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Newton Fowell: Letters and Papers at the Mitchell Library

Letter 1. November 26 1786

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These were the Letters of Newton Fowell 2d Leiu.t of the Sirius who dyed on his Passage from Batavia to New South Wales 25 1790. Aged 22. Universally lamented. He excelled most young Men of his age both in Body & Mind which made his death an inexpressable Grief to his Parents John & Mary Fowell

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Novr 26. 1786

Hon.d Father

I rec'd your Letter by this day's post and am just now come on Shore on purpose to answer it. I am sorry you misunderstood me about my dislike to 2 Guard ships it is only because I am sure of no promotion which if I was in a Ship on a Foriegn Station I might have some chance, you mention you have made application for me to go to Botany Bay which I should be very glad of if you can any way get me to go there, so if you will be as good you may make any inquiry you think will succeed to get me either there or the East or West Indies the place where I wish to go is where there is some hopes of Promotion. If you wish me to come home I can any week in a coaster for five shillings, if you would not have me Receive my pay here pray be as good as to view facsimile

Send me some money as I am almost pennyless have only a few Shillings left after buying a Bed & chest and several other little Necessary's.

I am happy to hear my Brother James likes his place so well I wrote to him the other day but have not yet had an answer I shall write to him again soon and desire him to go to Mr. - in the Minories and enquire whether they have eat my shirts as I have not yet got them I cannot at present Remember his Name if I dont get them soon and if I should think on his Name will write to him to enquire what are become of them as I am rather afraid they may be lost. I shall write soon to my Aunt Pauncefort she desired I would. I am happy Commdr Le Crass says I pass'd so good an Examination you did not mention what is become of my passing Certificate I have not yet got my Pay lists from the Perseus I expect to hear of her arrival soon at Plymo -

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There maybe very likely some way by which means you might Receive my Pay by an Order from me to some Person or other I dare say Mr Hartwell could tell you if you should happen to see him, most of the midshipmen that have served their time are now going to pass there is but one in the Ship besides myself that has passed. I mess with a Mr Power who was in the Ocean with me he is very civil to me and I can see wishes to shew me every civility in his powers. I would not wish to have the Ardent unless to go on a Foriegn Station or as Mate of a Ship as I think I shall not wear out so many Cloathes here as in a Cruiser. I am just now in a yeaumer for writing you any thing which I should if the Paper would admit. Give my Respts to C. & Mrs A. & Compts to all the Neighbours, my duty to my Mother & love to my Brother and am Hond Father

Your dutiful Son

Newton Fowell

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John Fowell Esq

Black Hall

So Brent


Nov.r 26 1786

Letter 2. Ardent Portso Harbour 14 December 1786

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Ardent Portsmo Harbour

Hon'd Father

I rec'd my Mothers Letter by yesterday's post, and it gives me the greatest Happiness to think you are so well pleased with my passing (as Comd.r L'Crass says) so good an Examination. it has been always my Study to acquit myself in every thing I undertake in the same Manner. I got my Shirts a few days ago, but have not yet had them washd.

I dined with Cap.t Hartwell last Sunday, he is just now come on board, he has rec'd a Letter from Mr. Hartwell of Plymouth, who has been good enough to ask my capt for leave for me to go round to the West to spend my Xmas. he has just told me he will get me a Passage in the Hebe, who is going some time next week, and I dare say, view facsimile

When I come Round I shall go to Mr Hartwells.

Capt Thornborough will be civil to me on my old Captains Account, as you know it was supposed he was to have Married the other Miss Le Crass. As for the Botany Bay Scheme, I like very well, but don't hear any thing of ships going out. some say it is postponed till the Spring; again I saw in the Papers of one of the Transports taking on board several Toys & to keep in good Friends with the Natives. so much for that - I have enquired of several of our Mids. who are acquainted in the Isle of White but none ever heard of Mr Vernon so I think it was a bite. I was obliged to pay 13d for your Letter altho it was Franked it was on Account of the Alteration of the [Direct?] but shall go on Shore this afternoon & enquire the Reason. I have Read Lady Mary as you call her all through & like it very well but think She as well as other Travellers stretches a point or so now & then, when I come home shall bring my Chest view facsimile

as Capt Hartwell says I may stay as long as I like you want to know who are the L.ts and who are my Messmates which I will tell you when I come home you don't know any of them I can only add on that subject the Gentlemen who come on board from other Ships say it must be a pleasure to be under the command of our Officers to what is is to theirs it is Supposed we have the best Officers in the Harbo. I saw one of my old ship mates the other day that was in the Ocean he now belongs to the Orestes and is going soon to Guernsey he has promised to bring me some cards & some Cambrick which I intend to send bring you when I come home a Second time. If the Hebe does not sail soon I shall come round in the Plymo Trader as one of our Gentlemen is going at the same time in her.

I have a Miserable pen so must come to a Conclusion by Please to give my Respects to Capt & Mrs Ourry & Compts to all the Rest of my Friend my Duty to my Mother & Love to my Brother and am

Hon'd Father

Your dutiful Son

Newton Fowell

14 Dec.r Thursday morn

1786 —

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John Fowell Esq.

Black Hall

So Brent


[Cross Post?]

Dec.r 1786

Letter 3. 24 February 1787

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Hon'd Father

I left London near a week since with Henry Pauncefort who has Joined the Edgar Capt Thompson I've got him Settled in a good Mess and done all in my Power to get him Introduced to the Gentlemen which my Mess Mates have been good enough to do and Promised to pay some Attention to him after I am gone which will be soon as the Sirius is now at Spithead what I call soon is about a Fortnight. However I hope to have another Letter from you before I sail you may depend on my Writing by every Opportunity in Short I shall always keep a Letter Wrote Ready to Send away when at Sea. I intend going on board the Sirius to Night to get on her books and will then let you know more of the matter - I Rec'd a Bill the other Day from my Brother James view facsimile

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Which you was good enough to send me I am very much obliged to you for it & my fitting out for so Advantagous a Voyage I don't at Present think but that I shall soon be Confirmed - I should be much obliged to you if you could send me some more Money as my Mess will be 10 Guineas and I have a Quadrant to Buy which will Cost 3 Guineas I hear Capt Palmer has lost his Luggar & has to pay £300 for her I hope it is not true he has been good enough to write to Capt Hunter about me Make my best Respects to Capt & Mrs. O. & C Palmer & Compts to all the Club

and am Hon'd Father

Your dutiful Son

N Fowell

24 Feb.ry

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John Fowell Esqr

Black Hall

So Brent


Feb. 1787

Letter 4. March 1787

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Feb'y 1787

Hon'd Father

I rec'd your Letter Yesterday and am much obliged to you for the Inclosed and hope now you will not have any Trouble with me these five years as I hear the Station is to be for that Time. I have now, I beleive got every thing I want such as a hammer, a saw Chisels & as I suppose I shall not be able to get any of these things at Botany. I have got a small Book that gives a Discripsion of it and I beleive my Mother sent you another in two Franks. Now I will answer all your Questions as well as I can Capt Philip goes out in the Sirius as 1st Capt and Capt Hunter as 2nd Capt Phillip is not yet from London but is expected on Tuesday. some of the Convicts came down last Friday. they are not yet on board the Transports as it has been blowing so hard they are at Present on board the Gorgon a Ship out of Commission and will be embarked on board the Transports the first fine days. As to Promotion nobody knows any thing about it as it is quite uncertain, I do not know yet any thing of Sea Stock as I have been Weather Bound all this last Week it has been blowing so very hard it was impossible to get on board view facsimile

so I know no more of the People, tho I understand there are only five of us that has passed the Chest I got safe you sent me from Plymo it cost six Shillgs car- my Chest from London cost 15s and my Boxes one Soap and the other Hats cost 4s so in all I payed for Car- 25s. I Rec'd a Letter from my Mother tother day she was at Brick Hill, Finny Statford she leaves it to morrow which is Monday and goes into Lincolnshire I shall write to her soon. I am very much obliged to Mr Nicolls for his goodness to me I have left a Power of Attorney with my Mother for you and like wise my last Will and Testament so if I die you will be able to get all my Pay & Give my Compts to Wilkins tell him I would advise him to pass as I think it quite or in Short Nothing but what every knows that has been at sea 2 yrs or ought to. I have been enquiring about the Solitaire's Prize Money they tell me it is gone to Greenwich and while you are alive no power can get it, you I must appear. I am very sorry for Henner he was a very good young man - it is true [L Mudge?] has passed but he was an hour and 20 min about it, I saw him last Friday on board the Ardent, there was a Court Martial on a Mr White he was Acting Leiutt and Commander of the Vixin Galley in No America

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He was in Debt there and was obliged to Run away and come to England in a Transport - he made a very good Defence he was Sentenced Never to serve again as an Officer in his Majesty's Service there was several other Charges all of which he proved to be Maliciously prefered against him, I have no more News to tell you. Make my Respects to Capt and Mrs Ourry and Capt Palmer tell him I am much oblig'd to him for his Recomminding me to Capt Hunter who promisses to be very good to me - the only one I know on board at Present is Mr Lowes one of the [Surgs?] Mates he is a very genteel young man. I Learn all I can of Recommendations but tell Nothing he was Recommended by Mr Nepean -

I saw C- Bickerton on Friday and thanked him for his Civility in offering to take me She is now at Spithead waiting for Orders - let me know what is become of Wolfe - we dont know any thing about coming to Plymo but I dare say some of the Squadron will go in - Give my Compts to all the Club I beleive it is with you this full Moon

I am Hon'd Father

Your dutiful Son

Newton Fowell

There is the Music for Rosina set for the Guitar I thank you to send it if the Ship comes to Plymo

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John Fowell Esqr

Black Hall

So Brent


March 1787

Letter 5. March 27 1787

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Sirius at the Mother Bank

March 27. 1787.

Hon'd Father

I Rec'd your Letter some time ago and should have answered it before but was in hopes of giving you some Intelligence about sailing but am sorry we have not heard a word about it. Cap.t Philip is still in London and we dont know any thing of his coming down to join the Ship but don't care how soon as I am all Ready and the sooner we sail the better, The Transports have joined us from Plymouth so we have but small hopes of going there but still I hope we shall be at Torbay which will be almost the same - I had a Letter from my Mother on Sunday which I shall answer by this Post. I intend from this time to keep all the Letters I Receive and a copy of all I send.

I like the Sirius and all the Officers very well Capt Hunter is a very agreeable man at [Table?] as well as on Service he at Present Messes in view facsimile

the Gun Room where I have dined several Times. The first Leiut Name is Bradley he has had a Letter from Capt Ellison who has Recommended me to him by Mr Nicoll's Request he is very civil to me and says Cap.t E. is the only man he cares a farthing for so I suppose he will be very good to me on that Account. The Second Leiut. Name is King he is one of Taunton and I beleive Mr Nicolls wrote to him about me he is also very Civil and good to me. The 3 Leiut Name is Maxwell he was with Cap.t H. when he was 4th Leiut of the Berwick and Mr M 3d but that was before I went in her he is a very good Officer and has been very good to me, In short, I have had Civilities shown me than I could expect from People who are Strangers to me - so I live very happy. As to my Mess I cannot say much of as at Present we have not laid down the Pence, but I have put 12 Guineas away for that Purpose, all my Messmates seem very agreeable. I have seen Capt Bickerton since I wrote you last he seemed view facsimile

very glad to see me and gave me an Invitation to dine with him on board the Sybil which I shall do in a few days. I beleive, I never mentioned to you my Aunt P. gave me a Writing Desk when I was in Town it is made of Mahogany she likewise filled it with Paper Ink Pens &. it is very like Cap.t Ourry's - I saw my old Messmate Cunningham the other day he belongs to the Hyna, the Honble Capt De Corsey it is Reported she is going with us as far as Teneriffe to bring home Dispatches, I have not yet heard of Jacobs, nor Widdicombe, they have been Smoaking some of the Transports lately, I beleive they are rather sickly - If you Recollect when I passed there was a young man turned back his Name was Candlar he was going out in this Ship but is now in the Kings Bench Prison for debt. Give my Respects to Capt and Mrs Ourry and Dr & Mrs Birdwood and Compts to all the Club - my Love to my Brother and am

Hon'd Father

Your dutiful Son

Newton Fowell

I am in great Haste as there is a Boat going

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on Acct. of the Officers of the Sirius

John Fowell Esqr

Black Hall

So Brent


March 27 1787

Letter 6. Sirius at Sea May 20 1787

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Sirius at Sea May 20 1787

Hon'd Father

I send short —

I would let no opportunity slip of Writing you tho my Letter be ever so short just to tell you where the ship now is & her proceedings since we sailed which was on Sunday last with a fair Wind and stood down Channel on Wednesday we took our departure from the Bill of Portland which was the last Land We Saw or are likely to see these 3 or 4 Years. We have since last Friday had a foul wind and blowing hard till to day and by my Account we are in Lattd 47. 47 N. Longd 11. 15 W. Cape Finistere dist 93 Leagues

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     The Hyna Capt D'Corsey Convoyed us from Spithead and to Night returns to England by which opportunity I send this Letter

We are now bound to Teneriffe where we shall stay a fortnight. We have a Brigg now with us called the Supply commanded by a Leiut it is currently reported she is to be made in to a Sloop of War & Mr Ball who now Commands her to be made a Master & Commander if so I dont doubt but I shall jump in for that Chance which will be as soon as we are out of the Limits of the Admiralty. I like Capt Philip vastly he is a very good Man & a Smart Officer. I was the first that dined with him/he seemed very Chearful & wished view facsimile

vastly to get to Sea/ which was at Spithead

This day the Irons were taken off the Convicts they are Cheifly in good health, There is no other news Stirring and I am in great haste for fear of Missing the Boat.

Give my Respects to Capt & Mrs Ourry & Compts to all the Club my Duty to my Mother & Love to my Brothers My Duty to my Aunts Pauncefort and Digby I am Hon'd Father

Your dutiful Son

Newton Fowell

I shall write again at Teneriffe

I send this by Cunningham that was home with me

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 Lre's from Mr Newton Fowell on A Voyage to Botany Bay - in H.M.S. Sirius

John Fowell Esqr

B. Hall

So Brent


May 20th 1787

Letter 7. Teneriffe June 4th 1787

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Teneriffe June 4th 1787

Hon'd Father/

  We arrived at Santa Cruiz last Night after a very good passage of only three Weeks which we think very tolerable as the Charlotte one of the Transports sail very well bad indeed and she is a very great hinderence to us, as we came here but yesterday I have not yet been on shore but intend going tomorrow I would put off Writing this Letter but the Packet sails to morrow evening for some part of Spain. I hope to be able to get this Letter in the Commodore's Packet of Dispatches which will save a great deal of Postage, I keep an Account of all the Necessary Transactions such as the making of Land &. The Hyæna Convoyed us clear of England and I wrote you a Letter by her just to tell you I was very well.

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She parted with us on Sunday May 20 and that Day two Convicts were brought on board us to be punished for Mutiny they had their plan fixed very well but were informed of they were to take the Ship in the Night and as there was at that time a fair Wind for france most likely they would have landed if possible there. We shall stay here only a few days and then sail for Rio Jenairo on the Coast of Brazils the Passage is supposed to be about 10 or 12 Weeks from there we go to the Cape of Good Hope & from thence to Botany -

I like Capt Phillip vastly he is very good humoured & Chearful, he sent for me to day & told me as the first Leiutt Mr Bradly is to be day Officer I was to take his watch and do Duty as Acting Leiutt tell my Mother in case of Writing to me not to make a view facsimile

a Mistake & Direct L.t as most likely it is only for a Week so you see I am just like a Sheet Anchor used only on Particular Cases Mr King the Second Lt in whose Watch I was in I beleive has always used his Interest with C Philip in my behalf, he has been with him before, to the East Indies, and it as I understand a Mistake in the Commissions was made, he was to be 1 Leuit. I have no other News - Give my Respects to Capt & Mrs Ourry Dr & Mrs Birdwood My Compts to all the list

  I wrote a Letter to Mr Nepean which Capt Philip was good enough to enclose in his frank to him

Give my Duty to my Mother & Aunts & Love to my Brothers I am

Hon'd Father

Your dutiful son

Newton Fowell

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John Fowell Esq.r

Black Hall

So Brent


June 4th 1787

Letter 8. September 23 1787

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Monday Morning one oClock

Hon'd Father,

  I wrote you a short Letter by a Ship bound to Lisbon the first Day of our Arrival here without giving you any other Account than that I was very well, so shall not loose this favourable opportunity of giving you a Concise Account of our Proceedings since we left Teneriffe which was on Sunday the 10th of June and had a very clear Veiu of the Peak, on the 13 it being chiefly Calm since we left the Roadstead we past the Island of Gomera which is one of the Canaries, and on the 15 Got a Fresh Trade Wind from the NE, on the 19 We made the Island of St Iago and Prepared to Anchor in Port Praya Bay / this is where Comodore Johnstone had a Action with a French Squadron) But in hauling round the Eastermost Point when just within it & had the [Fort?] Open, we observed the Wind blew right in by the Pendant of a Portugeuse Snow that was laying at Anchor in the Bay, & was soon taken a back, The Convoy which were close to us were some of them near getting on board us which must have been fatal to some as there was a ground Swell Running a a Reef of Rocks not half a Mile from us that Run out near a Mile from the Shore,

We found there was no true Wind in the Bay as it was chiefly Calm so that it was impossible with such a Number of Ships to have got in Safe, therefore however anxiously it might have been wished for us all to have got some fresh Stock Capt Philip took his Measures to get out again as expeditiously as Possible which was Rendered a hard task from the Variable Winds however after two hours Puzzle we got in the Trade Winds & Made Sail for Rio De Jeneiro / No Ships Anchor in Port Praya Bay but in the Autumal Months, The Thermometer while off Port Praya Bay in the Shade was 81°.o'. The Barometer was 30°.6'. / On the 30 We spoke a Vessel from Lisbon bound to the Brazils. The Same Afternoon a Devil Fish was [killed?] view facsimile

and with great Trouble got on board, I understand very few People have ever Mentioned any thing of it, Goldsmith in his History of the Earth & Animated Nature has made Mention of it under the name of Regna Piscatrix, which you most likely can get and there get a Perfect Idea of it very likely a Cut of the Fish. On the 5 of May the Convoy were put to an Allowance of 3 Pints of Water a Man pr Day Besides that used in Dressing their Victuals, We caught Several Boneta's and Albacores Daily, In the 7th Spoke a Sloop from London bound to Faulklands Islands which had been from England Twelve Weeks, Ships Latt.d this Day at Noon 5°. 16' N. Long.d 18°.57' West of London pr Time Keeper On the 14 We Crossed the Equator in Longd 25.56' Thermo 79°. Bar 30°.3' The Time Keeper here was of Singular Service as the Current was very Variable & set us some times 40 Miles a Day, On the 19 the Convoy had a Pint of Water Added to their Allowance, On the --- carried away the Main top sail Yard in the Slings On the 2d of August Made the Land and on the 7 Got in to Rio de Jeneiro Saluted the fort with 13 Guns which they Returned with the same Number We found here Oranges Remarkable Cheap and Good. Provisions was very Reasonable & Vegetables the Same. Our Squadron coming here has made things much Dearer, Oranges before we Arrived were only 3d a Thousand They are now they are now about 9d a Hundred -

This Place is governed by a Vice King who set at the head of every Court of Justice, Capt Philip is very well known to him as he has been in the Portuguese Service & on this Station he bears the Rank as Rear Admiral in their Service, The Portuguese dont wish this view facsimile

Place to be known more than it is at Present and are very Cautious in sending Officers with all Foreigners who come [indecipherable] on Shore they say it is to prevent their being Insulted by the Natives, but in fact it is to prevent your going far into the Country as they have Mines of [indecipherable] Gold & Silver, which they would not wish any Stranger to know any thing about They trade from this part of the Country to the Coast of Guinea for Slaves who not only work these Mines but dig for Diamonds which I understand are very often found, The Harbour is an Excellent one it has a Vast Number of Islands in and of Course must be very Large there are 14 Rivers empty themselves in this place which Makes the Tide very Uncertain, The Town is very well fortified they pretend to set at Defyance [indecipherable] all Europe but I think it is possible to take it with only the Fleet we had in the War in the West Indies & [The?] Troops that which were in America, I was on Shore of on of these Islands called Illa Das Enxada) pronounce Island De Enshada for 3 Weeks at our Observitory with Lieut Dawes of the Marines who is here our Astronomer Royal, to make Observations for Determining the Longitude of the Place, this Island is only Quarter a Mile Round and was uninhabited before we went on Shore, However we Pitched a Tent and. Got our Instruments & Mr Dawes went to work, I cannot say we for I know not how, I am almost Stupid it is now half past 3 oClock and I have not been in bed this Night so must leave off for the Present --- Hon'd Father. I have since enjoyed 4 Hours Repose and am not quite so tired as when I left off last Night so will go on with my Account of this Place. The Town is built in Right Angles The Houses have no glass Windows, they are all Lettuces for the Conveniency of the Air. Their Churches are very Ellegant having in them a Number of view facsimile

of Images in them Representing all the Saints they are mostly Gold with Large Gold Candelsticks before them Their Devotion is Chiefly in Evenings and on Particular Evenings carry Images through the Streets Singing as they Walk. There are many [indecipherable] People employed with a Bason of Holy Water to beg Money for the Host, They have likewise Images at the Corner of all their Streets, in a Glass Frame. The Inhabitants are very Civil and seem to Court the Company of any English Officer, I was last Night on Shore and was at one of their Dances tho I did not [indecipherable] Dance.— The Mail is just now to be closed and am afraid I shall be to late as my Letter goes with the Dispatches Our Master and two of the Mates Return home on account of their bad Health. I beleive Richd Grace is not in the Fleet. Widdicombe is very well, I have spoke to the Master of the Transports he is on board who is very indulgent to him & says he behaves himself very well, I shall do all in my Power for them all that I know which are but two, one that Miss Ourry spok about, tell her Mr Furzer is very well, I am afraid I shall have Occasion to draw a bill on you at the Cape of Good Hope for 10£ but if it is possible I can do without I will, You may Depend I shall not be the least extravagant. Give my Respects to Capt & Mrs Ourry, Doctor & Mrs Birdwood my Compts to all the Rest my Duty to my Mother & Love to my Brother and am Hon'd Father

Your dutiful son

Newton Fowell

We sail tomorrow

Monday Sept. 23d 1787

I almost forgot to tell you here Sunday is their Cheif Day for their Entertainment - I am in a great hurry & hope you will excuse the badness of the Writing & English [No address leaf]

Letter 9. Table Bay November 10 1787

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Cape of Good Hope

Newton Fowell to

Capt. George Ourry

Dear Sir

As I suppose you saw all the Letters I have wrote to my Father was the Reason I did not write you before, and now take the opportunity of a Danish East Indiaman bound to Portsmouth to let you know our Proceedings since our leaving Rio De Jeneiro from Which place we Sailed on Tuesday the 4th of September and bound for the Cape Distance Eleven Hundred Leagues, The same Afternoon Spoke a Ship from Lisbon who informed us the Vice Roi was to be Superceeded which I understand was by his own Request. By observations made on the Island das Enxada, found the Town St Subastiin to be in Longitude 43°.19' West of Greenwich The first part of our passage was very good indeed we cannot complain of any part of it as we were only 5 Weeks and 5 Days Very few occurrences all the passage, towards the latter end the Convicts got rather Sickly but they are now all Recovered, and since we left England have had only Seventeen of them Dead two of Which was Children born Since we first Sailed.

We arrived here on Saturday the 14 October and the next Day Saluted the Fort with 13 Guns which was Returned with the Same Number, We found her a Dutch Commodore several Dutch East Indiaman one Danish and Two French The Town here being all White had a very pleasant view facsimile

effect and is built in Right Angles there are no Taverns here but the Tradesmen take in Lodgers at Seven Shillings a Day this makes it very disagreeable to Strangers not knowing what house to go to for the Want of a Tavern. - I one day made a party and ascended the Table Land which I dare say you know, it is very Steep tho not so very difficult as was represented to me before I set out We were two Hours and three Quarters Ascending, and most part of the way found no Water indeed we took a very improper time, we did not set off till near 10 OClock and then the Sun was broiling hot, we ought to set off at 5 OClock in the Morning and been down again by 10. The View from the Top was very beautiful & Spacious as I am sure the top is near a Mile Perpendicular, and the Prospect near 40 Miles, the Top goes with a gradual Descent for about half a Mile or more which I could see but we were obliged to leave it in case of a cloud covering it, than we must stand still as there is but one way down all round the rest is a very high precipice I find my Mess to be very expensive owing to the bad Management of the former Catrer. he left the Ship at Rio. I have been obliged on that Reason to draw on Mr Coombe for Ten Pound Sterling which I would thank you to acquaint my Father of.

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I have wrote to Mr Nepean and Comodore Philip has been good enough to say he will enclose it with his Letters to him. Mr King the Second Leiutt has been very much my Friend he has been with the Com.dr before in the Europe to the East Indies he will be made Govenor of Norfolk Island and I shall surely jump into his vacancy he told it me as a Secret and I have not told it to any one on board the Ship I am just now going on Shore to send this Letter away. Mr. Furzer is very well and desires his Compts to you & Family, Capt Hunter desires his respects [indecipherable]

Please to give my duty to my Father and Love to my Brothers my Respects to Mrs & Miss Ourry and Compts to all the rest of the Club and am

Dear Sir

Your most obedient and

most Humble Servant

Newton Fowell

Table Bay

Novr 10. 1787

Remember me to Wolfe and hope he has passed his Examination before this. Southwell who was in the Ocean is here & desires His Respects to you

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George Ourry Esqr

Maridge near So Brent


from the Cape

Nov.r 10 1787

Letter 10. Sydney Cove in Port Jackson July 12. 1788

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part of 1787 & 1788

Honoured Father,

I shall first begin by saying I am very well & then go on from the Conclusion of my Letter to Cap.t Ourry which was wrote at the Cape of Good Hope, before we sailed from there we took in a great Quantity of Stock such as Oxen, 6 Cowes & Several Sheep, & & Sent several Sheep & hogs on board the Different Transports on the 12 Nov.r 1787. We Weighed & Stood for Sea with all the Convoy in Company - All the People thoroughly clear of the Scurvy as the Dutch Supply'd us with Mutton Vegetables & all other things for the Preservation of Mens Lives on so long a Voyage.- The same Day Spoke the Kent belonging to London) a Spermicitti Whaler, four Months from England, The Same evening lost Sight of the Land The Wind from the S.E. which was against us - 13th. Saw 2 Strange sail to Windward. Put the officers & men to an Allowance of 2 Quarts of Water a Day The Wind held from the S E till the 18 it then came favourable our Lat.e was 37.10 S. Long.d 10°.20' Et. Stood to the Soward - 20th The Allowance of Water was Reduced to 3 Pints a Day. The Wind came from the Northw.d which was more favourable & blew fresh 23 Carriyd away the Main T. Gallant Yard & Split the Sail got up another yard & a new Sail. Sent Several Artificers on board the Supply & several chests of tools 25 The Govonor, Accompanied by L.t King 2.d L.t & L.t Dawes of the Marines, went on board the Supply Lt Govonor Major Ross went on board the Scarborough Transport at Noon they Parted Company with the fleet & took with them the Alexander & Friendship Transports. The Govonor took the Time Keeper with him in the Supply our Latd at Noon was 38.50 South Long.d 22°.35' East Stood to the SE - 26th In the Evening the Wind Came from the Eastward which was against us 28th Wind fair Blowing very fresh - December 14 Passed the Island of Desolation but not in Sight found the Variation of the Compass very high since the first of this month increasing Gradually till it was 32 Degrees Westerly. 17 Passed the Island of St. Pauls at 68 Leagues Distance, found Westerly Winds Prevail since we passed the Latitude of 39 Degrees. Saw a Number of Whales & Birds & some Sea Weed 25 at Noon our Lat.d was 42°.09' S Longitude by my Account 100°.24' East Longitude by the Lunar Observations about 101°.00 28 Brought the Westermost part of Van Diemans Land to bear North of us, observed for Several Days past not so many Birds about the Ship nor scarce any Whales. January 1st 1788 I wish you all a happy new Year, tho I beleive not much of the year 88 will be left when you get this so it may serve you for 89 - This Year began with very bad Tempestous Weather, it Blew much harder than any Wind we have had since our leaving England. 5th Early in the morning a Bird was seen very like a Crow which I fancy must have blown from the Land to the NW of us have daily seen for some time past several Albatrosses & the Blue Peteral. The Albatross is very like a Gull but much larger with a Yellow Bill. I have been told they have been known to measure 16 Feet from the tip of one Wing to the other. The Peteral is about the size of a Barn Door Fowl, has very pretty Plumage. I saw none of them so near as to give any Further Discripsion of them only view facsimile

that they may be seen a long way at Sea. the same evening Saw the Southern Lights Shining very bright - 7. At 4 in the morning we were overjoyed with hearing the Land was in Sight but by 6 We were Mortified to find the Land only a fogbank which in the Grey of the morning appears very like Land. Saw a Sea Otter, at Noon got an observation which was of the utmost Consequence & found ourselves in Lat.d 44°.04' S. have been Steering all Day ENE, at 2 in the Afternoon the Prince of Wales Transport made the Sig.l for seeing the Land and in Quarter an hour afterwards we had the Pleasure of seeing it ourselves in the NE. We then Steered NE for the Land at 3 We saw the Mewstone Distinctly bearing NE6° E Distance 9 or 10 Miles. The Mewstone is a Rock laying some Distance from the Shore and not unlike the Mewstone in Torbay it being very hazey we could scarcely see the Western Coast. Stood to the Eastward for the South Cape - about the Mewstone the Land appears high Irregular & Barren but to the Eastward it Appears lower. Very Woody, here & there are seen some Green Spots. That which is called the South Cape runs out rather low & more like a Point to the Eastward of it runs out a Bluff Point with Trees close to the Waters Edge but none of them appeared to be of the fruit kind at 6 The So Cape N 40° E, Saw several Smokes on the Shore near Tasmans head which lies to the ENE of the South Cape and these two form the entrance of a Deep Bay which has an Island in the Bottom of it, it is called Storm Bay but the Island was not named, at Night saw several fires where the smokes were seen before at 10 The Wind came to the NE Stood to the ESE, had very little Wind since we came near the Shore. There are two Rocks the one call'd Swilly the other Edistone bearing from each other WSW & ENE the Edistone is the Eastermost. They Bear nearly South from the South Cape Distance about --- Miles, I forgot before to mention the Variations of the Compass since the 12 of Dec.r decreased just as it increased before till the 5 of Jan.ry when it Changed from West to East our Latd was then 44.00 and the Longitude 138°.5' E.t it then increased gradually to the Eastw.d. Jany 8 The Wind to the N'ward which was against us Stood to the Eastward the same Morning lost sight of the Land, Variation 5.30 East. Saw Several Sea Otters, at 4 in the Afternoon Sounded 80 Fathoms Correl Rockey Bottom at 6 Tried again for Soundings but got none - 9 In the morning it Blew very hard against us at noon came on a Squall of Rain accompanied with Thunder & Lightning which Shifted the Wind to the Westward & had fine Wea.r Stood to the Northwd for Cape Howe - 10th in the Afternoon came on a very heavy Squall of Rain & Wind which obliged us to take in all our sails, this Squall was exceeding hard & I think I never saw it blow so hard before it was all over in about a Quarter of an hour, in the middle of the Squall the Wind Shifted to SW which was in our favour, after it was over observed Some of the Convoy with some of their Sails gone & one without her Main Yard but they were all soon Replaced Var. 7°. 24' E on the 14 The Variation 10°.20 Et in the Afternoon got some Lunar observations by which we found ourselves to the Eastwd of Account which plainly shews a strong Easterly Current has been running 15 at Noon Cape Howe Bore WBN 28 Leagues The Wind very Variable & Squally 17 Fine Mode Wea.r hooked a large Shark which in getting on board unhooked he appeared to be about 10 feet Long and had been wounded between the Shoulders at Noon found ourselves to the Northward of Cape Howe 7 Miles North

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The Greatest part of this afternoon was Calm, saw a large Schole of Porpouses which always denote Wind, in the Evening a fine Breeze Sprung up from the Southward Stood to the Northward - 18th Hauled to the Westward a Little, for the Land our Latd 35°.48' S. in the Afternoon it blew Fresh. in the Evening hove too for the Night - 19th Modre Breezes from the SE - early in the morning bore away Steered WNW for the Land at 5 Saw it bearing WbN hauled further to the Northward, it appeared rather high in Land, next the sea lay a low flat which could be scarcely perceived till within 3 or 4 Leagues of it this [tops?] Land is a little to the Southward of Red Point, at Noon it bore WBN, this point may be known by the Redness of the Land, and a large white Sandy Beach which lays to the Northward of it, The Point projects out some way from the main Land and above it is a Round Hill call'd Round Hat which bore at the same time W1/2N, there are likewise three Perimids of but a moderate height are in sight near the Point at the same time, Latd obsd 34°.30' S stood along the shore at 4 or 5 Miles Distance from it till 6 oClock when we saw the entrance of Botany Bay bearing NNW , Stood off & on all night - 20th Fresh Breeze from the SSW at 5 Stood for the Bay it then bearing North 3 Leagues at 7 We were between Point Solander & Cape Banks, Saw the Supply and Transports which parted Company on the 25 of November. The Supply's boat came on board informed us they were all well on board, that the Supply had been in the Bay only two days & the Transports only one Day at 8 We Anchord bringing Pt Solander to bear SSE Cape Banks ESE. Got immediately grass on board for the Cattle, on the Passage we were so unfortunate as to loose two of the Cowes. Suppose they must have died chiefly for want of Provisions & the frequent falls they got by the motion of the Ship - The Entrance of Botany Bay is rather Narrow as a reef of rocks runs out from a small round bare Island which in coming in you leave to the Nothward of you keeping in mid Channel or rather inclining towards the Southern Shore & Steer about WNW. Cape Banks is on the North Shore & it is very Rocky you must not by any means go near it as the Water is shoal but there is a low rocky point which runs out to the Eastward of it which you may pass within a Quarter a Mile of.

Point Solander cannot be seen from the Sea but there is a Bluff head which lies to the Southard of the entrance which you see it has scarce any Trees on it - Point Solander is rather Low has a Number of Trees on it, and the Distance from this Point to Cape Banks I judge to be rather better than a Mile, on the south side of the entrance there is four & five Fathoms Water within a hundred yards of the Shore. B. Bay is very spacious and has several Sandy Beaches on it & goes far to the Southward of Point Solander to the Souther.d of Point Southerland (which is only a small Rocky Point that runs off from a Sandy Beach) is very shoal awater and not fit for any Vessals to view facsimile

to Anchor not having at low Water above 5 or 6 feet, within half a mile of the Sandy Beach, on the North Shore the Water is Deeper, after you pass bare Island there is 6, 7 or 8 Faths Water within a Quarter a Mile of the Shore, There are two Leguna's one in the NW, the other in the SW Part of the Bay, the NW Leguna I beleive is only Navigable for Small Vessels & Boats the SW. has Water enough for a Sizeable Ship there is a Bar that lies off the SW Leguna which has not above 12 or 14 feet Water at Low Water - The Shore all round is like a thick Wood and the Soil very Sandy, the Grass in [most?] places is about 2 feet high but not thick Here & there is spots of underwood - The Trees are in General about 20 yards Distance from each other - In the Afternoon of the 20th Sent a Party of men on Shore on Point Southerland to clear away a Run of Water which is rather scarce here - Capt Cook mentions cutting the Ships Name & the month Year & on one of the Trees but it never could be found, the Tree may still be standing the Bark is very thick and if he did not cut through it, it in time will Disappear, as some of the Trees shed a thin coat of their Bark Yearly I suppose, some have this thin coat very loose and quite sundried so by the least touch it will fall off. this Tree is called the Sanjuis Dragonis on account of the red juice not unlike Port Wine that comes from it when cut down. I tasted some of it it had a very rough bitter taste.

The Govonor and other officers employed in different boats searching about different Creeks for fresh Water a Lance was thrown at Mr King but did no hurt he afterwards landed & they were very friendly. he gave them several trinkets. The Governor immediately the Supply Anchored went in one of her boats to Land several of the Natives gathered to the Place where the boat was to Land on his approaching near the Shore they Brandished their Spears & seemed to dispute his Landing, he immediately put off and pulled round a Low Point & landed at a small distance from the Natives, he approached toward them, they would not come near him till he had laid down a Gun he had in his hand which I think plainly shows they must remember to have seen some of Capt Cook's People do some execution with Guns - however they had an amicable intercourse & they parted very friendly.

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1788 January 21.

The Govonor accompanied by Capt Hunter & some other officers went in Boats to examine Port Jackson which lies 9 Miles to the Northward of B. Bay. Mr. King went up the SW Leguna where he found a very good soil but no signs of any Fresh Water, had a Party of men on shore to clear away Ground in readiness for Pitching Tents &a against the return of the Govonor if his intentions where to make the Settlement here, Saw a number of Natives who came to the boats just at Sun set when the People were going on board all of them have a Spear made of hard Wood & Sharpened by scraping it with a Shell it is about 12 feet in Length and joined in Several Places with Gum they can throw them about 70 Yards this sort of Spear we afterward found to be the War Spear another sort they have for fishing which is about the same Length having four prongs at the end & at the end of each prong is a fishes tooth very nicely fastned with Gum & bearded with the same, this they use by throwing it with their hand and only at fish the other they throw with a Stick about 3 feet Long, that has a crook at one end and which they hook in the end of the Spear & throw it with great exactness - at the other end is a Shell they use for scraping their Spear & opening Oysters they speak very Loud, and mostly all together very often pronouncing the Words Worra Worra Wea & seemed quite Surprized at not being Answered. One of the Ships sent a boat to haul her Sceine when the Natives saw the fish come on the beach they immediately ran in the Net speared the fish & carried them away, they were not stoped for fear of a disturbance - The next day one of the Party took a fife on Shore, played several tunes to the Natives who were highly delighted with it espetially at seeing some of the Seamen dance

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In the afternoon the Govonor Returned found Port Jackson to be an excellent harbour, got everything in readiness to Proceed there 24th Saw two Ships in the offing Working up for the Bay but the wind being to the NoW.d & a Strong Current setting to the Southward they were soon out of sight -

25th The Supply with the Govonor on board Sailed for Port Jackson where he intends to make the Settlement - 26th The two fr [?] Ships which were seen in the offing on the 24th arrived this morning they proved to be the Boussole & L'Astrolabe two French Ships on Discoverys they were commanded when they left France by Monsieur De La Perouse & Monsieur De Langle, the latter of whom was killed by the Natives of one of the Navigators with 12 Men 8 of whom were officers. They were on Shore in two of their Boats for Water, their Ships were under weigh & had dropt out of the Bay

The Natives before had been very friendly to them and at this time one of the Boats was aground, and when they came down to murder them, the French Supposed their intent was to assist them in launching the Boat that was aground, it was supposed upwards of 500 Stones was thrown in the first Shower, The French immediately discharged a Volley of Small Arms at them & it is Supposed above 20 of the Natives must have been killed - Several of the French were also wounded those who escaped swam off to their other Boat which lay off at a small distance the reason of this we could not learn the French at first say'd they supposed it must have been done for the sake of keeping the Boats, but afterwards some hints dropt that it was one of their Sailors had behaved very ill to some of the Natives - Monsieur Clunard was afterward give the Command of the Astrolabe - M. Perouse on being asked what discoveries he had made paid Cap.t Cook a very great Compliment by saying he had left nothing undone which was very view facsimile

handsome of him. he commanded the Squadron that destroyed our Settlements in Hudson Bay - at 11 we got under weigh & worked out of the Bay with all the Convoy Stood for Port Jackson, in going from B. Bay to Port Jackson you pass seven Bluff heads, The entrance of Port Jackson is narrow but you may pass within 100 Yards of the South head, The North head projects out near a Mile to the Eastward of the South head which is quite Perpendicular from the Waters Edge, in working in saw several of the Natives who called to us but as we approached the shore they retired to the bush at 5 We anchored in a small Cove where we found the Supply laying, all the Convoy by sunset were all at Anchor within us, here you are intirely Land Locked and it is impossible for any Wind to do you the least damage the next day got on Shore some tents & Landed some of the Convicts & some of the shore division of Marines, who were employed clearing ground, 28 Capt Hunter, Mr Bradley & other proper officers were employed Surveying the Harbour Landed the remainder of the Convicts & Marines the former of whom were employed clearing the Ground the Latter pitching the encampment the Convicts were constantly employed in clearing & enclosing Ground 30 Land all the Cattle which was 5 Cowes 2 Bulls 6 Horses which came from the Cape in the Lady Penrhyn, Several Sheep & Hogs. Sunday February 3rd. Divine Service was performed on Shore for the first time There has been a great deal of Thunder Lightning & heavy rain since our first Arrival here. on the Night of the 6th Several trees were shivered with Lightning one in Particular which had several very Large Branches broke entirely off and several Sheep which were in a Pen under the Tree were killed. The next Day the Govonors Commission and Code of Laws for the Colony were read, in which he is view facsimile

stiled Captain General & Govonor in chief of the Settlement in New South Wales & all the Adjacent Islands in the South Seas, he afterwards had a cold Dinner for the officers at which I was, several Bumper toasts was afterwards drank and we immediately broke up - 8th Capt Hunter finished the survey of the harbour, he says it contains a Number of very good Coves fit for any Vessel to Anchor in with the greatest safety indeed he says it is the finest harbour in the known world the Cove in which we are is called Sydney Cove none of the rest is yet named, the Chart of the Harbour is kept very secret for fear it may get into some person's hands who might have it Publish'd in England before the Chart that is going to the Admiralty but as soon as it is made Publick I shall get a Plan of it - 9th Mon: Clunard came round in a boat from Botany Bay with their dispatches which are to go to Europe with ours he returned the same Night, he would by no means go on Shore altho the Govonor rather pressed him

12. Some People went to Botany Bay by land but the French Ships were gone while they lay in the Bay they buried one of their Abbeys over the Place where he was intered was a Latin Inscripsion Painted on board this very luckily was taken off in a Pocket book by one of the officers who went over there - but in a few days after the Natives took it down, here the Gov.r had an opportunity of returning Mon: Clunard's civility, by having a Sheet of Copper with the same Inscripsion engraved on it, as was painted on view facsimile

on the Board the Natives took down; and having the Copper Screwed to a tree, Mon: Clunard when at Kamscatksa erected a very fine Monument over the remains of Capt Clark and took down some Remains of an old one that Capt Cook built he likewise got the Natives to promise not to let any person take it down while in the Bay they built two boats, dug & sowed a very good garden in hopes it might be of some service to us, this they could not get the Natives to promise not to pull down for I was over there a few days after they sailed & found it, all the fence tore in Peices and the ground trampled all over, so we may expect but very little good from it, 14th L.t King, Mr Jemeison Surgeons Mate, & Mr Cunningham Master mate with 4 Seamen, 2 Marines, & 12 Convicts went on board the Supply to go to Norfolk Island & make a Settlement there which is to Supply this Colony with Pine as no light wood can be got here. Sent with them 6 Months Provisions A Boat equipt with every Necessary Article, A Sceine, Tools of all sorts, it is likewise expected to find flax there so a Weaver & a loom was sent. Richard Widdecombe was one of the men Mr King chose to take with him so I took the opportunity of mention him to Mr King one Day at the Govonors, they both spoke very much in his favour and I dont doubt but he will do well if he pleases, the next day the Supply sailed, so things went joging on till the 25 when Richard Bennet one of the Convicts must steal some provisions for which he was hung, the Convicts were constantly employed clearing Ground, building Store houses for the Reception of Provisions & which were built of by putting trees about 2 feet in the ground so as to touch each other & thatched over with rushes, there are likewise a number of hovels built of Cabbage Tree for some of the officers & the Batallion, they are chiefly thatched with rushes view facsimile

but some are covered with Wooden tiles the wood of which these tiles are made of Splits something like the Ash but in any other respect is not the least like it, some of our People were employed in making a Garden on an Island which was Named Garden Island; on the 20th of March the Supply returned they found much difficulty in Landing Mr King & his Party as the surf ran so very high, in most places the Rocks are Perpendicular, they at last landed in a small inlet that a reef of rocks surrounds the mouth of, only here & there a small passage for boats, which as soon as you are past you get in smooth Water & Land on a Sandy beach, within these rocks some Turtle were seen Norfolk Island abounds with great Quantities of Pine some of Which were measured to be 45 feet from the bottom of the Trunk to the top of the tree and about 40 feet of which had not a knot, the diameter was from 8 to 10 feet I have heard some people say they are 170 feet in height & 100 feet clear of knots but that I think is quite out of all reason, the Island is Situated in Lat.d 29.02 & Longitude 168.16 East of Greenwich. on their Passage there, & on 17 of Feb.ry At day Light in the morning they discovered what they thought to be two Islands bearing ESE. Stood towards them all day but it proving little Wind did not near them much on the Evening the Breze freshned they kept a press of sail directly for them till Midnight & then shortned sail till day light expecting to be near them, as the day broke saw the Land which was seen indistinctly during the night, & at the same time saw a high Pyrimidical Rock which as they had not seen it before it seem'd very near them made it prudent for them to lay to till the day was a little advanced, They then made all sail possible and it was not before view facsimile

Noon they were able to get to the Northward of this Island so as to secure a good Meridional observation which however was obtained & they had every reason to beleive they were the first Navigators who had ever seen this Island Leiutenant Ball named it Lord Howe Island in honour of the Present first Lord of the Admiralty, It is situated in Latitude 31.36 South and Longd 159°.02' East of Greenwich, It lays in the form of a half moon its convex side towards the NE. The two Supposed Islands that were first seen proved to be two high Mountains on the SE end of the Island the Southermost of which is called Mount Gower the other Mount Lidgbird between which is a deep Valley called Eskine Vale - The SE Point is called Point King the NW Point Philip, these two Points form the Concave side of the Island facing SW, and is lined with a Sandy Beach on the Island which is guarded against the Sea by a reef of Corral rocks at the Distance of about half a Mile from the Beach through this reef there are several small openings for Boats, but it is much to be regreted that the depth of water within this reef does not exceed any where more than 4 Feet -

Innumerable Quantity of very fine Turtle, frequent this Island in the Summer Months but they all retire to the Northward during the Winter Season there was not the Least difficulty found in taking them nor would they quit their intention of Landing on the beach, tho they were busily employed in Turning & carrying into the boats as many as they could stow - On the Shore are many of Gannets - There are found here A Dusky brown bird with a long bill of feet like a Chicken are remarkable fat, & very good.

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good food but rather tough, Many Pidgeons which are very Large, A White fowl something like the Guinea hen with a very Strong, Red, thick, & Sharp pointed Bill Legs like a Stout barn door fowl, they are thought Carniverous, they hold their food between their hind claw & the Bottom of their foot & lift it to their mouth without Stooping so much as a Parrot does - some of them which are supposed to be the Male have some blue feathers thinly intersperced on the Wing the tail & Slope of the rump very much resemble the Guinea fowl here is also a Species of Webfooted fowl in general of a deep blue with a bill of about 2 Inches Long Strait but suddenly bent downwards at the end, & very Sharp & Strong, a fine eye like a dove, its Wings do not seemed formed for a long flight having only 6 Long feathers in each Wing, its breast is covered with a very thick long down from the breast bone to the Lower part of the Belly & what is very extrodianary this down proceeds from the tips of very strong feathers with witch the whole Brest & Belly Is covered its length from the tip of the bill to the extremity of the tail is about 22 Inches & Breadth from the tips of the Wings 25 Inches. they were found & took burrowing in holes like Rabbits, there is also the Jay of the Long-bill kind with a few white feathers intermixed in the Wings & tail. The Sandy Beach before Mentioned forms three distinct Bays, Northermost of which is called Callum Bay, in Respect to the Surgeon of the Supply the Middle one is Named Hunters Bay, the other is view facsimile

Named Prince Willm. Henry Bay, which begins at Mount Gower, & ends at Blackburne Island which stands about 2 Miles from the Shore near which there is not above 4 feet Water. The Island itself is Rockey, but abounds in Cabbage Palms, Mangroves & Mangenele Trees, to the very tops of the Mountains, There was not seen the least sign or mark of any Quadruped whatever, The Island may be from 2 Miles to 2 1/2 Miles in Breadth and about 7 or 8 in Length, the soil Sandy & Rockey abounding in great Quantity of underwood but it is supposed the Island can be of no use in respect to Agriculture, but it may be a valuable Acquisition in the Summer Months to this Settlement for Turtle, Fowl & Fish. The Anchoring Ground on the North Side is but indifferent being a hard Rockey Bottom, & if your Ship drives you must immediately cut your cable should the Wind be on the Shore There is no danger in Approaching the Island from the Sea. The Pyrimidical Rock may be seen at the Distance of 20 Leagues it Lays about 4 Mile to the Northwd of Lord Howe Island through which is a Passage for any Ship, to the Northward of the Pyrimid lays 5 Distinct Rocks which are called the Admiralty Rocks -

This Discripsion of Lord Howe Island I got from one of the Gentlemen of the Supply who is going to England by whom I shall a Short Letter which he has promised to deliver himself to my Brother James - The Natives passed the ship daily but never came close to her. we could often see them strike fish, I have often gone to them & given them things which they readily accept but will never part with any thing, particular view facsimile

their fish which is their only Subsistance & I beleive they have little enough for themselves, on the 11 of April The Govonor & Capt Hunter went down the harbour to have a Conference with the Natives in one of the Coves they found out a small Narrow Channel of about 100 Yards which led up to a large Arm they did not that day go to the head of it this new discovery took up his attention so much that he paid very little attention to the Natives he returned the same Night, 15th: The Govonor , accompanied by several officers went from the New Discovered Arm into the Country for a few Days, they returned on the 19th having found a very fine Country when he was about 3 Miles from the Water side but near the Water it was very Rockey 21st Capt Hunter employed Surveying the New Discovered Arm 23d The Govonor with several other officers & a Party of Marines went from the head of the harbour to Travel in Land, they Took with them 6 Days Provisions some Tents, & some Hatches 25 Capt Hunter finished the Survey he found it very Spacious but at some places very shoal, the Cove it runs out of is rather Shoal just at its entrance having at low Water only 2 Fath.s at some places but when you pass this which is not very broad you have 10 Fathom Water, 28 Saw the Gov.r who went further up the harbour in a boat to examine a River they had found out at the head of which was a Slate Rock, found it Navigable to within about 2 Mile of the head, he Supposed he had been about 40 Mile in Land & that it was all the Way like a Park with Trees about 20 Yards Distance from each other the country in General quite a Plain the Grass about 3 feet high & pathes all the Way that Natives had made at about the Distances of about 20 Miles from them when furthest in Land they saw Mountains, the very tops of them can be seen in a clear day from the head of the harbour - Water in Land is in great Plenty they saw Several Ponds some of them 200 Yards wide, & several Widgeon in them, the soil in land they found very good

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May 1st Willm Bennett was hung for theiving - 4th Went among some of the Natives they seemed very friendly all of them have long beards which is very troublesome to them, one of the Party Shaved one of them with a Penknife which must have been very painful to him yet he was very glad to get rid of it 5th. Sailed the Supply for Lord Howe Island & the Lady Penrhyn for China it is supposed she is going to Kamscatksa for furs which she means to dispose of at China should she get clear of the Coast, for the Russians have Ships Cruizing here the Same as Ships on the English coast looking after Smuglers, She is deemd as such by them as the fur trade is a Counterband Trade & as she has cleared out from this port for China she may be made a prize to any Man of War that should happen to fall in with her of what Nation soover, I should not have the least objections to fall in with her as she would be a very good prize when Loaded 6th The Charlotte & Scarborough sailed for China 19 Another Store house being finished began clearing the Remainder of the Ships. 24th For the first time 2 Natives in Canoes came alongside the ship they were as usual very Noisy & Seemed Surprized at many things he saw they had some fish given them & after Staying near an hour they went on Shore, Could not perswade them to come on board, & I think what enticed them to come Alongside was some fish some of the People showed them it is their only food & they have very little of it particular in the Winter Months. they have been sometimes seen chewing the root of a ferne which they have roasted over a fire till it was so smoaky it might be smelt a Mile 25th The Supply Arrived from Norfolk L.d Howe Island she had been caught in a Gale of Wind when at Anchor and very near driven on the reef of Rocks (which I have before described laying half a Mile from the Shore) and was obliged to cut her Cable & proceed for Sea as fast as possible, The Three Transports which were bound for China touched at the Island but the Turtle were all gone to the Northw.d this being the Winter view facsimile

Season but the Birds were as usual 30th. Three Natives came Alongside in their Canoes & Stayed near two hours they were very much Surprized at the Ships head which is an Image. In the Afternoon two Convicts who were sent to cut rushes were found murdered by the Natives who had thrown Several Spears in them one of them had a large peice of Scull cut out of his forehead Supposed to have been done with an Axe which they carried with them to build a Hutt - The next day the Govonor went up the Harbour attended by some of the officers & some Marines to try & find out the Natives who had Murdered the Convicts this might be very easily known as they took from them An Axe 2 Bill Hooks & 2 Sithes and of Course the People who are found with these tools are undoubtedly the Murderers Several Scouting parties were sent out wherever any Natives were seen to see if they have any of these tools - June 1st The Gov.r Returned, said he had seen a party of Armed Natives to the Number of 211, he immediately Advanced towards them & one of them seeing him unarmed gave his Spear to another & met the Govonor after a few Motions on both sides a Man presented himself who had a Deep cut on his Shoulder which must have been either from an Axe or Sword they at last parted very good friends indeed the Natives are a very quiet sort of people when a Gun is near them for one Gun will frighten 40 of them - if you are not armed they will take the advantage of it for tho they are described the as a set of people without the least curiosity they have a great deal of Cunning on the 4 being the Kings birth day we fired 3 Royal Salutes & a Dinner was given by the Govonor to all the officers, he than Named the intended Town Albion the County Cumberland which extends from the Head of Botany Bay to the head of Broken Bay which lays about 7 Mile to the Northward of this & as far in the Country as view facsimile

the Mountains which I before mentioned, that part of them which is nearest Botany are named Landsdown Hills the other part is called Carmathan Mountains - very Large Bonfires were made on Shore by the Convicts & several of the officers Mar were Robed one man was taken in the fact, another as soon as he heard he was found out disappeared. the same day all the Cows that was brought out in this Ship were lost & it was Supposed he had driven them off Several scouting Parties were sent out with orders to Shoot him if he attempted to run away he held out till the 26 when he was taken within 2 Miles of the Encampment. at the same time the other man lay under Sentence of Death. he was immediately tryed & condemned & the next day they were both executed - On Sunday the 22.d Three distinct shocks of an earthquake were felt by several people I was on board one of the Transports & felt two of them very forcibly the other was rather fainter it did not the least damage, it happened about 4 oClock in the Afternoon [it?] was & had been for some time very fine when I told it to some on board this ship for it was not felt by any persons here they supposed I must have mistook it for some thing else as earthquakes always happens when the Weather is very bad it was exactly like a Ship running on shore, I forgot to mention in the proper place, that when the man was taken he denied ever seeing the Cowes even to the last & we have not seen them since, nor do we ever expect to hear of them again this is a very great loss to the Colony as we must go a long way before we can replace them, either to the Cape of Good Hope or the Philipine Islands, I am of opinion the Natives have killed them as once before they threw a Spear at one of them calling them Kangooroo at the same time, these animals are peculiar to this Country none of them is to found in any other place, their head very much resembles that of a fox their fore legs very short with a hand like a Monkeys, has its hind Legs are remarkable Long view facsimile

having only two Claws on each them, they have very large Tails some have measured 18 Inches Circumference & Weighed 140 Pounds they have likewise a false belly this is no more than a Bag that runs inside their Skin in which they screne their young either from the Cold or the Gamekeeper they sit on their Breech & jump forward without their fore feet toutching the Ground about 3 Yards at each jump. I am of opinion their tail must be of great service to them in the Spring, they are very shy that it is very hard to get a shot at them so hard that I have not been able to get any. their Colour is a fine Grey over the Back, the Belly quite white their fur very fine & not above an Inch long they are very good food & taste like a Deer, & to give you a better idea of it have sent you a scetch of it - the other sort of Quadrupeds are the Opossom these are the same or nearly as the Mongoose in the East Indies they have likewise the false belly, are of a Brown Colour their head some thing resembling the Kangooroo in Shape, & are about the size of a Rabbit their Tail Long by which they can hang round a Branch of a Tree they are very good food not much unlike a Hare, there are I beleive several different sorts of them they mostly live in Trees & feed on the leaves or any small Berry they can get, there is likewise several different sorts of Squirrels Particular the Flying Squirrel these are in every respect like the English Squirrel but have Square Wings which reach from the Shoulder to the hind Leg & when shut lay close along the Belly & are very like the Wing of a Bat, they cannot fly above 60 Yards at a time & then they descend very much, very few of those have been taken, there are several Guana's just the same as them in the WEast Indies, view facsimile

of Birds there are vast Numbers & of various Sorts, but the Bird that we look on as the Greatest Curiosity is the Emew of Which there has been only one shot it in every respect answers the discripsion of an Ostrich but in the Feathers of which two Grow from the same Quill, the Quill is as small as the quill of a Small bird the feather is very fine about 8 Inches long & very small I had not an opportunity of seeing it as it was put in Spirits as soon as it was brought in the Camp I beleive it is going home in one of the Transpts several of them have been seen since they do not fly but run faster than any Greyhound whatever, they are not very plenty but are mostly found near Swamps, this Weighed 104 Pounds & when it stood up right was about 7 feet, there are hawk's Kites, Crows, Wild Ducks & Widgeon the same as in England, there are some Black swans but they are rather Scarce only one of them have yet been shot The handsomest Birds here are the Loreyquets, they are of different Colours but the Plumage of them are very Brilliant so much so that Paint cannot describe their Brilliancy however I have sent one of them Stuffed to give you an Idea of it - there are different sorts of them but all of them are very handsome, there are the Green Parroquets which are common on the Coast of Guinea & are very often brought to England, but the Lorey I never heard of in England there is the quail exactly the same & in England, & a Bird about the size of a Thrush and not much unlike them they feed on Berries, and are very good food as are most birds here, there are several small birds one in particular very like a Gold finch, the rest are unknown to me.

Of Reptiles there are several different sorts of snakes but none I beleive venimous, they have been caught 9 feet Long are very beautiful Colours & scaled like a fish. view facsimile

of Trees there are many sorts the Sanguis Draconis I have already described & can say no more of them than that they are very Large in general, they are mostly decayed in the heart, & if the Sun gets on any of the Boards they immediately Warp, & is very short Grained, another [indecipherable] sort that looks very like the Fir tree when Growing but the Grain is like Ash to look at but very Short, a kind of Mohogonay is to be found but not very plenty, The Cabbage Tree is plenty wherever there is a run of fresh water & good soil these are in Circumference about 26 Inches & grows to be about 20 or 25 feet high, I have, seen some 40 feet but these are not very common their Cabbage is at the top where some broad leaves spring out and the Cuttings of the Cabbage effectually ruins the tree for you can get but one Cabbage from one Tree the Cabbage is very good eating either as a Sallad or just as it comes out of the Tree & I beleive very good for the Scurvey, there are several other sort of Trees the Wood of them are not worth much as the Grain is so very short they snap with a very little Weight most of the Trees have been burnt about the root & some are quite hollow that you might stow half a Dozen hogsheads inside them, there is a small Tree from the top of Which grows a light Stick about 6 or 8 feet Long with with the Natives make their Spears these Trees are about 4 feet high & are all burnt from these the Natives get their Gum with which they join their Spearhandle together when it is quite hot & Boiling out of the Tree - I have often seen two Trees grafted together & very often two sorts of Wood proceed from the same Root, of underwood there is a great Variety but I am not Botanist enough to distinguish one from the other except a Bush on which grows some small green Berries, or Currents of S.o Wales, which have view facsimile

a very pleasant strong tartness & are very good for the Scurvey they grow in great Quantities make very good tarts but destroy a great deal of Sugar - another sort is very like the furze in every other respect but it has no thorns & does not grow quite so thick but higher, there are a great many other sorts which I can give no account of - Now I will attempt to give some Accounts of the Natives, they are in General about five feet seven or eight are very lean especially about the Arms & Legs, their hair is always kept short & is not very Coarse, they have fish bones claws of Birds or a Dogs tail tied to their hair & gumed that it might not come off, their Colour is dark brown but they appear quite black as their skin is constantly covered with Gum in other respects they are like the East Indian Blacks They go quite Naked, and I beleive have no proper place of abode, they all have Canoes which is just the bark of a Tree with both ends tied up & spread open with 2 or 3 Sticks in the Middle, they have a small paddle in each hand with which they paddle their Canoes, which will not carry above 3 People, they sometimes are to be seen 18 feet but their Gen.l run is from 12 to 14 feet & about 2 feet Wide in these Canoes their whole Subsistance depends, they are always fishing their lines are made of part of the Cabbage Tree & their hooks of some shell & I beleive in the Summer they catch a great Number - they are all given to theiving that if you lay any down & turn your head it is off if any of them are near one day when our boat was hauling the Sceine A Kettle was taken by one of the men to boil some fish for his breakfast, a Native observed him put the fish in the kettle as soon as his back was turned A Native wipt both his hands in the Kettle (not having any idea of boiling water) to Steal the view facsimile

the fish, but before he got his hands to the fish was glad to take them away again, & walk off with himself they Shelter in Cavities in the Rocks & make a large fire

But about Botany Bay there are none of these Cavities so they get the Bark of a Tree about 10 feet Long, bend it in the middle & place the two ends of it on the Ground at about 6 Feet Distance, & filling up one of the entrances, this makes them a hutt, They have a number of Dogs belonging to them which they call Tingo, they do not bark like our Dogs but howl, the Govonor has one of them that he intends Sending home in one of the Transports, they are the Wolf Dog --are the Colour of a fox & have a brush tail at first would eat nothing but fish that being his constant food - Several of the Natives have one of their teeth out of the upper Jaw what this means I could never find out but they are respected by the rest & seem to have some authority over them, some people say it denotes their being Married, which gives them this Authority. As for their Spears I have sent you a scetch of them with a Discripsion & use of each, they have some of them a bone go across their Nose through the Middle part of it which parts the two Nostrils about 6 Inches Long, they look on it as a great ornament, some of them paint themselves about the face, are very fond of painting round their Eyes White, they have a Number of Scars about view facsimile

their Breast & Shoulders, they at our first Arrival seemed to wish very much for our hats which plainly shows the sun hurts their head, None of them ever came in the encampment to stay any time & I think it will be along time before they will be of any Service to the Colony - The Climate is exceeding fine & healthy much more so than I expected for since the Landing we have lost only 39 Convicts, 3 of the Marines, one Man from the Supply and one from us, at the first Landing most people had a Slight touch of the flux but that soon wore off, it was owing to the confinement, some of the Convicts had, as they have lain in a Goal some 3, some 4 years before they are at present prety healthy, in respect to Vegetables we have here are very few there is a plant very like the Spinage in England which afford us a most excellent repast with a peice of - I was going to say Pork, but will call it Bacon, there is a Sort of Beans which are very good but not very plenty, Samphire here is in great Quantities the only thing wanted is Ingredients to Pickel them with, there is likewise a Sort of Kidney Bean which grows on the Rocks which are very good Pickled but no other Way, So much will I say for the Country, Birds Beasts & - & now for myself - on Mr King's going to Norfolk I was appointed to act as Junior Leiutenant until further orders, Now you most likely will know view facsimile

my fate before I shall myself that is whether they will continue Mr King as Govonor of Norfolk or no, Some People must constantly be kept there for the Pine which is a very great Acquisition to this Colony as no wood here is fit to build any vessel of, that I have seen it is so very short Grained it will break off very short. if Mr King continues I shall be confirmed if not I must wait for another opportunity, at all events I think it will be for my good to Stay out till some thing is done for me, now I wish your opinion on that head I am very well off for all sorts of Clothes except Shoes of which I have only 2 Pair left & what I shall do till you can send some out, I don't know, however I should be very much obliged to you to send me a Dozen & a half pair of Shoes, & some of them of the Shooting sort, just such as I left behind me, another sort thick & a few pair thin, I beleive my foot has grown much since the last shoes were made me so pray tell Huskin they were rather stinted in the upper Leather, the length of my foot at present is 10 Inches so he may make them in every way Proportionable When I was at the Cape of Good Hope I was rather in want of Money & drew a Bill on Mr Coombes to the Amount of Ten Pounds, I wrote a short Letter which I left unsealed with the Person on who gave me the Money for that as well as the good fitting out I got in England I again return you my thanks & hope I shall not be any more expence to you for at least 5 or 6 Year, except for a very few Articles view facsimile

Such as Shoes, I should likewise be very thankful for a Couple pair of Buckels, a few Pocket Handkerchiefs & some soap, of which I brough about a half Hundred Weight from England but that will be out I am afraid before you will be able to assist me, some Towels very Coarse, & some Large Table Cloths I shall want very bad, if they are sent out in the Peice I can get them made here -

The Govonor Continues his kindness for me & I dont doubt but he will do all in his power to get me Confirmed there are two young men come out of Merchant ships that have passed but I believe they will not stand so good a chance as the Gentlemen who came out of England in the Ship one of them is Son to the Agent of Transports

I dare say you must remember Mr Collins who was at Brent & quarreled with Mr Aymeatt, he is going to England & is to carey this Letter he promised to deliver it himself which I have taken Very kind of him, & likewise that it will be a great Satisfaction to you to see a person who came immediately from me He has been very ill since he has been here & finds the Climate or the Living not to agree with him the Latter I think is abad as any person need live having only Salt Provisions now the Winter Months are set in very few fish to be got, all the Transports are not going home now as there are not Store houses enough to receive their Cargo but I hope soon we shall have Brick houses as Bricks are making very fast & a good Brick kiln built & they have burnt several Thousand ---

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The Agent Leiut Shortland is to carry home the Dispatches & I dare say will be home about March you will know that before me so I might have saved myself the Trouble of Mentioning that -- the Reason of my giving the Different Variations of the Compass is that if any of my Acquaintance should come out in the next fleet they will be of some service to him, I forgot to mention among the birds the Cockatoo they are about the size of a large owl quite as white as Milk all over except a few yellow feathers on the top of their head which have a pretty effect they are very indifferent food, & make a disagreeable Noisce so the only handsome thing belonging to them is their Plumage - I dare say the News Papers have lost lost us in many Gales of Wind & have been Split on many Rocks, Run away with by the Convicts Several Times & many other ways Destroyed, I should be glad if you would take notice of all these Reports & send me an an Account of it, I fancy I must now Conclude by desiring my Respectful Compliments to Capt & Mrs Ourry, & Palmer, Dr & Mrs Birdwood & to make Short all my friends near & about the South Hams, my Love to my Brothers, My Duty to my Mother & Aunts Pauncefort & Digby, hope my Cousin Henry is now in the West Indies or in some smart Cruizing Frigate and I dont doubt but he will make a good Seaman if I might guess by what little view facsimile

I could see of him when at Portsmouth, I must again remind you how very short I am of shoes, & then subscribe myself as

Yours dutiful Son

Newton Fowell

Sydney Cove in

Port Jackson

July 12. 1788

The Ships Sail the 16th - 1788

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Jany 21st 1788

Port Jackson

Letter 11. Cape of Good Hope January 5 1789

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Cape of Good Hope January 5. 1789

1st Letter

Hon'd Father

After a Passage of three months we arrived Safe at the Cape of Good Hope from Port Jackson, to get Provisions for the Colony which we left in as florishing a State as could be expected in so short a time and finding a Ship ready to Sail for Europe would not let the opportunity slip of acquainting you I am in good Health. - The Rout we pursued in coming here was round Cape Horn, so now we have been entirely round the Globe, & in a Shorter time than any other Ship ever known before. I shall now begin to give you a very Short Account of the Passage, We left Port Jackson on the 2nd October 1788. After being at Anchor in one of the best Harbours in the World for Nine Months, on our Clearing the Harbour the Wind came to the SE which was exactly against us & Blew a Gale of Wind & I think such a Set of Sea Sick helpless creatures were never at sea together before as we were. scarce one on board but had occasion to go now & then to the Lee Gangway & throw his Dinner overboard. that was soon got the better of. A Wind from the NE had such an effect on us that we were all in good Spirits on the thoughts of going to a Place were we might have some Chance of hearing from Europe whereas at this time we have not heard any thing that has happened in Europe these 15 Months However this Wind gave us an Opportunity of Getting to the Southward of New Zealand which we accomplished by the 12th & than Stood to the SE, our Intention was if possible to get exactly on the Antipodes London but the Wind soon Coming from the Southwd

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Soon put that out of our Power, on the 18th our Latitude was 50°.35' S Longitude 180.55 East and by Computation we that Day passed exactly over a Small town in Hampshire called Litchfield about 14 or 20 Mile from Portsmouth, the Southerly Winds we found soon got to the Westward. Nothing Particular Occured till the 22 of November when our Lat.d 57 South Longde 283 East We saw about 2 in the Afternoon a Small Island of Ice the Same Evening we passed Several other but at some Distance

25th. About 4 In the Afternoon we had a very Indistinct view of the Land about Cape Horn at the same time not loosing sight of Ice Island which we saw Numbers of Daily some of them were very Large & occasioned the Weather to be very cold especially if you had occasion to pass close to Leeward of them, We found Westerly Winds to be the most Predominant & generally blew Strong, the Wind sometimes Shifted but never lasted long or blew with any force. After Leaving Cape Horn we were pestered with NE Winds, disagreeably foggy Weather & a vast Number of Ice Islands. our People now began to grow sick what for the want of Fresh Provisions & the thick Foggy Weather together, seized them with Pains in the Breast & Bones & as soon as they kept their Bed the Scurvy broke out on them & they were then rendered useless for the Rest of the Voyage as there is nothing except the Essence of Malt & Portable soop Allowed by Government which is of the least Service to the Sick & the Portable Soup is never to be given on any account to the Healthy People to prevent their being ill. The Essence of Malt was Served out Daily to the People which prevented their being ill for some time but that did not allways last we had no place to get any when it was out, which was the case before we reach'd Cape Horn Some Bourcoal or Dryed Cabbage is likewise to be given to the Sick but in a very small Quantity not exceeding half an ounce a sick Man which when Boiled he is to eat if he can but it is so very tough that it is not possible for a Man in the Scurvy to get his teeth through it & it is no more palatable than Straw Boiled. Vinegar is the only acid allowed & that in a very small Quantity that it is Scarce Possible if the Scurvy once gets hold of any view facsimile

Person to stop its Progress effectually without Vegetables -

These NE Winds Lasted till the 13th of December when we got the old Westerly Winds we than Stood to the NE to get clear of the Ice but that we did not Accomplish till the 21 When we were in Lat.d 44 South, which I think very extrodianary especially in the very height of Summer, the People felt the Cold very Severely especially as Clothes were rather Scarce with them

On the 25. We found our selves on the Meridian of Greenwich which we crossed in Lat.d 40.30 South & having Sailed from that Meridian to the East untill we came to that Meridian again of Course gained a day. & we by that had two Christmas Days. I never heard of any Ship that has gone Round the World before doing it in the Leap Year. So now We may say (Should that be the case that no other Ship ever did it before before in Leap Year) that we have had what never was known before i e 3 in a Year & that the extra Day should be Christmas Day of which we have had the Advantage of you by having two I doun't doubt but this will seem very extrodionary to you how the Day could be gained, but that Cap.t Ourry will be able to explain much fuller than I can on a Sheet of Paper. Now I must tell you how I think you had the Advantage of us which was that your Christmas Dinner was worth both our As Salt Beef I believe was the fare throughout the Ship. As we Advanced the Land we found a Current Setting to the Westward but the Westwardly Winds favouring us very much Run us within 50 Leagues of the Cape before the SE Trade Caught us.

On the first of Jan'y 1789 at 4 in the Morning we had the Pleasantest Sight immaginable which was the Land about Table Bay & that not above 10 or 12 Leagues, by four in the Afternoon we Anchored about 4 Mile from the Roadstead after Sailing [blank] Leagues without having but once Seen the Land & that very Indistinct indeed so much so that many People could not see it without going to the masthead & then had their [Doubty?] whether it was Land or no -

our Distance from the Iland that lays at the Entrance of the Bay did not exceed 2 Mile.

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We Sent that Night on Those to the Island for News & Fruit for the Scurbutics which was a great Relief to them

We have Sent all the Sick on Shore to a Hospital Hired for that Purpose to the Number of 36 Which even near half the People we had on board on our Arrival as many were left at Port Jackson & Some at Norfolk Island which reduced our Ships Company from 160 People to about 90. The Number of Working People in each watch was 25. but by Sickness before we arrived here it was reduced to 13. Most of them in the Journey on the Passage we lost 3 Men by Death & had we been obliged to stay at Sea another Week I doun't doubt but most of the rest on the Sick List must have gone the same way. Many of them are so very much reduced that when I attended the Landing of them I was obliged to ask them their Names.

I have just heard of the Strange Revolution in England & the Good News of our [indecipherable] Allied with Holland & Prussia it has procured us a very handsome Reception Reception here by the Governor. he mentions the War with Great Britain as the unfortunate War & says they have at Last opened their Eyes & seen the Policy of the French their are many of the French Troops still Remaining here but they intend Sending them away by the first opportunity.- As I am now Acting as Lieut. in a very Good Vacancy which is that of Mr King being as Comodant. at Norfolk Island; I mess in the Wardroom Wear the Proper Uniform & am Considered as one of the Leiut.s of the Ship in every Respect. Shall be obliged to draw [indecipherable] a Bill of a Much greater amount than I otherwise should & I hope as you now know the occasion you will not Suppose me the Least extravagant when you hear the Sum - it is not in my Power at Present to let you know that exactly nor would I on any account refer Writing to you till that lay in my Power, as the Ship which I hope will carry this is to Sail tomorrow Morning which makes me in so great a Harry but I beleive I shall be obliged to get 35£ a great part of which I must put in to my mess. As that view facsimile

As that comes much more expensive than any Mess I have been in before & we intend Stocking ourselves for a Year, but in Respect to the Sum you shall have an Exact Account of it before I leave the Cape which will be in about a Month or 6 Weeks. I am much affraid you will not get any Letter by Mr. Collins who went home in the Friendship Transport as I can hear not the least News of her. I am very much Hurried as this must be sealed in the Course of 10 Minutes or be left behind.

The Last Account I heard of Widdicombe he was well but very Narrowly escaped Drownding in the Boat at Norfolk Island he was the only Person Saved out of 5. one of them was a Midshipman belonging to this Ship & if my Mother Recollects Passed for a Leiut the Day Mr Rickets did. he was lamented by all that knew him if I had time I would till you more of the Particulars but have enclosed a Letter of his in which he gives I dare say a better Account than I have time to give Make my Compliments to all

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I remember them all & Nothing could give me greater Happiness than to see them but as the Boat now is Waiting only for this Letter I must Conclude by desiring my Duty to my Mother & Love to my Brothers & am

Hond Father

Your Dutiful Son

Newton Fowell

There must be a vast Number of Faults, such as bad Spelling but you must impute that to my haste I shall Draw my Bill on Mr Coombes The Officers of the Sirius & Supply are all well.

Letter 12. Cape Good Hope February 19 1789

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Cape Good Hope Feby 19th 1789

2nd Letter

Hon'd Father

I last wrote you by a Ship bound to Holland at our first Arrival in this Place, giving you a Short Account of the Passage, &a Since which we have loaded the Ship with Provisions and are now ready for Sea again, & expect to Sail tomorrow Morning for Port Jackson. I dare say before this time you must have heard of our Arrival at Botany Bay, as I have heard of some of our Unlucky Transports leaving Rio de Jeneirio about 10 Weeks ago but unluckily I have not any Letter on board either of them which I am afraid will make you uneasy especially as I have heard we were all given up by most People in England, some Supposed we were Eat by the Savages, & some that we were lost on Some Rocks was the Report when the Harpy a South Sea Fisherman, left England We have been exceedingly well treated by the Govonor of the Cape & most of the Inhabitants, and the only Obstacle in our way in Getting what Supplies we wanted was the former Contractor (when Sir Richard Bickerton was here) who bought up all the Scarce Articles in hopes of getting what ever Money he might for it, but I am happy to say he was baulked in his Design, his Name is Van Kahman and despised by most People here on Account of his very exorbitant charges. I have had the Honor of Dining twice with the Govonor since we have been here, he is a very Plain affable man speaks English Midling well he seems exceedingly pleased at the Alliance, & all officers of the Prince of Orange's Party are seen with Orange Cockades. Since we have been here A Black man has been Executed, for Running a the Muck, it is pers Supposed the reason of it was [indecipherable] Jealousy. which made him Chaw Beetle Root to such a Degree as to make him Insane, view facsimile

(The Beetle Root acts in some Degree very like Opium & is used here by many of the Slaves which are very often used in a very Cruel Manner.) This Man was Armed with a Knife, & stabed his Wife by the Heart Killed three Children, & one Man, there was soon a Hue & Cry after him & several Soldiers were sent after him, he was in about an hour taken by a Centinel who wounded him with his Bayonet the Soldiers soon after coming up took charge of him but not before some of them were Wounded & confined him in a [indecipherable] Prison, His Tryal came on the next day this was Done for fear the Wound he received in his side by the Bayonet should mortify & carry him off. he was Condemned to be Broke on the Wheel, and immediately led to the Place of Execution. He was asked by the Jury if he knew what he had done, he made for answer that he had kill'd his Wife, but on being told he had kill'd other People, he said he knew nothing of the matter & that it was his intention to kill only his Wife. He was Marched to the Place of Execution & looked very Composed, The whole of the Jury attended the Execution, & a Clergyman who Read Prayers to him, which lasted about a Quarter of an hour orders were then given for him to be tyed on place where he was to be broke, he was then Seized in a very inhuman Manner, & Striped of his Clothes, which only Consisted of a Something like a Dressing Gown, & thrown on the Place which is like St. Andrews Cross with [indecipherable] small Wedges for his Joints that the other Parts might lay Hollow [illustrates cross] on this was he spread out, his Arms & legs extended The Executioner then took Pinchers which were made Red Hot. & took all the Fleshy Part of the Arms, Legs & thighs out the Bones of his Arms were than broke by an Iron Bar both above & below the Elbow, one of his Hands was than Cut off & the Bloody End Drawn across his face, his Legs & thighs were next broke, He seemd just than Expiring when his head was Severed from view facsimile

his Body at two Blows & Stuck on a Pike about 8 Feet high with one end Sticking in the Ground. I was to be sure at the Place of Execution but saw scarce any, it was too Horrid a Sight & this Account is Scraps from different People. I have often thought since what carried me there, & can only make for Answer, the Currents or the Curiosity of an English man, I would not be obliged to see such a Horrid Execution for any thing. After the Executioner had fulfilled his office he turn'd Round & made a Bow to the Audience as if he expected Applause. The Alexander Transport Arrived here on Wednesday. Mr. Collins came Passenger in her from Port Jackson [y.n?] She left the 14. July. She Sailed in Company with 3 other Transports two of which parted Company in a Gale of Wind before they were at Sea a Week the other two Proceeded & Went to the Northward round New Guinea and went through the Straits of Molucka where she was Chased by three Small Vessels, Pirates which on firing a Shot at made the best of their Way for Shore, they were very Sickly & lost many Men of the Scurvey, in so much that they were obliged to abandon one of the Transports after Saving all the Men & Stores in order to save the other, they at last arrived at Batavia where they Rec'd every assistance from the Dutch, got some Men &a. She expects to stay here about a fortnight, & Mr Collins intends to get a Passage to Europe in a Dutch Frigate which is to Sail on Sunday he has the Govonor Dispatches which after he has delivered at in London will call on you should he come in the West. I dare say you must Remember him. Since I have been here I have had Occasion to Draw Bills to the Amount of 40£ on Mr. Coombe, in favour of Orloff Marthine Beyl Esq. The Reason of my Drawing Bills to such an Amount is my now Messing in the Gunroom, I had not the Money to put down as the rest did here but likewise for all the things then belonging to the Mess so that I had very near 30£ to put down.

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I shall be very much obliged if you could send me out some Shoes as it is impossible to get any that will last a Month & they are half a Guinea a Pair. There are several Anecdotes which I can tell of the Convicts, finding Gold Mines & several other things but have not now time as it is late & we expect to sail at Day Light Mr. Furzer was very well when we left Port Jackson, I mention him being know to Miss Ourry. but might say the Govonor & the Officers are all well. Make my best Respects to Cap.t & Mrs Ourry Dr & Mrs Birdwood. My Compts. to all the Rest of the Club I look sometimes at a Full Moon & think of you all Give my Duty to my Mother & Love to my Brothers I hope Brother Fowell has got [or?] passed his Examination, My Aunts Digby & Pauncefort I hope are very well make my Duty to them, I often think of Henry & hope he is in a Frigate as a Guard Ship is the worst thing for a young Person who wants to Learn his Duty as a Seaman & an Officer, Cap.t & Mrs Palmer I hope are well make my best Respects to them & Mr & Mrs Palmer of Plympton. I see by the Magazines that Miss Perring is Married to Mr Bultiel of Fleet, Should you have an opportunity of seeing her make my Comp.s & say I give her Joy. Feb.ry 20 We are now Unmoord & expect to be at Sea by 10 Oclock, A very Unfortunate Accident happend at Norfolk Island which was the loss of a Boat & Boats Crew. She was overset in a very heavy Surf and only one Man Saved which was Widdicombe there was a Midshipman belonging to this Ship & four Men in her, All the Officers are very well

I am Hon'd Father

Your dutiful Son

Newton Fowell

Letter 13. Batavia July 31 1790

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Honoured Father

My Last Letter to you was wrote at the Cape of Good Hope since which time many things have happened the whole of which I shall relate as they occurred. After taking in our Cargo which consisted chiefly of Flour for the Settlement at Port Jackson, we compleated the Provisions for the Ship for Ten Months, and on the 20th of February 1789. Weighed our Anchor & left Table Bay, it was above a fortnight before we could get to the Eastward of the Cape & all that time blowing a Gale of Wind. on the 10 of March got the Wind from the Westward, Stood to the SE untill we were between the 43d & 44th Degree of Latitude, when we stood to the Eastward for the South Cape of New Holland, we had very fine Weather, the Wind varying from the NW to the SW. Quarter on the 19 of April, we Supposed ourselves not far from the South Cape, Shortened Sail and hove too for the Night with the Wind at SW, intending in the Morning to make the Land and stand round it, and if this Wind Stood expected to be at Port Jackson in less than a Week, during the Night the Wind shifted from SW. to South and Blowed Excessive hard which brought us under low Sail, at 4 oClock the next Morning, the Wind shifted to SSE, and very unfortunately at the same time all the Small sails Split, and it blew too hard to set even the Fore sail Reeft, so that at this time we were driving about having no Sail set but the Mizen, at this time our drift was 2 Miles an hour directly for the Shore which was on the 20 at Noon only 55 Miles Distant In the afternooon finding the Gale did not abate it was proper something should be done to get the Ship out of this very disagreeable Situation. The Courses were Reeft, & by this time one of the Small sails which was Split was now Repaired, which was the Storm Mizen Staysail, it was bent, and the Reeft Fore Sail, and Storm Stay sail were Set. The Wind came to South & blew so very hard and so great a Sea was Running, that She would not keep closer to the Wind than about eight Points, at Noon of the 21st By account {for we had not seen the Sun since the 19th which rendered our Situation still more dangerous} Swilly was only 9 Miles Distant and the Weather so very Hazey that we could not see it. The Wind Still at South and blowing as hard as ever. More Sail was wanted on the Ship, the Main Sail was double Reeft and set. at 1/2 past 2 in the Afternoon it cleared up a little when we saw the Land bearing NE. 6 Miles, which was taken for the Mewstone, and Supposing it not possible to Weather the South Cape, Wore Ship in hopes of Weathering the SW Cape at the same time Set the 2d Reef out of the Main Sail The Wind from South to SSE. At 5 We Supposed that we saw Land on the Lee Bow but the Weather being so very hazey could not be certain, Set the Main topsail, A little after 6 we perceived the Land which was very high close under the Lee Bow, finding it was impossible to Weather it. Wore Ship, and at this time as we had no other Alternative either carry a great press of Sail, or go on Shore

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It is almost needless to say the former was chose, and altho at this time the Ship had more sail on her than she ever had before, still we set the Fore topsail, tho it very much endangered the Masts at 8 Could see the land under the Lee at some Distance. We were at this time in a very dangerous Situation, nor could we tell when we might expect to be out of Danger as we did not know what Land it was we saw at 6 oClock but we were certain the Land seen at 2 oClock could not have been the Mewstone as we Supposed it was, at 10 Passed a Point of Land at a good Distance So heavy a press of Sail was on the Ship that the Sea made a fair Breach over her which obliged every person to be very carefull in holding fast for fear of being Washed over board, indeed the Forecastle was constantly under Water, at 12 The Weather was very Dark, and not seeing any Land made us Suppose ourselves out of Danger, however Cap.t Hunter did not think it proper to shorten Sail till Day Light, this was a very lucky precaution, for at 2 oClock all of a Sudden Land was seen close on the Lee Beam, We had not room to Ware so was obliged to Stand on, We thought at this time we were among Breakers, and Several Heavy Seas were Shiped some of which broke above half Way up to the Fore Yard, when this Land was first discovered some of the People was very much frightned, The Man at the Wheel in Particular who threw the Ship in the Wind, as She payed off again many of the Men were heard to Say, She was drifting very fast on it, by half past 2 We were clear of the Land where we could plainly see it Trend to the Northward, Here Providence Favoured us very much She was no sooner round this Point of Land than the Wind came forward two Points had this happened when the Land was seen at 2 Oclock nothing to all appearance could save us from going on Shore, At Day Light, saw very Plainly the Land we passed at 2 Oclock it proved to be Tasmans Head and by the Courses Steered & Distance Run during the Night, proves the Land seen at 6 oClock Last Night to be the SW. Cape, and the Land seen at 10 oClock to be the South Cape [?]

By Carrying such a very heavy press of Sail during the Night the Figure Head was Washed away, & The Head sails & Knees of the Head so much damaged that we were obliged to get Lashings round the Cut Water to Secure it to the Stem. 22d The Weather much more Moderate, Some of the top mast Backstays gave way, had this happened while so heavy a press of Sail was on the Ship, in all probability The Topmasts would have gone, and for want of Sail she must undoubtedly have gone on Shore Nothing else worth relating happened during the rest of the Passage, and on the 9th of May in the Afternoon, we arrived at Port Jackson, We appeared in such a Shattered Condition that at first the Ship was not known, altho in a Shattered State they were all very glad to see us, for soon after our Sailing one Pound of Flour was Stoped from the Weeks Allowance of each Person, and on our Arrival Whole Allowance was again Issued.

During our Absence Cap.t Shea of the Marines died and L.t George Johnstone was Promoted to his Vacancy, Cap.t Johnstone went a Passenger to America in the Summerset.

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Six Marines belonging to the Batallion were Hung for Robbing the Provision Store House and Cellar. They had Keys that fitted the Locks. the way it was discovered was by one of the Keys breaking in the Lock of the Cellar Door, & they could not get out the Broken Peices, As soon as it was Discovered, the Lock was taken off and the Broken Key was Shown to all the Blacksmiths to know if they ever made such a Key for any Person, One of them recollected the Key immediately & said he made it for one of the Marines, for his Chest, The Lock of his Chest was Examined & the Key was found to fit it, Seven of them were Concerned but one of them turned Kings Evidence & saved his Life. He was the Greatest Villian, and was the first Projecter of the Plan, The Method they took to rob the Store was, When one of them was Centry, Some of the rest came & was by him Admitted into the Store House, This Practice Had been carried on near 10 Months before it was Discovered.

A Settlement had been made at the Head of the Harbour and about 40 Acres of Ground Cleared, it is called Rose Hill, The Greatest Part of it this last Year was Sown in Grain & Yielded about 4 Fold, The Ground thereabout is much clearer of Wood, & the Soil much richer than about Sydney Cove Good Garden have been made thire, & Vegetables grow very fine, Cabbages grow to a large Size, for on the Kings Birth Day 1789 A Cabbage was Cut & Sent to the Govonor which weighed 27 Lbs Several have been cut Weighing from 15 to 20 Lbs, but it is a general opinion Potatoes Degenerate very much. Melons & Pumkins thrive astonishingly. At Rose Hill a Suborltern Officer & a Small Party of Marines Reside there & are Releived every Month, It is about 14 Miles from Sydney Cove.

The Govonor had likewise during our Absence taken one of the Natives by Stratagem, as he found it impossible to bring them among us any other way, and by treating him well he was in hopes to convince them it was not our intention to do them any harm. This was Arooboonew, he was a very good Natured Fellow and gave a vast deal of Information Respecting their Manners. Soon after he was taken the Small Pox waged among them with great Fury and carried off great Numbers of them. every boat that went down the Harbour found them laying Dead on the Beaches and in the Caverns of Rocks, forsaken by the rest as soon as the Disease is discovered on them, They were generally found with the remains of a Small Fire on each Side of them & some Water left within their Reach How this Disease got among them it was impossible to tell, but it is Conjectured that it was among them before any Europeans visited the Country, as they have a Name for it, When we arrived not a Canoe was to be seen, the Natives having all left the Harbour and fled to the Northward, Boats were often Sent down the Harbour for no other Purpose than to Bury Dead Bodies, in one boat a Man and his Son who were found very ill were brought up, and tho every Assistance was given the Old Man he died in a few Days The Boy Recovered and is still alive, and seems happy in his Situation not having the least wish to return to his former way of living His Name is Nanbarry, Bolderry Bockenbau. he is always called Nanbarry

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He is about 9 Years old and it would Surprize you to hear what Particular Accounts he gives of their Customs & Manner of Living, As for Religion that could not be found out, they have an Idia of a futurity, this was found out by a Man who was lately taken, by some Questions he asked, when he saw a dead man, which was What became of him & where he went, at the same time Said his Countrymen went above, pointing to the Sky. The remains of another Family was afterwards found in a very Miserable Condition, only an Old man & A Girl of about 12 years old, Her Name is Abooren, Her Father Died but She Recovered. When She found her Father was Dead, she got to the Corpse, Hugging & Kissing it for near an Hour, After which She did not appear the least Concerned about it,

Arooboonew was at this time quite reconsiled to this way of living, and assisted the Sick Children, very much, he appeared much affected when their Fathers Died Soon after our Arrival from the Cape he was taken ill of the Small Pox & Died the 18 of May, While he lay ill he Suffered himself to be bled & took all Physicks that was offered him, with a great deal of Confidence, he was regreted by every one, as it was Supposed he would be of great Service in Reconciling the Natives to us, he was a very good Mimic, & was much attached to Several particular People

When he was first taken he had a voracious Appetite, but as he found he got his Meals regular that Appetite Wore off. He was very fond of Bread & Vegetables, On the Christmas Day after he was taken, all the Officers as it is Usual Dined with the Govonor. When they first assembled at his House Arooboonew was Vastly Frightened, so much so, that his Appetite failed him, After Dinner he Appeared more Chearful and it was afterwards learnt he Supposed it was intended to Eat him,

After Carrying that heavy press of Sail off Tasmans Head, We found the Upper Works of the Ship very leaky, She was Examined & it was found Necessary to fix Top Riders, on the Inside to Strengthen the Upper Works A convenient Place on the North Side of the Harbour Was fixed on for the Purpose, & the Ship was taken there as soon as the Cargo was Landed. Here We Built a Warf & Saw Pits & Sent Carpenters in the Woods in Search of Proper Trees for Riders which took up a Considerable Time At Length Seven Riders of a Side was fixed, Three Opposite the Main Mast Three Opposite the Fore Mast & one Opposite the Mizen Mast which was found to Strengthen her very much. This Same Opportunity was taken to Examine the Places where She leaked on her Passage round Cape Horn Two Streeks of Copper was ripped off, for the Purpose of Examining her Bottom which was found in a very Sound State, Nothing Particular Happened till the latter end of September, when on Examining the Store House the Provisions was found greatly Reduced by Rats and that only Seven Months Provision at 2/3ds Allowance was left, & as Supplies were not Expected till the latter end of Dec.r or the Begining of January 1790, it was thought Proper to Reduce the Allowance, which took Place the 1st of November.

The Principal Work now being done to the Ship, She was towed over to Sydney Cove on the 7 of November, A very Melancoly Accident at this time Happened, to Mr. Francis Hill, one of the Midshipmen,

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He was in the Ardent with Cap.t Hartwell and left her just before I joined her, While the Ship was Repairing, it often happened that a Boat did not go to Sydney Cove for three of Four Days, & should any person want to go there, for them to Walk up abreast of it & there call the first Boat they Saw which would put you across. Mr Hill had been at Sydney Cove and was Returning to the Ship that Way, he did not come as was Expected, & when we Supposed he had lost his Way in the Woods & a Party went out to look for him but they Returned without Success, The Next Day Several Parties went out in Different Directions & boats were Sent up & Down the Harbour, in hopes of finding him on some of the Points. they all returned in the Evening without him. The Next Day the Boats & Parties went out again & a Gun was fired every hour as a Direction for him, all this and every Search proved ineffectual, and it was never known what was become of him, he was the Person who was Supposed to fill up the first Vacancy that offered for a Leiutenant, It was Supposed by some that he was killed by the Natives as they were very Numerous there about, & he had no fire Arms

The Natives were very Numerous at this time at all parts of the Harbour, and very troublesome to Boats going up & down the Harbour & would as they passed near a Point throw a Spear at them & then retire in to the Woods, On the 25 of Nov.r The Govonor Sent a Boat down the Harbour to catch one of the Natives, on their Landing in the Lower part of the Harbour two Men came on the Beach, Some Fish was Shown them & they immediately came to the Boat for them when they were immediately Seized and carried off in less than a Minute, as soon as the Boat left the Beach the whole place was covered with them all armed but the Boat being out of their Reach no Mischief was done, On their Landing in Sydney Cove Nanberry called them both by their Names, & he gave us to understand they were two Cheifs, The Principal one of the two is Called Gringerry Kibba Coleby, The other is Called Vul-al-a-varry Wogletrowey Benalong. Two Men were appointed to take care of them & an Iron Ring with a Rope fast to it was made fast round one of each of their Legs Notwithstanding all this care Coleby made Shift after Several attempts to accomplish his escape by drawing the Splice of the Rope, and his keeper not paying proper attention to him, he was out of Sight in less than a Minute, Benalong very nearly accomplished his Escape at the Same time, it happened about Ten Days after he was taken, They were both very Sullen, Coleby in Particular, but after his Escape, Benalong became very lively & very intelligent. A Large Vocabulary has been got from him,

Since Norfolk Island was first Settled, The Supply has been there Several Times & such very favorable accounts were Received of the Fertility of the Soil that the Govonor thought it a proper place to send half the people in the Colony to for the Ships not arriving left room to Suppose that some Accident had befallen them & that by Seperating the Colony they might be able to make the Salt Provisions Spin out much longer with the assistance of Fish that may be got, it was likewise proposed that the Sirius Should go to some Place for Provisions, & as the Season for going round Cape Horn to the Cape of Good Hope was past, there was no other place She could go to then either China or Batavia, China was the Place fixed on, Supposing there, we might get assistance from Some of our East Indiamen, & Batavia was likewise thought Unhealthy. - So it was proposed for us to carry L.t Govonor Major Ross, and two Company's of Marines to Norfolk Island & about One Hundred Convicts, being on board

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board in all about Four Hundred, an objection was [?] to our Proceeding on to China from Norfolk for should we have a bad passage there Cap.t Hunter was afraid the Water might be rather Short, & it was thought proper for us to return to Port Jackson, at which time everything was to have been ready for us & we did not expect to have been detained above Three or Four Days, I forgot to mention that in the later end of December Mr. W.m Maxwell who was Third Leiutenant when we left England, was Invalided on Account of his ill State of health, on which I was appointed Second L.t & Mr. Waterhouse was appointed Third Leiut. Dated 28 of December.

In the beginning of March we were quite ready for Sea, having on board a Proportion of Provisions for the People going to Norfolk Isl.d On the 7 we went to Sea, with the Supply in Company, We had Fair Winds all the way & on the Morning of the 13 Saw Norfolk Island, but as the Winds were from the SW. it was not possible to Land on the Side of the Island on which the Settlement was made, so was obliged to run to Leeward of the Island into Cascade Bay where we that day Landed most of the Convicts and all the Marines, from Cascade Bay to Sydney Bay where the Settlement is made is about 3 Miles, which Distance they had to walk and by that means could not carry their Baggage. The next day landed the rest of the Convicts, On the 16 it came to Blow Hard from the Eastward & NE. This obliged us to run on the other Side of the Island which was then the Lee Side. This day the Supply sent her boats on board & took 30 Casks of Provisions out of the Ship. That Night and all the next morning we were carring Sail to beat the Ship into Sydney Bay Supposing that Landing with this Wind, was very good, on the afternoon of the 17 It came on to blow Hard from the Eastward, Stood off Shore to the Southward, at 10 it blew so hard as to oblige us to hand the topsails, when we lost Sight of the Supply, During the Night the Ship was wore Several Times by which we were so far to Leeward that we were out of Sight of the Island, 18th it Moderated, at 12 oClock, Were close in with Norfolk Isl.d about 4 Leagues to Leeward of Sydney Bay, 19th. The Wind ESE, Blowing a Fine Breeze, at Day Light saw Philip Island right a head at 5 Saw the Supply in Sydney Bay, Stood for the Eastmost Part of the Bay, by 10 oClock we could plainly see the Signal flying on Shore that any Boats might Land at this time the Wind was at SE and blowing a Moderate Breeze

This being the first opportunity that offered since our first arrival in Sight of the Island, Cap.t Hunter was very Anxious to Embrace it; He therefore Stood in & hove too about a Mile from the Shore off the East end of the Bay, with her Head to the Sea, at this time She looked far to the Windward of Point Ross, which is the West most Point of the Bay {off this Point at the Distance of about 1/3 of a Mile from the Shore lays a Bed of Rocks even with the Waters Edge}. At this time the Supply was on the Lee Bow, Hoisted out the Boats, Loaded them with Provisions & sent them on Shore, just as the last Boat left the Ship, Mr Ball the Commander of the Supply was Seen Waving to the Ship & Hollowing, but our Distance was so great, we could not hear what he said.

Both Vessels at this time made Sail, Found that while we were laying too, the Ship was Set much in Shore, we trusted to the making of the Eastern Tide which this Day did not make for two Hours after the Usual Time, As the Supply passed us on the other Tack Mr Ball informed Cap.t Hunter that both Vessels were much too near in Shore & Recommended it to him to get out of his Situation as fast as he possibly could, The Wind very unfortunately at this time 1/2 past 11 oClock view facsimile

Shifted to SSE, by which we could not Weather Point Ross, when we were close to the Point the Ship was tryed in Stays, which She Refused, She was immediately Wore Which she did in a very little Room, & then did but just go clear of the Rocks, All Sail was made on the Ship again, but their was a head Sea going, which greatly impeded the Ship & threw her much to Leeward, which prevented us Weathering the other Point of the Bay, when She was as near the Reef as she well could go She was thrown in Stays, She came round, but before She was paid off Sufficiently on the other Tack, She was thrown a Shore by the Swell on the Reef & payed round off with her Broad side on the Shore in a great Surf. An Anchor was let go on her first Striking , in less than 10 minutes, the Masts were all over the Side & the Ship an intire Wreck, Mr. Ball came in his Boats to see if he could be of any Assistance, but he was desired to return & take care of his own Vessel, as it was impossible to be of the least Service to the Sirius, As She lay with her Broadside on Shore She made a very good Break Water & Boats came very easy under our Lee & loaded with Bread & Flour, which was the Principal things to be saved as Salt Water would entirely ruin them. The Time Keeper was sent on Shore in the first Boat, but in the great hurry & Confusion it was forgot to be wound up, so was let down for the Second Time since our leaving England,

We were so near the Shore as to be able to fasten a Hauser to a Tree, on this Hauser was a Traveller with a Board Slung to it & a Rope which reached to the Shore made fast to the Traveller by which all the People got safe on Shore without the least Hurt whatever, & the Clothes that was Saved, was thrown overboard & the Surf soon Washed it on Shore, it is unnecessary to say that all people Met with a loss, tho' some were much luckier than others in Saving most their things, The Officers who landed in Cascade Bay lost the greatest Part of their Clothes,& all their Stock, My Loss was not very great as I saved above half my Clothes, but they are all very much Stained with a Blue Clay that is found on the Reef which the Surf must have Washed in to my Chest.

The next Day a Council was held, which was Composed of all the Commissioned Officers on the Island, and it was thought proper to put Every person on the Island at Half Allowance, & likewise Put The Whole Island Subject to Military Law, for the better preserving of good Discipline, & by which means Robberys might be Punishd according to their Deserts, which if Military Law had not been Proclaimed, no Robbery could be punished but with Corporal Punishment, & tryed only by Justices of the Peace, whereas now a Court Martial can take Place & the offenders Punished with Death, Gen.l Courts Martial are to be composed of Seven Commissioned Officers if Corporal Punishment is only inflicted, A Majority of Voices is only necessary for the Quantity of Lashes &. But if it affects Life Five out of the Seven are to concur in Opinion.

For two Days after our getting on Shore the Wind Blew very Hard & the Surf run very High which Washed the Ship much nearer in Shore & the Anchor which was let go on Her first Striking was now of great Service as it brought the Ships Bow to the Surf, which before broke on her Broadside, & would in a little Time have Broke her in Peices, The Riders which was fixed in Port Jackson was of great Service in keeping her together, view facsimile

As soon as the Gale of Wind was over We went to work & try to save the Things out of the Ship Provisions was the Chief Object, Two Convicts likewise went on board to Heave the Live Stock overboard which at this time had been Three Days without Water, & it was just as well to give them a Chance of Saving their Iives by Swimming on Shore, besides it was of the utmost consequence, These Convicts instead of attending to their errand got to some Liquor, & got very Drunk, when the Evening came we could plainly see they by some means had got a Light, which they were called too, to put out & come on Shore, which they did not obey

We could plainly make out these People to be drunk, & their having a Light, it was Supposed they might be careless & set the Ship on Fire which would be the worst thing that could happen as the Support of the Island chiefly depended on Provisions that could be Saved out of the Ship

Now to get those Men out of the Ship was the next Object, & how it could be done I knew not had not one of the Convicts offered to go on board by the Hauser that was made fast to the Shore, which he did, and with order to throw the Men overboard if they did not immediately leave the Ship & Afterwards visit every part of her & if any lights were left put them out, The two Men that Night came on shore, but the Surf running so very high he did not come till the Next Morning. When he reported that in one of the Cabbins, where these fellows had been Plundering, they left a light laying on the Deck which set it on Fire & burnt quite through into the other Deck & if he had not gone on board in all Probability She would have been Burnt, which would have been if possible a greater Misfortune than her getting on Shore

We will now Return to the Supply which we left in nearly as bad a Situation as the Sirius, being as I before Mentioned much too near the Shore, She Continued turning to Windward a Considerable Time before She could get out of the Bay but at last Accomplished it tho with much more Difficulty than they ever befor Experienced and got round to Leeward of the Island, where She Landed all the Provision She could Spare, which was but little for so many People as was now on the Island, Cap.t Hunter thought it proper to Send as many of the Ships Company in the Supply to Port Jackson as She could conveniently carry, he thought proper to send me with them & to give the Dismal Account, on Wednesday 24th I Embarked with, Mr Waterhouse & 32 of the People, All the time I was on Shore the Weather was so very unfavourable that it was impossible to save any thing out of the Ship but this Day the Wind Shifted to NE & was very fine Weather and I have not a doubt but most if not all the Provisions will be got on Shore. During the Passage to Port Jackson Nothing Particular Happened. We had the Wind mostly at NE & very fine W.r We arrived the 5 of April. All the Boats in the Colony was taken for the Publick use & Sent Fishing. The Allowance was Reduced to Two Pound of Pork, Two & a half Pounds of Flour, A Pint of Rice & a Pint of Pease for a Week, & when Boats were lucky in Fishing Ten Pounds of Fish was Served in Lieu of two Pounds of Pork, All the Beef having been Expended for Several Months Past,

In order to get a greater Quantity of Fish two Boats were Sent Round to Botany Bay with a Seane and the Fish that was Caught by them was brought, at a Particular Hour to the upper Part of the Bay where some People from Sydney Cove were Ready to Receive them, From the upper part of Botany Bay to Sydney Cove is between 4 and 5 Miles, A Good Beaten Path all the Way -

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The Supply was ordered on her Arrival in Port Jackson to be got ready for Sea as fast as possible,it was intended sending her to Batavia there to Hire a Vessel, and Load her with Provisions, Governor Philip thought it Necessary that some Person who had a Knowledge of the Coast Should Return in her and as the Supply had no person that She could Spare for that Purpose, I was ordered to go in the Supply, She was to go to Norfolk Island where The 1st Leiut.t was to have come here & I was intended to have been Landed there but the Wind Blowing Fresh from the Eastward which was a Foul Wind for Norfolk & a fair wind to proceed on the Voyage Mr Ball did not think proper to lose so fair an Opportunity of getting to the Northward,

Mr King Commandant of Norfolk Island, left it on Major Ross's taking the Command there, and is now going to England Charged with Gov.r Philips Dispatches, Mr Miller The Commissary, was likewise going to England as his Health was very indifferent, on the 18 of April we left Port Jackson and the same Evening lost Sight of the Land Nothing happened till the 27 in the Evening when we discovered a Shoal laying in Lat.d 21.24S Longitude 159.24E. All Longitudes are by the Time Keeper, To this Shoal Mr Ball gave the Name of Booby Shoal, having Seen Several Birds of that kind Flying towards it, The next morning on Examining the Main Mast it was found Sprung, about half way between the Cap and the Rigging. The Mast was Fished and afterwards Answered very well. On the 5 of May in the Morning The Weather was particularly Cloudy, which gave Reason to Suppose ourselves near Land, in the Fore noon it was Discovered, bearing NNW. 10 Leag.s We Stood for the NW Extreme of it off which lies two Small Islands, The Eastmost of which is Named Sirius Island in Memory of the Old Ship it lays in Latd 10.52 S Long.d 162.30 E.t We that Night got round the End of it, and found it trend to the Westward, We Stood along the Land to the NW at the Distance of about 10 or 12 Leagues so that we could not see any of its Productions nor did we see any Signs that gave us the least Reason to Suppose it was Inhabited, We lost Sight of this Land the 10th it Extends as far to the Northward as 0.45. and to the Westward as 161 East. The Land in general was very high and appeared well Cloathed with Trees, We Saw an Appearance of a Harbour in Lat.d of 9.° & Longitude 162.- After loosing Sight of this Land we Stood to the Westward & had very Fine Weather, On the 19 of May We Discovered two Islands As We drew near the first & Smallest we Saw Several Canoes with Natives in them coming off towards the Ship, they Advanced Boldly till they were close to her when they Paddled towards the Shore as if Frightned, they Stoped at about half a Mile from the Ship & Consulted, when they again advanced but very Slowly, they came near us again but we could not prevail on any of them to come on board Hatchets were Shewn to them but that could not entice them, Their Canoes were very well Finished, some of them carried 7 or 8 Men they are so very narrow, that they are obliged to have an Outrigger to prevent their Overturning, their Paddles are about 6 Feet Long and Shaped like a Plaintan Leaf, As none of them Could be prevailed on to come on board, it was not thought proper to lose any time so made the best of our way to the Westward, the next Day the other Island was about 3 or 4 Leags off, it is considerably Larger than the first Island, & has near the center of it a High Mount, as We drew near it, could plainly see a great Crowd of Inhabitants on the Beach & Several Canoes, but none in the Water, it appeared to have many Cultivated Spots on it, and Cocoa Nut & Plantain Trees grew in great Plenty. The Smalest of these Islands is view facsimile

Called Tench's Island. it lays in 1.39 150.51 E.t it is in Circumference not above 3 Miles, The other is Named Prince W.m Henry Isld it lays in Lat.d 1.15 S Long.d 149.50 E.t and is about 21 Miles in Circumference. that night lost Sight of it. 22nd in Lat.t 20 Miles South Longd 146.50 The Whole Sea was Covered with Large Trees which had their Roots & Branches to them. Some of them Appeared to have been a long time in the Water, I dare say they must have come out of St. Georges Channel as it was then open that night at 1/2 past 11 Crossed the Line in Long.d 146.30 E.t The Variation of the Compass 6.00 East. Thermometer 83° It was Mr Balls intention to have gone through the Straits of Macassar, but as we drew near it we found that the Westerly Monsoon had set in, on the 5 of June Saw the Islands of Karkolang & Karokalang, The next Morning was close in with them. Some of the Natives came alongside & Sold some Cocoa Nuts Plantains & Yams for Hatchets, Nails & These Islands are Inhabited by Malays, & by seeing a Dutch Flag on the Shore leads me to Suppose they are Tributary to them. After getting round the North End of Karkolang which lays in Lat.d 4.28 N.o Long.d 126.31 E.t we first felt the Western Monsoon, & finding that the Wind constantly kept at SW & that after beating Several Days, gained little or no ground, detirmened Mr Ball to Relinquish his design, of going through the Straits of Macassar therefore Stood to the Eastward to attempt the Passage between Celebes & Gilolo through the Spice Islands. After beating a few Days along the Gilolo Shore we got among the Spice Islands the Northermost of which is called Heri it lays in Lat.d 55 Miles N Long.d 127.00 Et. We now had Variable Winds with which Stood to the Southward, on the 18 Crossed the Equinoctial Line in Longitude 126.40 E.t at 1/2 an hour before Noon, The Thirmometer 86

These Islands Extend as far as 3° 30 S. so that untill we passed Bouro which is the Southermost of them we Saw, we were always in Sight of Land.

25th In the morning Saw the Islands of St. Matthews, & the Same Day made the Toncaheilly Islands, When they were first seen, could not be certain whether or not it was not the Island of Bouton by 11 Oclock could plainly see a passage between the Islands, through which we Stood, at 2 That Afternoon, Saw a Boat Standing a thart us, which as soon as we came Near Lowered their Sail which was made of Mat, and prepared to come alongside, one of the Men in her was observed several times to point to the NW, and at the same time Addrest himself to one of our people that went in her on her coming alongside, What it meant could not tell. After getting out of her about 150 Cocoa Nuts, & a few Yams for which 4 Dollars was paid, She had on board her Five Malays, After getting everything out of her we wanted, She went away, and about an Hour afterwards, we discovered a large Shoal bearing from WNW as far as the Eye could reach to the Southward, We now plainly saw what the Malay meant to tell us of, on which we hauled up to the NW. As we could not see the NW Extreme of the Shoal, Mr Ball thought it safer to Stand off & on During the Night, as this Shoal is very Dangerous laying even with the Water, and on it is not the least Break so that in the Night you would be on it before it could be possible to see it. The next Morning could plainly see the Shoal & that it ran a great way to the NW, at Noon the 26 our was 5.29 South Longitude 123.07 E.t. By 4 That Afternoon we got round the NW End of it which lays in 5.24 S.o Long.e 123 East. Stood for the South End of Bouton which was Distant from us about 8 Leagues, 27 by 2 Oclock in the Morning were abrest of it when we Stood for the Straits of Salayer, which we got through the 28 at Noon

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They lay in 5.44. 120.03 E.t The 1st of July Saw the Island of Solombo it Lays in 5.31 S. 114.00 East It is very Small and I beleive not Inhabited. The next Day Saw the Island of Lubeck which is much larger than the Isl.d of Solombo, It is inhabited & appeared to be well Cultivated. It lays in 5.50 S. 112.13 E.t on the 5. In the Morning Saw the Island of Java, and two Vessels at Anchor under the Land which were the first Strangers the Supply had Seen Since November 1787, which is a very Remarkable Circumstance, Such that I beleive the like was never known. on the Evening the 6th We got safe into Batavia Roads, here we found a great Number of Dutch Ships and some Americans but no English. The City of Batavia cannot be seen from the Anchoring Place as there is a Number of Trees which Stand between it & the Water Side, --- The Landing Place is about half a Mile up a River, into which a Number of Canals empts themselves, The Houses are very large and Airy, The Streets very Wide & well paved, most of them have a Canal running through the Middle of them, which carries off all Dirt, and I think must contribute much to the Healthiness of the Place, which formerly was very unhealthy owing to the Canals not being kept clear by which Mud Banks used to gather and was very offensive, The healthiness of the Place at this present time cannot be much boasted of, The Dews fall very heavy by Night and if you are exposed to them they are very bad, as well is the Land Breeze which blows very Regular every Night I am of opinion that intemperance is the greatest cause of illness particularly among the lower Class of People who drink the New Arrack which is very unwholesome - when we Arrived there was not a Sick Person on board, Since which Several of the People have been ill, but I have taken notice that most of them have been Drunk before their illness, it is sometimes 4 or 5 Days before the Liquor takes the effect. The Town is built on very low ground and at some Distance in Land is very High Mountains, There is but one Remarkable Building here which is a Church that has a Cupula of a tollerable Height, which may be seen from Sea before the Land on which the Church Stands on can, Batavia is Surrounded with a Wall so that you must go through Gates at which Stands a Guard, before you can get into the City,

The Govonor General of India Resides here, he has a Council which are called, Edele [?], every person that passes them in their Coaches, are obliged to stop & while he passes are obliged to get up to make his obedience & when they meet the Govonor they are obliged not only to Stop but to get out of their Coaches, and no Coach what ever is allowed to pass his let the Business be ever so urgent I have not time now to give you an Account as I could wish as the Packet sails sooner than was expected.- {As you may suppose I was very much in want of Money to get things here, and as no other Bills than those on London would be taken I have Drawn Bill on Mr Coombe being the only person I knew to the Amount of 25. Payable to Mr King or his Order, I should have wrote to him but I have not time as} I am the only person left on board

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The Supply to get her Ready for Sea, Mr Ball being always on Shore & the Master being Sick,

I have wrote a Short Letter to my Aunt Digby, Refering her to you for Particulars, We have got a Brigg of about 300 Tons and I expect to go to Sea in her about a fortnight, The Supply Sails before me, I expect to be at Port Jackson about the Latter end of Sept.r and shall most likely be in England in about a Twelve Month, from this time as I shall go in the first Vessel that Sails after my Arrival

you may Suppose my Anxiety to Return to Port Jackson is very great as we have heard of Ships leaving the Cape bound there, it was a very unfortunate thing for us the loss of the Guardian, he had no business what ever where he was, and it was entirely the Captains Fault, going so far to the Southward, I must now Conclude but must first Send my Best Respects to Cap.t & Mrs Ourry, & my Compts to All the Rest of my Acquaintance as you may see my hurry is very great, Give my Duty to my Mother & all my Aunts, & my Love to my Brothers, I have Sent a Plan of the Harbours of Botany Bay & Port Jackson, I had them all Complete to send you but they were lost in the Sirius with a very Valuable Collection of Birds which cost me a great deal of Trouble/ I am

Honoured Father

Your dutiful Son

Newton Fowell

Batavia, July 31. 1790

Mr King Sails to morrow morning at Day Light

[Written in another hand] This Letter arrived at Black Hall 22d. 1790

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[Address leaf]


Captain Palmer

H:M: Ship Perseus


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Newtons Letters on his Voyage to Botany 1787

Letter 14. Sirius, Motherbank February 27 1787

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Sirius, Motherbank

27th Feb.y 1787

Dear Sir

Your favor of the 12th I rec.d on my Arrival here a few days ago: I thank you very much for your kind Congratulations on the Step I have so lately & unexpectedly obtaind. Give me leave to Congratulate you in return on the Change of Condition you have lately made, & which I was informed of by the public prints, I sincerely wish you all that happiness which I have ever beleiv'd the Marriage state Capable of affording. Mr. Fowel whom you mention has Join'd the Sirius, & will receive from me every Civility in my power, as well on your recommendation as that of Cap.t Ourry - I am with regard

D.r Palmer

Yours very truly

Jn.o Hunter

Letter 15. Sirius Port Jackson June 5 1788

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Sirius port Jackson 5 June 1788

We Arrived at Botany Bay the 20th Jan.y Last after a passage of 10 Weeks from the Cape of Good Hope. the Difficulty we find in Getting Storehouses, Erected for Discharging the Transports, Hutting the Troops, Convicts &. has put it out of our powers to make any Discoveries in the Interior part of the Country, the only Discovery made is Contiguous to Botany & where we are Settling our Little Colony {its Cal'd in Cooks Voyage port Jackson} by a Survey of Capt. Hunters it is found to be the Most Commodious perhaps in the World, the Latitude of it is 33.51 South Longitude 151.10 East & is 3 Leagues North of Botany. The Day we Sail'd from thence Two French Frigates arrived from making Discovery's Round the World they have been out above 3 Years & put in here [?] for Wood, Water & to build Boats. they have been at Most of the Islands that Captn Cook was at. at one [of] them {Navigation Island} they Lost Two Boats with their Crews & 8 Officers, Including Monsr De Langle Capt.n of the Astrolabe all Massacred by the Natives. they had 4 Boats on shore but Luckily 2 Got Off. at another place they Lost Two Boats with there Crews not a Man Escaping

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We See many of the Natives Dayly with No More Covering than what Nature Affords them. they Seem Not to be possess'd of the Smallest Curiosity or Sensibility whatever They take us all for Women I Suppose for our Not Wearing Beards. When we haul the Nett they Assist no Doubt with a View of being Gained by it, Yet Notwithstanding the Time we have been here, they are as Distant as Ever with us. they Never Come to our Camp Nor Suffer their Women Near us. four Convicts have been found kil'd by them & 6 or 7 more are Missing who we Suppose have Shared the Same fate, the Gov.r has Sent our 2d Lieut.t Mr King with one Mid. one Surgeons Mate, a party of Seamen, 7 Men & 6 female Convicts to Settle a Colony at Norfolk Island {which abounds with Firr Trees of an Enormous Size} it is about E.N.E. 300 Leagues from Hence & is only 15 Miles in Circumference, We have Great Difficulty in Clearing the Country as we are badly Assisted by the Convicts, the Gov.r had adopted the Most Lenient Means but to no purpose & finds that Nothing but Rigour will bring them to ord.r they are without Exception the most Incorragbible Villians Breathing,& the Women the Most Obscene Creatures Imaginable. for Robberies Committed by the men 5 have been already Hung - flogging has Lost its Effect.

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it is a Charming Climate & will No Doubt in Time be a fruitful one the Gangarroo Mentioned by Cook are very Numerous & are the only Quadrupids we find Worth Mentioning. they Correspond with his Discription in Every Respect, Except, our finding that the female has a false Belly or pouch Similar to the Opossum, in wch. their Young take Shelter When Closely pursued. this we found by Shooting by Shooting a Dam, for [?] as soon as She fell the Young ones ran into its Asylum.

There are a Great Number of Birds & many like our Game in England & a Most Beautyful Specie of parroquets, there has been a Bird of Enormous Size kil'd Something Like the Ostrich but more Resembling the Emu. {Described by Goldsmith} a Native of So. America it was 7 ft 2in high & Weigh'd 104 pound.

It is Suggested we are to sail from hence in 2 Months to Explore the Coast & then proceed to Otaheite & the Islands Contigous - if it Should be so, it will make the time {which begins to be irksome} appear Less Tedious as it will be Novelty.

We learn from L.t Ball of the Supply Arm'd Tender Just Arriv'd from Norfolk that on his passage from thence he Discoverd an island Island in Lat. 31.23 he Cal'd Lord Howe Island it abounds in Turtle. Many of he has Brought here, wild pidgeons Abound there also. {if the Expression may be Allow'd} & a Fowl very much Resembling the Guinea Hen.

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As they Suffer themselves to be taken from off the Trees wthout Attempting to Fly away & the former the men Run Down without any Difficulty.

This being the Anniversary of H.M.y Birth Day it Was Celebrated with Great pomp when the Country was Named Cumberland & the City Albion.

The Buildings will Make a formidable Appearance in a Short Time. people are Employ'd in Making Brick & [?] & here is Stone as fine as any portland Stone. the Govr & Lieut. Govr are building Magnificently but more [?] are Wanted. An officer of Marines & myself went a few Days [?] a Circuit along the Coast. on Landing the Natives Appeard very friendly to us, but on our pulling off the Boate they Threw a Large Spear wch La providentially Miss'd us but Came with Great Violence against the Side of the Boate. this would not have happend had we a Musquet in the Boate. the Dread of wch. is So Great, that with one you might Drive a Thousand before you

The Women are very Dexterous in fishing in their Canoes. their Lines are made of the Bark of Trees & the Hooks of Shells & Astonishing That a Length of Line they with Continue and [?]

Letter 16. August 9 1787

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Aug. 9. 87

My Dr Sir

I Left a Line at Brent for Mrs. O. to Say we were so far in our way Home, Since which I have Seen a Letter from Lieut [?] Bradly of the Sirius to Capt. Elissen [?]- Viz, Santa Cruz Teneriff June 4th Its with pleasure I Acquaint you that that very Deserving Young Man Mr Fowell is this Day Ord.d to Act as Lieut.t & from his Great attention to his Duty I have Every Reason to Support him for the first promotion Should a Vacancy happen. I will forward it all in my power for I think him by far the Most Deserving Young Man in the Ship. he is Attentive & well informed in his busyness & much Respected by all, & I am much Attach'd to him & I must Say [?] of Your Recommendation, he is the first I would Interest my Self About, We Goe to Rio Janero & the Cape - the Convicts healthy & behave so well that there Irons are all taken off Some Days Since, these are the Words of his Letters which I know will Give you pleasure. We found all Well on view facsimile

our Return & all Joine in Love & Good Wishes to you all & am

Yrs Very Sincerely

J Nicholl

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Address leaf

G. Ourry Esq


South Brent

Letter 17.

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A Copy of Mr Nepeans Letter.


Capt.n Philip who is to Command on the Expedition to Botany Bay, offer'd to take with him any Young Gentleman I might think fit to recommend, as a Midshipman, & conceiving himself under some obligation to me, for what I know not, he promis'd, that if the Young Man behav'd well, he would make him an officer, if a Vacancy offer'd during his Command.

Mr Rose knowing my Intimacy with Captn Philip, desir'd me to ask him to take out a Young Man who had been recommended by Mr Justice Buller, which Capt.n Philip refus'd to do, declaring that his complement of persons of that Class, had been compleated long before. I met Mr Buller soon after & finding that he was particularly interested in the success of his application, I offer'd to give him the Vacancy which had been reserv'd for my nomination & can assure you that I was particularly glad to find it was in Favour of your Son Newton.

I would recommend it to you by all means to send him to Portsmouth the Moment you hear of the arrival of the Sirius, & he will apply to Captain Hunter who goes out in her, to whom Captain Philip has given some Directions ab.t him. I am

Y.r Obed.t Hble Serv.t

Evan Nepean

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Copy of Mr Nepeans Letter

Letter 18. December 12 1787

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There is not the least probability of our sending out to Botany Bay until we receive accounts of Governor Phillip of his arrival and the situation in which he finds matters to be with regard to the Inhabitants and the probability of supplying [?]the Convicts already sent out. If no unforeseen event has view facsimile

happened I expect that he has reached the place of his destination. I beg my Comp.ts to Mr Fowell & that you will believe me to be, Madam

Your obed.t

& faithful

humble Ser

Evan Nepean


12 Dec.r 1787

Mrs. Fowell.

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take care of this

Letter 19. Whitehall 23 May 1788

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Whitehall 23 May 1788.

Dear Sir

There is no idea of sending to Botany Bay 'till we hear from Governor Phillip, whenever that happens you shall be apprised of it. I have the pleasure to tell you that the Governor speaks of your Son in his Letters to me in very handsome terms. I beg my Comp.ts to Mrs. Fowell and that you will believe me to be with great regard.

Dear sir

Your faithful

humble Serv.t

Evan Nepean

John Fowell Esq

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Mr Nepeans 1788

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