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§ 102. “The President shall … be entitled to a Vote.”

The object of providing that the President, unlike the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall be entitled to a vote in all cases, is that the State which he represents may not be deprived of the benefit of the constitutional privilege of equal representation. He is not given a casting vote as well, because that would give his State more than equal representation. Some other provision had, therefore, to be made for the case of an equality of votes; so the Constitution declares that in that event the question shall be resolved in the negative. This is based upon the universally recognized principle that affirmative action, in any legislative body, must be supported by a majority.

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