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May 1788

Friday. 2nd. May: AM. A Convict was executed for robbing a Tent & some other Convicts who had been guilty of Theft, were flogged at the Tree while the other was hanging over their heads, to endeavor if possible to strike these abandon'd view facsimile

wretches with Terror.

Sunday. 4th: Some of the Officers sailing in one of the Boats, met with several of the Natives who they mixed with & were very sociable, the Natives gave them Fish & they shaved the Natives in return which they appear'd much pleased with, Several Women peeping behind the trees came forward at times & were order'd back by the Men.

Monday. 5th: A party of Seamen from the Sirius were employed Hutting the Women Convicts. The Lady Penryhne Transport sailed for China.

Tuesday. 6th: The Scarborough Transport sailed for China & the Supply for Lord Howes Island.

Thursday. 8th. The Charlotte Transport sailed for China.

Friday. 9th. An Officer went up the Harbour with proper people to examine the slate up the creek above the flats, it was found to be a kind of rock & slate together & not fit to work into slate for covering a House or other use.

Saturday. 10th: Many Natives, Men & Women about our fishing boat: A shark followed this boat on her coming up the Harbour, he got hold of the blade of one of the Oars & when shook from that he went to the rudder & did not quit it till he was struck with the Tiller: The fish caught for several days past has been very trifling which we suppose to be occasioned by the cold weather.

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Sunday. 11th. Officers at Botany Bay, no Ship there, they painted on some conspicuous rocks near the entrance that the Settlement was made at Port Jackson: they met with a great number of the Natives & very friendly; during the night the Natives kept a continual noise & appear'd to keep a good look out; 3 Emews were seen between Port Jackson & Botany Bay but not within shot. A Boat down the Harbour met with several of the Natives who appear'd to be very hungry, they had not any fish with them & eat the Salt Meat which our people gave them.

Monday. 11th: A party went up the Harbour to the lake or creeking running to the NW above the flats, we went about 3 Miles up; to a very fine run of water, the Country on both sides pleasant & the ground apparently fit for opening with far less trouble than any in the other parts of the Harbour & the Soil good; a little above the part where the fresh water meets the tide is the place supposed would produce slate, but had been found on examination not fit for working: We tried it as Coal without success: found a great number of Cranes & other Birds about & above the flats, all very shy.

Thursday. 15th: Some of the Officers shooting up the Middle Harbour, on their return landed in a Cove where they saw some Natives to whom they gave the Birds they had.

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Sunday. 18. A party visited some of the Coves down the Harbour where some of the Natives were seen, they were all friendly, they seem'd to be very badly off for food not having any Fish, at another Cove where we landed an Old Woman with a Child remained with the Men who met us, they had two fires under a very large hollow rock, we did not find any fish with these people, they were most of them chewing a root much like fern; we passed close to two Men on a rock who were so intent upon fishing that they did not notice us, nor did they strike a fish the whole of the time that we were near them.

Monday. 19th. Several Natives were seen on a point of land just above the Ship: About Noon 4 Canoes with Men & Women in them passed up the Harbour.

Thursday. 22. A Black Swan was kill'd which measured 6 feet 3 inches from Wing to wing, all black except just the tip of the wings which were white. Two of the Convalescent Convicts were sent out to get greens for the Hospital, they were met by a party of the Natives about a mile from the Camp, the Natives attack'd them, first by throwing stones which they were returning when they used their spears. One of the Convicts escaped with a barbed spear broke in him entering at the small of the back & was obliged to be cut out, he reported that the other Convict was killed view facsimile

and that the Natives had stript him & taken the body away with them.

Friday. 23rd. Some Canoes landed at Major Ross Garden up the Harbour, they stole a Jacket & several other things which were afterwards found in one of the Canoes by some of the Convicts who followed them along the shore to the next Cove where they landed & we have reason to suppose that one of the Natives was murder'd by them but the proof could not be got, they were dismiss'd without coming before a Criminal Court. Lieu.t Dawes was this day discharged from the Sirius to the Battalion.

Saturday. 24th: Went to the South Head, observed the Latitude 33°:50′:43".So & Captain Hunter 33°:51′:07"S.o Saw several Women fishing in Canoes without the Head, they noticed us immediately & made a great noise, we threw them a handkercheif over the precipice which we saw them take up & throw by in one end of the Canoe. Two Canoes came alongside the Sirius with little persuasion, but the Natives would not come on board, they had fish, bread, beef & pork given to them all of which they eat with an eagerness that convinced us they must have been very hungry, they remainded alongside our boat some time & were shaved, which seem'd to please them much, they afterwards landed abreast of the Ship & stay'd there all day.

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A Calf at the Governors Farm was found wounded by a Spear.

Sunday. 25th: A Hat, Shirt & peice of a Jacket were found in the woods & known to have belonged to the Convict who was reported by his wounded Companion to have been stript & killed, the hat & jacket had marks of Spears having passed through them.

The Supply returned from Lord Howe Island, they were very unfortunate in not getting any Turtle & losing one of her Anchors there. The Scarborough, Charlotte & Lady Penryhne Transports were all at Lord Howe Island while the Supply was there, the Scarborough & Charlotte sailed from thence together & the Penryhne by herself.

Tuesday. 27th. A Kanguroo was killed which weigh'd 140 Lbs. the largest yet met with; His length from head to tail 7Ft: 3in: of the Tail 3f.t 4in: circumference of the tail at the rump 17 inches, fore legs 1 foot, hind legs 2f.t 7 inches.

Wednesday. 28th. Went to the N.o Head to observe the Latitude but it blew too hard to make an accurate Observation; we landed in Spring Cove & found it an easy walk to the N.o Head; the land about the N.o head is sandy ground between the top of the rocks, cover'd with a variety of brush wood & shrubs some of which have very pretty blossoms; On our return to Spring Cove, we observed a Cave in which there view facsimile

was a man & a little girl, they were so intent upon the motions of our people on the beach, that they did not see us until we were close upon them, the Man was not the least alarm'd but the child was exceedingly terrified & clung round the Old Man endeavouring to hide herself from us, the Girls fingers were complete, we gave the Man several Birds which were shot, he just pluck'd a few of the feathers broiled & eat the birds, bones, guts & all except a part of the head & the feet.

A Kanguroo was killed, that was found to have a Spear broken in him, a proof that the Natives seek other food besides fish.

Friday 30th. Observed the Latitude at the S.o Head 33°:50′:42"S. & Capn Hunter 33°:51′:09".S: saw several of the Natives on the high land, they were gathering a kind of fruit which they soaked in water & suck'd. On our return to the Cove where we landed we found a Native in a tree gathering a fruit of the size of a small pine & of a beautiful pale yellow, he got it by fixing a four pronged Spear over the stalk & twisting them off, it had a sweet taste; we found two children, a Boy & a Girl near the tree in which the Man was, the children did not appear frighten'd when we took hold of them, the Girls fingers were complete as were the boy's teeth, When the Man had got a good quantity of this spungy fruit He, with the Children walked along the beach & sat view facsimile

down by the side of a pool of fresh water, to which place we followed him, they eat or rather sucked the whole of what they had gather'd frequently dipping them in the water; they then returned to the place where we first met with them, they eagerly accepted of a Gull which we gave them. On our return to the Sirius, we found that some of the Natives had been alongside & examined the outside of the Ship with great attention particularly the figure, they appear'd to be the same that visited the Ship some days before, as they had been shaved, they landed at the Observatory p.t stoped a short time & went up the Harbour. Capn Campbell going to the SW arm with Boats to bring down rushes for thatching his House, on landing at the place where two Convicts had been left with a tent for the purpose of cutting those rushes, he found the Tent but not the Men, finding some blood near the Tent the followed it to the Mangrove bushes where they found both Men dead & laying at some distance from each other; One of them had 3 Spears in him & one side of his head beat in: The other Man had no apparent wound but a blow on the fore head.

Saturday. 31st: The Governor with a party went to the place where the two Men had been killed by the Natives, the boat returned leaving them in a Natives path which they meant to follow until they met with the Natives. The Officer who was in the boat called at the Lt Governors farm as he returned view facsimile

& was there informed that a Convict had killed one of the Natives some days before by cutting him across the belly with his knife, I have no doubt but this Native having been murder'd occasioned their seeking revenge & which proved fatal to those who were not concern'd. They have attack'd our people when they have met them unarmed, but that did not happen until they had been very ill treated by us in the lower part of the Harbour & fired upon at Botany Bay by the French.

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