A. Administrative Services Transferred to the Commonwealth (Sec. 69).

Five of the subjects of legislative power enumerated in sec. 51 are identical with the subjects of administrative departments of the States transferred to the Commonwealth (sec. 69). Over “matters relating to these departments” the power of the Parliament is, by sec. 52, exclusive.

1. Defence.

Sec. 51 contains two articles dealing immediately with this matter, viz.:

vi. The naval and military defence of the Commonwealth and of the several States, and the control of the forces to execute and maintain the laws of the Commonwealth.

xxxii. The control of the railways with respect to transport for the naval and military purposes of the Commonwealth.

By sec. 114 a State may not, without the consent of the Commonwealth, raise or maintain any naval or military force; and by sec. 119 the Commonwealth shall protect every State against invasion, and, on the application of

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the Executive Government of the State, against domestic violence.

There are several Imperial Statues affecting colonial defences and colonial forces, viz., the Army Act, 1881 (secs. 175–177); Colonial Fortifications Act, 1877; Colonial Defences Act, 1865; Naval Discipline Acts, 1866 and 1884; Imperial Defence Act, 1888.

2. Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones. Sec. 51 (v.).

These services are subject to the control of the Commonwealth, not merely for foreign and intercolonial, but also for internal purposes. In all the colonies, postal, telegraphic, and telephonic communication has been a Government monopoly.

3. Lighthouses, Lightships, Beacons, and Buoys. Sec. 51 (vii.).

4. Quarantine. Sec. 51 (ix.).

5. “Customs and Excise” are dealt with under the general head of Finance and Trade.