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  ― 409 ―


Public Meetings in England and Scotland addressed by Mr. Parkes as Emigration Commissioner.


August 21.—At Birmingham, in the Music Hall; Alderman James Baldwin in the chair. Population 295,955.

September 19.—At Wolverhampton, in St. George's Hall; Frank P. Fellows, Esq., in the chair. Population 60,858.

September 20.—At Worcester, in the Hall of the Museum; Richard Padmore, Esq., M.P., in the chair. Population 31,123.

September 21.—At Rugby, in the Town Hall; the Rev. S. Hooson in the chair. Population 6,317.

September 23.—At Leicester, in the Temperance Hall; E. S. Ellis, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 68,052.

September 26.—At Dudley, in the Rose Hill School; Edward Grainger, Esq., High Bailiff, in the chair. Population 44,975.

October 7.—At Derby, in the Town Hall; W. T. Cox, Esq., High Sheriff, in the chair. Population 43,091.

October 8.—At Warwick, in the Corn Exchange; W. B. Shaw, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 10,589.

October 9.—At Leamington, in the Public Hall; John Hitchman, Esq., in the chair. Population 15,692.

October 10.—At Droitwich, in the George Hotel Assembly

  ― 410 ―
Room; the Right Honourable Sir John S. Pakington, Bart., M.P., in the chair. Population 6,540.

October 11.—At Walsall, in the Guildhall Assembly Room, Henry Brace, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 37,762.

October 16.—At Nottingham, in the Exchange Hall; Thomas Cullen, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 74,531.

October 18.—At Stourbridge, in the Town Hall; the Rev. J. W. Grier, M.A., in the chair. Population 7,847.

October 21.—At Manchester, in the Town Hall; Thomas Basley, Esq., M.P., in the chair. Population 357,604.

October 22.—At Birmingham, in the Town Hall; Arthur Ryland, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 295,157.

October 24.—At Sheffield, in the Town Hall; Henry Vickers, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 185,157.

November 20.—At Kidderminster, in the Music Hall; the Right Honourable Lord Lyttelton, in the chair. Population 15,398.

November 21.—At Leeds, in the Music Hall; Mr. Councillor Carter (in the absence of Mr. Baines, M.P.) in the chair. Population 207,153.

November 26.—At Bilston, in the St. Mary's School; the Rev. H. F. Newbolt, M.A., in the chair. Population 25,000.

December 6.—At Solihull, in the Town Hall; the Rev. Patrick Murray Smythe, M.A., in the chair. Population 3,277.

December 10.—At West Bromwich, in St. George's Hall; Capt. H. Williams (in the absence of Lord Calthorpe) in the chair. Population 34,591.

December 11.—At Stratford-upon-Avon, in the Town Hall; Henry Lane, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 3,672.

December 12.—At Redditch, in the National School Room; the Rev. Geo. F. Fessey, M.A., in the chair. Population 6,141.

December 17.—At Bradford, in St. George's Hall; William E. Glyde, Esq., in the chair. Population 106,212.


January 24.—At Chesterfield, in the Market Hall; William Drabble, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 9,835.

  ― 411 ―

January 28.—At Tamworth, in the Town Hall; Thomas Argyle, Esq., in the chair. Population 10,202.

March 10.—At Battersea, in the Navvies' Night School; Mr. Ward, Local Missionary, in the chair. Population 6,887.

April 4.—At Stoke-upon-Trent, in the Town Hall; Frederic Bishop, Esq., Chief Bailiff, in the chair. Population 101,302.

April 11.—At Darlaston, in St. George's Schoolroom; the Rev. Manton Hathaway, B.A., in the chair. Population 10,590.

April 14.—At Shrewsbury, in the Music Hall; Joshua John Peele, Esq., in the chair. Population 22,055.

April 15.—At Hanley, in the Hall of the Potteries Mechanics' Institution; Benjamin Boothroyd, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 20,564.

April 16.—At Nantwich, in the Town Hall; Richard Chambers Edleston, Esq., in the chair. Population 5,426.

April 17.—At Rochdale, in the Public Hall; J. T. Pagan, Esq., Mayor, in the chair. Population 38,164.

April 24.—At Atherstone, in the Corn Exchange; C. H. Bracebridge, Esq., J.P., in the chair. Population 3,819.

April 28.—At Wigan, in the Public Hall; Nathaniel Eckersley, Esq., J.P., in the chair. Population 37,657.

April 30.—At Stafford, in the Lyceum; Colonel the Honourable E. R. Littleton (in the absence of Lord Hatherton), in the chair. Population 12,487.

May 5.—At Paisley, in the Exchange Rooms; Provost Pollok in the chair. Population 47,952.

May 6.—At Greenock, in the Town Hall; Robert Steele, jun., Esq., J.P., in the chair. Population 36,689.

May 8.—At Dumbarton, in the County Hall; Provost McIntosh in the chair. Population 5,411.

May 9.—At Stirling, in the Court House; Provost Murrie in the chair. Population 12,837.

May 20.—At Stroud, in the Subscription Rooms; Rev. T. H. Tarlton, in the chair. Population 35,513.

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New Guinea.

Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney,

July 27, 1874.

Minute for His Excellency the Governor.

ON the subject of New Guinea, to which you made reference in our conversation a few days ago, I desire to make some observations in which my colleagues concur.

The attention of this colony has been on several occasions directed to New Guinea by persons who have been much impressed by its natural fertility and rich resources. About seven years ago an effort was made to form an association in Sydney for voluntary settlement on the eastern shores of the island, and again, in 1870 or 1871, a number of young men, mostly natives of this colony, and some of them the sons of respectable and well-known residents, banded themselves together and chartered a vessel for the purpose of forming a settlement there. This vessel, the brig Maria, sailed from Sydney, it is said under very improvident preparation for the voyage, and she struck on a reef and foundered off the northern coast of Queensland. Some of the adventurers were lost, others escaped to the shore and suffered severely in an uninhabited part of the northern colony. The interest in New Guinea, and the belief in its future importance, which have been felt very generally in this colony for some years, have received fresh strength from Captain Moresby's discoveries and from the increasing trade of vessels from this port to Torres Straits.

There probably is no country in the world, which offers so fair and certain a field for successful colonisation as this great island, as there certainly is none so rich and attractive, and, at the same time, so close to British rule.

It is understood that the objection of English statesmen to extend the colonies of Great Britain is based upon the impolicy

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of throwing the cost of founding new settlements upon the English taxpayer. If this be so, and is held to be an insuperable objection, might not an Imperial charter be granted to an Australian company to colonise the eastern side of New Guinea, England reserving to herself the appointment of Governor, and authority in other matters deemed of first importance? I feel very confident that many men of high character and large wealth in these colonies would at once engage in an enterprise so tempting and honourable, if they had the opportunity of doing so under British authority, and that a colony might be successfully founded without costing Great Britain a single shilling beyond the support of her ships of war.

The importance of New Guinea to the English empire now rapidly forming in this part of the world cannot be over-estimated. Its close proximity to the Australian coast, its territorial extent, the valuable character of its lands, its known mineral wealth, the pearl fisheries in the neighbouring seas, give to it a prominence in the progress of these colonies which will go on increasing every year. Its colonisation by a foreign Power could not fail of giving rise to many embarrassments. Its colonisation by Great Britain would be hailed with universal approbation throughout Australasia.



Public School System of New South Wales (supplied by the Department of Public Instruction).


BEFORE 1848 state grants were occasionally made to Denominational Schools—chiefly to those in connection with the Church of England.

1848 TO 1866.

In 1848, a National system of non-sectarian schools (known as the Irish National system) was established in the colony.

  ― 414 ―
For the support of this system, state grants were made annually, and a Board of Commissioners was appointed by the Governor to expend such grants in carrying on and improving the work of National Education. At the same time a Denominational Board was also appointed for the management of Denominational Schools, and State grants were made to it towards the support of such schools. This arrangement of two Boards was continued up to 1866.

1866 TO 1880.

In 1866 the ‘Public Schools Act’ was passed by the Legislature. By this Act the National and Denominational School Boards were abolished, and a new Board—designated ‘The Council of Education’—was constituted for the management of all State-aided schools—National and Denominational.

The Council of Education began work January, 1867, and it continued its management of Public Education up to May, 1880.


1867  1880 
Schools ...  642 ....  1,265 
(including 317 Denominational)  (including 150 Denominational) 
Enrolment ..  57,000 ....  101,534 
Teachers ..  971 ....  2,300 
Expenditure ..  £100,610 ....  £381,797 

1880 TO 1891.

In 1880, the Public Instruction Act was passed, to take the place of the Public Schools Act. By the Public Instruction Act the Council of Education was abolished, and a Department of Public Instruction, to be under the direct control of a responsible Minister, was constituted for the management of Public Education.

In addition to enactments similar to many of those which the Public Schools Act had contained, the Public Instruction Act further provided:—

  • (a) For the discontinuance of all State-aid to Denominational Schools from December 31, 1882.
  • (b) For all officers and teachers under the Department of Public Instruction being civil servants of the Crown.

  •   ― 415 ―
  • (c) For a uniform scale of school fees of 3d. for each child, or 1s. for four children from the same family; and for the payment into the Treasury of all such fees collected.
  • (d) For the establishment of superior Public Schools and High Schools for the purposes of secondary education.
  • (e) For the division of the colony into School Districts, and the appointment of Local School Boards for such Districts.
  • (f) For the compulsory attendance of school pupils between six and fourteen years of age.


1880  1890 
Schools ....  1,265 ....  2,630 
(including 150 Denominational) 
Enrolment ...  101,534 ....  195,241 
Teachers ...  2,300 ....  4,181 
Expenditure ...  £381,797 ....  £704,260 

The following summary will show the progress made under the Public Instruction Act of 1880:—

  • 1. In 1880, when the Public Instruction Act came into operation, there were:—schools, 1,265; scholars, 101,534; teachers, 2,300.
  • 2. In 1890, the number of schools had been increased by 1,365, or 108 per cent.; the number of scholars by 93,707, or 92 per cent.; and the number of teachers by 1881, or 82 per cent.
  • 3. To provide education for isolated families, and the sparse population in outlying districts, ‘House-to-house’ schools were established in 1883, and, in 1890, ninetyfive of such schools were in operation.
  • 4. Kindergarten schools and classes have been established; improved arrangements for carrying on introductory scientific and technical work in Public Schools have been made; and workshops for manual training for boys, and cookery classes for girls, have been established. In 1883 a Board was appointed to promote and manage

      ― 416 ―
    technical education throughout the colony, but the whole of such work has now been organised as a branch of the Public Instruction Department, under the direction of a superintendent. Very satisfactory progress in technical education is now being made.
  • 5. To promote secondary education, sixty-four superior Public Schools and five High Schools have been established; and High School and University State Bursaries have been instituted for deserving children of parents in poor circumstances.
  • 6. School accommodation is now provided for 198,898 children, about 96 per cent. of which is in vested buildings, the property of the State.
  • 7. The Training Schools for teachers, carried on under the Public Schools Act, were continued under the Public Instruction Act; and they have now been reorganised and connected with the University.
  • 8. 554 Public School Banks have been brought into operation, and, for the four years ending 1890, their deposits amounted to an aggregate of 42,770l.
  • 9. The Public School Cadet Force has been completely reorganised, and nearly 6,000 cadets are now enrolled.
  • 10. In 1880, 4·8 per cent., and in 1890 only 3·4 per cent., of the total population of the colony were apprehended for crime.


1867  1880  1883  1890 
(1st year under Pub. Schools Act)  (1st year under Pub. Inst. Act)  (1st year after aid to Denom. ceased) 
Schools ..  642  1,265  1,850  2,630 
Enrolment ..  57,000  101,534  155,918  195,241 
Teachers ..  971  2,300  2,980  4,181 
Expenditure .  £100,610  £381,797  £821,853  £704,260 

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The Prime Ministers of New South Wales.

THE first Parliament was opened on May 22, 1856. The first Prime Minister accepted office on June 6 following.

It will be seen that the shortest term of office is two months and twenty days (Sir S. A. Donaldson), and the longest term eleven years nine months and fourteen days (Sir Henry Parkes), and that there have been no more than five Ministries with a life extending beyond one year and two days.

In order of first taking office  Number of Ministries  Number of Dissolutions  Total period in office as Prime Ministers 
yrs. mths. days. 
Donaldson, Stuart Alexander  —  0 2 20 
Cowper, Charles ...  6 10 21 
Parker, Henry W. ...  —  0 11 5 
Forster, William ...  —  0 4 14 
Robertson, John ...  4 8 4 
Martin, James ...  5 5 29 
Parkes, Henry ...  4note   11 9 14 
Farnell, James Squire ..  —  1 0 2 
Stuart, Alexander ...  —  2 9 0 
10  Dibbs, George Richard .note   0 11 14 
11  Jennings, Patrick Alfred .  —  0 11 21 

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Progress of New South Wales, by J. A. Coghlan, Esq. Government Statistician.

IN the year 1840 New South Wales had within its present boundaries a population of 113,200; included in this number were 18,200 persons who, though then free, had been originally transported from the United Kingdom for criminal offences, and 24,500 convicts who were still in a state of servitude. Deducting the number last mentioned, the effective population of the colony may be set down at 89,000, while 50 years later, at the census of 1891, the number had risen to 1,132,000. Then, as now, the pastures of the country were the chief source of its wealth, but whereas in 1840 the number of sheep depastured was but 4,800,000, the horned cattle 900,000, and the horses 56,000; in 1891 the number of sheep was 60 millions, of cattle 2 millions, and of horses nearly half a million; and the wool clip, which in 1840 did not reach 8 million pounds in weight, may now be set down at 330 million pounds. Less attention has always been paid to agriculture than to pastoral pursuits; still the breadth of land under crop, which in 1840 was 126,000 acres, expanded to 1,120,000 acres during the last season, an increase in area attended by even a more considerable increase in the value of crops yielded. Fifty years ago mining was almost wholly unknown, coal being the only mineral systematically sought for, and the yearly output of this commodity did not exceed 30,000 tons, valued at the same number of pounds sterling; in 1891 the quantity of coal raised was over four million tons, worth 1,740,000l., and the value of the silver, gold, tin, copper, and other minerals obtained was 4,660,000l., making a total value for the year of nearly six and a half millions sterling.

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The progress of the colony is, however, best illustrated by the figures relating to its commerce. Thus for the 5 years which closed with 1840, the average yearly value of the exports was 883,000l., and of the imports 1,712,000l., compared with 25,944,000l. exports, and 25,383,000l. imports for 1891. For the commerce of 1840 there were required 440 ships, with a carrying capacity of 130,000 tons, while in 1891 the ships numbered 3,000, and their tonnage 2,800,000.

The wealth of New South Wales at the date of the census of 1891 was 406 millions sterling, or about 363l. to each inhabitant; these figures are exclusive of the value of State property, which, if counted, would probably add 150 millions to the sum just quoted. In 1840, excluding the property of the State, which then consisted almost entirely of waste lands, the wealth of the colony was barely 20 millions, or 200l. per inhabitant. Whatever may be the experience of other countries, in New South Wales, though the rich have grown richer, as the foregoing figures show, the poor have not grown poorer; on the contrary, the condition of the ordinary mechanic and labourer has improved with the increase in the total wealth of the community. Thus, if the money wages of skilled labourers in the year 1840 be represented by the number 100, their wages today would be at least 125, while with other labourers the increase has been even still greater. Nor is this all, for wages and prices have moved in opposite directions, and articles of consumption are generally cheaper today than fifty years ago. Coincident with the great advance in material wealth, there has been a noteworthy improvement in the social condition of the people. The facilities for education have been so extended that practically the whole population of school age, that is from 6 to 14 years, is receiving education; while in 1840 only 8,500 children out of a school population of 14,000 were under instruction. In regard to crime a great improvement would naturally be expected during the interval which has elapsed since the cessation of transportation; nevertheless, the change that has taken place is remarkable. Fifty years ago the average number of persons convicted for serious offences was about

  ― 420 ―
800 during a year, while for the past five years the number has scarcely exceeded 900, notwithstanding a tenfold increase in population.

The progress of the colony may be said to be reflected in that of its chief city. Sydney, which stands unsurpassed amongst the cities of the world for the beauty of its site and its natural commercial advantages, had, in the year 1840, a population of less than thirty thousand, which in 1891 had risen to within a few hundreds of 400,000, while the value of the buildings and other improvements rose since 1843, the year after the incorporation of the city, from 730,500l. to 103,704,000l., and the return from rents from 58,440l. to 5,414,000l., so that, gauged by the return from property, Sydney is, after London, and perhaps Melbourne, the wealthiest city of the Empire.

1840  1891 
Population of the Colony ....  113,200  1,132,000 
Population of Sydney ....  30,000  400,000 
Wealth of the Colony in private hands . £  20,000,000  406,000,000 
Value of Imports (average of five years, 1836–40) ...... £  1,712,000  25,383,000 
Value of Exports (average of five years, 1836–40) ...... £  883,000  25,944,000 
Tonnage entered and cleared ...  264,900  5,694,000 
Wool Exported, weight .... lbs.  7,669,000  330,000,000 
Wool Exported, value .... £  498,000  11,000,000 
Number of Sheep .....  4,800,000  60,000,000 
Number of Horned Cattle ...  900,000  2,000,000 
Number of Horses .....  56,000  460,000 
Area under cultivation .... Acres  126,000  1,120,000 
Scholars enrolled .....  8,500  220,000 

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Statistics of Australasia, 1840–1890.

1840  1850  1860  1870  1880  1890 
Population at end of Year ... No.  194,792  426,064  1,221,547  1,898,572  2,715,782  3,787,894 
Shipping—Inwards and Outwards: 
Number of Vessels . No.  3,154  4,430  10,144  12,703  14,738  17,629 
Tonnage ... Tons  646,774  970,327  2,909,308  4,065,559  7,710,615  15,542,248 
Imports .... £  4,428,450  3,889,480  27,781,448  29,465,361  45,286,652  68,001,986 
Exports .... £  2,316,692  3,752,833  21,982,287  31,085,722  49,023,832  64,799,178 
Total Trade ... £  6,745,142  7,642,313  49,763,735  60,551,083  94,310,484  132,801,164 
Wool Exported (in Grease) ... lbs.  12,543,500  41,331,500  62,403,200  162,949,200  402,514,400  573,533,600 
Area of Land under Cultivation .. Acres  262,877  501,927  1,581,988  3,869,567  10,610,705  15,892,235 
Public Revenue ..... £  915,730  1,211,709  5,806,978  8,518,113  17,293,449  29,212,301 
Bank Deposits— 
Banks of Issue ... £  No returns  2,459,300  15,063,700  23,185,800  54,541,500  110,681,800 
Savings Banks ... £  No returns  240,200  1,353,500  2,364,700  6,746,700  16,516,200 
Total .... £  No returns  2,699,500  16,417,200  25,550,500  61,288,200  127,198,000 
Live Stock— 
Sheep ..... No.  6,093,100  16,584,800  22,614,300  51,294,200  75,158,700  115,995,800 
Horned Cattle ... No.  1,004,400  1,937,800  4,075,500  4,712,900  8,225,800  10,735,400 
Horses ..... No.  71,300  167,100  459,800  797,800  1,230,100  1,720,700 
Miles open .... Miles  Nil  Nil  226  952  4,921  11,990 
Miles of Wire ... Miles  Nil  Nil  3,454  15,454  46,082  85,753 

  ― 422 ―


THE following appeared in one of the Sydney papers, the ‘Daily Telegraph,’ on June 25, 1892:

The Division of Queensland.—Provisions of the New Bill.—Proposed Establishment of Three Provinces.

BRISBANE, Friday.—The Queensland Separation Bill was read the first time in the Legislative Assembly to-day, and the second reading fixed for July 5. The Bill embraces 220 clauses, and is divided into eight chapters.

Chapter one deals with the Constitution of the united provinces, and provides that within six months after the passing of the Act the colony shall be divided into three provinces, called South, Central, and North Queensland, forming one colony or state under the present Constitution, and shall be called the United Provinces of Queensland. The boundaries of the provinces are practically the same as under Sir Samuel Griffith's separation proposals of last year.

Chapter two provides for a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives, the Queen from time to time to appoint the Governor for the united provinces, his salary to be paid by the General Assembly, and to be not less than 5,000l. per annum. The General Assembly is to meet not later than six months after the date of the constitution of the united provinces, the Senate to be composed of eight members for each province, directly chosen by the Houses of Legislature of the several provinces; senators to be chosen for six years. The General Assembly is to make laws prescribing a uniform manner of choosing senators, who will then be divided by lot into two classes, the first half vacating the Senate at the expiration of three years, and the second portion at the end of the sixth year, so that one-half may be chosen every third year. The qualifications for senators

  ― 423 ―
are that they must be of the full age of thirty years, and must be qualified to vote as electors. The Senate is to elect its President, who may be removed by vote of the Senate.

The House of Representatives is to be composed of members chosen every three years by the people of the several provinces, and, until otherwise provided by law, of the united provinces. Each province is to have one representative for every 10,000 people. Members of the House of Representatives must be twenty-one years of age, and must have been three years resident within the limits of the united provinces. Each member of the Senate and House of Representatives to be paid an annual allowance of 100l.

The General Assembly is to have power to make laws dealing, among other matters, with external affairs relating to the Australian Colonies and Great Britain, the public debt of Queensland and of the united provinces, the regulation of trade and commerce, customs and excise bounties (but so that the duties of customs and excise shall be uniform throughout the united provinces, and that no tax be imposed on any goods exported from one province to another), raising money by any other mode of taxation, borrowing money on the public credit of the united provinces, control of railways, and the constitution of courts of appeal from courts of the provinces. The General Assembly also to have power as to the exclusion of the Legislatures of the provinces, to make laws with respect to the affairs of the people for whom it is necessary to make special laws not applicable to the general community, the government of any territory which may by the surrender of any provinces become the seat of government of the united provinces, and matters relating to departments of the civil service which are vested in the executive government of the united provinces, and such other matters as may be decided upon.

Chapter three provides for the administration of the executive government of the united provinces.

Chapter four provides for the constitution of the provinces. The Governor-General will have power to appoint a Lieutenant-Governor, and the Legislature of the province is to meet

  ― 424 ―
annually. Ministers of the provincial Legislatures shall not exceed six, who draw total salaries as follows:—South Queensland, not exceeding 6,000l. per annum, and Central and Northern Queensland not exceeding 3,000l. each.

In South Queensland there is to be a Legislative Council, of whom not less than four-fifths shall be persons not holding an office of profit under the Crown; the Assembly to consist of forty-six members. The Legislature of the province of Central Queensland is to consist of a Legislative Assembly with twenty members, and in North Queensland the Legislature shall consist of thirty-two members.

Chapter five provides for judicature, chapter six finance and trade, and chapter seven for the admission of new provinces.

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