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July 1788

Tuesday. July. 1st: It having blown a Gale of wind dead upon the shore for 48 Hours, we went down the Harbour to get on the high land of one of the Heads to look round that part of the Harbour which is exposed to the Sea, for any broken water or foul ground that may shew itself in so great a Sea; view facsimile

We found the Swell too great to attempt landing near the Middle Head as we intended; We went to the a Cove near the land of the S.o Head & walked over to the Sea face near the S.o Head, where we had a good view of the Sea & of all that part of the Harbour open to it, could not see the least appearance of any foul ground except the rock marked in the Chart & which was seen when the boats first visited this Harbour & that shoal did not appear of greater extent than we had before determined it; If the flat round this rock was not a perfect smooth bottom, I am confident that with the Sea that was running it would break.

Monday. 7th. A considerable party of the Natives were met with about 2 Miles from the Camp.

Tuesday. 8th: Went down to one of the lower Coves & walked over to the Sand Hills which are given as a mark for a Ship coming from the S.oward to know when they are near to Port Jackson, We found a good path over the neck of land, & not half an hours walk.

Thursday. 10th: The Governor's fishing boat, met a great number of the Natives in the lower part of the Harbour, as they were hauling the Sein, the People gave fish to all the Natives, but they were not satisfied with that, they closed upon the people employed in the Boat & took what they pleas'd, their Musquet happening to be left in the Boat.

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Friday. 11th. One of the People killed a Male & Female Kanguroo & took a young one alive, which was sent on board the Alexander Transport to go to England.

Monday. 14: The Alexander, P.ce of Wales, Borro[u]dale & Friendship Transports sailed for England under the direction & Command of Lieut Shortland Agent for Transports, these Ships were all in a distress'd state when they sailed both as to sickness, want of provisions & furniture; we made a party to the S.o Head to see them off the land, they had a fresh Gale from the SW & were soon out of sight steering to the N.oward; On our return we went into Camp Cove where we found a Man & two Children who appear'd to be starving we gave them Salt Beef which eagerly took & eat immediately, whilst the boats remained in the Cove, the Man went into the woods & brought in a root which he roasted, beat it with a stone which he frequently wet with a stone his mouth & when it was properly prepared he gave it to the Children to eat, the Man had many sores about him & was really a miserable object, the Boy & Girl appear'd to be about 5 or 6 years of age, the Boys teeth were complete as were the Girls fingers. We saw several Women fishing near the Cove but they would not land; we had two Seins with us, both of which were hauled several times without one fish being taken, some Birds were shot, all of which were given to the view facsimile

Old Man & his Children.

Thursday. 17. Boards of direction were sent to Botany Bay to be fixed on Bare Island which is near the entrance, so that any Ship that may arrive there would be informed that we were at Port Jackson, this party met with but few of the Natives. One of our Boats down the Harbour had several stones thrown at her on landing, a musquet fired at them set them off. The Supply sailed for Norfolk Island with Provisions & stores.

Friday. 18. Several of the Women Convicts met with a party of the Natives in a Cove where they were employed, they Natives did not appear to notice the difference of dress but soon found which Sex they were of.

Sunday. 27th. Convicts gathering greens for the use of the sick were attack'd by the Natives, one of them got clear & ran into Camp leaving his Companion to do the best he could for himself; He was soon found by a Marine who happen'd to be near, but not before he was wounded by a Spear which passed through one side of his face to his neck.

Monday. 28. A Sailor straggling into the woods met several of the Natives who threw stones at him & followed him when he attempted to run away, He with great presence of mind stoped & presented a stick at them in manner of a Musquet, at which they stop'd & by that means he got view facsimile

away clear of them.

August. 7. The Lt Governor's House which was building of stone & several feet above the ground, gave way with the heavy rains & fell to the ground.

Sunday. 10th: Two Kanguroo were killed at one shot, they were in the act of propagating the species which from the construction of their generative parts they perform with their rumps to each other.

Friday. 15th: Fourteen Canoes passed, going down the Harbour 12 of them had a man in each the other two empty & towed by them.

Saturday. 16th. Several Canoes went up the Harbour.

Sunday. 17th. The Governor & Capt Hunter went down the Harbor with two boats & the 1st Lieu.t & Master up the Harbour with 2 boats to examine all the Coves & collect as near as possible the number of Canoes & Natives then about the Harbour, these were met with, 67 Canoes, 94 Men, 34 Women & 9 Children: all those that we met with in the upper part of the Harbour were very friendly & one party of them which we met with took the shellfish off their fire & brought us to eat; Those met with in N.o arm of the Harbour were not so friendly, for while speaking with the boat in which Captain Hunter was a Spear was thrown which passed about 6 feet right over the midships of the boat, they immediately run away & were followed by the charge in one of the musquets which luckily view facsimile

for them happen'd to be only loaded with small shot; some time after this, when the two boats had joined & were passing the same place, several Women came down & used every endeavor to entice the boats to land. As we were coming down the Harbour the Master shot a fish of 11/2 lb weight in a a branch of a high tree which we got & eat, this fish was in the claws of a large Hawke when fired at, drop'd the fish & flew away.

Monday. 18: A Canoe with 3 Men in her followed our fishing boat up the Harbour & came alongside the Ship but could not be persuaded to come on board.

Tuesday. 19. The Governor w a party land at the bay nearest the Sand hills to walk along the Shore to Botany Bay.

Wednesday. 20th. They returned, met many Natives & on a part of the Coast near Botany Bay was the remains of a Whale which had been thrown ashore apparently a considerable time since, On this, the Natives were then feasting.

Thursday. 21st: Several Natives passed through Sydney Cove & landed with 2 Canoes on the West point; whilst these people engaged the attention of the Officer on one side, the rest went round & seeing a Goat on the other side killed it with a spear & made off with it in a Canoe towed by one of the others, they were pursued but not until it was too late, either to recover the Goat or discover the theif.

Friday. 22. The Governor landed in the N.o arm to go to the N.oward view facsimile

Met a great number of Natives there with 50 Canoes.

Sunday. 24. Two Boats were sent down to attend the Governor in case of his return; they found a great number of the Natives in the Cove where they lay with the boats, they observed several small parties join those who were first seen: the Women came to the water side & used every means to entice our boats to land: when the boats had been there about an hour, the Men formed into two parties & fought some time with Spears & using Oval Sheilds, some fought with Clubs & sticks; when they began the women & Children scream'd & ran about seemingly much frighten'd & some of them came close down upon the beach off which the boats lay, some spears were thrown at our boats & fell so near them as to be picked up; One of the Officers was of opinion that this was a sham fight, from their holding frequent parlies & only one seen to fall: at Sunset when the boats left the Cove, they set up a loud & apparently Contemptuous shout & came close to the water side, except a party of very tall Stout Men, who remained among the long grass & had the appearance of being chosen either as a Guard for the Women or a reserved party; In this Branch of the Harbour we have experienc'd that they have hostile intentions when they suppose our people in their power: there were about 200 of them collected together during the time the Boats stay'd view facsimile

in the Cove & all arm'd with Spears & Clubs. This day a Convict was examined who said he had discover'd a Mine, which had some Gold in it, but for some time would not tell where it was, unless he was promised pardon & a sum of Money, finding that he could not obtain it, he said he would shew any Officer the Lt Governor might send with him, where it lay.

Monday. 25th: Captain Campbell went with the Convict to the spot where he expected to find the Mine, the Man led him away to the land about the S.o Head & found means to escape through the bushes, he returned to the Camp by Noon telling the Lt Governor that Captain Campbell was at the Mine & wished a Guard to be sent to him; it was 4 o'clock before Capt Campbell got into Camp at which time the Convict could not be found: In the evening the Governor returned soon after which this Convict the Goldfinder surrender'd himself up saying it was his intention to divert the time until the return of the Governor & that to him he would declare every thing, in the mean time he was punished with 50 lashes for his conduct respecting Capt Campbell & then sent with another Officer who had orders given him in the Man's presence to put him to Death if he Offer'd to escape or play any more tricks, soon after the Boat left Sydney Cove, he declared to the Officer, that the view facsimile

Metal Ore produced was the work of his own hands from Brass Copper & a Guinea mix'd with it in a composition which he had prepared for that purpose & that he had hopes of selling a considerable quantity of it to the Transports when they might be just on Sailing & that he had not made any discovery, but was persuaded by the woman who lived with him to do it.

Tuesday. 26th: The Supply arrived from Norfolk Island; whilst she was at that Island August 6. A Boat which had been order'd to lay just within the p.t of the reef in Case of an accident happening to the Supply's boat then coming in, was carried out by the strength of the outset so far as to oblige them to pull across the swell to regain the landing place in effecting which the Surf rose suddenly on her the consequence of which was, the Boat lost:

Mr. Ja.s Cunningham Mate of the Sirius, one Seaman belonging to the Sirius, one to the Supply & one Convict were drowned, the other Man who was in the Boat, a Convict saved himself by swimming through one of the channels thro' the reef. The accounts of the produce of the Island are very favorable & flattering to the Settlement, the pines are said to be fit for all purposes & of sufficient size to Mast a First rate with the Stick, there are several other kinds of wood besides the Pine with which the Island abounds: Mr King the Commandant view facsimile

is so sanguine as to expect that in the course of 3 years the Island would support itself: Landing is very difficult & frequently dangerous, sometimes altogether impracticable for Day & Weeks together; the Boat in which Mr Cunningham was lost was before overset on the same reef & one Marine belonging to the Sirius drown'd.

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