September 1789

view facsimile

By the land of the So.Head which forms a high round bluff to the Sea from a low neck, & when the entrance of the Bay is well open another bluff Head will shew itself, round which is the South Arm; As you approach the entrance an Island which lies in the Bay & off the So. & SW Arms will appear & very high toward the Sea, this is the mark to lead you into either of those Arms passing the the So.ward of the Island, the SW Arm lays from it about SW 1/2W by Compass, & the South Arm nearly So.. The South Arm has fresh water in several of the Coves; there is a flat at the entrance which extends more than 2/3 of the Channel over from the Et. Point, between which & the Wt. shore is 3 fm. at low water & shoaling very gradually on the bank: Going into this Arm steer in for the Wt. point keeping the land forming the Et. Point or Inner So.Head open until well over on the Wt. shore, which keep on board 'till the No.Head of the Bay comes on with the Inner So.Head, then you may haul over to the Et.ward, after passing this flat there is not any thing found that will take a ship up in the fair way up to the Arm or into any of the Coves, that a Ship may chuse a birth as may be most convenient.

Just within the inner South Head, Capt. Hunter observed the Latitude 33:351/2.S.& at the upper part of the So. Arm 33:41. This Arm the Governor has named Pitt Water.

view facsimile

There is a middle ground with less than 3 fathoms on it in some parts, near the entrance(or outer part) of the SW Arm, there is good room on both sides it shoals gradually to the Middle ground when near it, the Et. side is deepest water & best channel as you are landlock'd on that side when abreast of the Middle ground. There is a rock lays a small distance of the Pt. forming the Arm above two little sandy bays which you avoid by not opening the No.Head of the Bay with the Et. end of the Island until the length of that point, then by keeping it just open you avoid the Middle Ground to the Et.ward, the water near the shore on the Et. side is deep: When you are the length of the No. point forming a branch to the NW out of this Arm you are above the Middle Ground & may anchor where you please in this Arm in which are several branches & Coves forming very good Harbour with good depth of water & fresh water in several of the Coves: the branch leading to the NW has a large flat near 1/2 way over from the No. shore, to which in the Channel up it shoals gradually to 3 feet. As you come into this branch, an Island will shew itself to the NNW about 2 Miles up, there is a flat round to the So. & Et.ward some parts of which dry at low water, but there is a very good Channel round the No. part of it & when to the No'ward & Wt'ward of this Island the opening leading to the Hawkesbury River will shew itself to the Wt'ward, between two Islands which forms the view facsimile

entrance of it, in going to which you leave two large openings to the No.ward, these are large peices of water but too shoal for anything except boats.

The rive Hawkesbury following the Course of the Main Channel is by Captain Hunter's estimated distance 55 Miles, to the falls, near the foot of Richmond Hill on which Capt. Hunter Obs'd Latitude 33:37.S., & near the top of a shoal branch of the River leading to the No.ward 33:21.S. which is some miles to the No.ward of any part of the No. Arm of the Bay as examined by our Boats.

The North Arm of Broken Bay is very shoal, with a large flat laying off the entrance of it on which the Sea breaks a considerable distance out except in very fine weather: It is only fit for boats through a very narrow Channel & frequently dangerous.

The Bay, except that part on the No. side just mention'd, appears to be clear ground with regular soundings in Behind both the rocky points at the So. end of the sandy beaches in the Bay is good shelter for Boats in any weather, or for small Vessels to push for if caught in the Bay & not able to reach the So. or SW Arms; I think either of these bights far more safe than to attempt the No. Arm. By Captain Hunter's Observation the entrance of Broken Bay is 16 Miles to the No.ward of Port Jackson, the Coast view facsimile

between forms several bights, two of which a boat might shelter in if caught upon the shore & could not reach either of the Harbours, the one is round the No.Head of Port Jackson between the high Cliffs & the Sandy beach, the other is in that bight off which is a reef of rocks about 3 Miles to the No.ward of Port Jackson; going along the shore to & from Broken Bay twice in the Boats I observed that the flood set to the So.ward & the ebb to the No.ward regular; We observed the tides at Broken Bay to be nearly the same as at Port Jackson.

Tuesday.15th. A Party went to visit the River to the W.ward of Rose Hill; they found that the freshes had been very great & marks of its rising near 30 feet, the course of the stream when they left it they supposed to be 7 knots.

Sunday.20th. Captain Hunter with the Masters of the Sirius & Supply went to Botany Bay to survey it

Thursday.24th: The Purser of the Sirius being down the Harbor to get Cabbage Tree, was met by some Natives who took an opportunity of stealing his Axes & running away on being pursued they left two children behind them, these were taken to the boat, very soon pacified & even went to sleep in the boat, one 7 or 8 the other not more than 2 years old, some considerable time after this, the Men appear'd again & were given to understand that they should view facsimile

not have the Children until they brought back the Axes, they after some hesitation fetch'd the axes & took the Children, they did not seem to care about the eldest but were very anxious about the little one.

Saturday.26th: The Man usually employ'd shooting for the Ship; was near the Middle Harbor suddenly attack'd attack'd by the Natives with stones, he did not see them till a stone passed close to his head, looking round he saw 3 of them with Clubs & spears advancing toward him, he gave them the contents of his Musquet which then was loaded with small shot, this they did not mind only by standing still & gave a shout, in a very short time He saw 50 of them had got together & were advancing towards him wt. spears & clubs making a great noise; He was now well prepared having loaded with large Buck shot while they were collecting: He stood his ground to receive them, letting them advance to within about 50 yards fired among the thick of them, two fell, the others ran off immediately taking their two dead or wounded Companions with them, the Man being alone did not follow them.

Wednesday.30th. Captain Hunter returned from Botany Bay, having survey'd the Bay & taken an eye sketch of the branches, all except that to the NW which they only traced a few miles; they met but few Natives view facsimile

those were all friendly. In some of the Caves, skeletons of some & loose bones of others were found, who had no doubt died of the small pox by their bodies not having been removed.