January 1788

Friday. Jan.y 4th] Jan.y 5th. Having had several very good sets of Observations of the [sun] & [moon] & supposing they would be the last before seeing the Land, at 4 PM. Made sig.l for the Convoy to come our stern & observe the Longitude in by Observation; view facsimile

135°:30′ East the Longitude at Noon was shewn to them. This night a luminous appearance or substance was seen, & very different from what I ever heard of being noticed by any one: they resemble lights floating on the surface of the water & disappear when turn'd as the sea washed over them, they keep the same appearance when close alongside as at a distance; several of them passed close to us as the Ship run through them; & were seen on the surface more than a mile ahead; we endeavor'd without success to get some of them, they immediately got the name of Pursers Lanthorns.

Sunday. 6. At 11 PM. The Aurora Australis was very bright, with many beautiful red streamers which appear'd to run from about 45° of Al.t to the clouds that were in that part of the Horizon, it was seen very faint some nights before.

Tuesday. 8th. At 1/2 p.t 1 PM. Saw Van Diemans Land, we were only 8 weeks from the Cape of Good Hope & since the 23rd of November on which day we regained the meridian of that Cape after having been forced 9° to the W.ward, we had scarce an hour foul wind; but even this good fortune was not enough to preserve the Cattle on board the Sirius, which were so badly provided for as to be nearly starved, three of the Cows calved on the passage the whole of which died, the Cows having scarce sufficient to keep themselves alive, could not support the young; One of the Cows big with calf also died before we made the Land; thus view facsimile

At 2. PM. Saw the Mewstone N36°E by Compass 4 or 5 leagues We were in Latitude 44°:04's.o & stood in NE: at 4 passed the Mewstone about 6 mile to the S.o ward of it; at 5 Saw the Eddystone to the E.t ward of Swilly, the whole space between those Rocks appear'd from the Mast Head to be full of broken water & some tops of rocks shewing themselves above the Surface; we stood on for the South Cape & pass'd it at 2 or 3 Mile distance; we now steer'd ENE & pass'd to the N.o ward of Swilly at 9 or 10 Miles distance. We made the Mewstone within 5 Miles as laid down by Captain Cook. By the mean result of all the Observations taken on b.d the Sirius by Captain Hunter & Myself we reduce the p.t of this land, as follows

[Table not reproduced - see original journal]

The p.t of the SW Cape we were at a loss to determine, but concluded it must be that which makes like the Ramhead of Plymouth & particularly so from the situation of the Mewstone.

Between the SW & S.o Capes we saw many Islands, High rocks & the appearance of Harbors from the double landma[rks] behind the Coast & the Islands lying off it: One particularly when the Mewstone bore N14°E by Compass, seem'd to be view facsimile

formed by low land to the W.ward making in a bluff & has the appearance of an Island with a very remarkable rock just open of it bearing N.o; as we passed along the same appearance of a Harbour continued altho' the bearings of the Mewstone & Rock beforementioned had been alter'd some points; as we got to the E.tward of it, the low bluff Island appear'd to be very near or a part of the W.t side of the Harbour which it form'd & 2 small Islands were seen lying off, what might be term'd the entrance of the Bay which from the double lands seem'd to branch off in two arms, one to the NE & the other NW. We much lamented it not being in our power to determine this, or ascertain the situation of the points of land with each other by keeping close in shore, which one could have done as we had the wind, but having a Convoy of heavy sailing Ships with us it would have been dangerous. This appearance of a Harbour which we so particularly noticed lies to the W.tward of the peak'd Hill & appears to be formed on the E.t side by the land under a remarkable ragged high hill to the W.tward of the Peak, when that Hill bears from NNE to N.o & when it bears NW the whole appearance of the Bay is shut in by a point projecting from the land to the Westward.

The land in general is moderately high, the Coast rocky & apparently steep too; the Country in land from the SW Cape appears barren, we did not see a Tree between it & the land about the S.o Cape, the top part of which & all the view facsimile

land to the E.tward is coverd with Trees thick together, some growing a considerable height before they Branch. The Coast about the S.o Cape is a dark rock & towards the pitch of it, has a large notch, which shews when you are to the W.tward of it; there appears just to the E.tward of this point another projecting point cover'd with trees, but the land between falling rather to the N.oward, I set down the first as the S.o Cape of Van Dieman[s] Land, a little to the W.tward of which is a very remarkable white patch in the rocks near the Sea. The Peak'd Hill is also a good mark for knowing the S.o Cape, but I do not know a better, than, that there are not any high trees on the Hills to the W.tward of it that we could see. The wind continued Wterly all day very fresh & fell little wind in the evening at 10 It was variable mostly between the N.o & E.t We had luckily got to the E.tward of Swilly when the W.terly wind left us & being well in with the Main Land were enabled to carry the Convoy clear to the E.tward of all danger from the Rocks of Swilly & the Eddystone, both of which we saw the next morning at day light, both in one bearing WSW 4 or 5 leagues. As we pass'd along the shore after dark, Fires were seen to the E.tward of & about the S.o Cape & between the S.o & SW Capes. We saw Snow on the high peak'd Hill as we passed.

Wednesday. 9th. At 7 AM The wind changed in a hard Squall with view facsimile

Thunder & Light'ning & blew strong some hours from the W.tward

Thursday. 10th. The weather clear'd up with a fine breeze at W.t we had a very heavy cross swell: AM The weather very squally & unsettled, wind frequently shifting, NNW & WSW: Latitude at Noon 43°:38's.o Longitude 149°:31′ E.t

11th. At ½ p 7 PM. The wind shifted in a very heavy squall in which the Golden Grove split her Top sails & the of Wales carried away her Mainyard; this Squall was violent & came on with remarkable loud Thunder & strong Light'ning w very heavy rain, it lasted half an hour, the weather then became clear w a moderate breeze of wind from NW to SW, at 7 AM It suddenly came on to blow strong & near Noon was mod.t & clear settled weather again. Lat.d 42°:19's.o..130°27′E.t

Saturday. 12th. PM Mod.t & clear weather, at 11 it was Calm & in less than 1/2 an hour, it suddenly blew strong from the SW with severe Light'ning. AM near Noon it fell little wind with fine serene clear weather. Lat.d 41°:17's.o..150°:43′E.t

Sunday. 13th. The wind coming to the W.t & N.o obliged us to stand off to the E.tward, the weather moderate till 10 PM then Blowing hard & very squally from the NW. AM Continued to blow strong with frequent Squalls. Lat.d 40°:00's.o Long. 151°:22′ E.t

Monday. 14th:PM at 4 It became moderate the wind shifted to SW with clear weather. AM Light Breezes & clear weather at Noon Latitude 38°:10′.S. Longitude 151°:09′ E.t view facsimile

Tuesday.15: Clear weather. At 1 PM. Had several good Observations of the [sun] and [moon] the mean of which gave 152°:48′E. & of those taken by Capn Hunter 152°:44′E.t which was 11/2° degree to the E.tward of account since leaving Van Diemans Land We suppose this occasioned by a strong set from between the Schouten Islands & Pt Hicks from which we had a great Sea & think it probable that there may be either a streight or a deep Gulf: Wind NE & N.o Latitude 37°:39's.o Long.e 151°:47′E.t

Wednesday. 16th: Hazey weather with a fresh Gale at N.o with which we stood off & on the shore endeavoring to preserve a moderate distance from the shore, not thinking it safe to go near with the Convoy 'till well to the N.oward. AM. Fair weather w. a moderate breeze at NNW. 37°:39's.o 151°:29′E.t at Noon

Thursday. 17th: Light variable winds & calm with frequent heavy rains Thunder & Light'ning: At Noon Clear W.r with variable light airs. 37°:19's.o 151°:45′E.t [a]

Friday. 18th: PM. at 6. A breeze sprung up from SE. AM. At 8 hauled in to endeavor to make the land before night. 35°:48's.o..151°:36′E

Saturday. 19th. Fresh Breezes from the SE at 7. PM. Brot too, not having made the Land. AM. Mod.t & clear at day light saw the Land bearing WbN, at 10. were abreast of some remarkable white sand hills, having much the appearance of white cliffs At Noon, were in 34°:30′.S.o Saw red point (so named by Capn Cook) with a small Island on with it W1/2N 4 leagues, the round view facsimile

Hill mention'd by Cap.n Cook as like the crown of a Hat bore WbN, the N.oern extreme of land N.o 10 leag.s a very remarkable clump of Trees like those on Portsdown were seen at Noon NbW... Red point may very readily be known by Capn Cooks remarks viz. the round hill a little to the N.owd of it; but it is necessary to observe that there are two Islands near it & that the Land to the N.oward of the red land forming the point, is very white.

Sunday. 20th: At 2 PM. Saw the white cliffs mention'd by Cap.n Cook to be 10 miles to the S.oward of Botany Bay; I do not altogether think it a certain mark for knowing when you are near Botany Bay, there being many white Sand Hills that shew like Cliffs coming up the Coast; the land from these White Cliffs to the N.oward is tolerably even. At 4. Saw the entrance of Botany Bay, appearing in the middle of land that shew'd like an Island lying a small distance from the shore, We saw the neck of land by which it is joined to the other land when 8 or 9 miles to the S.oward of the entrance of Botany Bay, it has a sandy beach, the shore cover'd with wood, in the sandy beach is the appearance of a Gully or opening. The land about the entrance of Botany Bay appears in hummocks & Rocky; & with a Glass pt Solander, the S.o point of the Bay may be seen like a perpendicular notch cut in the rocks near the middle of the land, like an Island.

view facsimile

Those cliffs 10 miles to the S.oward of Botany Bay make in 5 cliffs as you come near abreast of them & the Portsdown clump of Trees is on the N.omost of them when bearing W.t soon after which, that clump loses its remarkable appearance. At Sun Set, the entrance of Botany Bay bore N.19°W 7 or 8 Mile shorten'd Sail & made the Signal for the Convoy to pass in succession within hail, they were order'd to be very attentive during the night & to keep their Stations strictly when we made sail in the morning: AM. At day light made sail for the Bay with a mod.t breeze at SE & when within about 2 miles of the S.o Head saw the Supply in the Bay & soon after the 3 Transports that had been dispatch'd under the Command of the Agent. The Master of the Supply came on board as we approach'd the entrance, He informed us that they had only been arrived two days & the Agent one day before us & the heavy ships; at 8. Anchored with the Convoy in Botany Bay & moored immediately.

p.t Solander SSE }

Cape Banks ESE} in 8 f.m water.

We found that the Governor had without much difficulty met some of the Natives on the N.o side of the Bay & after convincing them of his good intentions, they receiv'd some trifling presents from him which they handed to each other without much concern. They were quite naked & had view facsimile

much the appearance of being well disposed toward us. We saw 8 of them setting on the rocks as we came into the Bay, they called to us, some of them walked along the Shore & others kept setting on the rocks: The Boats met with Natives in every part of the Bay but no women had yet been seen. Captain Hunter went on board the Supply to the Governor & with him visited the South Shore taking a Guard of Marines with them. Near the place the Governor landed at, we saw several of the Natives in small parties of two, three & five together, frequently advancing & again retreating; The Governor advanced by himself & laid down some presents for them then retired, one of the Natives immediately advanced, picked it up & handed it to the others apparently pleas'd, by Noon we saw that our People & the Natives were mixed together, the Boat Crews amused themselves with dressing the Natives w paper & other whimsical things to entertain them, with which they were pleas'd for the moment.

Monday. 21. PM. An Officer & party of Men were sent from the Sirius to clear away to a run of water on the S.o side of the Bay: The Natives were well pleas'd with our People until they began clearing the Ground at which they were displeased & wanted them to be gone; At sun set when the Boats left the shore, several of the Natives came down to the water side & then went to their Huts. Mr King returned view facsimile

having been up an inlet on the S.o side 5 miles; He found the Country something better than what it was round the Bay but not any water; Mr King seeing some Natives on a point of land, he backed the Boat to them to endeavor to have some intercourse with them, One of the Natives threw a Spear at which all the rest seem'd much displeas'd, after which they came close to the Boat & were quite friendly; they expressed a wish to know whether the People in our Boat were Men or Women & made themselves understood by bringing some of their women down, pointing to themselves, our people & the women alternately, who as the Men were entirely naked, they were immediately satisfied in this particular by one person in the Boat which served to convince them all were the same.

The Natives that appear'd on the N.o side the Bay express'd the same wish of knowing whether our People were Men or Women, after being satisfied on that head, one of them ran in amongst the Bushes, made himself a Belt of Grass & came dancing out with it round his waist with leaves hung over it; they were much inclin'd to steal any kind of Cloth or covering & did steal some bags which were sent on shore for Hay. AM. At day light the Governor, Captain Hunter, the Master of the Sirius & Supply went in the Long boat & 2 Cutters, to look into Port Jackson, not view facsimile

finding any situation at Botany Bay fit for settling & particularly from Ships in the Bay being so much exposed to the Sea in bad weather as to render their situation very dangerous. Mr King & Mr Dawes were again sent up the Inlet to determine as near as they could the extent of it. Major Ross attended the operations on shore & as our settling here was not yet determined on; it was not judged proper to land any of the Convicts but the necessary works were carried on by the Marines & Seamen. Two of the Seamen on the N.o shore straggling into the woods without Arms or any thing to protect themselves sailor like, met with some Natives, Men, Women & Children who very very friendly, met them without fear & eagerly accepted of a Jacket which one of the Sailors gave them, they were all entirely naked.

22nd: Clearing the Ground on the S.o side the Bay it appear'd worse the lower we went down & in digging a sawpit, the whole depth of it was little else but sand, & swamps all round. Some Dogs were seen with the Natives that came amongst us. When the Sein was hauled this evening, several of the Natives were by & when they saw the quantity of Fish brought on shore at once were much astonished which they expressed by a loud & long shout, they took some of the Fish, (which the Officer permitted) & ran away directly; Some of the Officers going to that part of the Wood, to which they retreated occasioned view facsimile

them to stop & make signs that they did not like to be followed, on which they were left to themselves to walk off with their Fish: We met with more success with the Sein than before; in a Cove round the point just within Bare Island; In this Cove we found better water & easier to be got at than any place we had yet tried.

Mr King & M.r Dawes returned after having been by their account about 12 Miles up the W.tern Inlet without being able to determine how much further it run.

AM. None of the Natives appear'd on the S.o side, but a great number on the N.o shore, they struck the Fish as the Sein was hauled ashore with their Spears & ran off with them sensible that what they had done was wrong.

23rd: PM. A Black man was landed among the working Party with whom the Natives were much pleas'd & seem'd astonished that he did not understand them, they wished him to stay with them & followed the Boat that he was in as far as they could, as the Boat left the shore they retired apparently as well satisfied as if the Man of their own Complexion had remained with them. A great number of rats were seen & a flying Squirrel: The Natives we met with here were of the middle size, men wore their beards long, their hair much clotted with dirt, they appear a straight well limbed people & very active; The weapons view facsimile

they had with them were either a Spear, a Lance for striking Fish or a Club; Most of those we had seen, have lost one of their fore teeth, apparently drawn or punch'd out, & altho' few were seen with the Bone or Stick across the nose as mentioned by Capn Cook; they had most of them the Hole through the nose. They all expressed great curiousity as to our Sex having our [indecipherable word] beards shaved & being clothed they could not tell what to take us for.

24th: P.M. The Governor with the Boats return'd from the N.oward, having discover'd Port Jackson to be an exceeding fine Harbour with many Coves all forming Inner Harbours, the Soil far preferable to that at Botany Bay & in some parts a good Soil & well supplied with water. These discoveries at once determined the Governor to remove the Ships as soon as possible & proceed himself in the Supply immediately, for which purpose a proportion of Convicts & Guard of Marines were order'd to go with the Supply.

AM. At Day light, Two strange sail appear'd in the Offing which prevented the Governor proceeding in the Supply, He wishing to know what they were first: The wind blowing strong off the land, they lost ground every tack & were too far out for a Boat to venture to them; we perceived their Colours to be French at their nearest approach.

view facsimile

Friday. 25th. The Transports were reported ready to proceed with the Sirius, The French Ships were out of sight at 6 O'clock. We received the Timekeeper from the Supply where it had unfortunately been let down on the passage to this place.

AM. The Supply got under sail with 2 Long boats, at 6 the signal was made for the Convoy to get under weigh which most of them did, the flood tide ran so strong that they fell to leeward on which the signal was made to Anchor. The Supply after having made several Tacks in the entrance of the Bay, finding the Tide too strong, Bore away & came in again. At 9 she weigh'd, at 10 made the signal & weigh'd with the Convoy, but coming on very thick & the Golden Grove having parted her Cable, at Noon, made the signal & anchor'd again; The Supply clear without the Heads.

Saturday. 26th: PM. The weather too thick to move the Convoy. AM. At day light Fine weather with a moderate breeze at SE: The French Ships standing in for the Bay, An Officer was sent on board of them, found them to be the Boussole & Astrolabe, French Kings Ships on Discoveries; Had been to the N.oward, & called at Kamschatka & China: last from the Navigators Islands.

As soon as the tide made out of the Bay, weigh'd with the Convoy: At Noon, working out of the Bay.

Sunday. 27th: At 1 PM. were clear of the Bay & steer'd for Port view facsimile

Jackson, At 3. Seeing that all the Convoy were out, made Sail & at 4, were within the Heads of Port Jackson, up which Harbour we ran about 5 Miles & Anchored at the entrance of the Cove in which the Supply was lying & where the Marines & Convicts that came in here were encamped; the Convoy all anchored in & off the Cove before dark.

The entrance of Port Jackson is about 10 miles to the N.oward of Botany Bay & is some dis.ce within the N.o extreme of land in sight when without the Bay, the best mark to know when you draw near it coming from the S.oward, is, some remarkable sandhills over a sandy Bay 2 or 3 miles to the S.oward of the S.o Head, the shore from this Bay to the S.o Head is High rocky cliffs.

Monday. 28th: All the Carpenters & Artificers belonging to the Sirius & Convicts were employed clearing away the Ground round the encampment. AM. Went with Cap Hunter, the Master & one of the Mids about surveying the Harbour: On a point of land in the lower part of the Harbour, between Middle Head & Bradley point we saw several of the Natives on the upperpart of the rocks who made a great noise & waved to us to come on shore, there being a great surf we could not land at the Point we wished, which they observing, pointed to the best place to land & came down unarm'd to meet us, we of course landed view facsimile

unarm'd, taking care that arms were ready for us at a moments notice; Having some angles to measure from this point, two of the Officers went to the outer p.t of the rocks for that purpose, the others remained with the Natives who were all much disposed to good humour & pleased with us: On our landing we observed some women at the place the Men came down from, they would not come near us, but peep'd from behind the rocks & trees; when the Boats put off, the Men began dancing & laughing & when we were far enough off to bring the place the Women were at in sight, they held their arms extended over their heads, got on their legs & danced 'till we were some distance, then followed us upon the rocks as far as the Boats went along that shore: In course of the forenoon we went to a Cove within the Inner S.o Head (Camp Cove) where we were cordially received by 3 Men, who left their women sitting in a Canoe at the other end of the beach, we made a fire on shore & dined in the Boats, while our people were cooking the dinner, the natives were amongst them playing, looking at the Boat, manner of Cooking &c. & were without any weapons the whole time, they laid their Spears down on the sand between the women & the place they met us at; when we left them & rowing towards the point where the women were they got out of the Canoes & ran into the woods, the Men followed us along the shore.

view facsimile

Tuesday. 29th: Landing'd on a point forming the NW or Middle Branch to which we were followed by several of the Natives along the rocks, having only their sticks which they use in throwing the Lance, with them, A Man followed at some distance with a bundle of Lances; they pointed with their sticks to the best landing place & met us in the most chearful manner, shouting & dancing, the women kept at a distance near the Man with the Spears, this mark of attention to the women in shewing us, that altho' they met us unarmed, that they had Arms ready to protect them, increas'd my favourable opinion of them very much; some of these people having peices of tape & other things tied about them, we conclude them to be some of those people whom the Governor had met here before, these people mixed with ours & all hands danced together. From here we went to Grotto point, Moored the Boats for the night & made a Tent Fore & Aft the Longboat, in which we all slept.

AM. Went over to Shell Cove & left this Branch, taking it as reported by those who examined it when the Boats first came into this Harbour; as we left this branch we met several Canoes with one Man in each of them, they had so much confidence in us as to come close alongside our Boats. After fixing the place of the Rock & extent of the shoal water round it we went into the North Arm. As we were going in to the view facsimile

first Cove on the E.t side called Spring Cove; we were joined by 3 Canoes with one Man in each, they hauled their Canoes up & met us on the beach leaving their Spears in the Canoes, we were soon joined by a dozen of them & found three amongst them with trinkets &c. hanging about them, that had been given to them a week before by the Governor on his first visit to this place: Our people & these mixed together & were quite sociable, dancing & otherwise amusing them, One of our people combed their hair with which they were much pleased; several women appear'd at a distance, but we could not prevail on the Men to bring them near us; We had here an opportunity of examining their Canoes & Weapons, the Canoe is made of the bark taken off a large Tree of the length they want to make the Canoe, which is gather'd up at each end & secured by a lashing of strong Vine which runs amongst the underbrush, one was secured by small line, they fix spreaders in the inside, the paddles are about 2 feet long in shape like a pudding stirrer, these they use one in each hand & go along very fast setting with their legs under them & their bodies erect & altho' they do not use outriggers I have seen them paddle through a large Surf without oversetting or taking in more water than if rowing in smooth water; from their construction they are apt to leak when any weight is in them, the Man nearest that part of the Canoe view facsimile

where the water lies, heaves it out behind him with a peice of wood in the hollow of his hand still keeping his body erect as when rowing, they are by far the worst Canoes I ever saw or heard of; I have seen some so small as 8 feet long & others twice that length; In these Canoes they will stand up to strike fish at which they seem expert. The lances which they had here with them, were, One sort about 12 feet in length with 4 barbed prongs made of bone & fastened on to the prong by a stiff Gum, these 4 prongs are secured to the stick & spread equally, about a foot in length; A smaller one of the same kind & one with a single stick barbed at & above the point, the long spears are indented at the end, for to receive a peg which is fixed on a stick 2 or 3 feet long & which they apply to throw the lance any considerable distance, the other end of this stick has a sharp, hard shell fixed on it which serves for opening shell fish, getting them off the rocks & various other purposes.

The Governor's plan with respect to the Natives, was, if possible to cultivate an acquaintance with them without their having an Idea of our great superiority over them, that their Confidence & Friendship might be more firmly fixed: we could not persuade any of them to go away in the Boat with us.

Having occasion to measure another Base line we landed at the upper part the N.o arm for that purpose, while we were about it 2 of the Natives came down seem'd pleas'd to meet view facsimile

us & much astonish'd at what we were doing, there people pass'd on to the place where our fire was & mixed with our people, they were neither of them armed; soon after & as we were going along the beach a Man & a very old Woman met us, they stoped with us a short time & then walk'd on to the place our People were at; this was the first Woman that came among us, she appear'd feeble with Old Age, very dark & ugly, we could not from her judge what the Younger Ones might be, but we had now some hopes that by the Old Woman coming to us, that the others who we saw on the beach close by the woods would allow us an interview as we approach'd them they ran away & as soon as we retired they shew'd themselves again & had a party of very stout Armed Men near them, we used many entreaties without effect, the Ladies still kept their distance.

When we had done what we had to do, we returned to the Boat leaving two of the Officers on shore with the people who were cooking, that nothing improper might be done by them as we had now many of the Natives assembled about us & armed & several more coming along the beach, 2 Muskets were handed to our people on shore & the other Arms kept ready in the Long boat, these people all came among us & laid their Lances down on the beach, the Old Woman made herself very comfortable & was with us view facsimile

from our first meeting with her, she & her Companions express'd a wish to know whether we were Men or Women. These people wanted every thing from us that they saw us make use of or that we had about us, we did not give them any thing in hopes of bringing the women among us by keeping what articles we had to give them & signified to the Men that we would give all to the women if they would come from the woods where they were sitting looking at us.

30th: PM: This scheme at last succeeded, for as we left the beach to dine in the Boats, which lay close too, the women came, having a party of Armed Men with them who had each a Green bough in their his hand which they waved as they advanced, the came near us & sat down amongst our other visitors, the party of Arm'd Men stood by them & never laid down their Spears. We made signs to them, that if they would stay, we would bring them ashore some things which we shew'd to them, We took every precaution to prevent improprieties being committed by ordering the people out of the Small Boat & Captain Hunter w the 3 Officers went in her from the Longboat to go on shore, leaving the Musquets in the Longboat loaded in case their might be occasion to use them, as we approach'd the shore the women retired on which we immediately put back to the Longboat making the same Signs as we had done before; An Old Man then called to the Women & the greatest view facsimile

part of them returned & came to the Old Man who walked close down to the water side as we approach'd: The Armed Men w the boughs posted themselves together just by & every one of the Men now took up their Spears & kept them poised ready for throwing standing close to the edge of the beach & rocks, when the boat landed, the Old Man came to the side of her & wanted the things which we had held out to the Women to take to them; which we refused & signified to them that we must give the things to the Women ourselves: The Old Man finding us determined, spoke to the women & one of them came in to the water to the side of the Boat, we ornamented this naked Beauty with Strings of Beads & buttons, round her neck, arms & wrists she appear'd rather frighten'd altho' she affected a laugh & seem'd pleas'd with her presents, when she retired several of the other women came to the side of the Boat, attended by the Old Man, we ornamented these the same as the first; some came without fear, others trembling & laughing hesitating before they would come & some just near enough to reach the things; two of them could not be persuaded to come within 2 or 3 yards of the Boat, to those we threw some things & gave the Old Man some for them, the whole of this time the Men who kept their lances ready were silent & attentive to what was doing, two Men were placed on a seperate rock we supposed to keep a look out upon the Long boat. After view facsimile

having disposed of our trifling presents we went off to the Long boat, as soon as we put off the Men held their Spears carelessly & began shouting, laughing & dancing; we counted 72 besides Women & Children this was more than twice the number ever yet seen together before; either in this Harbour or Botany Bay. The Men we met with here were in general stout & well limbed the women excepting the very old Woman, were young & in general shorter than the Men, very straight limbed & well featured their voice a pleasing softness, they were all entirely naked old & young: The Men had their beards long & very bushy their hair hangs upo about their heads clotted with dirt & Vermin some of them had the teeth of some Animal & peices of bone stuck in their hair with gum, they are so dirty that it is hard to tell the real colour of their hides, which I think is nearly black, their noses somewhat flat & all those that we noticed had a hole bored, through which they sometimes put a stick or small bone but of all this party only one wore it; Most of these men had lost one of the fore teeth & their skins are much scar'd - not like those commonly seen from wounds, this as well the loss of a particular tooth is a Custom observed amongst them, that we cannot yet learn the reason for, they walk very upright & very much with their hands behind them; Most of the Spears this party had, were a single hard sharp pointed stick secured as the others with gum to a long & light stick 12 or 16 feet in length view facsimile

& a single barbed spear; the former they threw at a mark tolerable exact 60 yards, they use a throwing stick which is about 3 feet long with a kind of peg secured on one end which they apply to the end of the spear, keeping hold of the other end of the throwing stick steady the spear & direct it with the fore finger & thumb, this stick being applied increases its velocity very much: several of these Men were mark'd with streaks of red & white particularly the armed party that came from the woods with the women: we saw two Huts a little from one part of the beach, but their residence we find cheifly under the shelving rocks; The afternoon being far gone we left these people earlier than we should have otherwise done, that we might Sound about the lower part of the Harbour as we returned to the Ships.