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§ 78. “Uniform for all the States.”

“Uniform” means the same in all the States; not different methods in different States. (Head Money Cases, 112 U.S. 580.) Where a Federal Legislature is authorized to pass “uniform laws” it is not merely enabled to pass laws the operation of which


  ― 427 ―
shall be uniform, but to establish uniform laws on the subject throughout the union. This uniformity is incompatible with state legislation on that part of the subject to which the federal law may extend. (Sturges v. Crowninshield, 4 Wheat. 123-194.)

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