ground; in captivity, will eat canned dog food, waxmoth larvae; mating probably occurs at night; one litter of one in April; possibly cannibalistic.

MATZ, G. (1973). Biologie et reproduction de previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardii (Gray) (Scincidae). Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 98(4): 590.

Coloration description; inhabits humid tropical forests from Sydney to Cape York; climb readily amongst low branches; tail prehensile; diet almost exclusively snails/slugs; shells crushed between jaws, against substrate; in captivity, will also eat dog food, supplemented with vitamins; description of mating; captive births between December and April (northern hemisphere); litter sizes 5, 16, 17, 20; growth rates.

MATZ, G. (1974). Données sur la reproduction et l'élevage de Scincidae. (Reptilia, Lacertilia). Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 99(4): 798–799.

Six litters of 1–20 young (total 53); diet snails.

MATZ, G. & VANDERHAEGHE, M. (1977). Thieme's terrariumgids. Handboek der Herpetologie voor natuurvrienden et terrariumhouders. [transl. from original French by W.J. Kabos]. W.J. Thieme & Cie, Zutphen. pp. 179–181, pl. 8b, 26, 27. (287pp.)

General; distribution; coloration; captive requirements; diet in captivity; C. gerrardii eats slugs, snails, 10 or more over 2 days; occasionally eats insects; 7–20 live young, one litter of one; cites Worrell [1963] on 12–20 litter size; young 9–10cm long at birth; dark bands begin to fade four months after birth; 20–30cm long at nine months; T. rugosa does not hibernate; lives for more than 20yrs; 2–3, usually two young, 14cm long at birth; gravid T. scincoides very aggressive; photographs of C. gerrardii, T. scincoides.




  ― 892 ―

MAURER, F. (1896). Die ventrale rumpfmuskulatur einiger reptilien. Eine vergleichend-anatomische untersuchung. pp. 181–256 + pl. I–IV in, [Haeckel, E.H.P.A. (ed.)]. Festschrift zum Siebenzigsten Geburtstage von Carl Gegenbaur am 21. August 1896. Erster Band. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. (436pp.)

Osteoderms present; superficial rectus fascia adherent to skin; descriptions, with figures, ventral and lateral abdominal musculature, including mm. rectus medialis (pars medialis, pars lateralis), rectus lateralis, obliquus externus superficialis, obliquus externus profundus, intercostalis externus longus, intercostalis externus brevis, intercostalis internus, obliquus internus, transversus, intercostalis dorsalis.

MAURER, F. (1898). Die Entwicklung der ventralen Rumpfmuskulatur bei Reptilien. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 26(1): 1–60 + pl. i–iii.

M. rectus lateralis present.

MAUTZ, W.J. (1982). Patterns of Evaporative Water Loss. pp. 443–481 in, Gans, C. & Pough, F.H. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Volume 12 Physiology C Physiological Ecology. Academic Press, London. (536pp.)

Refers to Warburg (1965a, b).

McARTNEY, I.B. (1968). Reptiles and amphibians of the Bathurst district. Australian Zoologist 14(3): 265–267.

All recorded; T. nigrolutea restricted to southern side of Bathurst; T. rugosa more common on northern side of Bathurst, rare to south.

McCANN, I.R. (1961). Major Mitchell Plateau, in the Victorian Grampians. Victorian Naturalist 78(1): 4–7.

Single bluetongue seen.

McCANN, I.R. (1983). Little Desert Wildlife - An Illustrated Checklist. Little Desert Tours Pty Ltd, Nhill. (24pp.)

Photographs; T. occipitalis, T. scincoides rare; T. rugosus common in all habitats; diet vegetable, animal food, carrion; photograph of wild-caught albino T. rugosa.




  ― 893 ―

McCARTHY, F.D. (1943). New South Wales Aboriginal Place Names and Euphonious Words, with their Meanings. Australian Museum, Sydney. p. 8. (32pp.)

Bunnerong = sleeping lizard; Cannonba = place of shingle-back lizard.

McCARTHY, F.D. (1946). New South Wales Aboriginal Place Names and Euphonious Words, with their Meanings. [2nd Edn]. Australian Museum, Sydney. pp. 8, 14. (32pp.)

Bunnerong = sleeping lizard; Cannonba = place of shingle-back lizard; Narrandera = possibly blue-tongue lizard.

McCARTHY, F.D. (1976). Rock Art of the Cobar Pediplain in central western New South Wales. Australian Aboriginal Studies. Research and Regional Studies (7): 1–163 + 78figs.

Stumpytails depicted in aboriginal rock paintings; no paintings of bluetongues.

McCOLL, S.R. & DANIELS, C.B. (1988). A Comparison between the Inflammatory Mediators Produced by the Blue-Tongue Lizard (previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides) and Human White Blood Cells. Australian Journal of Zoology 36(2): 209–215.

Mass, SVL of four adult males; white blood cells produce derivatives of arachidonic acid, including prostaglandins, thromboxane, 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, indicating enzymes cyclooxygenase, 12- and 15-lipoxygenase; did not produce leukotriene B4 or 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, indicating no 5-lipoxygenase enzyme; can produce oxygen-derived free radical superoxide enzyme.

McCOY, F. (1883–90). Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria; or figures and descriptions of the living species of all classes of the Victorian indigenous animals. R.S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne. Vol. I., Decade VIII (1883), pl. 72, Volume II, Decade XI (1885), pl. 102, pp. 3–5, Decade XIV (1887), pl. 131, pp. 119–120, Decade XVIII (1889), pl. 171, pp. 259–261.

Redescriptions; diagnoses of species and genera; partial synonymies; coloured illustrations; T. rugosa viviparous, single young born March; Wagler's figure of Trachysaurus Peronii is not T. rugosa, but probably Egernia sp.




  ― 894 ―

McCOY, F. (1883). Register of Contents of National Museum.-As Numbered (continued from last Report). pp. 25–32 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museum, and National Gallery of Victoria, with the Reports of the Sectional Committees, for 1882, and a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1881–2. Government Printer, Melbourne. (44pp.)

Listing of MV specimens.

McCOY, F. (1884a). Schedule A. Donations to the National Museum for the Year 1883. p. 24 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museum and National Gallery of Victoria, with the Reports of the Sectional Committees, for 1883, and a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1882–3. Government Printer, Melbourne. (39pp.)

One donated by editor of the Australasian.

McCOY, F. (1884b). Schedule E. Register of Contents of National Museum.- As Numbered (continued from last Report). pp. 26–28 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museum and National Gallery of Victoria, with the Reports of the Sectional Committees, for 1883, and a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1882–3. Government Printer, Melbourne. (39pp.)

Listing of MV specimens.

McCOY, F. (1885). Schedule D. Register of Contents of National Museum.- As Numbered (continued from last Report). pp 26–30 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria, with the Reports of the Sectional Committees, for 1884, and a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1883–4. Government Printer, Melbourne. (41pp.)

Listing of MV specimens.

McCOY, F. (1886a). Schedule A. Donations to the National Museum for the Year 1885. p. 25 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria, with the Reports of the Sectional Committees, for 1885, and a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1884–5. Government Printer, Melbourne. (43pp.)

One donated by J.P. Hill.




  ― 895 ―

McCOY, F. (1886b). Schedule B. Specimens Purchased in the Colony for the National Museum during the year 1885. p. 26 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria, with the Reports of the Sectional Committees, for 1885, and a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1884–5. Government Printer, Melbourne. (43pp.)

One purchased from A. English.

McCOY, F. (1887). Schedule E. Register of Contents of National Museum.-As Numbered (continued from last Report). pp. 33–38 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria, with the Reports of the Sectional Committees, for 1886, with a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1885–6. Government Printer, Melbourne. (41pp.)

Listing of MV specimens.

McCOY, F. (1889a). Schedule A. Donations to the National Museum for the Year 1888. pp. 40–41 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museum, and National Gallery of Victoria, for 1888, with a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1887–8. Government Printer, Melbourne. (55pp.)

One donated by Acclimatisation Society.

McCOY, F. (1889b). Schedule E. Register of Contents of National Museum.- As Numbered (continued from last Report). pp. 42–55 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museum, and National Gallery of Victoria, for 1888, with a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1887–8. Government Printer, Melbourne. (55pp.)

Listing of Museum of Victoria specimens.

McCOY, F. (1891). Schedule A. Donations to the National Museum for the Year 1890. pp. 48–49 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museum, and National Gallery of Victoria, for 1890 with a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1889–90. Government Printer, Melbourne. (60pp.)

One donated by Rev. E.H. Hennell.

McCOY, F. (1896). Schedule A. Donations to the National Museum during the Year 1895. pp. 30–31 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public


  ― 896 ―
Library, Museum, and National Gallery of Victoria, for 1895, with a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1894–5. Government Printer, Melbourne. (32pp.)

One donated by W. Kershaw.

McCOY, F. (1898). Schedule A. Donations to the National Museum during the Year 1897. pp. 32–35 in, Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museum, and National Gallery of Victoria, for 1897, with a statement of income and expenditure for the financial year 1896–7. Government Printer, Melbourne. (36pp.)

One donated by A.H. Lawrence.

McDERMID, E.M., BOARD, P.G. & AGAR, N.S. (1977). Studies on the blood of Australian elapid snakes - III. Electrophoretic analysis of serum proteins and red cell enzymes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 56(4): 361–365.

Electrophoretic phenotypes of 26 serum and red cell proteins.

McEVOY, J.S., McDONALD, K.R. & SEARLE, A.K. (1979). Mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians of the Kilcoy Shire, Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 36(2): 167–180.

C. gerrardii common in notophyll vine forest, microphyll vine forest, blackbutt forest; T. scincoides scarce in medium forest, hoop pine plantations.

McFADYEN, E. (1939). Skinklings for Pets. Unique Family With a Long Name. Wild Life 1(12): 12–13.

General; litter of 15 young; brief coloration description; tongue blue-black at birth, becoming pink with age; fed primarily on snails.

McFADYEN, E. & LONGLEY, G. (1941a). Dragon Tamers. Wild Life 3(4): 153–155.

Photograph.

McFADYEN, E. & LONGLEY, G. (1941b). Dragons at Home Vivarium Observations


  ― 897 ―
and Construction. Wild Life 3(5): 193–195.

Photograph of captive-bred juvenile; captive requirements.

McFARLAND, D. & McFARLAND, N. (1977). Introduction to Howatharra Hill Reserve Ecological Research Area in the Moresby Ranges near Geraldton, Western Australia. The authors. p. 20. (32pp.)

Both recorded; T. rugosa most active August-October on sunny days; near northern limit of distribution [in error].

McGILP, J.N. (1921). Eagles and Hawks. South Australian Ornithologist 6(3): 65–70.

Attempted predation on sleeping lizard by little eagle.

McGILP, J.N. (1932). Birds of the Nullarbor Plain and Far West Coast of South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist 11(5): 146–151.

Red quail call said by local residents to be mating call of T. rugosa [in error].

McGREEVY, D.G. (1987). Mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians of the Bulloo Shire, Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 44(1): 75–93.

Habitat preferences of T. scincoides, T. rugosa in Bulloo Shire; one T. multifasciata recorded to north of survey area.

McHAFFIE, O. (1968). Blue tongue lizards and milk. Geelong Naturalist 5(3): 91.

One drank milk; cats frightened of them.

McILROY, J.C., KING, D.R. & OLIVER, A.J. (1985). The Sensitivity of Australian Animals to 1080 Poison VIII. Amphibians and Reptiles. Australian Wildlife Research 12(1): 113–118.

Mass of 12 T. nigrolutea 250–638,

image
= 434g; 20 SA T. rugosa 280–690,
image
=


  ― 898 ―
468g; 99 WA T. rugosa 100–610,
image
= 350g; LD50 of 1080, 336mg.kg−1 (T. nigrolutea), 205mg.kg−1 (SA T. rugosa), 508 mg.kg−1 (WA T. rugosa indoors), 543mg.kg−1 (WA T. rugosa outdoors).; difference between SA, WA populations of T. rugosa may have evolved due to feeding on Gastrolobium, Oxylobium spp. in WA.

McINTOSH, B. (1968). Reptiles and Amphibians. pp. 16–18 in, Report of the Expedition to Maria Island 26th–31st May, 1968. Tasmanian University Biological Society, Hobart.

Both species reportedly present, but not seen by expedition.

McINTOSH, B. & ANDREWS, P. (1978). Aphibians and Reptiles. pp. 110–111 in, Gee, H. & Fenton, J. (eds.). The South West Book A Tasmanian Wilderness. William Collins Pty Ltd, Sydney and Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne. (308pp.)

Both widely distributed over areas of coastal heath.

McKENZIE, N.L. (1973). Results of a Biological Survey of the Shire of Kent, Western Australia. Department of Fisheries and Fauna Western Australia Report (13): 1–29, i–xxiv, l–xxv.

Recorded.

McKENZIE, N.L., BURBIDGE, A.A. & MARCHANT, N.G. (1973). Results of a biological survey of a proposed wildlife sanctuary at Dragon Rocks near Hyden, Western Australia. Department of Fisheries and Fauna Western Australia Report (12): 1–27.

Recorded.

McKENZIE, N.L., ROLFE, J.K. & CARTER, D.B. (1987). Reptiles. pp. 179–210 + 394–398 in, McKenzie, N.L. & Robinson, A.C. (eds.). A biological survey of the Nullarbor region South and Western Australia in 1984. South Australian Department of Environment and Planning, Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management & Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. (413pp.)




  ― 899 ―
Recorded.

McKENZIE, N.L. & YOUNGSON, W.K. (1975). Notes on the Wildlife of a Proposed Nature Reserve around Lake Grace and Lake Chinokup, Western Australia. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Western Australia Report (16): 1–32.

T. rugosa remains on ground under Aquila audax nest; T. rugosa, T. occipitalis recorded.

McKEOWN, K.C. (1933). Impressions of Tasmania. Australian Museum Magazine 5(4): 137–143.

Specimen seen; photograph.

McLEAN, J.R. & BURNSTOCK, G. (1967a). Innervation of the urinary bladder of the sleepy lizard (Trachysaurus rugosus) - I. Fluorescent histochemical localization of catecholamines. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 20(3): 667–673.

Fine varicose nerve fibres (yellow-green fluorescence) innervate smooth muscle bundles, contain noradrenaline; small arteries, but not veins, surrounded by adrenergic ground plexus of fluorescent nerves containing noradrenaline; no fluorescent intramural ganglion cells observed; fluorescent preganglionic terminals seen about small number of non-fluorescent ganglion cells; large number of yellow-fluorescing cells containing primary monoamine distributed throughout bladder.

McLEAN, J.R. & BURNSTOCK, G. (1967b). Innervation of the lungs of the sleepy lizard (Trachysaurus rugosus) - I. Fluorescent histochemistry of catecholamines. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 22(3): 809–813.

Innervation of smooth muscle bands in lungs by fine fluorescent varicose nerves containing noradrenaline; blood vessels in lung wall surrounded by dense plexus of fluorescent nerve bundles; andrenergic ganglion cells rare in lung wall, although number of ganglion cells containing autofluorescent granules; groups of small monoamine-containing cells, often surrounded by fluorescent nerves, located on septal muscle of lung.

M'COY, F. (1862). Note on the Ancient and Recent Natural History of Victoria. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3)9(50): 137–150.

T. scincoides common near coast; T. rugosa more common inland.




  ― 900 ―

McPHEE, D.R. (1959). Some common snakes and lizards of Australia. Jacaranda, Milton. pp. 110–115. (125pp.)

General; distribution; coloration; photographs; common names; T. rugosa usually has two, occasionally one, rarely three young; diet in wild includes yellow flowers (dandelions, capeweed, native hop bush), snails, insects, native berries; diet in captivity bananas, raw meat; T. scincoides often in suburban gardens; diurnal; occasionally seen on roadsides at night; mean litter 10, range 3–24; diet mainly snails, some insects, native berries; in captivity, bananas, raw meat; T. nigrolutea inhabits forest, grassy flats; often killed on roads when basking; threat display; up to 12 young; diet snails, insects, some vegetable matter, native berries; banana, raw meat in captivity.

McPHEE, D.R. (1979). The Observer's Book of Snakes and Lizards of Australia. Methuen of Australia, Sydney. pp. 148–153. (157pp.)

General; distribution; coloration; photographs; common names; T. rugosa usually has two, occasionally one, rarely three young; diet in wild includes yellow flowers (dandelions, capeweed, native hop bush), Sturts desert pea, snails, insects, native berries; diet in captivity bananas, raw meat; one captive ate neonate tortoise; T. scincoides often in suburban gardens; diurnal; occasionally seen on roadsides at night; mean litter 10, range 3–24; diet mainly snails, some insects, native berries; in captivity, bananas, raw meat; T. nigrolutea inhabits forest, grassy flats; two colour races; often killed on roads when basking; threat display; litters of 5–12; diet snails, insects, some vegetable matter, native berries; banana, raw meat in captivity; one captive ate a juvenile T. scincoides and an Amphibolurus muricatus.

MEBS, D. (1974). Haltungserfahrungen mit previous hit Tiliqua next hit casuarinae (Sauria, Scincidae). Salamandra 10(3/4): 104–106.

General; two smallest of five captive C. casuarinae were ♂♂; captive diet small snails, raw meat, fish, mealworms, crickets; very aggressive to conspecifics and juvenile T. scincoides; ♂-♂, ♀-unsexed, ♀-♂ interactions; larger killed smaller conspecifics; captive adult killed three juvenile Pseudechis porphyriacus; in wild, occurs singly, rarely in pairs, under boulders on moderately damp grasslands near ponds, brackish water lagoons, behind coastal dunes.

MEBS, D. (1975). Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf einer Exkursion zum Warrego River (New South Wales, Australien). Salamandra 11(1): 47–56.

Five seen on road; color variation; threat display description, display initiated by rapid movements of hand near animal; response lost in captives; small individual under Triodia clump.




  ― 901 ―

MÉHELӰ, L. v. (1898). An account of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Mr. Lewis Biró in New Guinea. Természetrajzi Füzetek 21: 165–178 + pl. XII.

Native name for adult, ujbăgŭrŭdó; for young, ujbăgŭrŭdó khedeididi.

MENKHORST, P.W. (1982). Pitfall Trapping of Reptiles in the Big Desert, Victoria. Victorian Naturalist 99(2): 66–70.

T. rugosa commonly observed.

MENKHORST, P.W. & GILMORE, A.M. (1979). Mammals and reptiles of North Central Victoria. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria (40): 1–33 + pl. 1–2.

T. scincoides inhabits open forest II, farmland; T. rugosa inhabits Eucalyptus sideroxylon open forest II, shrubland, farmland.

MENNE, H.A.L. (1961). Bijzondere hagedissen van Nieuw Guinea. Lacerta 19(5): 47–48.

Photograph; native name “ular kaki ampat”; considered venomous by natives; up to 55cm; diet insects, flowers, mice, hen's eggs; initially aggesssive, soon tames in captivity; refers to Leiker (1953b).

MEREDITH, J. (1954). Reptiles of the central tablelands. N.S.W. Reptilia 1(2): 6–7.

T. rugosa observed eating succulent plants, native hop flowers, capeweed blossoms; showed preference for yellow flowers; T. scincoides recorded.

MEREDITH, J. & CANN, C. (1952). Reptiles of the Central Tablelands. Wild Life 15(3): 223–229.

T. rugosa common in paddocks, active or sheltering under native hop bushes; observed eating succulent plants, especially yellow flowers,


  ― 902 ―
e.g., native hop bush, dandelions, cape weed; T. scincoides scarce.

MERREM, B. (1820). Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien. Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum. Johann Christian Krieger, Marburg. p. 73. (191pp.)

Listed; S. tuberculatus erected [as replacement name for T. scincoides].

MERTENS, R. (1922). Verzeichnis der Typen in der herpetologischen Sammlung des Senckenbergischen Museum. Senckenbergiana (496): 162–183.

Lectotype designated in SMF.

MERTENS, R. (1934). Die Insel-Reptilien, ihre Ausbreitung, Variation und Artbildung. Zoologica. Original-Abhandlungen aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Zoologie (84): 1–209 + pl. I–VI.

T. rugosa introduced to Kangaroo I. in 1926; an example of robust body form in a continental species; refers to Proctor (1923); T. gigas has 28–32 midbody scales, while T. scincoides has 34–40.

MERTENS, R. (1946). Die Warn- und Droh-Reaktionen der Reptilien. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 47: 1–103.

In T. rugosa threat display, sharp contrast of tongue and mouth colour; previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. inflate bodies; T. scincoides dorsoventrally depresses body; tongue-flashing.

MERTENS, R. (1950). Über Reptilienbastarde. Senckenbergiana 31(3–4): 127–144 + pl. I–III.

Refers to Longley (1941, 1944); T. nigrolutea, T. scincoides possibly only races.

MERTENS, R. (1958a). Neue Eidechsen aus Australien. Senckenbergiana biologica 39(1/2): 51–56.

Type description of T. r. konowi from Rottnest I., photograph; T. r. asper resurrected without formal justification.




  ― 903 ―

MERTENS, R. (1958b). Als Zoologe in Australien. II. Erste Eindrucke: Die Sudwestkuste. Natur und Volk 88(7): 213–225.

Photograph of T. r. rugosa; tracks; threat display; defaecated when placed in bag; faeces purely plant material; few predators; T. r. konowi different to adjacent mainland populations.

MERTENS, R. (1958c). Als Zoologe in Australien. IV. Ayers Rock, das Wunder Australiens. Natur und Volk 88(9): 296–311.

T. multifasciata color pattern merges with substrate; unusual black dorsal surfaces of limbs and temporal stripe; tongue cobalt blue; captive rapidly tamed; captive diet bananas.

MERTENS, R. (1958d). Quer durch Australien. Biologische Aufzeichnungen über eine Forschungsreise. Verlag Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main. pp. 35–37, 101–102. (200pp.)

T. rugosa tracks; threat display; defaecated when placed in bag; faeces purely plant material; few predators; T. multifasciata color pattern merges with substrate; unusual black dorsal surfaces of limbs and temporal stripe; tongue cobalt blue; captive rapidly tamed; captive diet bananas.

MERTENS, R. (1960). The World of Amphibians and Reptiles. (transl. by H.W. Parker). George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd, London. pp. 100, 104, 107, 142, 144–145, 171. (207pp.)

Color plates of T. multifasciata, T. rugosa; color variation in T. occipitalis [and T. multifasciata] matches substrate color; in T. rugosa threat display, mouth and tongue color contrast; placenta eaten by mother; C. gerrardii dentition suitable for crushing snail shells.

MERTENS, R. (1967). Die herpetologische Sektion des Natur-Museums und Forschungs-Institutes Senckenberg in Frankfurt a.M. nebst einem Verzeichnis ihrer Typen. Senckenbergiana biologica 48(A): 1–106.

Lectotype selected (SMF 14037).

MERTENS, R. (1968). Über Reptilienbastarde, IV). Senckenbergiana biologica 49(1): 1–12.




  ― 904 ―
Refers to Worrell (1963); T. nigrolutea, T. scincoides possibly only races.

MEYER, A.B. (1887). Verzeichniss der von mir in den Jahren 1870–1873 im ostindischen archipel gesammelten reptilien und batrachier. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königl. Zoologischen Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 1886/87 (2): 1–16.

Collected.

MEYER, G. (1977). Reptiles of “Timbertop”, Mt. Bulla Vict. Victorian Herpetological Society “Newsletter” (5): 3–4.

T. scincoides occurs all around lower parts of Victorian Alps; T. nigrolutea common in gullies, dry watercourses; one specimen with bright pale blue blotches rather than usual pink.

MICHAELSON, W. (1914). Third Abstract of the Reports of the German Expedition of 1905 to South-Western Australia. Journal of the Natural History & Science Society of Western Australia 5: 65–107.

Summary of Werner (1910).

MIDDLEBROOK, K.G. (1981). A note on death adder mortality following the laying of poison. Herpetofauna 12(2): 36.

Numerous dead T. rugosa seen following poisoning of mice, possibly with strychnine.

MILANI, A. (1894). Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Reptilienlunge. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abtheilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Thiere. 7(3): 545–592.

Lung morphology; right lung smaller than left (possibly preservation artefact); left lung constricted in middle; no distinct bronchi, but two bronchial apertures; sacculation and pattern of alveoli.

MILES, T. (1973). Measurements and notes on adult and juvenile pink tongue skinks (previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardii). Herpetofauna 6(1): 16–17.

15 young born, 12 on 9 January, 3 on 10 January to ♀ collected 20


  ― 905 ―
November; young ate yolk sac at birth; coloration description and measurements of adult, young at birth, and on 12 March.

MILEWSKI, A.V. (1981). A comparison of reptile communities in relation to soil fertility in the mediterranean and adjacent arid parts of Australia and southern Africa. Journal of Biogeography 8(6): 493–503.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp. the ecological analogues of African land tortoises.

MILLAR, B. (1978). Cox's Scrub trip report November 27th, 1977. The South Australian Herpetologist. Quarterly Newsletter of the S.A.H.G. April 1978: 5.

Recorded.

MILLEDGE, D. (1979). The Camden Haven Wildlife Refuge Study final report. The Australian Museum, Sydney. p. 166. (198pp.)

Distribution in Camden Haven Wildlife Refuge on basis of habitat types.

MILLEDGE, D. (1991). A survey of the terrestrial vertebrates of coastal Byron Shire. Australian Zoologist 27(3–4): 66–90.

Both recorded.

MILLER, B. (undated). Trip report of Canunda National Park January 27th–29th 1979. S.A.H.G. Newsletter (unnumbered) [10]: 2–3.

Recorded.

MILLER, M.R. (1966). The cochlear duct of lizards. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4)33(11): 255–359.

Length of cochlear duct, length/area of papilla basilaris.

MILLET, P. (1958). Fishes and Reptiles in Recent Imports. Fishkeeping 13(4): 181–182.

Specimens imported into United Kingdom.

MILTON, D.A. (1980). A Comparison of Three Techniques Used in a Reptile Survey of the Conondale Ranges. Victorian Naturalist 97(1): 26–31.

Four collected by driving roads.

MINCHAM, H. (1970). Reptiles of Australia and New Zealand. Rigby, Kent Town. pp. 36–38. (64pp.)

General; T. rugosa diet in captivity; usually two, up to four young; 6–20 or more young in previous hit Tiliqua next hit spp.

MINNICH, J.E. (1972). Excretion of urate salts by reptiles. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Comparative Physiology 41(3): 535–549.

Refers to Bentley (1959); urine pH, [Na, K, NH4, Cl] in a single urinary pellet of T. scincoides.

MINNICH, J.E. (1982). The Use of Water. pp. 325–395 in, Gans, C. & Pough, F.H. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Volume 12 Physiology C Physiological Ecology. Academic Press, London. (536pp.)

Refers to Braysher (1972 [Ph.D. thesis, University of Adelaide], 1976), Bentley (1959a,b), Saint Girons et al. (1977), Minnich (1972); Sonchus megalocarpus a principal dietary item.

MINTON, S.A. (1983). Highlights in Herpetology: It's Not All Snakes. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 92: 70–76.

Tail can be almost as large as head; may misdirect predators.

MIRTSCHIN, P.J. (undated). Snakes from Eyre Peninsula. Western Herpetology Group, [Whyalla]. pp. 4–5. (14pp.)

Shinglebacks eaten by Pseudechis australis.

MITCHELL, F.J. (1948). A revision of the lacertilian genus


  ― 907 ―
Tympanocryptis. Records of the South Australian Museum 9(1): 57–86 + pl. IV.

Refers to Waite (1929); specimens recently collected near Adelaide.

MITCHELL, F.J. (1950). The scincid genera Egernia and previous hit Tiliqua next hit (Lacertilia). Records of the South Australian Museum 9(3): 275–308 + pl. XXIII.

Hemisphaeriodon and Trachydosaurus synonymised with previous hit Tiliqua next hit; generic definition based on palatal osteology, dentition; key to species; brief redescriptions; T. occipitalis abundant on coastal flats north of Adelaide, replacing T. scincoides; five young to April T. multifasciata; native name at Kilalpaninna jidna; two siamese twin T. rugosa in SAM, both joined at head and shoulders; photograph of T. adelaidensis.

MITCHELL, F.J. (1953). Our local reptile and amphibian fauna. pp. 89–100 in, Cotton, B.C. (ed.). South Australian National Parks and Wild Life Reserves. Commissioners of the National Park and Wild Life Reserves, [Adelaide]. (190pp.)

General; T. rugosa often killed on roads; will eat slugs, snails, strawberries; T. occipitalis rare about Adelaide, several specimens taken on coastal flats to north.

MITCHELL, F.J. (1955). Preliminary Account of the Reptilia and Amphibia collected by the National Geographic Society-Commonwealth Government-Smithsonian Institute Expedition to Arnhem Land (April to November, 1948). Records of the South Australian Museum 11(4): 373–408 + pl. xxxvii.

Type description of T. s. intermedia.

MITCHELL, F.J. (1964). Reptiles and amphibians of Arnhem Land. pp. 309–343 in, Specht, R.L (ed.). Records of the American-Australian scientific expedition to Arnhem Land. Volume 4. Zoology. Melbourne University Press, Parkville. (533pp.)

Redescription, based on type series; colour figure.

MITSCH, H. (1936a). Trachysaurus rugosus Shaw. Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde 33(14): 209–210.

General; photograph; captive requirements; captive diet; activity patterns; survive 5–8yrs in captivity; price 35–45DM.

MITSCH, H. (1936b). previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides White. Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde 33(30); 487–488.

T. scincoides: general; photograph; captive requirements; captive diet; captives burrow in substrate; captives aggressive to T. rugosa.

MITTLEMAN, M.B. (1952). A generic synopsis of the lizards of the subfamily Lygosominae. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117(17): 1–35.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit not a lygosomine genus; placed [by inference] in subfamily Scincinae.

MOLNAR, R. (1980). Australian Late Mesozoic terrestrial tetrapods: some implications. Mémoires de la Société géologique de France (n.s.)59(139): 131–143.

Etheridge's (1917) record of scutes similar to T. rugosa from Cretaceous marine deposits discredited; scutes identical to Pleistocene material from Wellington Caves.

MOLNAR, R. (1982). Systematic and Geographic Index of Australian Fossil Vertebrates. Reptilia (Reptiles). p. 706 in, Rich, P.V. & Thompson, E.M. (eds.). The fossil vertebrate record of Australasia. Monash University Offset Printing Unit, Clayton. (759pp.)

Pleistocene fossil material known; refers to M.J. Smith (1976), R.E. Molnar (1982a).

MOLNAR, R. (1984a). Cainozoic reptiles from Australia (and some amphibians). pp. 337–341 in, Archer, M. & Clayton, G. (eds.) Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia. Hesperian Press, Carlisle. (1203pp.)

Cainozoic fossils of T. nigrolutea, T. sp., T. rugosa recorded; Cainozoic fossils of C. gerrardii, T. scincoides recorded in review papers, without supporting evidence.

MOLNAR, R. (1984b). A checklist of Australian fossil reptiles. pp. 405–406 in, Archer, M. & Clayton, G. (eds.) Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia. Hesperian Press, Carlisle. (1203pp.)

Refers to Smith (1976); Pleistocene cave material.

MOLNAR, R.E. (1978). Age of the Chillagoe Crocodile. Search 9(4): 156–158.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp. remains in Pleistocene deposits in Tea Tree Cave.

MOLNAR, R.E. (1982a). Cenozoic Fossil Reptiles in Australia pp. 228–233 in, Rich, P.V. & Thompson, E.M. (eds.). The fossil vertebrate record of Australasia. Monash University Offset Printing Unit, Clayton. (759pp.)

Refers to Smith (1976); previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp. recorded from Pleistocene Tea Tree Cave breccia.

MOLNAR, R.E. (1982b). A catalogue of fossil amphibians and reptiles in Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 20(3): 613–633.

Refers to Molnar (1978); Pleistocene maxilla referable to previous hit Tiliqua next hit.

MOODY, S.M. (1983). The Rectus Abdominis Muscle Complex of the Lacertilia: Terminology, Homology, and Assumed Presence in Primitive Iguanian Lizards. pp. 195–212 in, Rhodin, A.G.J. & Miyata, K. (eds.). Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology. Essays in Honour of Ernest E. Williams. Museum of Comparative Zoology,


  ― 910 ―
Cambridge. (725pp.)

Typical autarchoglossan muscle rectus abdominis pattern; refers to Maurer (1896).

MOORE, B.P. (1978). Life on forty acres Some experiences of a naturalist living in the Australian bush. E.W. Classey, Faringdon. pp. 106, 108. (184pp.)

All three recorded; general, coloration; T. rugosa more herbivorous than other skinks; eats snails.

MORCOMBE, M. (1974). An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Australian Wildlife. Macmillan Company of Australia, South Melbourne and Rigby Publishers, Adelaide. pp. 26–27, 32. (125pp.)

Photographs; general; colour matching in T. rugosa; omnivorous, diet including seedlings, flowers, fruit, insects, snails; drawing of T. occipitalis [as T. scincoides].

MORCOMBE, M.K. (1978). Michael Morcombe's Australian nature close-up. Lansdowne Press, Dee Why South. p. 73. (96pp.)

Head photograph; coloration matches substrate.

MORLEY, T.P. & MORLEY, P.T. (1985). An inventory of the reptiles of Danggali Conservation Park. Herpetofauna 15(1–2): 32–36.

All recorded; T. occipitalis uncommon; T. rugosa common.

MORRIS, A.K. & FOX, A.M. (1971). the wedge-tailed eagle. Parks and Wildlife 1(1): 12–22. [Quote on reptiles in diet reprinted (1972) in Herpetofauna 4(4): 22]

Shinglebacks, bluetongues recorded in diet of Aquila audax, based on nest remains.

MORRIS, K.D. & RICE, G.E. (1981). Some vertebrates recorded on a visit to Queen Victoria Spring in December 1977. Western Australian Naturalist 15(1): 11–13.




  ― 911 ―

Recorded; T. occipitalis in Callitris/mallee habitats.

MORRIS, P.B., TRITTON, W. & TRITTON, R. (1963). Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii. Herpetofauna May 1963: 17–18.

Coloration description; tongue blue in young, becomes pink with age; some adults with blue tongues; in captivity feeds mainly on snails, shelled before swallowing; also eats raw meat, banana; in wild, eats spiders, insects, snails, grubs; drinks water droplets on vegetation as well as pond water; specimens found in rat's nest in sapling, in piles of rock, outside crack littered with pine needle leaf litter between two boulders, in hollow logs, under flat rocks, tin; distribution coastally from Cairns district to North Springwood; largely nocturnal, but diurnal if heat not excessive; juveniles diurnal; in winter enter semi-hibernation in Sydney; semiarboreal; tail prehensile; 30cm gravid ♀ containing 20 embryos, average length 6.5cm; 22 banded young born 22 Feb to unbanded ♀, four juveniles less strongly banded; litter of 13.

MORRISON, N. [1989]. The Round Hill Trip. A.C.T. Herpetological Association Newsletter (November): [3–4] (unpaginated).

Shinglebacks, bluetongues common.

MORRISON, P.C. (1948). Keeping a Stumpy-Tail. Wild Life 10(4): 181.

General; advice on captive requirements.

[MORRISON, P.C.] (1952). Notes and Specimens from Readers. Wild Life 15(3): 276.

Blue-tongues hiss sharply.

MORRISON, P.C. (1961). Along the Track. Whitcombe and Tombs, Melbourne. p. 83 (184pp.)

Bluetongues “hatch the eggs first and lay them afterwards”.

MORRISON, R.G.B. (1981). A field guide to the tracks & traces of Australian animals. Rigby Publishers Ltd, Adelaide. pp. 27, 71, 77, 103, 116, 125–126. (192pp.)




  ― 912 ―

Photograph of T. rugosa skull; insect wings in faeces; description, illustration of tracks of T. rugosa and T. scincoides.

MORTON, P.H. (1976). Zoological Parks Board of N.S.W. Annual Report 1975–76. pp. 18, 21–23, xx. (28 + xxxiii pp.)

Exhibited, numbers present; T. rugosa sent to Cologne Zoo; received by donation, and collected under permit; T. nigrolutea, T. rugosa received as confiscations by NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

MORTON, P.H. (1977). Zoological Parks Board of N.S.W. Annual Report 1976–77. pp. 24, 49. (60pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; one T. scincoides born.

MORTON, P.H. (1978). Annual Report 1977–78 Zoological Parks Board of N.S.W. p. 54. (68pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; seven T. scincoides born in captivity.

MORTON, P.H. (1979). Zoological Parks Board of New South Wales Annual Report 1978–79. Bloxham & Chambers Pty. Ltd., [Sydney]. p. 53. (64pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present.

MORTON, P.H. (1980). Zoological Parks Board of New South Wales Annual Report 1979–80. Dynamic Press Pty. Ltd., [Sydney]. p. 53. (64pp.)

Exhibited; numbers present; 14 T. scincoides, one T. rugosa born.

MORTON, S.R., GILLAM, M.W., JONES, K.R. & FLEMING, M.R. (1988). Relative Efficiency of Different Pit-Trap Systems for Sampling Reptiles in Spinifex Grasslands. Australian Wildlife Research 15(5): 571–577.

One caught in pit-trap with drift fence.




  ― 913 ―

MORTON, W.L. (1860). Remarks on the Physical Geography, Climate &c., of the Regions lying between the Rivers Lachlan and Darling. Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria 5: 128–140.

Knobby-tailed lizards continual residents in areas lacking permanent water.

MOUNTFORD, C.P. (1965). Ayers Rock Its People, Their Beliefs and Their Art. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. pp. 20, 31–32, 137–144, 171–172, 184–185, 198. (216pp.) [1971 Pacific Books edition examined]

Pitjandjara myth of Meta-lungana (sleepy lizard) described in detail; photograph of T. occipitalis.

MUDRACK, W. (1969). Einiges über Pflege und Zucht von Blauzungenskinken im Zimmerterrarium. Aqua Terra 6(1): 23–24.

Common names; distribution; attains size of 45–50cm or more; coloration; viviparous, 6–20 young in litter; threat display includes inflation of body, hising, gaping and protruding tongue; captive maintenance; diet in captivity; male of pair had broader head and tail (especially tail base); mating attempts in September, involving strong bites on body and neck; ♀ pursued for hours; gestation probably about 5 months; litter of 12 young born over 7hrs on 15 March; on 22, 25 March additional single stillborn young born; young 13–14cm long at birth; young ate placenta; no aggression of adults to young; captive lifespan up to 18yrs.

MUDRACK, W. (1974). Der Rosazungenskink - eine terraristische Kostbarkeit. Aquarien Magazin 8(10): 407–411.

C. gerrardii inhabits humid tropical forests of eastern Australia from Sydney to Cape York; adult and juvenile coloration; captives dig burrows in peat-earth mix; head of females slightly narrower than males; feed readily on slugs, snails; refused non-meat material and insects; between October and January, gravid females rarely left warm burrows; litter of five at end of February; young at birth 5–8cm; eat placenta, foetal membranes; mating in T. scincoides preceded by male following female for hours, savagely biting female on belly and neck; mating probably occurs at night; gestation period about 5 months.

MULES, B. (1975). Keeping reptiles & amphibians. Environmental Education [Wattle Park Teachers Centre, SA] (20): 1–20.

Suggested caging, husbandry for captive specimens.




  ― 914 ―

MULLEY, R.C., EGERTON, J.R., SWEENEY, A.W. & HARTLEY, W.J. (1981). Further tests in mammals, reptiles and an amphibian to delineate the host range of the mosquito fungus Culicinomyces sp. Mosquito News 41(3): 528–531.

Specimens inoculated with Culicinomyces fungal culture; fungus recoverable only from inoculation sites after incubation.

MULVANEY, D.J. (1960). Archaeological excavations at Fromm's Landing on the lower Murray River, South Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (n.s.)72(2): 53–85 + pl. VI–VIII.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit remains in subfossil deposits; present in most levels.

MULVANEY, D.J., LAWTON, G.H. & TWIDALE, C.R. (1964). Archaeological excavation of rock shelter No. 6 Fromm's Landing, South Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (n.s.)77(2): 479–516 + pl. lxvii–lxxiv.

Either T. rugosa or T. scincoides remains in subfossil deposits; present in seven levels.

MUNDAY, B.L., HARTLEY, W.J., HARRIGAN, K.E., PRESIDENTE, P.J.A. & OBENDORF, D.L. (1979). Sarcocystis and related organisms in Australian wildlife: II. Survey findings in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 15(1): 57–73.

No sarcocysts found in two specimens examined.

MUNSCH, W. (1979). Erschrekendes Ergebnis bei der Zucht der Blauzunge, previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides. Das Aquarium (125): 526–527.

T. rugosa successfully maintained for almost 10yrs; care and captive breeding of T. scincoides; large head suggestive of ♂♂; ground coloration of three individuals red-brown, dark yellow, light grey; captive diet; rapidly become tame in captivity; enjoy handling; shedding rapid, without problems or behavioural changes; interest of ♂ T. rugosa in ♀ T. scincoides; six year captive T. scincoides gave birth on 21 October; first young normal but asphyxiated in fetal membranes; second deformed, alive; third an infertile egg, then 3 more deformed young, followed by two normal live young; description of birth; female very aggressive during and immediately post-parturition; deformities may have been due to pressure by cage-mates when lying over heating cables; photographs; first-born monster able to be raised, had cyclopia, maxillary brachygnathia, kyphosis and scoliosis.




  ― 915 ―

MÜNSCH, W. (1980). Erfahrungen mit dem Schneckenskink, previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerrardii. Das Aquarium (133): 371–374.

Young born 2 July 1968 to parents born 17 December 1965; subsequent litter born April 1971; neonates ca10cm; neonate coloration; juveniles have dark blue tongue, adults a pink tongue; captive conditions; may sleep upside down; semi-arboreal; diet primarily snails, slugs; observations on feeding; salivate profusely when eating; in warm conditions, active at dusk; will eat at 14°C, but prefer 20–25°C; litter of 22 young born 23 May to 7yr old captive-bred ♀; second litter of 1 young, four incompletely developed embryos, three unfertilized yolks born 15 September; next year litters of 24, born 18 May, and 18, born 13 June, to same two females; mortality about 5%; captives ate small frogs kept with them; description of copulation.

MURPHY, J.B. (1973). The use of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin in the treatment of reptilian respiratory infections. British Journal of Herpetology 4(12): 317–321.

A specimen with stage 1 respiratory infection treated with Tylosin and recovered.

MURRAY, N.D. (1970). Australian natureland. Australian Universities Press, Chatswood. pp. 28, 30. (53pp.)

General; photograph; found in gardens; eats snails.

MUSSEN, B. (1982). Intermediate excursion—Boranup 5th – 7th February. Naturalist News [W.A. Naturalists' Club] (April): 15 – 16.

Recorded.

MYERS, G.S. (1951). Asiatic giant salamander caught in the Sacramento River, and an exotic skink near San Francisco. Copeia 1951(2): 179–180.

previous hit Tiliqua next hit sp. collected on outskirts of San Mateo, California.

MYHRE, K. & HAMMEL, H.T. (1969). Behavioural regulation of internal temperature in the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides. American Journal of Physiology 217(5): 1490–1495.




  ― 916 ―
Lizards shuttled between hot, cold enclosures, keeping brain or colonic temperature cycling about mean of 29.3°C; when inactive, voluntarily moved to cool place, let internal temperature drop; placed in hot test chamber, lizards returned to neutral environment when colonic temperature attained reproducible level; increasing test environment temperature decreased colonic exit temperature; warming rostral brainstem significantly decreased colonic exit temperature at ambient temperature of 40, 45°C; cooling brainstem increased colonic exit temperature; behavioural regulation of internal temperature probably activated by combination of brain and peripheral temperatures.

MYLES, T. (1973). [untitled]. Herpetofauna 5(4): 24.

Litter of 15 young born third week of January.

NAIRN, R.C., GHOSE, T. & MAXWELL, A. (1967). Distribution of Nephric Antigens in Australian Vertebrates. Nature 215(5103): 867–868.

Moderate staining of blue-tongue lizard kidney by anti-human kidney antiserum; slightly stronger staining by anti-hamster kidney antiserum.

NATHAN, C.V. (1952). Fauna and Flora of Vaucluse. Edwards & Shaw, Sydney p. 5. (16pp.)

Present; diet small animals, insects, fungi, birds eggs.

NEUMANN, G. (1899). Revision de la famille des Ixodidés. Memoires de la Societe Zoologique de France 12(2/3): 107–294.

Aponomma trachysauri [=A. hydrosauri] from Trachysaurus scaber [=T. rugosa asper?].

NEUMANN, L.G. (1907). Ixodidé nouveau de l'Australie. Notes from the Leyden Museum 28(3–4): 218–220.

Amblyomma albolimbatum sp. nov. from T. rugosa.

NEUMANN, L.G. (1911). Ixodidae. Das Tierreich (26):i–xvi + 1–169.

Amblyomma albolimbatum from T. rugosa; Aponomma trachysauri [=A. hydrosauri] from Trachysaurus scaber [=T. rugosa asper?].




  ― 917 ―

NEWSOME, A.E., CORBETT, L.K., CATLING, P.C. & BURT, R.J. (1983). The Feeding Ecology of the Dingo I. Stomach Contents from Trapping in South-Eastern Australia, and the Non-Target Wildlife also Caught in Dingo Traps. Australian Wildlife Research 10(3): 477–486.

One blue-tongue caught in “Lane” dingo trap in 16464 trap nights.

NICHOLAS, F.W. & NICHOLAS, J.M. (1989). Charles Darwin in Australia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York & Melbourne. pp. 102–103. (175pp.)

Quotes Bell (1843) on C. casuarinae; quotes unpublished notes on a specimen of T. nigrolutea from Darwin's zoological diary; noted by Darwin as congeneric with C. casuarinae; sluggish; stomach contents white mushroom pieces, few large beetles “such as Curculios & Heteromeras”; not uncommon on sunny grassy hills.

NICHOLLS, W.H. & HEWER, A.M. (1948). Some Southern Lizards. Wild Life 10(3): 118.

Photograph; coloration camouflaged against ironstone and quartz.

NICHOLS, O.G. & BAMFORD, M.J. (1985). Reptile and Frog Utilisation of Rehabilitated Bauxite Minesites and Dieback-Affected Sites in Western Australia's Jarrah Eucalyptus marginata Forest. Biological Conservation 34(3): 227–249.

Between 4–16 trapped/ha at five study sites;

image
SVL 276mm,
image
mass 430g; diurnal, terrestrial sedentary; forages widely; shelters under bushes, logs; collected in rehabilitated jarrah forest and unmined forest.

NICHOLS, O.G. & NICHOLS, F.M. (1984). The reptilian, avian and mammalian fauna of the Mount Saddleback State Forest, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 15(8): 179–189.

Recorded.

NICHOLSON, H.A. (1887). A manual of zoology for the use of students with a general introduction on the principles of zoology. (7th Edn.). William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh. p. 631. (939pp.)

Teeth have rounded crowns.




  ― 918 ―

NICOLL, W. (1914). The trematode parasites of north Queensland. I. Parasitology 6(4): 333–350 + pl. xxiii–xxiv.

Mesocoelium microon sp. nov. from duodenum of T. scincoides; Tetracotyle tiliquae sp. nov. from peritoneum.

NIETZKE, G. (1972). Die Terrarientiere. Vol. 2. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. pp. 45, 164–167. (299pp.)

General; captive requirements; descriptions; captive diet; photographs; refers to Borchert (1971), Chaumont (1963), Demarz (1955), Frank (1969), Geissler (1948), Honegger & Schmidt (1964), Houba (1959), Jahn (1963), Krefft (1926), Matz (1968, 1972), Menzel-Tettenborn (1967), Mitsch (1936), Mudrack (1964, 1969), Peters (1966), Roesch (1956), Sachs & Oeser (1953), Stanek (1959, 1964), Vogel (1964), Zernecke (1913).

NIETZKE, G. (1984). Fortpflanzung und Zucht der Terrarientiere. Landbuch- Verlag, Hannover. pp. 32, 53. (237pp.)

Tail longer, narrower in ♂♂.

NIND, S. (1832). Description of the Natives of King George's Sound (Swan River Colony) and adjoining Country. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 1: 21–51.

Native name “youern”; threat display; does not burrow; shelters in long grass; frequently found in pairs; gravid females contain two large eggs; native belief that eggs are buried in ground, close to surface; frequently found in ant nests of straw and leaves [stick-nest ants].

NIXON, C. (1988). Two heads are better than one. Women's Day, June 28: 100. Reprinted in A.C.T. Herpetological Association Newsletter (November, 1989): [18].

Bicephalic juvenile found in wild; kept at Perth Zoo; photographs.

NOBLE, G.K. & BRADLEY, H.T. (1933). The mating behaviour of lizards: its bearing on the theory of sexual selection. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 35(2): 25–100.

Refers to Cope (1900) on hemipenis, Seftleben (1914) on mating.




  ― 919 ―

NORRIS, K.C., GILMORE, A.M. & MENKHORST, P.W. (1979). Vertebrate Fauna of South Gippsland, Victoria. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria (40): 105–199.

Spot distribution maps; T. nigrolutea widespread, common; in all vegetation types except possibly tall open-forest, saltmarsh, mangrove; especially abundant in coastal areas; T. scincoides uncommon, restricted to east of survey area; in grassland, shrub woodland.

NORRIS, K.C. & MANSERGH, I.M. (1981). Sites of zoological significance in East Gippsland. Ministry for Conservation, Victoria. Environmental Studies Series (321); 1–316.

Distribution by 5 minute blocks.

NORRIS, K.C., MANSERGH, I.M., AHERN, L.D., BELCHER, C.A., TEMBY, I.D. & WALSH, N.G. (1983). Vertebrate fauna of the Gippsland Lakes catchment, Victoria. Fisheries and Wildlife Division, Victoria. Occasional Paper (1): 1–158.

C. casuarinae in ground litter in subalpine woodland, alpine herbfield; T. nigrolutea common, most abundant in highlands; recorded from open habitats in subalpine woodland, tall open-forest, open-forest, woodlands of foothills and coast, coastal heath, farmland; omnivorous, ground-dwelling, shelters amongst ground litter; road kills common between October and February (35% of survey records); T. scincoides common on coastal plains, foothills, in dry open-forest, grassy woodland, farmland, coastal woodland; intolerant of cold; habits similar to T. nigrolutea; road kills common (60% records) from September to March; refers to Norris and Mansergh (1981), Rawlinson (1969, 1971).

OATES, W. & OATES, L. (1964). Gugu-Yalanji vocabulary. Occasional Papers in Aboriginal Studies (2): 79–146.

Bluetongue is bajabaja in Gugu-Yalanji language.

OBST, F.J., RICHTER, K. & JACOB, U. (1988). The completely illustrated atlas of reptiles and amphibians for the terrarium. TFH Publications, Neptune City. pp. 749–750, 753. (831pp.)

General; habitat; distribution; coloration; photographs of T. nigrolutea, T. rugosa, T. scincoides; T. scincoides has litters of 6–20 young.




  ― 920 ―

OGILBY, J.D. (1890). [untitled]. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (2)4(3): 1028.

Exhibited; considered scarce.

OLIVER, J.H. & BREMNER, K.C. (1968). Cytogenetics of Ticks. III. Chromosomes and Sex Determination in Some Australian Hard Ticks (Ixodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 61(4): 837–844.

Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma limbatum from T. rugosa; Amblyomma moreliae from T. scincoides.

OPIE, A.M., BROWN, G.W., CARR, G.W., CHERRY, K.A., HORROCKS, G.F.B., MENKHORST, K.A. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1987). Flora and fauna of the Splitters Range Forest Block, Bairnsdale region, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (9): 1–104.

Recorded; in open-forest/farmland interface.

OPIE, A.M., CHERRY, K.A., HORROCKS, G.F.B., CARR, G.W., SCHULTZ, M. & TRIGGS, B.E. (1984). Flora and fauna of the Yalmy forest block, East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (2): 1–76.

One recorded in damp sclerophyll forest.

OPIE, A.M., GILLESPIE, G.R., HENRY, S.R., LOBERT, B.O. & PYRKE, A.F. (1990). Flora and fauna of the Coast Range Forest Block (South Part), East Gippsland, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (24): 1–126.

Refers to Carr et al. (1984), Henry et al. (1988); recorded from montane sclerophyll woodland, farmland; one pit-trapped.

ORMSBY, A.I. (1947). Notes on the Broad-headed Snake. (Hoplocephalus bungaroides). Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1946–47: 19–21.

Captive Hoplocephalus bungaroides ate juvenile bluetongue.




  ― 921 ―

OSBORNE, C.R. (1974). The Tiwi language. Australian Aboriginal Studies (55): i–xii + 1–170.

In Tiwi language, bluetongue lizard is tuniŋa.

O'SHEA, M. (1991). The reptiles of Papua New Guinea. British Herpetological Society Bulletin (37): 15–32.

T. gigas inhabits piles of coconut husks on plantations on Karkar I., cleared croplands in the Western Province.

OUDEMANS, J.T. (1894). Eidechsen und Schildkröten. pp. 127–146 in, Semon, R., Zoologische Forschungsreisen in Australien und dem Malayischen Archipel. Band 5. Denkschriften der Medicinisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Jena. Volume 8. (778pp. + lxvii pl.)

Coloration, measurements of specimen of C. gerrardii; critical of Macleay's (1885) description of Hinulia picta, synonymised with C. gerrardii; type description of previous hit Tiliqua next hit gigas keyensis; comparative scalation of T. gigas, T. scincoides.

OWEN, R. (1840–1845). Odontography; or, a treatise on the comparative anatomy of the teeth; their physiological relations, mode of development, and microscopic structure, in the vertebrate animals. 2 Vols. Hippolyte Bailliere, London. Vol. I pp. 237–238, Vol. II pl. 66. (655pp. + 150pl.)

previous hit Tiliqua next hit teeth have subhemispherical crowns; correlated with different habits and diet; [description and figure of C. nigroluteus probably misidentified-several discrepancies from any previous hit Tiliqua next hit].

OWEN, R. (1853). Descriptive catalogue of the osteological series contained in the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Vol. 1. Pisces, Reptilia, Aves, Marsupialia. Taylor and Francis, London. pp. 139–142. (350pp.)

Description of presacral vertebrae, skull of C. niger; description of vertebrae, teeth of T. scincoides; notes on skull, mandible of T. gigas, based on materials in Hunterian Museum.

OWEN, R. (1866). On the Anatomy of Vertebrates. Vol. I. Fishes and


  ― 922 ―
reptiles. Longmans, Green, and Co., London. pp. 155, 198, 387, 388, 402, 451, 555. (650pp.)

Notes on skull of Cyclodus niger; scales heavily ossified in previous hit Tiliqua next hit; tooth crowns hemispherical tubercles; groove containing dental germinal tissue protected by single cartilaginous external alveolar ridge; dentition of T. nigrolutea; single premaxilla has depressions for 12 teeth [in error]; 14 maxillary teeth, 8–13 largest; in previous hit Tiliqua next hit, gall-bladder in notch between two caudal divisions of liver; five sternal, mesosternal ribs; right testis more cranial; hemipeneal body with transverse rugae, sub-bifurcate “glans” has short retroverted papillae; T. rugosa has bone in scales.

OWNER, F. (1970). Reptiles of Australia and New Zealand. Angus & Robertson Ltd, Sydney. pp. 14–15. (30pp.)

Viviparous; 6–20 young in litter for bluetongues; threat display; eat snails, insects, soft fruit; frequently killed as thought to be venomous; T. rugosa diet grasses, fruit, flowers, snails, insects; usually only two young in litter; often carry ticks.

OXENHAM, A. (ed.) (1965). Knowabout Australia Animal Life. Horwitz-International, Inc. p. 42. (64pp.)

General.

PAILES, R. (1978). Reptiles of the Ballarat region Victoria. Herpetofauna 10(1): 26–28.

T. nigrolutea common, under sheets of tin; T. scincoides very common; T. rugosa uncommon.

PAILS, R. (1977). Reptiles of the Ballarat region, Vict. (40 km radius). “Newsletter” of the Victorian Herpetological Society (3): 5–7.

Four hibernating under rock slabs.

PAILS, R. (1978). Reptiles of the Ballarat region, Vict (40 km radius). V.H.S. “Newsletter” (9): 8.

Four hibernating under rock slabs and logs.




  ― 923 ―

PAILS, R. (1980). A trip that most herps would like to forget. V.H.S. ‘Newsletter’ (18): 5–9.

Recorded; hawks diving at one on road.

PAK POY, R.K.F. (1959). Electron microscopy of the reptilian renal glomerulus. Australian Journal of experimental Biology and medical Science 37(2): 153–162.

Metanephric T. rugosa renal glomerulus frequently contains central cell mass; mass not as large as in avian glomerulus, often only slightly greater than intercapillary tissue of other vertebrate glomeruli; capillary wall very similar to amphibian, fish glomerulus, possessing pericapillary space which may contain tissue; visceral epithelial layer relatively simple.

PALMER, -. (1888). [untitled] in, Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (2)3(1): 400–402.

Viviparous; one gave birth to six young, three on each of two days.

PALMER, -. (1892). [untitled] in, Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (2)7(1): 20.

Active individual drinking from running water shortly after heavy thunderstorm following hot, dry weather.

PARAMSOTHY, S. (1968). Cutaneous Receptors in the Body-wall of Lizards. Australian Journal of experimental Biology and medical Science 46(4): P5.

88 cutaneous sensory units with myelinated afferent fibres examined; all mechanosensitive, some sensitive to cooling, none responded to weak heating; receptive fields from 1–80mm2 (<1–6 scales); 48 units rapidly adapting, 40 slowly adapting; few units responded readily to vibratory stimulation, unlike snake body wall receptors.

PARKER, F. (1983). The Prehensile-Tailed Skink (Corucia zebrata) on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. pp. 435–440 in, Rhodin, A.G.J. & Miyata, K. (eds.). Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology. Essays in Honour of Ernest E. Williams. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge. (725pp.)

Defensive display of Corucia and previous hit Tiliqua next hit similar.

PARKER, H.W. (1936). A Collection of Reptiles and Amphibians from the Mountains of British New Guinea. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10)17(97): 66–93.

Recorded.

PARKER, W.K. (1868). A monograph on the structure and development of the shoulder-girdle and sternum in the Vertebrata. Robert Hardwicke, London, for the Ray Society. pp. 101–102, 105–107, 111–114, 217, 219, 124–126 + pl. x. (xi + 237pp.)

Detailed description and figures of pectoral girdle, sternum of T. nigrolutea.

PARKES, D.M., MACFARLANE, M.A., SCHULZ, M. & TRAILL, B.J. (1987). Flora and fauna of the Nunniong North Forest Block, Bairnsdale Region, Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands Ecological Survey Report (11): 1–73.

One found under rock on outcrop in alpine heathland; one found in mature montane forest; common in East Gippsland.

PARKS, S. & TASOULIS, T. (1984). Reptiles of the Awabakal Reserve - a checklist. pp. 109–110 in, Gilligan, B. (ed.). Awabakal Nature Reserve Reference Handbook. N.S.W. Department of Education, [Sydney]. (114pp.)

Both recorded.

PARR, E.L. (1979). Intracellular Labeling with Ferritin Conjugates A Specificity Problem Due to the Affinity of Unconjugated Ferritin for Selected Intracellular Sites. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 27(7): 1095–1102.

Ferritin bound to isolated hepatocyte nuclei.

PARSONS, T.S. (1970). The Nose and Jacobson's Organ. pp. 99–191 in, Gans, C. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia Volume 2 Morphology B. Academic Press, London. (374pp.)




  ― 925 ―

Refers to Pratt (1949), Busch (1898); choanal folds overlap in midline to form functional median nasopharyngeal duct.

PARSONS, T.S. & CAMERON, J.E. (1977). Internal Relief of the Digestive Tract. pp. 159–223 in, Gans, C. & Parsons, T.S. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia Volume 6 Morphology E. Academic Press, London. (505pp.)

Refers to Jacobshagen (1920); in T. rugosa, oesophageal rugae anastomosing and net-like; no folds in anterior stomach; longitudinal rugae begin just anterior to pyloric region, in which they are quite distinct; course irregular anteriorly, straighter caudally; stomach wall surface pebbled; small intestinal surface relief tends to condition in Eumeces.

PASTEELS, J.J. (1970). Développement embryonnaire. pp. 893–971 in, Grassé, P.-P. (ed.). Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Volume 14. Reptiles. Part 3. Glandes endocrines- embryologique-systematique-paléontologie. Masson et Cie, Paris. (1428pp.)

Chorioallantoic placentation described.

PATIENCE, P.M. (1972). Sammy - A Shingleback Lizard in captivity. Herpetofauna 5(1): 4–5.

Captive diet of T. rugosa; prefence for banana, will not eat snails, blossoms, grass; appears to drink much water; sheds skin twice per year; usually do poorly in captivity.

PATON, J. (1964). The biter bit. South Australian Naturalist 38(4): 66.

Captive juvenile ate many neonate mantids.

PEILE, A.R. (1978). Some comments on ethno herpetology. Herpetofauna 9(2): 15–17.

C. melanops is dulyulga, T. scincoides is luŋguda to Gugadja aborigines.

PEDERZANI, [H.A.] (1967). [untitled]. Monatsschrift für Ornithologie und Vivarienkunde. Ausgabe B. Aquarien Terrarien 14(3): 96.




  ― 926 ―

One of two captives died of a purulent infection of lower jaw; other specimen adjusted to captivity well; ate all foods offered; never bit Amphibolurus muricatus held in same cage.

PEDERZANI, H.A. (1972). Wie trinken Tannenzapfenechsen? Monatsschrift für Ornithologie und Vivarienkunde. Ausgabe B. Aquarien Terrarien. 19(8): 279.

Drink by wavelike muscular movements, sucking water through tube formed by under-turned margins of tongue; raise head to swallow.

PERACCA, M.G. (1895). Sul fatto di due distinte dentizioni nella previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides White. Bolletino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomica comparata della R. Università di Torino 10(217): 1–3 + fig.

15 young T. scincoides born to two northern hemisphere captives in April; dentition of juveniles different to adults; description and illustration of dentition; juveniles have a single enlarged tooth in each jaw, the dentary tooth lying caudal to the maxillary; more rostral teeth alternate in size; 14 premaxillary + maxillary teeth, 11–12 dentary teeth in juveniles; 17–18 premaxillary + maxillary teeth, 17 dentary teeth in adults; C. gerrardii dentition compared to T. scincoides; figure of skull of C. gerrardii.

PERKINS, L. (1974). All color book of reptiles. Octopus Books, London. pp. 42–43. (72pp.)

General; photograph; litter size two; diet insects, molluscs, small lizards, fruit.

PERNETTA, J.C. (1983). The wildlife of the Purari catchment. pp. 253–268 in, Petr, T. (ed.). The Purari-tropical environment of a high rainfall river basin. Monographiae Biologicae (51). W. Junk, The Hague. (624pp.)

Unexpectedly absent from Purari drainage; T. gigas an important food item in Western Province; known from Kikori delta; forest floor animal feeding on invertebrates, fallen fruit; not recorded above 1000m.

PÉRON, F. (1807). Voyage de Découvertes Aux Terres Australes, exécuté par ordre de Sa Majesté l'Empereur et Roi, Sur les Corvettes le Géographe, le Naturaliste, et la Goelette le Casuarina, Pendant les


  ― 927 ―
Années 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804. Vol. I. Imprimerie Impériale, Paris. p. 118. (496pp.)

Recorded.

PESCOTT, E.E. (1927). Blue-tongue lizards in captivity. Victorian Naturalist 44(8): 212.

Captive ate capeweed flowers, snails, mince, chopped carrots, milk, cream, custard, rice, sago custard; would not eat lettuce; did not like dandelion, sow thistle flowers; did not know how to break snail shells.

PETERS, U. (1966). Beobachtungen an einigen echsen in New South Wales Australien. Monatsschrift für Ornithologie und Vivarienkunde. Ausgabe B. Aquarien Terrarien 13(11): 378–379.

Common under houses and in gardens; eats snails; most often found under metal sheets; tames quickly in captivity; bite unpleasant, can cause wounds.

PETERS, U. (1967). previous hit Tiliqua next hit gerardii und previous hit Tiliqua next hit casuarinae, zwei wenig bekannte echsen. Monatsschrift für Ornithologie und Vivarienkunde. Ausgabe B. Aquarien Terrarien 14(3): 94–96.

General; brief description of size, juvenile and adult coloration, scalation; distribution; captive requirements; photographs; C. gerrardii partly arboreal; active on warm evenings, searching for food; natural diet molluscs; unbanded color pattern in one individual; 12–14 young in litter; date of birth of one litter 18 December; at one week, 12cm long; tongue begins to turn pink at 9 months; readily tamed, not aggressive to cagemates; 6–8 young in C. casuarinae litter; aggressive in captivity; captive diet insects, snails, lizards, fish, meat, fruit; prefers indirect heat, some moisture.

PETERS, U. (1969). Ein rundgang durch dei Reptilienabteilung des Taronga-Zoos, Sydney. Monatsschrift für Ornithologie und Vivarienkunde Ausgabe B Aquarien Terrarien 16(11): 375–377.

Exhibited at Taronga Zoo.

PETERS, U. (1973a). Een soortenrijke herpetofauna vlak bij Sydney. Lacerta 31(11): 174–177.

Occasional solitary individuals seen.

PETERS, U. (1973b). An excursion into the Red Centre of New South Wales. Koolewong 2(3): 11–13.

One had just eaten several yellow blossoms.

PETERS, U. (1976). Seltsame Reptilien Australiens. Das Aquarium (90): 557–562.

General; photograph; grows to >30cm long; aggressive to conspecifics; diet molluscs, insects, fruit.

PETERS, U. (1979). “A herpetological excursion to the ‘red centre’ of New South Wales (Australia)”. V.H.S. “Newsletter” (15): 7–10.

One observed eating flowers.

PETERS, W. (1864a). Übersicht der von Hrn. Richard Schomburgk an das zoologische Museum eingesandten Amphibien, aus Buchsfelde bei Adelaide in Südaustralien. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1863: 228–236.

One T. scincoides seen in 13 years; brought in by cat; type descriptions of T. occipitalis, T. adelaidensis; all four species in collection made by R. Schomburgk of Buchsfelde.

PETERS, W. (1864b). Über einige neue Säugethiere (Mormops, Macrotus, Vesperus, Molossus, Capromys), Amphibien (Platydactylus, Otocryptis, Euprepes, Ungalia, Dromicus, Tropidonotus, Xenodon, Hylodes) und Fische (Sillago, Sebastes, Channa, Myctophum, Carassius, Barbus, Capoëta, Poecilia, Saurenchelys, Leptocephalus). Monatsberichte der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1864: 381–399.

Well defined, distinct genus (cf. other skink genera).

PETERS, W. (1867). Herpetologische Notizen. Monastberichte der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1867: 13–37.




  ― 929 ―
Erection of Hemisphaeriodon gen. nov. for C. gerrardii.

PETERS, W. (1875). Über neue Amphibien (Gymnopis, Siphonops, Polypedates, Rhacophorus, Hyla, Cyclodus, Euprepes, Clemmys). Monatsberichte der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1874: 616–624 + p. I–II.

Type description of C. nigricans [=C. casuarinae].

PETERS, W. (1878). Über zwei Scincoiden aus Australien und einer neuen Amphisbaena von Westafrica. Sitzungs-Berichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1878: 191–192.

Type description of L. muelleri [=C. melanops].

PETERS, W. & DORIA, G. (1878). Catalogo dei rettili e dei batraci raccolti da O. Beccari, L.M. D'Albertis e A.A. Bruijn nella sotto-regione Austro-Malese. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 13: 323–450 + pl. I–VII.

Specimen and literature records; partial synonymy of T. gigas.

PETNEY, T.N., ANDREWS, R.H. & BULL, C.M. (1983). Movement and Host Finding by Unfed Nymphs of Two Australian Reptile Ticks. Australian Journal of Zoology 31(5): 717–721.

Sleepy lizards used as experimental hosts.

PETNEY, T.N. & BULL, C.M. (1984). Microhabitat selection by two reptile ticks at their parapatric boundary. Australian Journal of Ecology 9(3): 233–239.

T. rugosa main host of Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma albolimbatum; shelter in litter under trees, shrubs; used as experimental host.

PETNEY, T.N., BULL, C.M. & ANDREWS, R.H. (1982). A stable boundary between two species of reptile ticks on Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 106(4): 159–161.

Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma albolimbatum recorded on both species in


  ― 930 ―
Cleve area; T. rugosa major host in area.

PETZOLD, H.-G. (1982). Aufgaben und Probleme der Tiergärtnerei bei der Erforschung der Lebensäuβerungen der Niederen Amnioten (Reptilien). Milu 5(4/5): 485–786. Reprinted (1984) with same pagination as Aufgaben und Probleme bei der Erforschung der Lebensäuβerungen der Niederen Amnioten (Reptilien). Berliner Tierpark Buch (38). Bina, Berlin.

Refers to Etheridge (1967), Longley (1944), Mertens (1964), Schneider (1941); Schönholzer (1959); Worrell (1963); hybridisation; reduced caudal autotomy planes; drink by lapping, followed by raising front end of body.

PHILLIPS, I.R. (1986). Reptiles encountered in practice: a survey of two hundred and forty cases. Journal of Small Animal Practice 27(12): 807–824.

Anorectic captive started eating following single injection of 50mg/kg Vitamin B12.

PHILLIPS, J.A. (1986). Ontogeny of metabolic processes in blue-tongued skinks, previous hit Tiliqua next hit scincoides. Herpetologica 42(4): 405–412.

Litter of ten born 26 April to long term northern hemisphere captive; one neonate died at 2 weeks from renal gout; growth rapid (1.27g/day; 0.70mm/day); maturity at ca10months; as lizards matured,

image
selected temperature during photophase decreased, daily use of environmental heat changed from bimodal morning/afternoon pattern to monomodal morning pattern; by 400g, juvenile thermoregulatory patterns indistinguishable from adults; as mass increased, food conversion efficiency decreased; adult skinks at 35°C, on constant diet had digestive efficiency of 94%.

PHILLIPS, J.W. & HIRD, F.J.R. (1977a). Gluconeogenesis in vertebrate livers. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 57(2): 127–131.

High levels lactic acid in exercised muscle, increased following electrical stimulation; mainly red fibres in muscle; lactic acid in blood; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate carboxylase present in liver, largely in particulate fraction; glucose production by liver of fed animals high; gluconeogenesis occurs in liver; more glycogen in liver than muscle.

PHILLIPS, J.W. & HIRD, F.J.R. (1977b). Ketogenesis in vertebrate livers. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry 57(2): 133–138.




  ― 931 ―

Respiratory quotient 0.74; hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase activity, mainly in particulate fraction of liver extracts; low acetoacetyl CoA deacyclase activity in liver; low 3-oxoacid CoA transferase activity in liver; ketone body synthesis stimulated by butyrate; ketone bodies present in blood.

PIANKA, E.R. (1969). Habitat specificity, speciation, and species density in Australian desert lizards. Ecology 50(3): 498–502.

Recorded.

PIANKA, E.R. (1971). Australian Lizards. Copeia 1971(4): 764–766.

Book review of Bustard (1970); T. rugosa does not occur in inland WA; T. multifasciata raised to species status.

PIANKA, E.R. (1972). Zoogeography and Speciation of Australian Desert Lizards: An Ecological Perspective. Copeia 1972(1): 127–145.

T. multifasciata a “northern arid species”; T. occipitalis a “southern arid” species; distribution maps for T. multifasciata, T. occipitalis; O. petersi a “central relict” [in error].

PIANKA, E.R. (1981). Diversity and adaptive radiations of Australian desert lizards. pp. 1375–1392 in, Keast, A. (ed.). Ecological Biogeography of Australia. Volume 2. Monographiae Biologicae (41). Dr. W. Junk, The Hague. Reprinted (1984) as pp. 371–376 in, Archer, M. & Clayton, G. (eds.) Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia. Hesperian Press, Carlisle. (1203pp.)

Mention.

PIANKA, E.R. (1986). Ecology and Natural History of Desert Lizards. Princeton University Press, Princeton. pp. 100, 121, 158, 164–165, 167, 172–173, 175, 182–183 + pl. 18, 20. (208pp.)

Microhabitats for collected specimens of both species;

image
TB 34.7, 34.3°C respectively; stomach contents for six, three specimens; morphometrics; litter of three for C. melanops; reproductive effort for C. melanops.




  ― 932 ―

PICKARD-SMITH, K. (undated). Living with Reptiles. Thomas Nelson and Sons, Edinburgh. pp. 150–156, pl. 226. (222pp.)

Account of captive specimens; captive requirements; diet; treatment for respiratory infection; photograph of T. scincoides.

PITMAN, C.R.S. (1962). More Snake and Lizard Predators of Birds Part II. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club 82(3): 45–55.

Refers to Warham (1958) and Loveridge (1945): young birds, eggs probably included in diet.

PLEDGE, N.S. (1990). The Upper Fossil Fauna of the Henschke Fossil Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 28(1): 247–262.

Pleistocene fossil remains present; most common reptile in deposit; comparison with results of Smith (1976).

PLEDGE, N.S. & TEDFORD, R.H. (1990). Vertebrate Fossils. pp. 199–209 in, Tyler, M.J., Twidale, C.R., Davies, M. & Wells, C.B. (eds.). Natural History of the North East Deserts. Royal Society of South Australia Inc., Adelaide. (226pp.)

Refers to Estes (1984).

PLOMLEY, N.J.B. (1949). Zoology in Tasmania. pp. 45–60 in Cerutty, L. (ed.) Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science Handbook for Tasmania Prepared for the Members of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science on the occasion of its Meeting held in Hobart, January, 1949. Government Printer, Hobart. (127pp.)

Two species [T. nigrolutea, C. casuarinae] recorded.

POGLAYEN-NEUWALL, I. (1954). Die Kiefermuskulatur der Eidechsen und ihre Innervation. Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie 158(1): 79–132.

Comparative study of jaw musculature of lizards and its innervation; comparative data on mm. levator pterygoidei, protractor pterygoidei, levator bulbi dorsalis, levator bulbi ventralis, adductor mandibulae


  ― 933 ―
externus, pseudotemporalis, pterygoideus, adductor mandibulae posterior, intermandibularis oris in T. rugosa, T. scincoides; comparative data on innervation of these muscles and surrounding tissues; refers to Lakjer (1926); contra Lakjer, no division of m. pterygoideus, no origin from quadratomaxillary ligament in T. scincoides.

POPE, C.H. (1956). The reptile world. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, London. pp. 294–295. (325+xii pp.)

Largest skink species.

PORTER, K.R. (1972). Herpetology. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp. 162, 281, 282, 321, 403. (524pp.)

Refers to Bentley (1959), Drummond (1947), Shoemaker et al. (1966); T. rugosa eats berries and mushrooms; T. scincoides has 5–18 young in a litter.

POUGH, F.H. (1973). Lizard energetics and diet. Ecology 54(4): 837–844.

All omnivorous, tending to herbivory.

POUGH, F.H. (1988). Mimicry and Related Phenomena. pp. 153–234 in Gans, C. & Huey, R.B. (eds.). Biology of the Reptilia Vol. 16 Ecology B. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York. (659pp.)

Refers to Rankin (1973); alternative explanation to mimicry for coloration; darkness conceals head.

PRATT, C.W. McE. (1949). The Morphology of the Ethmoidal Region of Sphenodon and Lizards. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 118: 171–201.

Nasal organs, nasal capsule similar to other non-fossorial skinks.

PREISS, K.A. (ed.). (1969). The Hundred of Blesing A Survey of its natural values carried out by The Nature Conservation Society of South Australia. South Australian Naturalist 43(3): 52–98.

Recorded.




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PREISS, K.A. & THOMAS, P.M. (eds.) (1970). Hincks National Park A survey of its natural values carried out by the Nature Conservation Society of South Australia. 5th–13th October, 1968. South Australian Naturalist 45(2): 29–78.

Recorded.

PROCTOR, J.B. (1923). The flora and fauna of Nuyts Archipelago and the Investigator Group. No. 5.-The lizards. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 47: 79–81.

Type description of L. wood-jonesii.

PROSKE, U. (1966). Responses of muscle spindles in the lizard. Proceedings of the Australian Physiological Society 9: 21.

Stretch receptors in m. pubotibialis have low mechanical threshold; most presumably muscle spindles; show resting discharge when muscle slack; response during nerve-stimulated active contraction complex, varying with initial stretch, strength of stimulus; all units showed “in parallel” behaviour; at critical stimulus strength, afferent discharge bursts in all-or-nothing fashion during increasing tension phase; “alpha” motor innervation of intrafusal fibres.

PROSKE, U. (1967a). Responses of Muscle Spindles in the Lizard. Nature 213(5081): 1144–1146.

Pubotibialis nerve-muscle preparation; most stretch receptor discharges from muscle spindles; no tendon-organ responses seen; discharge reduced in intensity as larger portions of muscle contracted; weak shock to muscle results in small contraction, interrupts afferent discharge in rising phase of contraction, accelerates discharge during falling phase; further increase in stimulus progressively stimulates action potentials during rise of tension, then reduction; discharge in rising phase not due to stray extrafusal muscle fibre pulls acting on spindle, but from specific intrafusal contractions; large motor axons usually branch to supply both intrafusal and extrafusal muscle fibres.

PROSKE, U. (1967b). Afferent discharges from a slow muscle in the lizard. Australian Journal of experimental Biology and medical Science 45(3): P30.

M. pubotibialis has about 10% multiple, 90% single innervated fibres; scalenus has about 50% multiple innervation; 24 of 40 scalenus muscle spindles at high resting tension gave “in series” firing during phase of


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increasing tension in nerve-evoked contractions; discharge occurred at critical stimulus strengths, persisted after differential curarization blocked all extrafusal contraction; “in series” discharge from intrafusal fibre contraction, high resting tension required and failure to appear in one-third of receptors in scalenus muscle may reflect differences in contractile properties of fibres with multiple innervation.

PROSKE, U. (1969a). The innervation of muscle spindles in the lizard previous hit Tiliqua next hit nigrolutea. Journal of Anatomy 105(2): 217–230.

Muscle spindles usually contained single intrafusal fibre; two types of fibre; “long capsule” type had long indistinct capsule surrounding intrafusal fibre undistorted in sensory region; “short capsule” type had broad prominent capsule, intrafusal fibre with numerous nuclei, lacked striations in central portion of capsule; sensory axons of “long capsule” spindles entered capsules, often branching at entry, ran for long distances on top of intrafusal fibre; “short capsule” axons entered capsule, immediately branched into several fine filaments each of which contacted intrafusal fibres; intrafusal motor endings often supplied by collaterals of axons supplying extrafusal fibres with multiple “grappe” or single “plaque” motor endings; muscles predominantly composed of fibres with “grappe” innervation contained long and short capsule spindles, supplied by intrafusal “grappe” motor endings; muscles largely with focal innervation fibres contained only long capsule spindles, supplied by “plaque” axon branches.

PROSKE, U. (1969b). An electrophysiological analysis of responses from lizard muscle spindles. Journal of Physiology 205(2): 289–304.

Iliofibularis muscle contains many single innervated fibres; some spindles discharged on rising phase of muscle contraction; this “in series” response, increasing in duration, frequency at high resting tensions on muscle, attributed to specific intrafusal contraction; “in series” discharge induced by stimulation of only one small filament of muscle nerve, suggesting focal intrafusal motor innervation; m. semitendinosus contains many multiple innervated fibres; “in series” response produced by stimulation of several muscle nerve filaments, suggesting multiple intrafusal motor innervation; distinct phasic and tonic responses from spindles with short or elongated sensory regions.

PROSKE, U. (1973). The muscle spindles in slow and twitch skeletal muscle of the lizard. Journal of Physiology 230(2): 429–448.

In T. scincoides, m. semimembranosus composed solely of twitch extrafusal fibres; in T. nigrolutea, some tonic fibres; in both species, semitendinosus fibres largely tonic; at initial length, firing rate of spindles in twitch muscle greatly increased by motor tetanus; little further increase in response during and following muscle stretch; slow muscle spindles only moderately excited by motor tetanus at initial length; large increase recorded during dynamic component of stretch; at


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new length, steady-state firing continued at rate well above initial length; succinylcholine mimicked effect of motor tetanus in response to stretch of slow muscle only; different effects of motor stimulation on responses to stretch of spindles in slow and twitch muscle explained by sliding filament theory of contraction; sustained elevati