March 1790

Tuesday.2. March. Having got the Provisions & Stores on board for Norfolk Island, we went out of Sydney & Anchored in the Stream.

Wednesday. 3rd. Rec'd on board the Sirius Major Ross, 4 Lieuts.2 Serj. 2 Corpls. 2 Drums & 20 private Marines: The Supply rec'd 1 Captain 1 Lieut. 2 Serjants, 2 Corporals & 26 private.

Thursday. 4th: Rec'd on board the Sirius 96 Men & 65 Women Convicts with 23 Children; the Surgeon & Assistant who were appointed to Norfolk Island. The Supply rec'd 20 Men & 2 Women Convicts & 3 Childn.

Friday. 5th. Sailed with the Supply in Company, but the weather being squally & very unsettled we came too in the lowerpart of the Harbour.

Saturday 6. Wind fresh from the So.ward Sailed out of Pt. Jackson Supply in Co. the 8th we found by Observation for the Latitude & Timekeeper that the Current had set us 38 of Latd. to the No.ward & 49 of longde. to the Et.ward: Weather Moderate, Wind So.erly.

Tuesday. 9th: At 1 PM. Saw Lord Howe Island, Mt.Gower NEbE 23 leagues, Mt. Gower & Mt. Lidgbird with these bearings make in two round hills with a space between them & in clear weather Ball's Pyramid lying to the SE of Mt. Gower may be seen nearly at as great a distance in a peak; the land which joins the two Mountains is not to be seen 'till much nearer 15 or 16 leagues & the low land of the Island not till within 6 or 7 leagues: found a Current which set us this day 16 No. & 49 of Longitude Et.. The Supply stood view facsimile

into the Bay to try if any Turtle could be got.

Wednesday, 10th: PM passed through between Balls Pyramid & Mt. Gower, they bear from each other S51E & N57 W by Compass 5 or 6 leagues distant: To the So.ward of the Pyramid which is a very high inaccessible peaked Rock are several Rocks which shew above water, between Lord Howe Island & the Pyramid is a clear passage, we had soundings near Mt. Gower but none before or after, we found a very strong Current setting through to the NE.

Bearings taken by Compass.

No. Pt. of the Island & So. end of the Admiralty rocks . . N62 E 
. . . . . . . & Et.most of Do. . . . . . . N31E  
Mount Gower NNE 3 Miles had 26 fm. Coral & Shells   
Pyramid from Mt. Gower. . . . . S51(E 5 or 6 leagues 
Two Mountains in one . . . . . .   N20E 
Do. opening . . . . . . . .   N11E. 
Mount Gower & small Rock just off it.   NW1/2W 
Et.most small Island open .   N11(W 

Backland toward the No. end open N43W most of the Admiralty Rocks are then open without it.

From good Meridian Observation & good Altitudes for the Timekeeper only 3 days out of Port Jackson when its Rate was determined on our sailing, we make Mount Gower the So. end of Lord Howe's Island to lay in 31:35 So. Latitude. view facsimile

Longitude by the Timekeeper 159:12Et. & by [sun] & [moon] 158:51 East.

Variation of the Compass. 9:30 Et..

After leaving Ld. Howe Island we did not find any Current until we came near the stream of Norfolk Island, when we again found a strong Et.erly Current: We made Norfolk Island Saturday 13th at 2 AM Brot too at 4 & made sail in for the Island at daylight, as we came in with Sydney Bay. (So. side of the Isld.) saw the Signal that there was no landing; the Supply was sent to see if landing was good in Balls Bay on the Et. side of the Island; Lt.Ball could not land but back'd the boat in so as to throw a letter on shore to the Commandant: We then went round to the No. side of the Island & found landing practicable at low water in Cascade Bay.

Sunday 14. Landed the Marines & Men Convicts early in the afternoon & the next morning the Lt. Governor & part of the Women Convicts in Cascade Bay, by backing the Boat in from which they jump on a Rock , one at a time keeping the boat on her Oars & frequently obliged to pull out several times before a boat load can be landed: the Rock on which you land you cannot pass from after 1/2 flood it being seperated from the shore & there being always a surge upon the shore would be dangerous crossing after 1/2 flood or till 1/2 ebb, this Rock being detached & steep too makes safe landing in So.erly winds, the Rock view facsimile

for landing lies to the Et.ward of the stoney beach some distance.

Monday, 15th: The wind coming to the Et.ward we had drifted so far to leeward that it was a considerable time before we could get the Ship far enough to windward for the boats to reach the landing place, about Noon we landed the remainder of the Women Convicts & thought ourselves exceeding fortunate in having made so good a passage & having had so good an opportunity of landing so great a number of people, but the most difficult part yet remained, that of landing the Provisions & Stores for them & which could only be done in Sydney Bay, where the settlement is made: While off Cascade Bay we made the landing place by several Observations in Latitude 29:021/2. Longitude 168:02E by Timekeeper

Tuesday.16th. Coming on a Gale of Wind at East, Bore away & Run under the lee of the Island; Sent on board the Supply as much Provisions as she could stow, that no time might be lost in getting it landed should the Supply have an opportunity of getting into Sydney Cove Bay before the Sirius which was reasonable to suppose she would from her superiority in Sailing & working.

Wednesday.17th. It blew very strong from the Et.ward; We were beating up under a press of Sail, but could not reach Sydney Bay before the evening, when it waswould be too late & too much wind to send a boat: The Supply at Noon was view facsimile

well in with the Bay.

Thursday.18th. The Gale increased with very heavy squalls, the Supply got far enough in to send a boat on shore, on the return of which Mr.Ball, bore away & informed us that landing was dangerous & as the weather had a very bad appearance, He recommended standing off as the night came on, which we did under the reef'd Foresail & Storm Staysails: We lost sight of the Supply in the night: At Noon we were about 10 leagues to the leeward of Phillip Island.

Friday. 19th. PM. The Gale moderated, we made what sail the Ship would bear to endeavour to beat up to Norfolk Island, in the night the wind coming to the SE enabled us to fetch so far to windward as to have Norfolk Island on the lee bow at daylight: AM At 9 standing in far close in with Phillip Island, saw the Supply under Norfolk Island; the Signal being up on shore for good landing & that Longboats might land, stood in for Sydney Bay, Out 3d. Reef Topsails, steer'd close in with the So.point of Nepean Island, wore & brot too Mail Topsail to the Mast with the Ship's ;head to the SSW, Out boats, loaded one of them with Provisions & sent her away, while we were lading the other Mr.Ball hailed from the Supply then on our lee bow & waved his hat towards a Reef of view facsimile

sunken Rocks which lay off the West point of Sydney Bay. We sent to boat away half loaded, filled the MainTopSl. set the ForeSail & Mainsail to make a trip to Windward the Supply could not weather these Rocks; she tack'd & passed just clear under our weather bow; Lieut. Ball hailed & said we were both too near in, at this moment the Wind shifted two points to the So.ward. we couldnot weather the Reef, the wind baffled & baulk'd the Ship in Stays, she missed & fell off, haul'd the after Sails & paid her round upon her heel & hauled our wind on the starboard Tack, Out 1st Reef Mizen TopSail & set the Driver to endeavour to fetch through between Nepean Island & the Et. point of Sydney Bay as the only chance of saving the Ship (Anchoring when the Ship miss'd stays would have been unavoidable destruction, the bottom being full of spiral Rocks, the lee part of the Bay & the shore inaccessible). The Ship settled in upon the shore, shoal'd the water to 5 fathom: Put the Ship stays; when she getting fresh stern way right in upon the shore, Cut away the small Bower Anchor let go the TopSl. Halliards &c. but before the Cable could check her she struck violently on the Reef which lays along parallel to the shore in Sydney Bay & some distance from it; the Carpenter almost immediately reported the Ship Bulged & 7 feet water in the Hold. view facsimile

the QrMaster then attending in the Main Hold called up that the Water was flowing in fast; Cut away all the Masts, The Ship by the heavy surf which broke over her was thrown well in upon the Reef; It being impossible to hold an Idea of getting her off again, every body was employ'd getting Provisions as it could be got at, on the Gun deck & securing it there; Lt.Ball came as near the Ship in his boat as he could to ask if the Supply could be of any use; Capt.Hunter told him No! that the Sirius was gone & desired him to take care of the Supply; the Surf increasing in the evening & the weather having a bad appearance, Mr. King, who had now been more than 2 years on the Island signified to us, that it would be dangerous to remain in the Ship all night. We got a Hawser from the Ships Qr. To the shore by means of a Cask floating a small rope through the Surf, which the People on shore got hold of & hauled the end of the Hawser on shore, we got a heart on it for as traveller & fixed hauling lines, by which the People belonging the Island hauled a part of the Ships Company ashore though the Surf to the Reef, from which they crossed to the shore in a small boat employ'd inside the Reef for that purpose, the Reef being cover'd at 1/2 flood & night coming on, more than half of the Ships Company were left on board; As the tide flowed the Cable view facsimile

Check'd her so much that at high water her situation was alter'd 3 or 4 points more in & out, she struck violently at high water time, but at low water lay quiet AM. At daylight began to get more of the People on shore the surf still very high & the tide rose too much for those on the Reef to work before all the People could be removed from the Ship.

Sunday.21st: PM. At 3 all the People were got on shore in which we were so fortunate as not to lose a life; several were so near drown'd as to be quite senseless for a time. altho' we had all escap'd from Shipwreck with our lives, yet our situation with respect to Provisions was alarming & very precarious, it being doubtful whether any could be saved or not. In the Morning Lt.Ball came over from Cascade Bay, He informed us that both Friday & Saturday the Tide set to the Wt.ward the whole of each day except about 2 hours, a circumstance he had never met with before at this Island; On the contrary we had always been given to understand that the Ebb set to the Et.ward & run 9 hours & that the flood was only a drain to the Wtward & run about 3 hours; To this unaccountable change in the Current usually found we attribute the first cause of the Ship being lost, for it was more than 2 hours Ebb or Eastern tide when we brot too view facsimile

with the Ships head SSW., in full assurance that we had a strong weathertide we stood nearer in than we should otherwise have done before we brought too, One boat was loaded & sent away before we observed her settle in upon the Shore.

Monday. 22nd: We got over from Cascade Bay 3 Tieaces of Pork & 8 Barrels of Flour which was all the Provisions the Supply could spare us, & even this in our situation was an object; We had now landed near 400 people & scarce any of the Provisions, when the unfortunate accident happen'd. The Timekeeper was saved & sent aboard the Supply. AM. Martial Law was proclaimed & half allowance of Provision order'd.

Tuesday. 23rd. The Master & Mates with a gang of hands got on board to get ready for sending Provisions on shore the Supply came off Sydney Bay but the surf was to high to send the People who were to embark in her; she bore away & run to leeward to Cascade Bay.

Wednesday.24th. PM. Made an unsuccessful attempt to get a Cask of Provisions on shore:

AM. Sent over to Cascade Bay where they embarked on board the Supply for Port Jackson the 2nd & 3rd Lieuts. 4 Midshipmen, a Surgeons Mate, 23 Seamen & 2 Marines: Mr.King the late Commandant on this Island also went on board the Supply to proceed to Port Jackson; this forenoon we were fortunate enough view facsimile

to get 18 Cask of Provisions on shore.

Thursday.25th: PM. The Supply sailed for Port Jackson, this & the following days till the 28th. we had good enough in getting Provisions from the Ship & several other articles of consequence.

Sunday.28th AM. Very heavy Surf, the small bower Cable parted; the Surf hove the Ship further in upon the Reef & not having any thing to keep her bow steady, she complained very much, The Master who was on board expected that she would part at High water: It was the next lowwater time before those on board could venture to come on shore which they with great difficulty did without the loss of any.