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§ 46. “Such of the Colonies.”

NEW SOUTH WALES.—The area of this colony, the oldest established of the Australian group, is 306,066 square miles. It is bounded on the east by the Pacific ocean, on the south by the colony of Victoria, on the north by the colony of Queensland, and on the west by the colony of South Australia. Population, 31st Dec., 1899, 1,348,400; public revenue from all sources, 1898–9, £9,572,912. Executive Government at the passing of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act:—Governor and Commander-in-Chief, the Right Honourable William Earl Beauchamp, K.C.M.G.; Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Frederick Matthew Darley, K.C.M.G., C.J. Administration—Premier, Colonial Treasurer, and Minister for Railways, Sir William J. Lyne; Colonial Secretary, the Hon. John See; Secretary for Lands, the Hon. T. H. Hassall; Secretary for Public Works, the Hon. E. W. O'Sullivan; Attorney-General, the Hon. B. R. Wise, Q.C.; Minister for Public Instruction and Industry, the Hon. John Perry; Minister for Justice, the the Hon. W. H. Wood; Secretary for Mines and Agriculture, the Hon. J. L. Fegan; Postmaster-General, the Hon. W. P. Crick; Representative in the Legislative Council, the Hon. F. B. Suttor.

NEW ZEALAND.—There are two principal islands, known as the North and Middle Islands, besides the South or Stewart's Island, and small outlying islands. The group is nearly 1,000 miles long, and 200 miles across at the broadest part. Its coast line extends over 4,000 miles. New Zealand is situated 1,200 miles to the east of the Australian continent. The area of New Zealand is estimated to embrace 104,471 square miles, of which the North Island comprises 44,468 square miles, the Middle Island 58,525, and Stewart's Island 665 square miles. Population, 31st Dec., 1898, 743,463; public revenue, 1898–9, £5,258,228. Executive Government at the passing of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act:—Governor and Commander-in-Chief, the Right Hon. the Earl of Ranfurly, K.C.M.G. Administration—Premier, Treasurer, Commissioner of Trade and Customs, Minister of Labour, Minister of Native Affairs, the Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, P.C.; Colonial Secretary, Postmaster-General, Minister of


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Railways, Industries, and Commerce, the Hon. J. G. Ward; Minister of Lands and Agriculture, Commissioner of Forests, the Hon. J. McKenzie; Commissioner of Stamp Duties and Member representing the Native Races, the Hon. J. Carroll; Minister of Education, Immigration and in charge of Hospitals and Charities, the Hon. W. C. Walker; Minister of Public Works, Marine and Printing Office, the Hon. W. Hall-Jones; Minister for Justice and Defence, the Hon. J. Thompson.

QUEENSLAND.—Queensland comprises the whole north-eastern portion of the Australian continent, including the adjacent islands in the Pacific Ocean and in the Gulf of Carpentaria. The territory is of an estimated area of 668,497 English square miles, with a seaboard of 2,550 miles. Population, 31st Dec., 1899, 482,400; public revenue, 1898–9, £4,174,086. Executive Government at the passing of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution:—Governor and Commander-in-Chief, the Right Hon. Baron Lamington, K.C.M.G.; Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Samuel W. Griffith, G.C.M.G., C.J. Administration—Premier, Treasurer, and Secretary for Mines, the Hon. Robert Philp; Chief Secretary, the Hon. J. R. Dickson, C.M.G.; Home Secretary, the Hon. J. F. G. Foxton; Attorney-General, the Hon. Arthur Rutledge, Q.C.; Secretary for Public Lands, the Hon. W. B. H. O'Connell; Secretary for Railways and Public Works, the Hon. John Murray; Secretary for Agriculture, the Hon. J. V. Chataway; Postmaster-General and Secretary for Public Instruction, the Hon. J. G. Drake; Ministers without portfolios, the Hon. G. W. Gray and D. H. Dalrymple.

TASMANIA.—The area of the colony is estimated at 26,215 square miles, of which 24,330 square miles form the area of Tasmania proper, the rest constituting that of a number of small islands, in two main groups, the north-east and north-west. Population, 31st Dec., 1899, 182,300; public revenue, 1898–9, £908,223. Executive Government at the passing of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act:—Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief, Viscount Gormanston, K.C.M.G. Administration—Premier and Attorney-General, the Hon. N. E. Lewis; Chief Secretary, the Hon. G. T. Collins; Treasurer, the Hon. B. S. Bird; Minister of Lands, Works, and Mines, the Hon. E. Mulcahy; without portfolio, the Hon. F. W. Piesse.

VICTORIA.—Victoria is bounded on the north and north-east by a straight line drawn from Cape Howe to the nearest source of the river Murray, thence by the course of that river to the eastern boundary of the colony of South Australia, thence by that boundary to the Southern Ocean. It has an area of 87,885 square miles. Population, 31st Dec., 1899, 1,162,900; public revenue, 1898–9, £7,396,943. Executive Government at the passing of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act:—Lieutenant-Governor, the Hon. Sir John Madden, K.C.M.G., C.J. Administration—Premier and Chief Secretary, the Hon. Allan McLean; Treasurer, the Hon. Wm. Shiels; Attorney-General, the Hon. Wm. Hill Irvine; Solicitor-General, the Hon. John M. Davies; Minister of Mines, Water Supply, and Railways, the Hon. Alfred R. Outtrim; Minister of Public Works and Agriculture, the Hon. Geo. Graham; Minister of Lands, the Hon. James McColl; Minister of Education and Trade and Customs, the Hon. Dr. Charles Carty Salmon; Postmaster-General, the Hon. Wm. A. Watt; Minister of Defence and Public Health, the Hon. Donald Melville; without portfolio, the Hon. James Balfour.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.—The original boundaries of the province, according to the statute of 4 and 5 Will. IV. c. 95, were fixed between 132° and 141° E. long. as its eastern and western boundaries, the 26° of S. lat. as its northern limit and bounded on the south by the Southern Ocean. The boundaries were subsequently extended; under the statute of 24 and 25 Vic. c. 44, a strip of land between 132° and 129° E. long. was added on October 10th, 1861. (Statesman's Year Book, 1899; Webb's Imperial Law, p. 99.) The total area of South Australia proper is 380,070 square miles; and including the Northern Territory it is calculated to amount to 903,690 square miles. Population, 31st Dec., 1899, 370,700; public revenue, 1898–9, £2,731,208. Executive Government at the passing


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of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act:—Governor and Commander-in-Chief, the Right Hon. Baron Tennyson, K.C.M.G.; Lieutenant-Governor, the Right Hon. Sir S. J. Way, Bart., J.C. Administration—Premier and Treasurer, the Hon. F. W. Holder; Chief Secretary, the Hon. G. Jenkins; Attorney-General, the Hon. John H. Gordon; Commissioner of Lands and Minister for Mines, the Hon. L. O'Loughlin; Commissioner of Public Works, the Hon. R. W. Foster; Minister of Education and Agriculture, the Hon. E. L. Batchelor.

NORTHERN TERRITORY.—The Northern Territory of South Australia, formerly known as Alexandra Land, embraces an immense tract of country, and contains an area of about 523,620 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Ocean—that portion of it known as the Arafura Sea; on the south by the 26th parallel of south latitude, which is the line of demarcation between it and South Australia proper; on the east by the 138th meridian of east longitude, which divides it from Queensland; and on the west by the 129th meridian of east longitude, which separates it from Western Australia. It also comprises all the bays, gulfs, and adjacent islands on its northern coasts. The eastern boundary line of this territory cuts the coast near the mouth of the Wentworth river, on the south-east coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria, and the western boundary near Cape Domett, in Cambridge Gulf. (Aust. Hand Book [1900], p. 390.)

The Home Government originally proposed to annex this territory to Queensland; but, in consequence of the favourable report given by Mr. John M‘Douall Stuart (the explorer) of the country on the northern coast, the South Australian Government petitioned the Home Government for its annexation to South Australia. This request was granted, and by royal letters patent of 6th July, 1863, a “supplementary commission’ was issued extending the boundaries of that colony accordingly. The letters patent recited the provision of the Act (5 and 6 Vic. c. 76, sec. 51), empowering the Queen by letters patent to separate from New South Wales any part of the territory of that colony lying to the northward of 26° south latitude, and to erect the same into a separate colony or colonies (see p. 72, supra). They also recited the Act (24 and 25 Vic. c. 44, sec. 2), which empowered the Queen to annex to any Australian colony any territories which in the exercise of the above powers might have been erected into a separate colony; with a proviso that it should be lawful for the Queen in such letters patent to reserve the power of revoking or altering the same, and also on such revocation to exercise the power again. The letters patent then proceeded to declare that “We have thought fit, in pursuance of the powers so vested in Us, and of all other powers and authorities to Us in that behalf belonging, to annex, and we do hereby annex to Our said colony of South Australia, until We think fit to make other disposition thereof,” so much of the colony of New South Wales as lies to the northward of 26° south latitude, and between 129° and 138° east longitude, together with the bays, gulfs, and adjacent islands; “and we do hereby reserve to Us, Our heirs and successors, full power and authority from time to time to revoke, alter, or amend these Our letters patent, as to Us or them shall seem fit.” (Parl. Papers [S.A.]. 1896, Vol. ii., No. 113.)

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.—As defined by Royal Commission, Western Australia includes all that portion of the continent situated to the westward of 129° E. longitude. The greatest length of this territory from Cape Londonderry in the north to Peak Head (south of King George's Sound) in the south is 1,450 miles, and its breadth from Steep Point near Dirk Hartog's Island, on the west, to the 129th meridian, on the east, about 850 miles. According to the latest computation, the total estimated area of the colony is 975,920 English square miles, including islands. Population 31st December, 1898—168,129; public revenue, 1898–9—£2,478,811. Executive Government at the passing of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act:—Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Gerard Smith, K.C.M.G. Administration: Premier and Colonial Treasurer—The Right Hon. Sir John Forrest, P.C., K.C.M.G.; Commissioner of Railways and Director of Public Works—the Hon. F. H. Piesse; Minister for Crown Lands—the Hon. G. Throssell; Minister of Mines—the Hon. H. B. Lefroy; Attorney-General—the


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Hon. R. W. Pennefather; Colonial Secretary—the Hon. G. Randell; without portfolio—the Hon. S. Burt, Q.C.

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