June 1787

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The NE wind left us the day before we made the Salvages in Latitude 32°:19′N.o Longitude 16°:30′W & hauled round to the W.t & SW which winds continued to the 2nd of June when it again favour'd us & at 5 AM. Saw the Island of Teneriffe bearing SWbS, the weather being hazey the peak did not shew itself.

The 3rd. at 7 PM Anchor'd & Moored in Santa Cruz road with the Supply & Convoy in 13f.m E.t p.t of the Bay (La Rocquet p.t & by some taken for P. de Nago) N. 78°E. Franciscan Church with a very remarkable white steeple S.73°W. The Fort to the S.o ward of the Town SW, Peak WSW. Off shore about 1/2 a Mile, we found the ground all round us a sandy bottom, yet we used the precaution of buoying up the Cables. In making Teneriffe to the SW of you & the weather hazey you will not see the Peak, but fall in with Punta de Nago a very high land making in a steep bluff, off which are several high ragged rocks, which shew themselves as you come well in with the land: We steer'd close in with this point & run from it WSW [p] Compass 12 Miles as near as we could estimate; As we sailed along the land we shut in Punta de Nago w Antekara p.t & Antekara p.t with La Rocquet p.t before we got into the Anchoring ground. Antekara p.t is just opening with La Rocquet when NEbN by Compass; La Rocquet p.t from our Anchoring birth in the road makes in a ragged Bluff with a little Sugar loaf top'd Rock just open without it: I would recommend Anchoring so far in as to shut the other points in for clear ground.

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Before we Anchor'd the Master of the Port accompanied by several Officers came on board to make the necessary enquiries. Next day Cap.t Phillip with the Officers of the Squadron & Garrison waited on the Governor, who return'd the Visit two days after on board the Sirius. This Island has a very ragged appearance & at first sight be supposed to be incapable of producing any thing, there are many spots well cultivated in the Island & very productive besides the Vineyards. The Season was very unfavorable for us to get supplies of Fruit, Grapes not ripe, Oranges, Lemons &c. very scarce as was every kind of Fruit except Figs. We were tolerably supplied with Fresh Beef, Poultry & wine very good. The Road of Santa Cruz is on the SE side the Island & is open to the S.o & SE winds which makes it very dangerous to lay there in the winter season when those winds prevail; We had the breeze fresh from the sea in the day & off the Land early in the evening while we lay there. There is a Stone Pier run out for the purpose of shiping or landing goods & is the only safe landing place near the Town. To the S.o ward of the Pier there are some windmills which shew very conspicuous coming in from the Sea: The water for shipping is convey'd to the Pier, were we filled in the Boat with a Hose: this water comes from the same rivulet that supplies the Town, to which it is brought a considerable distance along the Rocks in spouts open at view facsimile

the top on an easy descent, just allowing the water a free passage: they are led across several deep Gullies & every where supported with posts to prevent their being carried away by the great torrents that rush down in the rainy season. The Latitude observed on board the Sirius was 28°:30′Nr & the Longitude by Timekeeper 16°:16′W. The Peak we estimated to be in 28°:18′N.o & 16°:31′W.

The Country above the City of Santa Cruz rises more gradual than any of this part of the Coast, which is cheifly very high ragged Mountains; In the part that we anchored in, the Peak shew'd itself between two of the highest Hills & was by us supposed to be a part of one of them 'till a very clear morning convinced us of its being the Peak it bore WSW by Compass. There are two small Batteries near the Pier & some others scatter'd along the Coast, by which the Road is secured. They are making great progress in their Silk & woolen manufactories, many poor are supported by subscription & employed in these Houses of Industry: The Silk is entirely the produce of the Islands. The wool is imported from Europe which they mix with that of the Canary Islands, They also make tape, coarse cloths from Flax imported from Holland cheifly.

The 7th of June, Being the Festival of Corpus Christi, the Boats belonging to the Transports were order'd not to land, that this view facsimile

Religious Ceremony might not be interrrupted by the Enormities which English Seamen are too apt to commit in foreign Ports. This Festival is kept on the Thursday next after Trinity Sunday; [indecipherable word]The Religious observance of carrying the Host is on this day kept with great pomp & solemnity in all Roman Catholic Countries & is announced early in the morning by ringing the Bells of all the Convents, Monasteries & Churches in the Town. Several of the Officers of our Squadron went on shore to see the procession, which assemble at 10 O'clock at a particular Church, where after having performed Mass, the Host, or consecrated wafer (which on certain festivals & other occasions they offer up as a Host or sacrifice for the Sins of Mankind) inclosed in a glass case, is taken down from a little recess over the Altar & deliver'd to the Priest who is to carry it through the whole of the procession; A Canopy is held over it by four other Priests & the congregation having arranged themselves in the order in which they are to parade the Town, the Military Guard, Officers of state & the Dignitaries of the Church lead the procession in great solemnity out of the Church at which instant the Guns begin firing from the Forts, Martial Musick playing &c. Those people who did not attend Mass, appear at their windows & Doors, even the Sick are brought to the window & if any principal person, the Procession stops opposite to the House of the sick, holding up the Host, say view facsimile

a few prayers & proceed; when they have paraded the Streets of the Town, they return to the Church & having placed the Host from whence it was taken, they all repair to their respective Houses & pass the remainder of the day chearfully. It is required of every person passing thro' the street at the time the Host is going by, that they kneel & uncover their head, the latter of which is always expected from a Foreigner.

Sunday. 10th. Sailed from Santa Cruz & after being becalm'd two days between Teneriffe & Grand Canaria, had the wind from NW to NE. During these two days we had the Peak clear several times. The peak is by some said to be a Volcano & frequently to issue stones &c; An Officer who had resided in Santa Cruz a considerable time, informed me that nothing but smoke had come from it for several years & that at very distant intervals; the perpendicular height is computed by Dr. Heberden at 15396 feet; it is not safe at all seasons to ascend the Peak the best time is in the Months of July & August; the snow at the foot being then mostly dissolved: No one belonging to our Squadron went to it: the oblique height is reckon'd at 15 miles: The officer beforementioned also informed me that Oratavia, situated on the W. side of the Island was originally a great place of Trade & principal sea Port, but from an Earthquake in 1704 the Port was fill'd up & the Anchoring ground left was scarcely such as would afford security for view facsimile

one ship: The Town of Oratavia now stands on the spot where the ships formerly Anchored; the ships that go there are now obliged to keep in constant readiness to clear the land if the wind should come on shore there not being any shelter. The Island of Teneriffe is reckon'd 50 Miles in length & 25 broad; As we sailed to the S.o ward along the Island, the Town of Candelaria shew'd open'd to us, it is near the sea & by strangers may be mistaken for Santa Cruz if they fall in to the S.o ward in making the Island; It is not so large or is there a Church in it so conspicuous as that of S.t Franciscan in Santa Cruz. It may also be known by the bearings of the Peak if you see it; the peak over the S.o part of Santa Cruz is WSW & over Candelaria West by Compass, the land about & to the S.o ward of Candelaria is not so ragged as it is all about & to the N.o ward of Santa Cruz. The Marquis of Branceforte Brigadier in the Spanish Service is the present Governor, An Italian, & very much esteem'd for his great Benevolence & many other excellent Virtues.

June. 15th. At Noon cross'd the Tropic of Cancer & had the Sun in the Zenith at nearly the same instant, Thermometer then at 74; the NE Trade seem'd to be fix'd.

17th.. A large ship pass'd us to the No. ward, but not near enough to distinguish what she was.

18th. In the evening drawing near the Isle of Sal, shorten'd view facsimile

sail & kept the Supply ahead. AM. soon after day light saw the Island of Sal bearing SWbS, pass'd along the East side of it: 19th At 2 PM. Saw the Island of Bona Vista, at 4. the S.o end of it bore due West 6 or 7 Mile; we pass'd along the E.t side of it within a mile & half of the reef: Brot too in the evening not having run for the night to the Isle of May. In falling in with these Islands (the weather is generally hazey) Sal may be known from Bona Vista by the high Sugar Loaf Hill on the N.o end of it, which being situated toward that end of the Island remains fixed as you run along the East side, whereas in Bona Vista the highest land forms a similar Sugar Loaf & being towards the middle of the Island, travels along the other land as you pass it. We saw the Reef off this Island break very furiously & sailed along the E.t side of it within 11/2 Mile of the breakers. They appear to run from the land off the white sandhills & when the highest Sugar Loaf bears w1/2s you are nearly abreast the N.o part of them, they extend some Miles along the Coast apparently at the distance of 3 Miles from the shore: People who have fallen in with this reef differ as to the situation of it; some place it off the NE & others off the SE part of the Island: The bearing beforementioned of the high sugar loaf w1/2s appear'd to us in a line with the N.o part of the breakers; several ships have narrowly escaped being wreck'd upon this Reef, some view facsimile

from mistaking the Island & others from supposing it did not lay so far from the shore. The N.o end of Sal is in the Latitude 16°:50′N & the S.o end 16°:40′N. Longitude by Timekeeper 23°:02′W. Variation Obs.d 11°:30′W. S.o end of Bona Vista by good observation on board the Sirius 15°:59′N.o & 23°:02′W by the Timekeeper. The 19th. at day light saw the Isle of May, the S. end NWbW 4 miles (at 4 PM the S.o end of Bona Vista bore N.78°W pr Compass 6 mile, from which we ran swbs. 37 mile & then brought too with our Head off shore, after making Sail & running 2 mile wbs saw the Isle of May as beforementioned). In passing the Isle of May you may run close along the E.t side of it & steer over west or w1/2s pr Compass for St. Iago which course carried us in with that Island about 2 leagues to windward port praya Bay. The latitude of the S.o end of May reduced back from the next Noon is 15°:09′N & 23°:07′ W; at 10 AM saw the Island of S.t Iago, in running along the coast of it to Port Praya, there is the appearance of a Bay, but it cannot be mistaken for Port Praya when the direction of the Coast is attended to, the land from the E.t point of Praya Bay to the N.o ward lays nearly NNE & the whole land which opens to the W.ward of this point wbs or w1/2s pr Compass: About Noon were standing in for Port Praya Bay, when on hauling round the reef off the E.t point of the Bay, just within it & had the Fort open, were taken aback, the Convoy in a view facsimile

cluster round us, no true wind blowing, but catspaws from every point of the Compass & a heavy swell setting in upon the shore, which circumstances altogether render'd our getting in with the Convoy very hazardous from the danger of falling on board each other in such a swell as well that of being near the E.tern Reef, it was therefore judged most safe to endeavor to get the Convoy from the land into the true wind, which was done in about 2 Hours & we again proceeded with a fresh breeze at East.

Standing in for the E.t point of Praya Bay, the W. p.t will shew itself as will the W. end of the Island; As you draw near the E.tern reef Quail Island will shew itself as will the Fort which stands on a high rock & is on with Quail Island when bearing N.o by Compass on which bearing a high round hill will partly be over both. There are reefs which generally shew off both points of the Bay. It is generally recommended to keep close in with the Land, 'till you open the Reef of the W. point of the Bay & then haul close round the E.tern Reef Bring the Flagstaff NW or NW1/2N, the E.t point EbS & the outer point swbw from 10 to 7 fathom water. It is not safe to lay in this Bay during the winter months; so early as August Capt Wallis had very bad weather: Observed the Lat.e of Port Praya on board the Sirius 14°:54′.N.o Longitude by the Timekeeper 23°:40′W; 23.rd In Latitude 9°:48′N Longitude 23°:00′W lost the NE Trade view facsimile

& had frequent Squalls, variable winds with heavy rain Thunder & Light'ning: & by the 25th it seem'd to have quite blown itself out; the wind varying NE to SE, S.o, W. & frequently NW; then variable winds continued to the 28th when it fix'd between the S.o & SW., then in Lat: 7°:29′No Longitude 21°:41′W.

29th. AM. Saw a large ship to windward who bore down to us & hoisted Portuguese Colours, found her to be a ship from Lisbon bound to the Coast of Brasil.

30th. PM after dark, a Devil Fish was hooked, as he lay on the surface of the water, before he could be hoisted in 3 very large sucking Fish were soon on him one of which was struck & got in & was the largest I ever saw; it was 2Ft.:9In long. It being dark when this Monster was got in, he was kept on the quarter deck all night, but was dead as soon as out of the water from having had several Harpoons &c. stuck in him: In the morning 2 sucking fish 7 inches long & quite white were taken from within him out at his mouth perfectly alive; when this Fish was open'd there was not any thing found in his Stomach or Intestines or had he any teeth: He had 5 Gills of each side evenly & oppositely placed, within which those white sucking fish had fixed themselves; the belly of this Fish white, the back dark brown & much resembling a large skate; He had two horns projecting from the upper part of the head just over his eyes.