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§ 343. “All Revenues or Moneys.”

In the corresponding clauses of the Constitutions of the Australian colonies—and, it is believed, of all British colonies—the word “money” is not used; the usual words associated with “revenues” being “duties,” “taxes,” &c. In this Constitution the word “moneys” was struck out in Adelaide, to make it clear that loan moneys were not included, and a suggestion to restore it was negatived at Melbourne for the same reason (see Hist. Note, supra); but at a subsequent drafting stage it was reinserted for some reason that is not apparent. It cannot, however, be supposed that the Convention meant that loan moneys should be paid into the Consolidated Revenue Fund. (See Conv. Deb., Melb., p. 1114.) The generic word “moneys” must be controlled by the preceding specific word “revenues,” and limited to moneys in the nature of revenue. This is a well-known and sound principle of construction. (See Maxwell, Interpr of Statutes, chap. XI., sec. v.)

The universal constitutional practice, not only of Great Britain, but of all the British colonies, to keep loan funds distinct from revenue funds, is the strongest possible corroboration of the evidence afforded by the debates, that there was no intention whatever of departing from established usage in this respect.




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“Revenue is the annual yield of taxes, excise, customs duties, rents, &c., which a nation, state, or municipality collects and receives into the treasury for public use.” (Webster, Internat. Dict.) It includes not only revenue from taxation, but all revenue received by the Government as payment for services rendered—such as the revenue of the post and telegraph department. It also includes all payments in the nature of penalties, or fees for licenses, &c., and in fact every kind of public income.

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