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§ 175. “Census.”

A census is the periodical numbering of the people of a country. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century a census has been taken of the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland every ten years, and the practice now extends throughout the English speaking portions of the Queen's dominions. The object of the census is to supply statistical information respecting number and conditions of the population, and respecting the resources and developments of the country. As the census is taken between the same hours of the same day of the same year, the necessity for uniform legislation in contiguous countries is apparent. For the purpose of a census the whole country is divided into districts, called enumerators' divisions, over which schedules are distributed requiring particulars as to name, sex, age, profession or occupation, marriage, relation to the head of the family, birthplace, and whether deaf, or dumb, or blind, or imbecile, or lunatic. When the schedules so filled up are collected, the details are verified and the results sent to the Registrar-General, who prepares a final abstract thereof, which is submitted to Parliament.

The Parliament of Canada has exclusive jurisdiction of census and statistics. The legislature of British Columbia passed an Act respecting the registration of births, deaths, and marriages in that Province. On 2nd January, 1879, the Minister of Justice of the Dominion called attention to the fact that the Act might be questioned as being connected with statistics.

The census and statistical departments of the States will be taken over by the Federal Government, as soon as enabling legislation is passed by the Federal Parliament.

51. (xii.) Currency176, coinage177, and legal tender178:

HISTORICAL NOTE.—The Constitution of the United States empowers Congress “to coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin;” and “to provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States.” (Art. I. sec. viii. sub-secs. 5–6.) Sec. 91 of the British North America Act specifies “currency and coinage” and “legal tender” (sub-secs. 14–20).

“Coinage” was specified as a federal subject in the Bill attached to Wentworth's Memorial in 1857. “Currency, coinage, and legal tender” were specified in the Commonwealth Bill of 1891, and the sub-clause was adopted by the Convention of 1897–8 without debate.

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