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Part II.

GOVERNMENT.—Two co-ordinate sets of governing organs, national and State, acting within the spheres marked out for them by the Constitution. Each set of organs is independent of the other, but both are subject to the common sovereignty:

  • (a) National Government.—Can only act within the sphere of powers granted to it by the Constitution.
    • (1) National Executive Department.—Power vested in the President, chosen under the Constitution by the electors of the States. Some executive acts require assent of Senate.
    • (2) National Legislative Department.—Power vested in Congress; House of Representatives elected by people of States in proportion to population; Senate consisting of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature of the State. President has a veto, which may be overridden by a two-thirds majority of each House.



    •   ― 319 ―
    • (3) National Judicial Department.—Power vested in the Supreme Court of the United States, established by the Constitution, and other federal courts established by Congress under powers conferred by the Constitution.
  • (b) State Governments.—Can only act within the residuary sphere of powers which are neither prohibited to the State Governments nor exclusively given to the Federal Government. Within that sphere, the Government of each State is vested in the electors of the State organized within the Constitution of the State. Subject to the Federal Constitution and the Constitutions of the States:—
    • (1) State Executive Departments.—Power vested in State Governors appointed under State Constitutions.
    • (2) State Legislative Departments.—Power vested in State Legislatures, elected under State Constitutions.
    • (3) State Judicial Departments.—Power vested in State Courts established under State Constitutions.

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