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The Journal of Philip Gidley King: Lieutenant, R.N. 1787–1790

Part One From England to Norfolk Island: 4th February 1787–7th March 1788

PGK 1786

Sailed from Spithead 14 May 1787.

Landed Norfolk Id 5 March 1788

Settled at Sydney Cove 26 Jany 1788

Remarks & Journal kept on the Expedition to form a Colony in His Majestys Territory of New South Wales Under the Command of His Excellency Arthur Phillip Esqr His Majestys Governor & Captain General of ye said Territory & its dependancies Kept by Lieutenant Philip Gidley King Second Lieutenant of His Majesty's Ship Sirius. Employed on ye above Expedition

As I write this Journal for my own satisfaction, I do beg & request, that, into whatever hands it may fall, (in case of any accidents happening to me) To give or forward it into the hands of His Excellency Governor Phillip, or in case of his demise, to Lieut. William Dawes of the Marines, who I instruct to destroy it; if any of the materials can be of service to the latter he is perfectly welcome to them —

   Philip Gidley King

His Majestys Ship Sirius of 20 Guns 612 Tons & 160 Men for which Ship I received my Commission as second Lieutenant, was commissioned ye 24th of October 1786 & ordered to be fitted out with the greatest despatch, as it was presumed that she would proceed on ye Service for which she was destined, early in December, Captain Arthur Phillip was appointed to the chief command of her as 1st Captain & Capt Jno Hunter was promoted from Master & Commander to ye Rank of Post Captain, by an order of His Majesty in Council & acted as second Captain. The first Captain who has likewise a Commission under ye Great Seal of Great Britain as Captain General & Governor of His Majesties Territory of New South Wales; (extending from ye 44th degree of South Lattitude to the 10 Degree of South Lattitude & from ye 135° of East Longitude to Ed. The Islands thereon dependant),1 he is supposed at all times to command ye Ship & when he thinks it expedient for the publick service is at liberty to embark onboard her. The other officers & names are expressed in the beginning.2 The construction of a Kings Ship not being deemed proper for this Service the Berwick Store Ship was pitched on by the Admiralty & her name changed to the Sirius, so called from the bright star in ye Southern constellation of the Great Dog. She had been purchased on the Stocks by Government in 1781 & was sent once to America as a Storeship during ye War & once after the peace to ye Wt Indies since which time she had lay'n in ordinary at Deptford, till named for this Service, when she was taken in to dock & as the Yard people said, thoroughly overhauld, however we have frequently had reason to think otherwise, in the course of our Voyage — The Supply armed Tender of 170 Tons 8 Guns & 50 Men commanded by Lieutenant H.L. Ball; was formerly a Navy Transport — her size is much too small for so long a voyage which added to her not being able to carry any quantity of Provisions & her sailing very ill renders her a very improper Vessell for this Service. The Transports taken up for ye Service are as follows, — as well as their Complements of Seamen Marines & Convicts embarked on board them at the time of our leaving England —

Alexander, 452 Tons 30 Seamen 35 Marines 194 Convicts

Lady Penrhyn, 333 Tons 30 Seamen 3 Officers of Ms 101 Female Do Convicts

Charlotte, 335 Tons 30 Seamen 42 Marines, 86 Male & 20 Female Scarboro, 430 Tons 30 Seamen 44 Marines 205 Male Convicts

Friendship 274 Tons 25 Seamen 40 Marines 76 Male & 21 Female Do Prince of Wales, 350 Tons [*] Seamen 29 Mars 2 Male & 47 female Cons Fishburn, Victualler, & Agents Ship of 378 Tons 22 Men Golden Grove, Do 335 Tons 22 Men Barradale, Do 275 Tons 22 Men

The terms of the Contract with the owners of the above Ships are 10 Shillings per Ton per month till their arrival at Deptford, except the Lady Penrhyn, Charlotte, & Scarboro which ships are no longer in the Service, when they are cleared of their Cargos in Botany Bay & from that time their contract ceases with Government & they begin a new one with the East India Company on whose account they go to China for a Cargo of tea to carry to England. Lieutenant Shortland of the Navy has the Appointment of Agent of Transports & is to return to England with the other three Transports & ye three Storeships, the instant, the Governor has no further occassion for them — The transports are fitted up for the Convicts the same as for carrying troops; Except the security, which consists of very strong & thick Bulkheads, filled with nails & run across from side to side in ye tween decks3 abaft the Mainmast with loop holes to fire between decks in case of irregularities, The hatches are well secured down by cross bars, bolts & locks & are likewise nailed down from deck to deck with oak stanchions. There is also a barricadoe of plank about 3 Feet high, armed with pointed prongs of Iron on the upper deck, abaft the Mainmast, to prevent any connection between the Marines & Ships Company, with the Convicts. Centinels are placed at the different Hatchways & a guard always under arms on the Quarter deck of each Transport in order to prevent any improper behaviour of the Convicts, as well as to guard agt any surprize. Each Transport has onboard a Certain quantity of each kind of Utensils proper for agriculture, as well as a distribution of other stores for the use of the Colony, so distributed that an accident happning to one Ship would not have those disagreeable consequences, which must be the case, if ye whole of one Species of Stores was onboard each Ship. The Victuallers are loaded with two years provisions of all species for the Marines, Convicts &c for two Years from the time of their landing in New South Wales — The Sirius and Supply tender dropped from Deptford to Longreach ye 10th of December & lay there till the 30th January waiting for the Alexander & Lady Penrhyn who were taking in their Convicts at Gallions, we anchored in the Downs ye 4th of February with the above two Transports & Supply tender, & were detained there till ye 19 by very heavy Gales of Wind at S.W. On the 20th We weighed with the Wind at N.E. & came to anchor on the Motherbank ye 22nd where we found the three Victuallers Scarborough & Prince of Wales Transports. The convicts were all embarked on ye 6th of March & ye Charlotte and Friendship from Plymo with Convicts joined us soon after, It was not till ye 11th of May that the Governor joined us he having been detained in Town untill the Ministry had arranged & fixed the different orders settling a number of things so incident to ye great voyage we are about to undertake. On ye 12 The Ships Company was paid their two Months advance, & on the same day we were joined by His Majesties Ship Hyena.4 Captain De-courcy who was ordered to proceed with us as far as Capt. Phillip might judge proper. A disagreement now took place between the Seamen of the Transports & Victuallers, with the Masters of them, in which I think the Seamen had a little reason on their Side. They had been in employ upwards of seven Months, during which time they had received no pay except their River pay & one Months advance. The great length of the Voyage rendered it necessary that they should have more Mony, to furnish themselves with such necessarys as were really indispensable. But it became the Masters interest to withold their pay from them, that they might be obliged to purchase those necessarys from them on ye course of the Voyage at a very exorbitant rate; However our sailing, obliged some of them to return to their Duty, others compromised with the Masters, & ye Fisburn lost 5 Men which never returned — The 14th at day break we weighed & ran thro' the Needles & by Noon got a good Offing with the Wind at E.S.E. May 15 at Noon we took our departure from ye Start, bearing N.E.b.E. 8 Leagues, had the Wind then at S.W. but in the Evening it shifted round to ye S.E. & ye next day to West where it continued till ye 21st when we parted Company with the Hyena returning the usual salute of three Cheers — by her we sent our letters to dry land — From the 21st of May till the 26th had variable winds from S.W. to S.E. with very fine Weather. The Thermometer since we left England has not been lower than 60° or higher than 64°. Variation ye 26th by a mean of eight azimuths & one Amplitude 20°.30′ Wt. May 30th saw ye Deserters bearing No 74° W. distant 5 Leagues By an altitude which Mr. Dawes took soon after we made ye Land & on deducing the true time of the time keeper from ye time at the Ship we find the Longitude of ye Eastermost Deserter to be [*] & by the requisite Tables the Longitude is [*]. In coming from ye NE, the Islands or rocks called the Deserters are very high & may be at first mistaken for Porto Sancto. May 30th at noon I take my departure from ye Lattitude observed 32°.18′ N & Longitude by the Time Keeper 16°.29′ W. The Eastermost Deserter then bearing No 17° W distance 4 Leagues.

The 30th & 31st had ye Wind from W.N.W. to S.W. with Calms at noon of ye 31st June5 being then in Lattitude 30°.47′ N and Longitude [*] Wt per Time Keeper, the Supply was ordered ahead to make ye Land & at ½ past 3 P.M. she made the signal of having discovered it. By our Run from the Deserters, as well as our observations of to day & Yesterday, We find the exact Lattitude of the Salvages to be 30°.13′ No. In most tables of Lattitude & Longitudes they are laid down in 30°.00′ which is undoubtedly a Mistake. by a private journal of Capt. Cookes he takes notice of the same error, Their Longitude by the Time Keeper is 15°.56′ Wt. Took our departure from ye Grand Salvage at 4 AM. bearing NW½W distant 5 Leagues had ye Wind at S.W. in which quarter it continued veering to ye Westward till ye 3rd at night when it shifted round to North & N.N.W. at Day light in ye Morning saw ye Island of Teneriffe bearing SWbW 15 Leagues. having very thick weather we could not distinguish ye peak or even the form of ye Land, the Eastern point is very high & bluff off which lye 4 high Rocks. We rounded this point Steering S.W. The Distance from this point to the Town & Road of Sta Cruz is about 4 Leagues.

This side of ye Island, as well as ye others, does not give a flattering idea of a fruitfull & plentifull Island which it is in reality; altho the prospect of it from ye Sea, is no more than a heap of Rocks piled the one on the other; & cut into very deep ridges without the least appearance of any kind of verdure. At 7 o'clock came to an anchor & moored Ship off the NE end of ye Town of Sta Cruz which has a good appearance from ye Road. It is needless to try for soundings till you are within 1 mile of ye Shore when you have 80.F. soft mud the bank goes up steep & very near the shore there is not less than 7.F. We anchored in 15 F & moored Ship a Cable each way the proper way of mooring here is No & So. on account of the violent winds which often blow at NE & S.W. When moored ye Eastermost part of ye bay or Le Rocquet bore N 78° E. The Fort to the Southward of the Town S 45° W & ye Church of St Francisco S 73° W. distance off Shore about ½ a mile. It is necessary to have ye Cables floated With Corks to prevent their being nibbed by the quantity of Ballast which is hove out here by ye Spanish Merchant men. this is a precaution not to be neglected. The Bay is open from E.N.E. to S.W. The anchorage good there are two Rocks in ye Bay the smallest lyes in 7 F close in with the Eastermost fort & has 14 feet water on it. the other bears SSE from ye Pier head & has 50 F. water on it, both of them are very small. a very good stone pier is run out for boats, where the water is conducted down, that Ships fill their Water cask in their own boats — The next Morning June 4th I went on shore to announce Governor Phillips visit, with the officers of the Ship & Garrison to the Governor; at the same time to apologize for not saluting the Fort on account of our being so much lumbered with Cask &c on ye Gundeck. The Spanish Governor (the Marquis of Brance forte) returned the visit onboard the Sirius the next day accompanied by six of his principal Officers. His aid-du-camp came onboard just after with an invitation from His Excellency, to Governor Phillip requesting the pleasure of His Company & twelve of his officers to dine with him the following day. The Governor accepted the invitation & went accompanied by twelve officers amongst which number I was one. We were received & entertained with that Liberality & Elegance for which the Spaniards are so much distinguished. The Marquis de Brance forte (from whom we received the greatest attention & politeness during our Stay at this place) has resided here five Years as Governor of the Canaries, altho' the Seat of Government is at ye Grand Canarie where the Bishop resides as well as all ye Gens de droit. I believe the Inhabitants of this Island (Teneriffe) will meet a severe loss whenever he is recalled as Thousands daily experience his unbounded liberality & humanity. Amongst a number of publick spirited actions which has marked the whole of his Government is one which (ought to be made known to Europe at large,) & which does great honor to the head & heart of this estimable Nobleman. On the Day we dined with His Excellency after having taken our leave of him, we were carried by an English Merchant to see an institution formed at ye Expence of the Marquis. On arriving at ye Building which has been erected6 for the purpose, we found a number of Men Women & Children at work some weaving, knitting sewing & divers other employments, within this building (which serves as one side of a Quadrangle open at each corner) was another building in which he has established a Manufactory of coarse linnens & woollens, Ribbans Tape &c which is performed by Children & Women from seven Years old to eighty, they are selected from among the poorest people on the Island; in short every female who is left an Orphan, or who is distressed, has only to present themselves, in order to partake of the humane benevolence of the founder. When we were there, The Number of the females were 120, from 7 Years old to 20; & 60 from 20 to 90. The sale of their work, maintains them, & ye surplus goes to a fund for portioning off those that has been there 7 Years, from ye age of 12; & to provide for those whose age &c may exclude from ye addresses of a suitable husband. The Town of Sta Cruz has a good appearance from ye road, The streets are wide but ill paved, there are some good houses here, which are augmenting daily, as this is ye center of ye commerce of all the Islands, with Spain & ye Carracao. There are two convents of Men. one Franciscans & ye other dominicans, both of which are poor, altho' their churches are elegantly decorated & are not wanting in a certain degree of Catholic beauty in their construction. During our short stay here, We made a party to visit Laguna & ye Country of which we had not formed a very favorable idea from ye appearance of the Island. Having provided ourselves with Horses, Mules, & asses each accompaned by his conductor. we sett of from Sta Cruz about eight in the Morning being fourteen in all, besides our numerous attendants, whose principal business it was to accelerate ye nature of the Cavalry, by means of long staffs pointed with Iron, & with which they also leaped with surprizing agility from rock to rock. The Road for the first Mile was very uneven with large loose stones & the country on both sides had very little appearance of cultivation. We soon passed a small redoubt erected on ye summit of the first hills which we were informed by an English Merchant who was with us was erected in the last War, intended for ye Garrison of Sta Cruz to retire to, in case of its being taken: However ye Spaniards might have saved themselves that trouble as a trench thrown across defended by 50 Men would stop the incursion of an enemy however formidable he might be. The scene was now changed & instead of barren burnt rocks the eye was agreably diverted by corn fields, Vineyards &c & the sourrounding hills covered with Thickwood. from the Fort, to Laguna, the distance is about 8 miles, thro' a very pleasant picturesque country, the beauties of which were much heightned by the harvest which they were at this time getting in. The City of Laguna stands in the centre of a large plain, bounded by very high Hills. The Streets are wide & well paved & the Houses are also very well built many of which have the air of hotels. with porte cocheres. The plain on which the Town stands was formerly a Marsh, but was drained, altho' not sufficiently to exclude very obnoxious damps & Fogs particularly in the Winter which renders this a very unwholesome place, and it is principally on this account that the Inhabitants are taking up their residence at Sta Cruz. From Laguna we went to the Summit of the Steep hills which surround ye plain on which the City stands. had it not been for the excessive heat we should have found our excursion exceeding pleasant. On one of these Hills we found a small plain, which is called ye plain of ye Wanches or original inhabitants of this Island; a number of large flat stones, were dispersed about, which had much the appearance of an Altar ruo loqual y cifircas na suneo7 a little distant from this plain on the side of a hill, we found the spring of water (which is walled round) which conducted thro' Wooden Trunks convey the water to Laguna & Sta Cruz. We returned down ye Hill about half way when we halted at a small chappel, where we found our provision Mule, waiting for us: from hence we had a fine coup d'oeil of Laguna on ye plain below us, & the Hills on both sides, & in front, covered with a beautifull Wood, tended to render our repast one of the pleasantest & most agreable I ever made. Nor did we forget our friends in Old England; whose healths we addressed with drinking, in some Porter which we had carried with us. at 6 in ye Evening we remounted our Cavalry & returned to Sta Cruz being much amuzed on ye Road with the singing & mirth of our Sunburnt guides. I could not learn that there is any remains of the ancient inhabitants Except their name. Soon after the Earthquake which was felt here severely in 1736 several Corpses were discovered in the interior Mountains in as perfect a state as the Egyptian Mummies The Method they had apparently taken, was by embowelling the bodys & sowing them in four different Skins of animals, so tight as to exclude ye air: they were then buried six feet deep, where they must have lain some hundred Years. The only fruit which was in season at this time were figs & Mulberries. Pumkins & Onions are in great plenty, poultry dear. Beef with which the Ships Companies, Marines & Convicts were supplied with daily, was very poor the Market price of which was 2½d per lb. Wine is very Plenty at all times of ye Year, tho of Different prices there is but one kind of Wine which assumes different names & prices according to the number of times it is rack'd off & its age.8 the Contract price of ye Wine whilst we were here was 22d per Gallon. On ye 8th June two days before our departure from this place Joseph Powers one of ye Convicts onboard The Alexander, was was permitted to work as a Seaman, found means to put a boat from ye Stern During the night, he was missed about four hours after his evasion & was found among some rocks where ye boat had drifted. We found that he had offered himself onboard a Dutch Indiaman which lay astern of ye Alexr but was refused — By several equal Altitudes of ye Sun we find the Longitude of Sta Cruz bay to be 16°.17′.30″ West of Greenwich & ye Variation.

The Transports & co. having compleated their Water &c on ye 10th We made ye Sigl for every Person of ye Fleet to repair onboard their respective Ships & unmoored; And ye next Morning we weighed with a light air at NNW which lasted just long enough to give us an offing when it fell calm with light airs from ye SW. nor did we clear the Island before the 13th when we got the N.E. Trade. from that day to the 18th we steered SW½S when being in Lattitude 18°.44′ S° Longitude per T.Keeper 22°.17′ Wt. We steered S.S.W. at 3 P.M. & at 9 AM Saw ye Island of Sal Bearing NWbW¼W about 3 Leagues. The True Lattitude of ye South End of ye Isle of Sal By a Meridian observation is 16°.51′ N° Longitude by the Time keeper 22°.51′ W in passing this Island we had Strong Gales & hazey Wr which is the General Weather among the Cape de Verde Steering S½E from Sal from which place we took our Departure at 11 A.M. we made ye Island of Bonavista at 2 P.M. on ye 19th. In rounding the Island which we did within 2 or 3 Leagues we had a good view of ye Reef which lyes off ye NE end it bears from [*] to [*] in length & is about two miles long, & spits off about 2 Miles. The Sea breaks very high on it — I think Ships in making these Islands should always endeavor to make Sal. from whence a South Course will carry them well without the Ledge of Bonavista, & in sight of it. We ran that night (ye 19th) SWBS. till 12 when we made ye Sigl & brought too with our head to the Eastward till day light when we saw ye Isle of May bearing NWbW 4 Miles. at Noon ye East end of St Jago bore W.S.W. 2 Leagues. Ships bound into Port Praya may run close along ye Isle of May & steer over from thence West by Compass which will fetch about 2 Leagues to the NE of ye Port. If ye NE Trade blows fresh it will be best to keep close in with the Island till the Reef which lyes off ye Western point of Praya Bay opens, (which may be further known by the Isle of Quails which lye within it.) then luff close round ye Eastern point when the port & Flagg will open bring it to bear NW½N the East point E½S & ye West Point SWbW with which bearings you will have 7.F. Mud & Clay Those remarks I made when here in the Europe of 1783. At ½ past 12 Opned ye reef of ye Western point of ye Bay & had at that time a very fresh breeze at NBE but in hauling round ye Eastern point we were taken aback with the Wind at SW & soon after it fell quite calm with partial catspaws. We observed that the Wind blew right in, by a Portugueze Brig Riding in the Roads as well as by the Flagg — The convoy came about us in a cluster & were likewise becalm'd A great Swell was running & had we persevered in endeavouring to get in I make no doubt but one of ye Vessells might have been disabled by carrying away a Boltsprit or some such accident which would have been a severe stroke to us as it was impossible to replace any thing of that kind at this or any of the Cape de Verde. many of the Transports were not more than ½ a mile from ye Reef. There was no regular wind in the Bay, nothing but Catspaws & calms; The bay not being above 1½ mile over from ye East point to ye Reefs & a great swell it was more than probable that some of the Ships might foul each other. Therefore however anxiously it might have been wished for, by many of us, Capt. Phillip in my opinion judged proper in ordering the Convoy to get an offing as soon as possible, which was rendered a long task from ye Calms & cats paws with which we were surrounded; however at 2 P.M. we got into ye true Wind & proceeded on our Voyage. Ships never anchor at Port Praya during the Autumnal months but this is rather early to have ye S.E. Wind here, which we think must be rather uncommon. On ye 21st ye day after we left St Jago observed a boat passing from ye Alexander to another of the Transports. we made her signal & reprimanded ye Master for suffering visits at Sea which is a Custom that ought to be put a stop to, as it has been prooved to be of a most dangerous & sometimes fatal Tendancy without considering how much it retards a Voyage. We kept the N.E. Trade, steering South, till the 24th of this month (June). then being in Lattitude 9°.02′ N Longd per Timekeeper [*] Wt from this day to ye 7th July had ye Wind in the SW Quarter seldom varying two points attended with frequent squalls of very heavy rain, Thunder & Lightning. Our run between those dates were seldom more than 45′ a day & we generally found the observation 12, 16 or 18 miles to ye Northward of ye Reckoning each day & once 26 Miles; We also found by ye Lunar observations & Time Keeper that the ship had been sett in a like proportion to ye Eastward. On ye 7th of July when we got the SE Trade we were then 4 degrees to ye Eastward of our reckoning being then in Lattitude 5°.16′ N Longitude by The Time keeper 18°.57′ Wt & by mean of 28 distances of Sun & Moon taken by Capt. Hunter Messrs Dawes, Bradley & self our Longitude was 18°.36′ Wt Longd by account 22°.46′ on this day we spoke an English Sloop of 40 Tons called the Remembrance from London bound to Falklands Islands she had been 12 Weeks from England & 5 from ye Isle of May; The Master of this Vessell informed us that he hath had ye Wind from ye SW for more than three Weeks. The Wind continued in light Breezes from ye SSE till the 12th July with fine pleasant weather from this date to our crossing the Equator on the 15th we found the Ship was sett considerably to the Westward of our reckonings. The Time keeper some days giving 30, 40 & even 50′ a day more than the log would give by which means we crossed the line much farther to the Westward than was wished, altho' no opportunity was ever lost of getting Easting. We crossed the Equator ye 15 at 8 P.M. with a Moderate Breeze at S.E.b.E. & pleasant Weather. Our Longitude by Time keeper 26°.10W. by Account 26°.29′ W Variation 5°.20′ Wt by a very good Azimuth which we had ye preceeding day. Nothing can be a stronger proof that the Currents about the Equator are entirely directed by the Winds than that we were set to ye NE dayly, while we were to ye Northd of ye Line & had ye Wind from ye S.E. insomuch that on getting the SE Trade we were 4° to ye Eastward of Account & from the Time we get the S.E. Trade we were set so much to the Westward, that our Longitude by Timekeeper & Dead reckoning agreed very nearly on crossing the line. From ye 15th to ye 20th July had moderate Breeze & often a great head swell with the Wind from S.E.b.E. to Eb.N some days we were set 12, 18 & some times 22 miles per day to ye Northd & Southward alternately which I attribute to the head swell & not having distance enough given & perhaps a Current may have had some share in those Errors nor was the error confined to the Lattitude as we found the Ship constantly set to the Westward of Account. On ye 20th our Lattitude was 6.57 S. Longd per Time keeper 27°.42′ by Lunar observations Taken by Captn Hunter Messrs Bradly Dawes & self 27°.09′ Wt by Dead Reckoning 26°.12′ From this date to the 29th the Wind continued well easterly accompanied at times with very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain in one of which we carried away ye Main Topsail Yard in the Slings which was soon replaced with another. On ye 29th our Lattitude was 19°.37′ S° Longitude per Time Keeper 33°18′ Wt Variation 3°.30′ Et. The Wind shifted round to NE with very fresh Gales & in general clear which Wind continued till We Made Cape Frio. The Morning on which we made ye Cape Augt 2nd at 3 P.M. we spoke a Portugueze Snow from ye Coast of Guinea bound into Rio de Janeiro, his bearing from Cape Frio was West 15 Leagues. Our Lattitude observed at Noon was 23°.02′ S° Longitude by Time Keeper 49°.31′ Wt & by dead Reckoning 36°.N at which time Cape Frio bore by the former N 83°.35′ Wt distant 21 Leagues, & by the latter N 88.36 Wt distant 96 Leagues. We then steered W½N Till 3 in ye Afternoon when we made Cape Frio bearing W½S 7 Leagues. We then ran WSW½W till twelve at night when ye Cape bore NNW at which time we were abreast of it. our Course & distance at this time worked back to Noon was S 84° E distant 64′. from our getting within the Cape till ye 5th we were becalmed & had light airs off ye Land, & on that Evening we anchor'd within ye Isle of Raz which bore SbW 1 Mile The Sugarloaf at ye Wt Entrance of ye Harbour NW½N & Rodondo SWbS 2 Miles. The next day ye 6th at Daylight I was sent by Capt Phillip to wait on the Vice King at Rio de Janeiro & demand permission to enter the Harbour for Refreshments &c which being granted & having assured myself (as I was ordered) that an equal Number of Guns would be returned to our Salute, I returned onboard & a Sea Breeze springing up at 3 o'clock we Weighed & on passing the Fort of Sta Cruz saluted with 13 Guns, to which they returned an equal number. at 7 we anchor'd in 17 Fm all ye Convoy coming too at the same time. The next Morning we Moored Ship a Cable each way the Best Bower to ye SE & Small Bower to ye S.W. The Flaggstaff on Sta Cruz bearing S.E.b.S. ye Sugarloaf S¼Et & ye Flagstaff on ye Isle of Cobres WbN. about 1½ mile from ye Town. The next day August 7th The Governor Officers of the Sirius, Supply, & the Marine Officers went on shore to pay their visit to the Vice King & Governor Phillip was received on landing by the Captain of ye Guard & a Religieux who conducted him to ye Palace, (which is close to ye landing place) Where we waited about five minutes in the Audience Chamber when a Curtain was drawn which discover'd The Vice King in the Drawing room to whom we were introduced seperately by our Governor. from thence we retired into an inner room where the Vice King & Governor Phillip conversed together for some time after which we took our leave. During our Stay here Governor Phillip was always received at Landing by the Vice King's Guard. The Hospitality & attention to every person in our fleet by the inhabitants of this place of all Ranks, merits the warmest gratitude on our parts, & I am very happy that no improper behaviour of Soldier or Sailor gave them any reason to be sorry for their civility & attention to us. We got every thing here in great plenty & very cheap such as Beef (with which every person in the fleet was supplied with dayly) Mutton, Poultry; Oranges, Bannanas, &c Indeed I never recollect being in so good a port for Refreshments of all kinds. The Convicts & Marines were victualled with fresh beef &c at 3½d per day. The water is very good & is filled in ye boats with a hose.

In falling in with Cape Frio (which is an Island & makes like two hills) Ships should not risque getting in with the Land to ye Northward of the Cape, which runs into a deep bay & in which are several Islands & are called ye Islands of Ancora & St Ann But if a Ship should be forced in among them by a S.E. Wind, there is good Anchoring within the Isle of Ancora in 15 fm 1 League from ye Island. As it is in General thick Weather about ye Cape, Great care should be taken in running for it to Keep the lead going as there are not soundings above 10 Leagues out where you may have 150 F If to the Southd of the Cape you have a Kind of Yellow Mud; but if to ye Northward [*] These soundings decrease gradually & the depth from ye Cape to the Isle of Raz is from 42 to 15 fm. The Harbours Mouth bears from ye Cape West 18 Leagues. Ships bound in should leave no opportunity of getting in, as it often happens that the Sea breeze does not come in for days together tho' in general the Land & Sea winds are tolerable regular. We were four days before we got in after being abreast of the Cape. In standing to ye Wtward from Cape Frio Two Sugarloaves will be seen the Western of which is that at the Harbours mouth. In thick Weather strangers some times mistake ye one for the other the difference is easily known as ye Eastern Sugar loaf bilges out to ye Wtward, & ye Westward one bilges to ye Eastward [?]W —— E [?]

The Islands of Paya & Maya may be sailed round by a first rate so close as to touch her sides without any danger. If there is not Sea breeze sufficient to carry a Ship into the Harbour they may anchor within the Isle of Raz bringing it to bear South 1 Mile or nearer. The Isle of Rodondo & other Rocks & Islands to ye NW is a sufficient Shelter against every wind but the SE with which wind you may run into the Harbour. There is no danger but what is visible in going in, or inside this Harbour. the Marks to sail in are to steer towards ye Sugar loaf till ye Church of Notre Dame de bon voyage is upon of the Fort at ye Right hand of ye Entrance called Sta Cruz opposite to which about ¾ of a mile is ye fort of Lege, situated on a small rocky Island. When between these forts, which may be called the bar you have 6 F & not less. be carefull not to be got into either of the bights within those two forts. As ye Ebb sets strong into that of Lege & ye flood into that of Santa Cruz but of the two it is better to get into that of Sta Cruz where you may anchor. which is not altogether prudent to do on ye other side it being very rocky. from the forts run up [*] for ye Isle of Cobres & bring the Bearings on which I mentioned before for our Mooring. The ground is good; altho' rather poor from ye town, for ships which have to Water however Those who mean to remain here any time, go behind ye Isle of Cobres where the portugueze Men of War & ye Brazil Men lye on that Island are rings to heave down by. The Rock was blown up & the Rings put in by the Anna Pink & the other Ships of Lord Ansons Squadron which hove down by them in 1742. The Harbour is spacious & safe & ye largest I ever saw except Trincomalay. it is very well defended Yet I think ten sail of the line & 5000 Troops would give a good account of the Gold crosses9 with which their churches are well furnished, in a short time, if well conducted. The Tide flows here 2½ hours full & Change & rises about 4 feet but this depends greatly on the winds as I once saw it rise 7 feet. There are forty Islands in the harbour the largest of which is called Governador, which would have been the healthiest situation for the Town. Its present site is very unhealty as the High Mountains round it entirely excludes the Sea breeze which renders it excessive hot altho' the Streets are wide — There are some good buildings in the City the principal of which are the Churches Convents & ye Viceroys Pallace which is a very spacious & not inelegant building; it is situated close to the landing place near it are ye Vice Kings Stables. Opera. Mint Court of Justice &c. The Title of ye Vice King is Vice King & Captain General of ye Brazils by Sea & Land; His fixed salary is but 2000£ per Annum however if he wishes to treble that sum he has it much in his power. An Officer of the Rank of Lieutt Colonel who is stiled Adjutant des ordres is in constant attendance at the Pallace to give out orders & transact all the Military business. there are besides this Officer a great number of others who are likewise on Constant duty at the same place. The Troops are well disciplined & appointed & ye subordination is kept very high. There are now about 5000 Troops viz ye Regiments of Braganza. Estramodo & Moira. these 3 Regiments Came from Lisbon in 1768 & were to remain only 3 Years. however they are not yet gone or any likelihood of it. there are besides 2 Companies of Cavalry & 2 Companies of Artillery with 3 Provincial Corps — The Town can arm 6000 trained Men. The Town contained according to a statement made in 1784 about 30,000 Souls but I am credibly informed that is far short of ye Number. The Country about ye Town, as well as around ye Harbour is romantic & picturesque beyond description, & was it in possession of any other European Power excepting Spain, it might be made to produce every article. But the Portuguese content with ye natural riches of the country & their native indolence, prevents them from turning these Territories in this part of the Globe to account. The Present Vice King & a few publick spritied people particularly a Signor John Hopman has roused them from their lethargy. in ye Year 1700 all their Spirits, Corn, Coffee, &c &c came from Lisbon. but they are now so well improved at present that besides having a very ample supply for themselves & ships that may touch here they are enabled to export yearly 6000 Cases of Sugar at 1240 lb each 5000 Cases of Rice 36,000 lbs of Indigo 2000 pipes of Rum beside cochineal & Woods for dying & Building.

A Kings Ship comes here once a Year to carry home ye Diamonds & Gold. I could not learn ye Quantity or Value of the Diamonds which are sent to Portugal Yearly in their Rough state as no lapidary can polish a Diamond here under pain of Death — The Quantity of Gold which is sent to Lisbon Yearly is 32,000 lbs or 3200 Arobes — Beside Diamonds There is a Quantity of Topazes Amethystes & other precious stones found here with a Quantity of Medicinal Drugs particulary ye Balsam Capivi & Castor oil both which I am told is very good.

On our arrival here Governor Phillip got permission to Land Lieut Dawes of ye Marines with ye Astronomical Quadrant Clock Time Keeper &c on ye Island of Anchades10 an Island in ye harbour which bore from the Sirius per Compass N 50°.24 Wt 2¾ Miles Mr Dawes remained there till ye Day before we sailed but unfortunatly the Weather was always too obscure to observe the Eclipses of the Satellites. However by some tolerable distances of equal Altitudes he fixed ye Longitude to be 43°.21′ Wt of Greenwich.

Having finished our business at this Port we saild September 5th & on our passing the Fort of Sta Cruz were saluted with 21 Guns, which was the last mark of attention & respect which we met with from Luis Velasque de Concierge Viceroy of the Brazils We lost sight of ye land on the evening of the 5th the 6th the Wind freshned & veered to the NE & ENE in which Quarter it remained till the 8th at Midnight when it shifted round to ye WNW & South with heavy squalls of Wind rain, Thunder, & Lightning, Lattde 25°.54 Longitude per Time Keeper 39.39 Wt from the 7th to the 11th found a Current which sett us 12′ to the Northd in ye 24 hours — ye 12th had ye wind at ENE from whence it shifted round to North with a great Western Swell, had at times violent Squalls of wind & Rain — 15th was Calm, almost ye whole day & tolerably clear which enabled Mr Dawes to take some good Altitudes by which we found our Longitude by Time Keeper was 31°.39′ Wt Lattitude 30.37 So from this day till the 20th had fair Winds — On ye 21st ye Wind came round to SE with a Swell — Septr 22 Moderate Breezes at 3h58′.33″ Longd in per mean of 8 distances of [?] & [?] was 22°.34′.36 Wt

By the Time Keeper 22°.33′ Wt Lattde 33°.04′ So & Variation 2°.33′ Wt — 23rd had ye Wind at NE with Squally Weather & the latter part had hard Gales with a great Sea running. The 24th the Wind shifted into the NW Quarter & blew with great force & often accompanied with heavy squalls of wind, rain, thunder & lightning. On the 27th Mr Dawes took 6 Altitudes which gives the Longitude per Time Keeper 9°.2′.30″ Wt by Dead Reckg — 8°.31′ Wt Lattde 34°.26′ So — I have hitherto' omitted making mention of the Birds which are met with in these Seas, many of which are of the common kind such as Grey, Black, & White Gulls, ye brown & black peterels, Albatrosses & Pintada birds, the last we first saw in Lattde 32°.10 & Longitude 25°.25′ Wt nor did they forsake us till our arrival at the Cape of Good hope, The Albatrosses were not so attentive yet scarce a day past without seeing one or two of them, among which some were very large, but as they are so well known shall not attempt any discription of them — 28th Fresh Gales at NW our course EbS as it has been ever since we could lay it. Lattde 34°.26′ Longd 5°.35′ Wt by Time keeper Having had ye wind nearly aft for these some days past & a rolling sea, the Ship has labourd very much which obliged us to house the Guns & lash the ports in fore & aft. a discovery has also been made which tends to prove (if it is necessary) the extreem negligence of the Dock Yard Officers in not giving the Sirius the inspection they certainly ought to have done. It being found necessary to rip up the lead which lined one of the Scuttles, the Carpenter in doing it perceived a rotten piece of Wood, which was broke off from one of the Top Timbers, on inspection we found that not only the top Timbers were rotten, but also that many of the futtocks were in the same condition, which brought the following anecdote respecting the Ship to light. She was built in 178[*]11 in the River & intended for an East country man but in loading she took fire & was burnt to her wales, Government being in want of a burthensome ship to send Stores abroad in, the Navy board purchased the bottom of this Ship, she was taken into dock & ran up with the refuse of the Yard, I have already said she went two voyages as a Store Ship since when she has had no repair as the late Surveyor of the Navy & Builder of ye Yard at Deptford reported her fit for the Voyage to which she is destined, Such is the Ship in which is embarked an Officer, whose reputation as well as that of the Nations, is concerned in the present arduous undertaking — Septr 29th had Strong Gales at S.W. which veer'd round to SbE with a great sea, which obliged us to hand our Fore & Mizen Topsails but the weather moderating towards noon enabled us to set them again 30th The Wind continued in the S.E. Quarter At noon of the 1st of October ye Wind shifted to North, we steered SEbE being in Lattitude 33°.54′ So Longd by time keeper 2°.27′ Wt — The 2nd & 3rd had ye Wind in ye SW Quarter with light breezes. Lattde ye 3rd at Noon 35°.20′ So Longitude 1°.25′ Et Variation 12°.08′ Wt 4th Moderate Weather Wind at NNE. the Supply informed us that the Convicts onboard the Charlotte were getting very sickly —

5th Variable Winds with drizling rain Lattitude 35°.51′ Longitude 3°.55′ —

6th The same Winds. The Alexander hailed us & sent his boat onboard with the Master & Marine officer, who informed, that a plan had been laid by some of the Convicts & Seamen to give all ye former their liberty, for which purpose, iron crows, & other utensils had been furnished them by the Seamen The principals of ye Convicts were stapled to the Deck, & four of the Seamen were brought onboard the Sirius — 7th & 8th had ye Wind at NE, with fine weather & smooth Water. ye 9th the Wind veered round to NW with fine Weather The Lattitude this day 36°.28′ So Longd in by Time Keeper Variation of ye Compass 16°.45′ Wt

10th & 11th had fresh Gales at WSW with which we steered East — found ourselves both days 11′ to the Northward of account — Lattde ye 10th, 35°.00′ S Longitude — 12th had ye Wind from SSW to SSE Lattitude 34°.28′ So Longitude by Dead Reckoning 16°.39′ Et by The Time keeper 16°.59′ Et Variation 20°.6′ Wt

13th The Wind the same as before at noon made ye Supplys Sigl to go ahead & look out for the land at 6 in ye Evening the Variation was 21°.52′ Wt The bearings of the Cape Town by Time Keeper N [*] E distt [*] Leagues by Dead Reckoning N [*] E [*] Leagues saw ye land at day break & at Noon the Lyons Rump bore E½S 2 or 3 Leagues from ye time I mentioned ye bearings we have run East 59′

At 6 in ye evening of ye 13th, We anchor'd in Table Bay with all ye Convoy, in 6 Fathom & moord Ship with a Cable each way, ye Best Bower to the S.W. & small bower to the N.E — Robbin Island N½E. Green point N.W.½W Flag-staff W.b.N. I went onshore to visit the Dutch Governor Monsieur Van de Graaf — who received me with great politeness & assured me that our salute should be returned with an equal number of Guns & that all our wants should be supplied excepting Grain & flower, to which he could give no present answer on account of the great scarcity of Corn the last year. The Sirius saluted the Fort with 13 Guns to which an equal number was returned & the Signal was made that the Port was open. The day after our arrival Octr 14th I accompanied Governor Phillip to Monsieur Van de Graaf, who received us with great Politeness, The conversation turned on our Wants, which consisted of Cattle, Wine & Corn for ye Voyage & bread for daily use — Monsieur de Graaf very readily assented to the two first articles; but respecting the corn he could give no answer till Governor Phillip should state in Writing (addressed to the Governor & Council) an account of what quantity he might want which Monsieur Van de Graaf requested might be done as sparingly as possible nor could he promise the smallest quantity to us, the reasons for this restriction was, the great famine for the two preceeding years, he admitted that the present harvest promised much, but there was a great demand from the Isle of France & Batavia To the former he was bound in gratitude to send what quantity he could, as the Cape had been greatly assisted from thence during the famine; to the latter; (Batavia) they were obliged to send a quantity yearly & this was the first year out of 3 that he had a prospect of sending any. It was with great difficulty that he would consent to the daily bread being permitted to be sent off, nor was it till the Twenty third (ten days after our arrival) that an answer was given, when a letter was sent to Governor Phillip couched in very respectfull terms, according him every thing which he had demanded, which was not done till a number of spirited remonstrances were made on the part of Mr Phillip — The Contractors were Petrus Dewit & Johannes Kerstan, whose integrity & probity ought ever to recommend them to Whoever may touch here in future. From having the honor of Governor Phillips confidence I am very certain of What I now assert, & I do firmly believe that a great sum might be saved government by employing these Young Men, provided those who employ them, keep their hands as clean as Mr Phillip did his — The whole number of Sick in ye Fleet on the day of our arrival did not exceed Twenty & those few were perfectly re'established in three or four days after our arrival & continued so till the day of our departure, nor did we land etther Soldier or sailor at Sick Quarters, which is a very rare circumstance at this place — The Cape Town is situated on an amphitheatre at the head of the Table bay, The Table hill, Devils hill Sugar Loaf & Lyons Rump forms the Amphitheatre which has a most picturesque appearance. The Streets are wide & drawn at Right angles & canals running thro' them The houses are all well built, commodious, & very clean, which with the appearance of the inhabitants, gives this place very much the appearance of a European Town. There are a number of Forts erected which are judiciously placed, but may all be [illegible] The population was ascertained in 1784 to be [*] Whites [*] Blacks throughout all the settlements which the Inhabitans agree is a just calculation. The Inhabitants of the Town & Country are formed into a Militia, which is exercised twice a Year for which purpose they meet & are under a very tolerable discipline As this Militia are formed of true patriots who fight for every thing which is dear to them I think they would be found a very formidable opposition to the taking this place. Every person here is perfectly at their ease, as they are not suffered to enter into any kind of commerce except that of supplying the wants of passengers & that is subject to a duty paid to the Company, to whom this place belongs & from whom the Civil & Military Officers secure their appointments — It is strictly forbid any Inhabitant to have a larger boat than two men can row or one man conduct in sailing — Every article of refreshment is to be got here in the greatest plenty but very dear the following is a list of the prices at this time in Spanish Dollars & Sterling . . a Cow 40 Sp. Dollars A Sheep 4 Do Fowles 2s each — Turkies 8s each — Geese 6s each Potatoes 19s a sack about 150lb — Cabbages 6s each Barley 3/3d a bushell Mutton or beef bought when killed 4d per lb — & every other article in proportions. It is customary for every person that can be spared from the duty of the Ships that touch here to live onshore, as every house in the place are lodging & boarding houses which is conducted in a very agreable manner on the parts of those to whom they belong — As I said before the houses are extreemly clean & commodious: for one person the terms are now 6s or a Ducatoon per diem, for which you have breakfast & an exceeding abundant dinner & supper with good lodgings, the people of the house expect to buy every article their Guests may want; on which they charge a commission of 5 per cent & if they give mony for bills the discount is 8 per cent. The soil of the interior parts is very good, though only cultivated in plantations, which are in general very fertile. There are plantations at 100 Leagues nearly in Land but the plantations along the Coast are at a greater distance. the ground that all those different colonies take up would form an immense colonie if the different habitations were contigious to each other but as the Cultivator has chosen the best grounds & the fattest pasturages, they are very far from each other. The fertilite of the country & the number of their flocks, enables the inhabitant to live very cheap, which is by no means the case with foreign vessells. the Company having reserved to themselves the right of furnishing them with provisions & even workmen which are charged at a very high price. it is nevertheless very agreable to find on the extreeme point of Africa, a resting place where Dutch Industry has proccured every article necessary for the fatigued, scorbutic, Seaman, to refresh himself with before, he begins a long voyage after having performed one — The Garrison consists of the Regiments of Gordon & the Regiments of Wurtemberg in all about 2500 Men & a very excellent Company of Artillery which are kept in high order. The Commanding Officer of the Troops is Colonel Gordon (of Scotch extraction) a Gentleman whose extensive knowledge, & great perseverance will enable him, one day, to favor Europe with an account of this Country which will do him infinite Merit I have seen his Charts & drawings which are exceeding fine, he has performed two journeys into the interior parts of the Caffres Country in which he has been above eight months each time & has penetrated above two hundred leagues, accompanied only by four chosen hottentots in whom he places an implicit confidence

List of The live Stock which we embark at the Cape of Good Hope for

the use of the Colony destined for New South Wales.

Mares 4 Stallion 1. 1 Stone Colt & 2 mare colts

Cows 6. Bull calf 1. Bull 2 Yrs old 1

Ewes 120, Goats [*] fowles &c a great quantity

Having finished our business at the Cape we unmoord the 11th November & should have sailed the same day. but the Wind being at NW that & the following day, we did not sail till the 13th Novr at 2 in the Afternoon with a fresh breeze at S.S.E. on hauling round Penguin Island we spoke ye Kent of London who had been from England about four months out East from St Helena Bay, where she had got 40 Tons of Oyl & was bound to cruize to the Eastd of the Cape in quest of more Wales —

The 14th the Wind continued still at S.S.E. with a great swell from ye Southward, This day the Officers & Men as well as Convicts were put on an allowance of 2 Quarts of Water per Day Lattde at noon 35°.14′ So Longd by the Time Keeper 15.07 Et

15th Wind at South with fresh breezes, but towards noon light winds at 9 A.M. tacked to ye Eastward Lattitude 35°.22′ So Longd Per T.K. 13°.29′ Variation 22°.23′ Wt found a Current which set us 12′ to the Northward of account in ye 24 hours —

16th Wind the same at 8 P.M. tacked to ye Westward. Lattitude this day 35°.43′ Longd per T.K. — 12°.37′ we were this day 10′ to ye Northd of Acct —

17th Wind still the same with small rain. — our Lattitude this day 36°.40′. Longd per T.K. 11°.42′ Et

18th Wind still at SSE with Moderate Breezes The Variation per Amplitude 21°.03′ Wt Lattitude 37°.13′. Longitude per Time Keeper 10°.43′ Saw a great number of Whales & Grampusses — The Longitude in per mean of eight distances of Sun & moon was 10°.39′ Et the mean of Capt. Hunter, Messrs Bradley & Dawes was 10°.49′ which different observations correspond exactly with the Time Keeper which makes us [*] to ye Wt of Account

19th The Wind veered round to E.S.E. the latter part of the 24 hours calm with a great Swell from the Westward: Lattitude this day 37°.40′ So Longitude by Time Keeper 10°.21′ Et Variation per Azimuth 20°.54′ Wt This day at Noon Captain Phillip signified his intention of going onboard the Supply & proceeding with her, & the Alexander Scarboro & Friendship Transports, to the place of our destination; but in case the Transports (which are the best sailors of the Convoy) should not be able to keep up with the Supply it is his intention to leave them under ye care of Lieutt Shortland Agent for Transports, Who is furnished with very ample instructions in what manner to conduct the Vessells under his Charge. Captn Hunter is to be charged with making the best of his way with the rest of the Convoy consisting of the Sirius, Lady Penrhyn, Charlotte, & Prince of Wales with the Three Victuallers — Capt. Phillip Lieutt Dawes of the Marines, and myself are to go in the Supply with 6 Artificers. Major Ross & Lieut Long Adjutant of the Marines are to go onboard the Scarboro & Lieutt Shortland removes from the Fishburn into the Alexander. The end proposed by this separation is, that the governor flatters himself that he shall arrive at the place of our destination (Botany Bay) a fortnight before the Transports in which time he will be able to make his observations on the place whether it is a proper Spot for the Settlement or not & in the latter case he will then have time to Examine Port Stephens before the arrival of the Transports on the Coast; Should Botany Bay answer our expectations he may have time to erect a Log Store house for the reception of the Provisions which will hasten the departure of the Store Ships & Transports. It being calm the Afternoon of this day the Sig1 was made for The Transports to come under our Stern & some arrangements were taken in shifting water from the Alexander, to the Lady Penrhyn & Store ships, Some baggage was sent onbd ye Supply & Scarboro & some convicts artificers, were sent with our 6 Men onboard the Supply, at Sunsett every thing was ready for the intented separation, which was deferred till we should be 100 Leagues to the Eastward of the Cape of Good Hope —

20th It continued calm all this day till eleven in the Morning when a breeze sprung up at N.E.bE. with which we Steered S.E. The constant Southerly Winds which we have had ever since we left the Cape have driven us considerably to the Westward our Longitude by Account being this day at noon 13°.26′ Et but by the Lunar observations of to day by ye mean of sight very good distances of the Sun & Moon it was 10°.44′ & by the Time keeper 10°.21′ Et which proves that we have had a Strong Western Current, Lattitude 37°.38′ South Variation 18°.00′ Wt

21st Wind increases gradually at N.b.E. with a following sea. our Lattitude 38°.40′. Longd by Time keeper 12°.57′ Et Variation 20°.56′ Wt

22nd The Wind veered to WNW & NNW with fresh gales & a following sea, at Noon imagining our selves in a very good lattitude to make our Easting in The Course was changed to E.S.E. It is rather extraordinary that in our present Lattitude viz 39°.00 we should still feel the effects of the Western Current particularly as our distance Run in ye 24 hours is 156 miles. Yet we find from some very good Altitudes taken this Morning that there is a difference between the Time Keeper & Run of 21′ of Longitude, which places the Ship 21′ to ye Westward of the Run. The Lattitude does not agree with ye run, being 12′ to ye Southd of what the Log will give — Lattitude at Noon 39°.00 So Longd by Time Keeper 15°.48′ Et Variation 20°.03′ Wt — many petrels, Albatrosses, & Whales about ye Ship —

23rd Had very strong Gales & a great sea both which fell before 4 P.M. afterwards light winds. The Lattitude at Noon 39°.08′ S No Altitudes taken for ye Time Keeper. Wind NW from this day to the 26th at Noon had Moderate Breezes at Wt N.W. & SW. The 26th, I went onbd His Majesties armed Tender Supply, Lieutt Henry Lidgbird Ball Commander, with Governor Phillip & Lieut Dawes of the Marines, The other changes took place which I mentioned on ye 19th & at one o'clock we parted Company with the Fleet which at Sun sett were hull down The Wind fresh at West —

At Day light of ye 27th The Sirius & her Convoy were out of sight. A great number of black & Blue Petrells round ye Ship with a prodigious quantity of Whales. By Altitudes taken for ye Time Keeper (which the Governor has brot with him) we find the Ship has been sett between the 25th & 26th, 40′ more to ye Eastward than what the Log gives, of which Current we have felt no other effect, except being 39′ to ye Northward of our Account which may be owing to bad steerage & heave of the Sea. Lattitude this day 27th 38°.08′ So Longd by Time Keeper 27°.03′ Et — The 28th at 11 P.M. The men on ye lookout forward called out rocks under the bows, on which the helm was put a lee & instead of rocks, were presented with the view of 2 very large Whales, & so close to the Vessell that I could have stept from the Gunnell on either of their backs. The Vessell was felt going over their tails by those below. had very heavy Squalls with fresh Gales all this day & a very high Sea running got no observation our Course still being E.S.E. having the Wind at NE & North The Brig labours much, & is very uncomfortable It must be acknowledged that ease & convenience were not our errand onboard this Vessell

29th In the Evening had Squalls of Wind & Rain, & one of the most confused Tumbling seas I every beheld, the Rain & squalls brought the Wind round to WNW & the Sea abated much The latter part of this day had very pleasant & serene Weather, which in a Vessell of this kind is a very disirable circumstance if it were only to dry ones Things, as the Sea yesterday made fair breaches over her & many of them Wetted the head of ye Fore sail — A great number of Albatrosses & pettrels round us, we passed thro' a long string of fish sperm of a sand colour — Mr Dawes this day took some Altitudes for the Time Keeper, (which we have not been able to do before since ye 27th) by which we find our Longitude this day at Noon to be 34°.18′ Et which differs only 10′ in the two days to the Eastward of the Run Lattitude 39°.44 S° When ye Wind blows worship the Echo! —

c'est bien a propos ce soir

30th — Very fine Wr with the Wind at SWbS The mean of Variations in the Morning & Evening 30° Wt A great quantity of different birds amongst which were those called Petrels which are thus distinguished. The small birds of a sooty brown, & in flying trip one leg on ye Water is called ye Petterel or Mother Carys Chicken, ye large bird of ye same colour & form as ye small pettrel is called by the Seamen Mother Carys Goose; the small White Bird is also called ye Blue pettrel it having a blue spot on its back. It is rather singular that in our Voyage from Rio de Janeiro we were accompanied quite across by the Pintadoe bird or Cape Pettrel, which we have not seen since our departure from the Cape altho' we have daily a great abundance of Albatrosses, Gannetts, Pettrels, & Gulls —

Decr 1st Fresh Gales accompanied with Squalls of Wind & Rain. at 21h.55′.11″ found ye Longitude to be, by ye mean of four Distances of ye [?] & [?] Centers 38°.52′ Et Longitude by the Time Keeper at the same time 38°.37′ Et. Variation 29°.23′ Wt. Lattitude at ye time of observation 39°.45′ S° The 2nd, 3rd & 4th had Strong Gales & a heavy Sea from ye West which veered round to NW & N.b.E. & from thence shifted suddenly on the Afternoon of ye 4th to SbE & SSE with rain which made it so very cold that Many of the people were affected so much by it, that some were obliged to quit their duty, particulary the Man at the Helm John Breedon, who was affected with a kind of Stupor. I have observed both in our Run from the Brazils to the Cape of Good Hope & on this run that the Wind commences after a Calm to blow at West & NW from whence it Veers round in Squalls of Rain to North & SW but never recollects its veering round ye contrary way — The 5th Moderate breezes at WSW with a great Western swell — 6th Wind from E.b.S. to N.E.b.N. with very heavy rain & Thick foggy Weather with distant Thunder in the SW Quarter had no Meridian Altitude this day —

7th Wind Moderate in ye NW Quarter the most part of this 24 hours a Thick Fog, which renders our present situation rather perilous as no Ship ever ran in this parrallel of Lattitude before, so far to the Eastward The Lattitude by a Meridian Altitude this day at Noon gives 41°.13′ South, its being rather cloudy all the Morning could get no Altitudes for the Time Keeper

8th Fresh Gales which veered from NW to NE & back again to NW with a great Sea our distance ran by the log 158′. The Lattitude observed 41°.01′ Variation 33°.00, but as the Brig has much motion I do not think it correct, on the contrary should apprehend that it decreases instead of increases as we go to the Eastward — at 10 AM Lieutt Ball being on deck perceived (as he thought) a Rock on ye Larboard bow, but soon after we percieved it was a Combat between a Whale & a very large Thresher which could not be less than twenty feet long. As ye Whale swims along the Thresher watches when the Whale is going to Spout, at that time he throws himself out of the Water & falls with the greatest force on the Whales head or shoulders The Whale defends himself by endeavoring to strike the Thresher with his tail —

From ye 8th to ye 14th The Wind has generally been fresh in ye NE quarter our distance run each Day about 160′ keeping in ye Parrellel of 41°.30′ Lattitude in the 14th At Noon 41°.41′ Longd by Time Keeper [*]. This day we crossed ye Meridian of ye Island of St Pauls, with a Fresh Gale, at SW & Clear Wr The Birds which we have seen for these some days past have differed much to what they were before, instead of having so many Pettrels about us we have an immense quantity of very large Gulls & enormous Albatrosses. also a large bird, which is quite Brown except a White spot on ye Extremity of its Wings the Tail is Fan tailed like a Pidgeons We have also passed a quantity of Rock weed which may be accounted for from our vicinity to The Island of St Pauls which bears this day at Noon by the Timekeeper & my reckoning (which agree within two miles of each other) N 14° Wt distant 79 Leagues Variation 26.08 Wt

From the 14th to the 17th had fresh Gales of Wind from the SW to NW making each day about 160′ Variation on ye 16th 23°.00′ Wt Lattde at Noon Longitude by Time keeper brought on from ye 14th, 88°.00 Et

“On ye 17th the Time Keeper was not thought of till about 6 oclock “in the Evening, when it was found to have been down about an hour, “it soon after was wound up & sett a going, & the next forenoon “some very good Altitudes were taken, from which the Longitude of “the Ship was found (supposing that the Time keeper had not stopped)

“to be  107°.31′.5″ 
“But the Longitude of the Ship brought on by ye 
“log from ye last observations on ye 14th at 
“21h.29′ is  90°.05′.5″ 
difference turned into time  5 17°.26.0 
3 3°.29.2 
“shews how long the Time Keeper stopt —  1 .09 .44 
“And that being added to what the time keeper 
“would have been too slow for mean time at 
“Greenwich on the 18th at Noon  24′.40 .91″ 
“Gives what the T.K really was too slow for Gh 
“at that time  1 .34 .24 .91″ 
“From the 18th at noon mean time at Greenwich the rate will be 
“continued as before — 3.17 
“Longitude made from ye 14th Noon to ye 
“17th Noon  9°.10′.8″ 
Extract from Mr Dawes's Journal 
19th at 5h.51′.11″ Longitude by mean of 4 distances of Sun & Moons Centers was  93°. 3′.45 Et 
D° by Mr Dawes's mean of 5 Distances —  91 .01 .30 
Mean  91 .02 .35 
Longde brought on for the Time Keeper  91 .58 .00 

As the above distances were very good ones I think it is very probable that the time between ye Time Keeper & ye Lunars ought to be divided, wherefore, I shall call the Longitude at this time 91°.30′.30″ East From ye 18th to the 24th Had very strong Gales of Wind from ye SW to NW with a very heavy Sea running which keeps this vessell almost constantly under water & renders the Situation of every one onboard of her, truly uncomfortable — The Squalls during this time were very violent & great quantitys of rain, Sleet, & large hail stones, & when the Wind is to the Southward the Cold is as extreem here as in England at this time of ye Year, altho' it is the height of Summer here; Great Numbers of Albatrosses, Pettrels, & Port Egmont hens about us & a quantity of Rock weed, On ye 24 (Natural day) at 9h.0′.0″ observed the Eclipse of the Moon but as the Weather was extreemly cloudy could not see the ending the Longitude given by this eclipse gives [*] From ye 24th to ye third of January had the Wind constantly in the NW Quarter Lattde by a Meridian Altitude on the 2nd was 44°.06′ South Longitude in by Time Keeper 142°.23′ Et Variation by mean of a number of Azimuths was 36′ East. In the Morning of this day had very heavy Gales & a Tumbling sea from ye NNW. which obliged us for the first time since we left England to furl the Topsails. The Brig labours very much & Ships a great quantity of Water. Third of January had little Wind from ye NW to West with a very great Sea & in the Night dark Cloudy weather with fierce forked lightning; at ½ past 10 in the Morning we were satisfied with seeing Van Diemans Land its extreems trending from NNE. to EbN & at Noon the SW Cape bore E½N, Nomans Land, NbE & ye Southermost Land E½S — Lattde in by Mer. Alt. 43°.39′ Et & Longitude in by some very good Altitudes taken for the Time Keeper gives 144°.51′ Et. This day at Noon Mr Dawes took several Distances of the Sun & Moon Centers

The Result of which gave  145°.16′.34″ 
Longitude of ye SWt Cape by Capt. Cook  146 .07 .00 
The Difference  50 .26 
turn'd into time shews how much less than 
1h.09′.44″ ye time Keeper was down —  0h.03′.21.7″ 
Therefore the Time Keeper was down —  1 .06 .22.3 

Therefore 50′ must be added to the Longitude found by Time Keeper since ye 17th when it went down The Land about here is of a good heighth but very uneven, being obliged to make ye best use of the Westerly Wind which then blew, we could not explore this part of the Coast more than Capt Cook has already done. We steered ESE & at 6 PM on the 4th The Mewstone bore NbW½W 5 Miles & ye South Cape NE½E & at 8. The Eddistone bore NE½N 7′ or 8′ It continued fresh breezes & Clear all night the Wind veering to NNW & North & at 8 A.M. ye South Cape bore W½S 9 Leagues of which we lost sight at noon Lattde by Merd Alte 43°.33′ Longitude by Time Keeper 148°.35′ Et Variation next day 5°.5′ Et. Jany 5. had Moderate breezes & Clear from ye Northward found a Current which had sett us 21′ to ye SE — 6th Wind continued from NbE till 8 in ye Evening when it shifted suddenly to S.W. in a very heavy Squall which gave but little Warning Lattd this day at Noon 41°.39′ So Longitude by Time Keeper 151°.17′ Et which gives 17′ to ye Eastward of the Log —

7th Wind mostly from ye NbE Variation by 57 good Azimuths & Amplitudes gives 10°.00 Et Lattde at Noon 40°.44′ So Longitude by Time Keeper 150°.26′ Et found a southerly Current of 10′ in ye 24 hours —

8th had in general light Winds from the Northward, & Foggy Weather — Lattde 40°.05′ So Longitude by Time Keeper 149°.41′ Et Variation 10°.30′ Et 17′ to ye Eastward of what ye logg gives — Sounded frequently with 120 fathom but could get no ground.

9th had fresh Gales from ye Northward Lattd at Noon 40°.4′ So no altitudes for the Time Keeper the Variation was 10°.08′ Et.

10th had Moderate breezes from North veering round to ye Westward with a great head sea from ye Northd. Lattd at Noon 39°.17′ So Longitude by the Time Keeper 152°.00′ Et found we had been sett 48′ to ye Eastward of what the logg will give since we had the last Altitudes on ye 8th.

11th The Wind still the same in ye P.M. of this day we saw a Turtle —

13th Had ye Wind from ESE veering round to NNW with pleasant Weather, at ¼ past 9 Saw the Land extending from N 36° Wt to S 67° Wt — at Noon, Were about 5 Leagues from it Lattde by a very good Meridian Altitude was 34°.48′ So & an eminence on the Land (which is high & tolerable even) bore at this time W½S 4 Leagues which we take for a mountain ressembling a hatt which Capt. Cook takes notice of & places it about 9 miles to the NW of Red point, before dark it was thought proper to shorten sail & lay her to or stand off & on till the Morning, it soon after came on to blow hard from the So & a great Swell we continued standing off till 12 at night where we were & stood in again, at 2 A.M. put too with her head off shore till day light when we made the Land bearing from NbE to WNW, which in appearance ressembled an Island, but we soon after found it to be a projection of the Land, which was Chalk Clifts & its ends ressembled the North & South Foreland. at Noon our Lattde by Meridian Altitude was 35°.14′ So which is 26′ to ye Southd of our Yesterdays observation notwith-standing we ran 22′ to the Northward, & according to our calculation we had made 6 miles Northing since we brought too. all which shews that there is a Strong Current or tide setting to the Southward, which is also taken notice of by Capt. Cooke; at Noon Cape Long nose bore NW 14 miles ye Southermost Land in sight West & ye No Point of ye Land which we made in the Morning, NNW we could discern The Land further to the Eastward but it being very Cloudy could not determine its extent — ye Longitude by Time Keeper at 9h was 150°.43′ Et & Lattde by two Altitudes at ye same time 35.01 So.

at Noon of ye 14th it fell calm & soon after a breeze Sprung up at SbE We made sail immediately & steered NNW & by ½ past four, finding the Breeze was not sufficently strong to rundown ye Distance to Botany Bay

15th Throughout this 24 hours had Fresh Gales from North to NNE. with a little Swell at ½ past 12 Tacked & stood in shore till four in the Evening we could plainly perceive that we were set very much to the Southward — at 4 Tacked & stood of till 7 when we stood in again till 8 then Tacked & stood of till 9 in the Morning then tacked & stood in again at Noon found our Lattitude by Meridian Altitudes was 35°.58′. The Logg gives with every allowance, a due East course, since Yesterday at Noon. wherefore we have had a Current which has sat us 44′ to ye Southward in 24 hours, bearings of Cape Longnose at 4 PM NbW 5 Leagues —

16th In ye beginning of this 24 hours the Wind was Moderate still blowing from ye North, at six it encreased so much as to oblige us to hand our Topsails & Ballance reef the Mainsail at 6 we were & stood to the Eastward. A great Sea running & Cloudy dirty Weather — at 9 in the Morning it Moderated a little which enabled us to sett our close reefed Topsails & Main stay sail our Lattitude this day by a tolerable Meridian Altitude was 36°.17′ South — which agrees very well with the run —

17th Wind & Weather much ye same as Yesterday except it being very Squally in the Night with some heavy rain & lightning to the Northward, our Lattitude this day at Noon by a very Good Meridian Altitude is 35°.39′ ye Log will not give more than 16′ Northing wherefore we have had a Northerly Current at ye rate of 21′ in ye 24 hours. Longitude in by the Time Keeper 152°.52′.30″ Et Longitude by D.R. brought on from ye Lunar Observation & Time Keeper on ye 15th when in sight of Long nose gives 151°.35′ Et which gives a difference of 72′ to ye Eastward of Account —

18th The First part had fresh breezes from ye North West & at Midnight it shifted round to S.W. at 6, P.M. by a Meridian Altitude of the Moon found our Lattitude to be 35°.01′ S which is 7 Miles to ye Northd of ye Logg, at 8 in the Morning we discovered ye Land from WSW to NW & at the same time saw ye Hill ressembling the Crown of a hatt which bore W½S — we stood in NNW & NW till within about 3 miles of ye Shore when we steered North, The Shore along here is steep & a surf beating on it. The hills are cloathed with a verdant Wood with many beautifull slopes, at Noon observed our Lattitude by a very good Meridian Altitude was 34°.14′ at the Same time a very high Chalk clift which rose perpendicularly from the Sea bore NWbN & the Northermost Land in sight bore NNE. This Chalk Clift is mentioned by Capt. Cooke in his first voyage but he has neglected remarking that there are five of those Chalk clifts the Northermost of which is just at ye Commencement of the Land which forms Botany Bay, As it is impossible to Miss this place with Capt. Cookes description before one I shall remark nothing of it, but that. we we hauled in for the harbour at a quarter past 2 in ye Afternoon of ye 19th when abreast of Point solander we saw several of ye Natives running along brandishing their Spears & making towards the harbour we came to an anchor on the Northern side of the Bay, that the Ships which were following might not miss the harbour, when moored Cape Solander bore [*] Point Sutherland [*] & ye Bare Island [*] at 3 the boats were hoisted out & Governor Phillip & some Officers belonging to ye Supply with Lieut Dawes & Myself, landed on ye North side of ye Bay & just looked at the face of the Country, which is as Mr Cook remarks very much like the Moors in England, Except that there is a great deal of very good grass & some small timber trees. we went a little way up the bay to look for water, but finding none we returned abreast of the Supply where we observed a group of the Natives, we put the Boats onshore near where we observed two of their Canoes lying, they immediately got up & called to us in a Menacing tone, & at the same time brandishing their spears or lances, however the Governor shewed them some beads & orderd a Man to fasten them to the stem of the Canoe, we then made signs that we wanted Water, when they pointed round the point on which they stood & invited us to land there; on landing they directed us by pointing, to a very fine stream of fresh water, Governor Phillip then advanced toward them alone & unarmed, on which one of them advanced towards him, but would not come near enough to receive the beads which the Governor held out for him, but seemed very desirous of having them & made signs for them to be lain on ye ground, which was done, he (ye Native) came on with fear & trembling & took them up, & by degrees came so near as to receive Looking Glasses &c, & seemed quite astonished at ye figure we cut in being cloathed & I think it is very easy to conceive ye ridiculous figure we must appear to those poor creatures who were perfectly naked, we soon after took leave of them & returned onboard N.B This is ye evening of ye 18th Natural day, which I shall carry on —

19th at day light we went on shore to haul ye seine on ye North side, but caught very few fish, just as we were going onboard the Natives came down & were much more confident than they were the night before; at eight o'clock, we were very agreably surprized with the appearance of ye Alexander, Scarboro & Friendship coming round point Solander. they anchored about 10 o'clock When Major Ross ye Lieutenant Governor came onboard; As preperations were made in the Morning to explore & examine all ye North side of ye Bay. Major Ross was added to our party which consisted of ye Governor, Lieuts Ball, Dawes, Long & myself in three boats, & left ye Brig, at 11 o'clock. A Shoal which lay a long way off stretching near ye middle of ye Bay towards ye upper end of ye North side of ye bay prevented our Keeping near the shore, but its edge directed us to the opening of ye River at ye NW side of ye bay which we went up for about 6 miles, finding the Country low & boggy, & no appearence of fresh water, we returned down again & ran along ye upper part of ye bay, to ye entrance of ye first inlet on ye SW side of ye bay which in this part is very wide, here we went onshore & eat our salt beff & in a glass of Porter drank ye healths of our friends in England, we walked some little distance along shore, & could find but one little rivulet of fresh Water we saw several huts & lances but no natives at 6 in ye Evening we returned onboard again —

20th at 8 in ye Morning we were again gratified with seeing the Sirius & all her convoy coming round Point Solander, & they anchored in the Bay at ½ past 9 — Thus this long voyage has been compleated in [*] Weeks from our leaving England, having lost only [*] Men [*] Women [*] children during ye Whole voyage, of this time we have been 9 weeks in port, The fleet on arriving here had only [*] sick & no accident of any kind has happned to any of ye Ships of ye Convoy — at 10 o'clock the Governor, Lieut Governor, & Capt Hunter went over to the south side of ye bay a little within point Sutherland, & I was ordered with Lieut Dawes of the Marines, to explore all ye South side of ye Bay, & trace the two inlets on the South side as high as possible. I ran up the Southern shore till I rounded [*] point off which lies a long shoal which is in many places quite dry at low water we ran up the first inlet about a mile when we came to the head of it, I returned down again & crossed over to a point which from what happned there I gave it the name of Lance point perceiving that it was the highest hill here about, I imagined it was probable that we should find some good water there; on landing, I ascended the hill & found ye soil an exceeding fine black mold, with some excellent Timber Trees & very rich grass, arrived at ye top of the hill we perceived a red fox dog, & soon after discovered a number of ye natives who halloo'd & made signs for us to return to our boats, having only three Marines with me & Lieut Dawes I advanced before them unarmed presenting some beads & Ribbands, two of the Natives advanced armed, but would not come close to me, I then dropt ye beads & baize which I held out for them & retreated, they took it up & bound the baize about their head they then in a very vociferous manner desired us to begone & one of them threw a lance wide of us to shew how far they could do execution, the distance it was thrown was as near as I could guess about 40 Yards & when he took it out of the ground where it struck; it required an exertion to pull it out, as I took this for a menace that more could be thrown at us if we did not retreat & being unwilling to fire amongst them, there being twelve of them, I retreated walking backward till I came to the brow of the hill, where I halted & again offered them presents which they refused, on descending the hill they showed themselves on the top of it & were ten times more vociferous & very soon after a lance was thrown amongst us on which I ordered one of the Marines to fire with powder only, when they ran off. — with great precipitation, I embarked & governor Phillip joined me from the South side of ye Bay where he had found ye Natives very sociable & friendly we relanded on Lance point & ye same body of natives appeared brandishing their lances & defying us however we rowed close in shore & ye Governor disembarked with some presents which one of them came & received thus peace was re-established much to the satisfaction of all parties; they came round ye boats & many little things were given them, but what they wanted most was ye great coats & Cloathing, but hatts was more particularised by them, their admiration of which they expressed by very loud shouts, whenever one of us pulled our hatts off, when they found us so very friendly they ran up to the man who had thrown ye lance & made very significant signs of their displeasure at his conduct by pointing all their lances at him & looking at us intimating that they only waited our orders to kill him, however we made signs for them to desist & made the culprit a present of some beads &c. Governor Phillip then went up another branch & I followed the one we were in, & soon perceived that the natives were following us, we soon came to the head of this inlet where we perceived the same party of Indians, wading over, we rowed up to them & many of them came up to the boat, we made them a few more presents, but found it necessy to put a stop to our generosity as they were increasing fast in numbers & having only a boats crew with me I was apprehensive that they might find means to surprize us as every one of them were armed with lances, & short bludgeons — I gave two of them a glass of Wine which they had no sooner tasted than they spit it out, we asked them the name of a number of articles, which they told us & repeated our words & had already learnt so much English, as to express their want for any thing by putting their finger on it gently looking me in the face & saying “No”? I must do them the justice to say that I believe them to be concientiously honest. When they found we were not disposed to part with any more things, they entered into conversation with us, which was very fully interpreted by very plain Signs they wanted to know of what sex we were, which they explained by pointing where it was distinguishable, As they took us for women, not having our beards grown, I ordered one of the people to undecieve them in this particular when they made a great shout of Admiration, & pointing to the shore, which was but ten yards from us we saw a great number of Women & Girls with infant children on their shoulders, make their appearance on the beach, All in puris naturalibus pas meme la feuille de figeur — those natives who were round the boats made signs for us to go to them, & made us understand their persons were at our service; however I declined this mark of their hospitality but shewed a handkerchief which I offered to one of the women, pointing her out, she immediately put her child down & came alongside ye boat & suffered me to Apply the handkerchief where Eve did ye Fig leaf, the Natives then set up another very great shout & my female visitor returned on shore — As ye evening was coming on fast & we were twelve miles from ye fleet it was time to return, we wished the natives, good be wi'ye which they repeated, we got onboard about midnight when we found the Governor preparing to go the next Morning at day break in some long boats to explore broken bay & port Jackson, he that night ordered me to pursue the service that he allotted me in exploring coves at the head of the bay, & to sett out next Morning —

21st at 6 in the Morning Governor Phillip Capt Hunter & ye Judge Advocate with the Masters of the Sirius & Supply & some petty officers, set off in three boats to examine Port Jackson & Broken Bay & Mr Dawes with myself & a petty Officer went away in two boats to explore the upper part of ye Bay in which we found some very large & deep coves & some extensive lagoons but no fresh water we returned onboard again at about eight in the evening, & on the 23rd in the Evening Governor Phillip & his party returned. orders were immediately given to get the Transports & Victuallers in readiness to sail, As Port Jackson was judged a very proper place to form an establish[ment] in.

the 24 in the morning two Strange Ships were discover'd to ye Southward of Cape Solander & we soon after discover'd that they were French one of which wore a Chef d'escadres pennant from which we conclude them to be La Boussole & l'Astrolabe under ye orders of Monsieur De la perouse on discoveries, but the Wind blowing strong from NNE prevented their getting in, or our going out at four in ye Afternoon they were out of sight & at day light on ye 25 we weighed in the Supply having received a Company of Marines & 40 Convicts onboard, The wind blew so strong from ye SSE that we were obliged to anchor & wait for the Ebb tide & at Noon we weighed & turned out of the harbour In running a long shore we observed a number of steep Rocky clifts & after having run about 3 Leagues we were abreast of some high sand Clifts at the Northern extremity of which the Land of ye Entrance of Port Jackson commences & the entrance is soon discoverd lying between two steep bluff heads. there is no danger in entering the harbour but what is visible, & when within the heads a rock lies in the Mid channel ye shoal of which extends a cables length round, this rock is just covered at high Water. when in ye inside of the harbour ye Larboard arm leads to the place where the Settlement is formed which lies about 6 miles from ye entrance of the harbour, we anchored there, ye same evening at about 7 o'clock, being obliged to turn up — The next day at Day light the English colours were displayed on shore & possesion was taken for His Majety whose health, with the Queens, Prince of Wales & Success to the Colony was drank, a feu de joie was fired by the party of Marines & ye whole gave 3 Cheers which was returned by the Supply. at Sun sett The Sirius & all the Convoy anchored here. Capt. Hunter informed the Governor that the French Ships had entered the bay just before he left it, & that they were la Boussole & l'Astrolabe commanded by Monsieur De La Perouse on discoveries The next Morning Jany 27th A great part of the Troops & Convicts were landed, & the latter was immediately sett to work clearing away the ground, ready for ye encampment The Place on which ye settlement is to be made is at the head of a Cove at ye head of which a small rivulet empties its self. The Shore on each side is bounded by rocks, within which there is a very fine soil & full of trees which will require some time & labour to clear away, the Marines & Convicts are to be encamped on ye West side & ye Governor, & Staff with his guard & a small part of the Convicts on ye East side of ye Rivulet —

On ye 28th All ye Marines & Male convicts were disembarked from ye different Ships & encamped, the Females were kept onboard till the ground was further cleared. The Stock was also landed this day on ye Eastern point of ye Cove. I should have mentioned before that from ye time of our sailing from England to our arriving here we have lost only 32 people including Marines Seamen & Convicts — but were so unfortunate as to loose a part of our Stock. we landed only, ———

4 Mares & 2 Stallions — 4 Cows 1 Bull & 1 Bull calf [*] Ewes, a good stock of poultry & 3 Goats with [*] Hogs, which are ye Property of ye Governor & Government, the Officers private Stock has been tolerably well preserved —

29th A Great deal of work has been done in clearing away but much remains to be done some Carpenters preparing for fixing the Governors Portable £115 House12 & a number of ye Convicts digging up ye Ground for a garden

30th A Number of Plants belonging to the Governor was landed & put into ye ground —

31 In the Evening had some very severe Thunder & ye quickest & fiercest lightning I ever saw. We have observed that at Botany Bay & at this place many of the Trees are, burnt from top to bottom; singed as it were, which makes us apprehinsive that it is caused by ye lightning, as no fires of ye Natives could scorch them so regularly. On ye 2nd Feby in a very severe Storm of Thunder a Tree was Shivered by the Lightning, close to ye Governors Guard & ye following night another tree was split to pieces & [*] Sheep & [*] Lambs were killed by ye same cause, however it is to be hoped that when ye Country is cleared this calamity will be much lessned —

Feby 1st This day His Excellency Governor Phillip signified his intention of sending me to Norfolk Island with a few people & stock to settle it. Lieut Ball of ye Supply was ordered to receive the Stores onboard necessary for that purpose & the following day at 2 in ye Morning Lieut Dawes of ye Marines & myself sett off in a Cutter for Botany Bay, to visit Monsieur De La perouse on the part of Governor Phillip & to offer him whatever he might have occassion for, we got down to ye harbours mouth at day light, finding a light air from ye Southward, we were obliged to row all ye way & arrived onboard ye Boussole at 10 o'clock in ye Morning where we were received with the greatest politeness & attention by Monsieur de la perouse & his Officers, after delivering my Message to him, he returned his thanks to ye Governor for his attention to him, & made ye same offers which he had received, & added that as he should be in France in 15 Months & having Stores &c enough onboard for three Years he should be happy to oblige Mr Phillip with any that he might want — Monsieur De La perouse informed me that a number of ye Convicts had been to him & offered to enter but he had dismissed them with threats; & gave them a days provisions to carry them back to ye settlement. As ye Wind came on to blow fresh from ye Northward I yielded to the sollicitations of ye French Commodore & consented to dine with him & stay the remainder of ye day & return to Port Jackson next morning. In ye course of my conversation I found that he had touched at & been off ye following places viz. Madeira, Teneriffe, Sta Catherina, he had run down ye Coasts of Chili & California, been at Kamschatka, where he replaced the wooden Inscription near Capt. Clerke's Grave, with a Copper one for which I thanked him in ye name of the Corps. from Kamschatka he went to Macao ye Phillipines, Sandwich Islands, Isles des Navigateurs discovered by Bougainville, Friendly Islands & Norfolk Island from which last place he came on this coast. At the Island of Maouna (one of ye Isles des Navigateurs in Lattitude 14°.19′ S° Longitude 173°.23′.20″ East of Paris) he was so very unfortunate as to lose Monsieur De langle, Captain of L'Astrolabe 8 Officers, 4 Men & .1 Boy who were massaccred by the natives, besides a great number wounded — he relates the Story as follows. The two Ships had been some days at this Island, & had been on very good terms with the natives, who had furnished him with every article of Stock in ye greatest profusion, for barter, but he found it very necessary to be on his guard, against a treacherous disposition which he discovered in them, when every thing was ready for their departure, & ye Ships were under weigh, De Langle, requested Perouse would permit him to get another turn of water, which he De La perouse, consented to with as much reluctance as De langle seemed sollicitous to obtain his request. As the Long boats were not hoisted in They were ordered on this service, with 2 other boats to attend them, under ye orders of ye unfortunate De Langle. The Ships were lying too, & a strong Current sett them round a point out of sight of ye place where the boats landed, On landing they were surrounded as usual by the inhabitants who did not immediately discover any hostile intentions. The people in the Long boats had let them take the ground, & in using means to get them afloat again, the Natives were very troublesome & pressed close in upon them, De langle gave orders to the rowing boats to be ready to fire, but not to do it without his orders, some little altercation happening in consequence of their pressing so very close on ye French, which might have produced a blow from one of ye Natives, which was taken as a signal by the rest & ye Massacre began The natives were armed with short heavy Clubs by which means they rendered the Fire arms useless, orders were given to fire the Swivels but it was too late altho' the Natives fled the instant they were fired on dragging the bodies after them it was supposed that 30 of ye Natives were killed. Those belonging to the long boats, which had escaped, swam off to ye rowing boats & were carried onboard ye Ship, many of whom had received violent contusions on their heads as all their blows were aimed at that part. de La Perouse thought proper to quit the Islands immediately. after endeavoring to regain his long-boats which he found the Natives had destroyed. He represents the Inhabitants of these Islands as a very strong, & handsome race of Men scarce one among them less than 6 Feet high, & well sett, The Women have a certain delicacy of features not common among the inhabitants of the Islands in those Seas. Their Canoes houses &c are all well constructed, & they are much more advanced in internal order & policy than any of the Islands in the Pacific Ocean, but like the rest of them they are surrounded by a coral reef, but Boats may land with great ease. In a Letter to Mr Phillip, which he charged me with he recommends these Islands to his attention, for the great quantity of Stock with which they abound — Excepting the above unfortunate disastre, they have not lost a single man since they left France, when he leaves this place it is his intention to go round New Ireland to ye Moluccas, & Batavia from thence to ye Isle of France, Cape of Good Hope, & Europe where he hopes to arrive in about 18 Months

The Astrolabe & Boussole were fitted out with the greatest liberality, Monsieur de la perouse told me, that ye King told him to get whatever he wanted & he added that if he was now at Brest & had to equip his Ships for ye remainder of his voyage, that he could not think of any article that he stood in need of. Besides ye Astronomer Monsieur Dagelet. he is provided with a very capital Botanist from ye Jardin du roi called de la Martinniere also a draughtsman, in every line, I saw his collection of Natural History which is very compleat. An Abbe who is also on the expedition as a collector of Natural Curiosities13 appears a Man of Letters & Geniality

This Abbe+ has under his care a great number of Philosophic instruments & the Astronomer has also every instrument necessary. each Ship has 3 Time keepers. which are hung on gimbals made by Berthand & goes with a short pendulum, they are rather complicated as an allowance is to be made for ye degree of heat, for which purpose a small Thermometer is kept in each of ye boxes. They have also a dipping needle which was with Capt. Cook. lent them by ye board of Longitude. They had not been more attentive to their Time keeper than we were to ours as they had been let down three times on bd both ships

+ [King's note] He died at Botany Bay soon after we left port Jackson to go to Norfolk Island, & was buried near where the French had their observatory, an inscription carved in Wood was put near his grave which the Natives tore down on wh occasion Govr Phillip repaid the Kamschatka14

After dinner I attended ye Commodore & other Officers onshore where I found him quite established, having thrown round his Tents a Stoccade, guarded by two small guns in which he is setting up two Long boats which he had in frame, An observatory tent was also fixed here, in which was an Astronomical Quadrant. Clockes &c under the Management of Monsieur Dagelet Astronomer, & one of ye Acadamie des Sciences at Paris he has fixed the Lattitude to be 33°.59″.1′ & Longitude [*] East of Greenwich — Monsieur De La perouse informed me that at every place where he has touched at or been near that he has found all ye Astronomical & Nautical works of Capt. Cook to be very exact & true & concluded by saying … “Enfin, Monsieur Cook a tout fait qu'il n'a me rien laisse a faire, que d'admirer ses oeuvres” In the evening I returned onboard ye Boussole & was shown all ye Drawings made on ye Voyage & ye next Morning at 5 I took leave of them, but did not arrive onboard ye Sirius 7 in ye Evening having been obliged to row all the way against the wind & a great swell —

Between ye 7th & 13th my time was wholly employed in sending the Stores, Provisions &c (onboard the Supply) which I was to carry with me to Norfolk Island, consisting of six Months provisions, & tools & utensils of all kinds, on ye 13 I embarked ye Officers & people destined to go with me who were

Mr James Cunningham — Masters Mate

Mr Thos Jamieson — Surgeons Mate

Mr Roger Morley — an Adventurer, had been a Master Weaver

Two Marines & one Seaman belonging to ye Sirius

9 Male Convicts & 6 female D°

I that morning received my Commission from the Governor together with my instructions; by the commission; I was appointed Superintendant & Commandant of Norfolk Island. As my stay at Port Jackson was so very short I am not able to give account of it, at least satisfactory to myself but as a future occasion may present itself — shall pass on to my departure from thence in his Majesties armed Tender Supply which happned at 7 in ye Morning on ye 15th Feby with a very fine breeze at WSW we got down to ye harbours mouth at 8 when we found that it blew very fresh without, & as we got off from the Land it came on blow a perfect Hurricane with a most tremenduous Sea, several of which broke into ye Vessell. The Gale kept up with great violence all this day & I very often thought the vessell was in a critical situation — At 2 in ye Morning of ye 16th the Gale veered round to SbW & moderated but a heavy Sea was Still running at Noon ye Gale & sea both decreased Gradually found our Lattitude at Noon was 32.22′ S Longitude 154°.11′ Et In ye Evening of this day a Flying fish flew onboard, which is rather an extraordinary event in such a high Lattitude — On ye 17th had Fresh breezes with a few Squalls. Wind in general from ye S.E.

18th at Daylight Land was discovered bearing ESE & as we thought only 18 miles & took it for two small Islands. at the time we first discovered them we were standing to ye Northward with ye wind at ESE at 8 in ye Morning we tacked towards them but it being light winds we made no great progress towards them, at Noon had a very good Meridian Altitude which gave us 31°.10′ 55″ S° at that time ye largest hill bore S 60° Et & ye smallest one South 70° Et At ye close of Evening the largest of ye two bore E½S & at Midnight (being near full moon) it bore EbN. in ye night ye wind shifted to NEbN

On ye 19th at 4 in ye Morning having neared the Island considerably, we perceived a pointed Rock right ahead & at some distance from ye Island; on which the Mn Topsail was hove to the Mast & we sounded with 120 fathoms but no bottom The highest hill bearing NEbE at Day light we made sail & found the two Islands or hills that we had seen the day before, were two immense high rocky mountains, on ye South point of an Island, extending from N37° Et to N° 55° Et & this side of it forming a deep bay in which appeared to be good Shelter from ye NE. All ye Land except the two high Mountains appeared to be cloathed with Wood. at Noon we had a very good Meridian Altitude by which our Lattitude was 31°.40′ S° & ye Center of the Island at that time bore from us N 30° Wt about 6 miles, consequently we place the Island in 31°.35′ S° & by some very good distances of Aldeberan from the Moon, at 8 this Evening ye Island being in sight, we make its Longitude 160°.36′ East of Greenwich & by Dead Reckoning 159°.11′ Et. The form of ye Island appears to be a crescent & is very narrow. at 1 oclock we were between ye South end of ye Island & ye high Rock which lie from each other NW½& SE½E about 13 miles asunder & I dare say are both quite steep too. This singular rock rises perpendicularly from ye Sea in the form of a Pyramid, to a very great heigth, we saild in a direct course from it 22 Leagues when we could plainly see it. There are some Rocks which spitt off from ye south W side of this rock; at about a miles distance, but the most dangerous rock is a single one which lyes nearly in the same direction from ye Pyramid, that ye pyramid does from ye Island. it is about 9 mile off & as the whole appears a kind of ridge. I think it is highly probable that there may be some sunken ones between, however the Sea appeared quite clear all round it, a Small Island lies off ye Eastern point of ye Large Island, to which Lieut Ball who was certainly the first discoverer of it, has given the Name of Lord Howes Island & to ye small one, Lidgbird's Island & to ye Pyramid we have given it the name of Balls pyramid —

On ye 20th at Noon we lost sight of ye Island & Pyramid in the haze after having run 22 Leagues from it in a straight direction. I think that in clear Weather it may be seen at 25 Leagues distance The Lattitude & Longitude of this Island is 31°.36′ So & 160°.36′ Et of Greenwich. the first was determined by a mean of 4 very good meridianal Altitudes & ye latter by eight very good distances of ye star Aldebaran from ye moon both on ye 19th.

From ye 19th to 24th had very pleasant Wr & smooth Water ye Wind from E.S.E. to E.N.E. with little of it: in ye Lattitude of 31°. we saw several tropic birds & flying fish of a large size we have every day an immense number of Gannets Pettrels & other Sea fowl —

From ye 25 to ye 29 had Strong Gales of wind & Squally Wr mostly from ye ESE, with a high cross sea running —

The 28th the Wind veering early in the Morning to SW & imagining ourselves by our reckoning to be about 15 Leagues to ye Westward of Norfolk Isle at 7 in ye Evening we hove too & next morning at day light made sail steering East, the great number of birds round us, & ye Clouds hanging so very thick to ye Westward, indicates our being near ye Land, but it was not till eleven in ye forenoon that we made ye largest of the two Isles which lye off ye S.W.15 end of Norfolk Isle bearing [*] & to which I have given the name of Phillip's Isle, in honor of His Excellency Governor Phillip. at one we made Norfolk Isle point Howe or ye North point bearing [*] & ye south point, or point Ross. At 4 in ye Afternoon we rounded Point Howe, soon after hove too off a Cascade which lies near about ye middle of ye Eastern side & down which a very fine fall of water fell with great force & noise. The boat was immediately hoisted out, in which Lieutt Ball & myself went, to examine if it was possible to land near ye cascade, but found it impossible as ye Shore was lined with high pointed rocks & ye surf broke so very violent on them that a landing could not be attempted in ye finest Weather. At Sunsett we returned onboard & ye boat was hoisted in, Stood off & on all night the Wind moderate from S.W.

March 1st Early in ye Morning Lieut Ball & myself went in a boat to examine ye Isle whether we could find a landing place from ye Southermost (or point Ross) to ye NW point, or Point Howe, which is with the present Wind WN.W. ye Lee side of ye Isle. Arrived at point Ross16 we observed a large sandy bay which was near 1½ mile from point to point but it appeared so compleatly surrounded by a reef of rocks, that Landing was impossible, round ye Eastern point of this bay lies another bay which goes in deep but the beach which is a very small one is covered with a very large round stone on which ye surf breaks with great violence, which renders Landing here very dangerous not only for ye boats, but also for ye people, we rowed along the shore but could find no place to land, & could we have landed it would have been impossible to have climbed ye steep cliffs with which the Isle is surrounded off ye NE part of ye Isle lie a great number of very large rocks, behind which Capt. Cook landed in 178…17 but found landing here impossible on account of ye Surf & Rocks Altho' this may not be the case in very fine weather in ye Evening we returned onboard without having set our feet ashore this night had light winds at SW which with a current in ye Morning had sett us a great way from ye Isle, which at day light bore [*] miles, we did not get under ye Lee of ye Isle again before 3 o'clock in ye Afternoon of ye 3rd, when we came to an anchor in 18 fathom sandy bottom, in a bay in which lie the rocks, behind which Capt. Cooke landed, & to which bay I give the name of Duncombe Bay, after ye Member for Yorkshire. point Howe ye No[r]th point bearing from us E½N & a large Rock which forms ye other point WSW At 4 o'clock Lieut Ball & myself landed in ye bay on a large rock, but with great difficulty being obliged to watch an opportunity to jump on ye rock after ye surf had broken we had then to drop ourselves down from ye inner part of this rock, which lay in the wash of a great surf, which broke on the shore with violence, it being covered with large round stones. — as it was near evening when we landed, we very soon returned onbd again with a quantity of sorrell, which we had found near ye shore. The Wind blew strong all night & had veered round to ye ESE.

March 3rd at Day light Lieut Ball & Mr Jamieson, went onshore to examine whether any thing could be landed, where we landed last night, for ye use of ye settlement. Myself & Mr Cunningham went in ye Supplys largest boat, at ye same time to make a circuit of ye Isle going round point Howe ye Western side being now ye Lee part of ye Isle, we rowed round this side, till we opned Phillip's & Nepeans Isle of ye south point of Norfolk Isle but found it blew too hard & too great a sea running to pull the boat ahead. on this side ye Isle there is only one landing place which is in a deep bay just round point Howe. The bottom of it is a fine sandy beach but ye Surf broke on it with such violence as to put Landing out of ye question at two in ye Afternoon we returned onboard, where we found Messrs Ball & Jamieson returned just before us, they giving it as their opinion that Duncombe Bay was by no means a fit place to settle at, independent of ye difficulty of landing there, (which is only practicable for a man without any incumbrance) it is not possible to get a cask up a Clift which leads to a deep ridge down which a torrent of water falls, in the rainy season, & the Hills on both sides are quite steep & so very full of underwood as hardly to be penetrated. As it blew fresh all night next Morning I resolved to go across ye Isle towards ye sandy bay, which I had seen Yesterday, by which means I should be enabled to form a little oppinion of ye Country & see if landing was practicable in this sandy bay, to which I have given ye name of Anson Bay, after ye Member for Litchfield Unfortunately Jno Jay one of ye Supplys Quarter Masters, was drowned in attempting to catch a Turtle, altho' desired to desist. The next Morning, March 4th at 7 o'clock, myself Messrs Jamieson, Cunningham, & Callam Surgeon of ye Supply with 1 Marine landed on ye rock, & ascended ye Northern hill which is very steep. we found ye Woods so very thick & so much underwood which was rendered still worse by a large kind of supple jack which formed an impenetrable net work thro' which we had to cut our way, the ground was quite free of any kind of herb or plant whatever, & ye soil every where rich & good this I attribute, to the thorough exclusion of sun & air which prevents this kind of vegetation. The pines which are very numerous are of an incredible growth, one of them which had been blown down, or fell by age, measured 140 feet & several others which we measurd were 27 feet in circumference they grow quite straight & not an exuberance of any kind whatever on them from ye top to the bottom. Another large tree (of which we saw a great number) greatly resembles ye Maple At 11 we found ourselves on ye opposite side of ye Isle just above ye Sandy or Anson's bay a part of which we could perceive thro' the Trees, we found our road must be down ye hill which is perpendicular & quite full of a large kind of Iris,18 which was a providential circumstance for us as they served us to hold by, when we were all falling & had they not presented them selves we must have fell down a depth of 90 feet, We were too much pleased & thankfull for our escape, to put our trust in a second attempt as every part seemed ye same at this time it was one o'clock, I proposed returning to Duncombe Bay where ye Supply lay, by making a small circuit to ye Southward, we had not gone far before we discovered a spring of very fine water which ran in a direction towards ye North end of ye Isle, which we traced to its source its direction was almost on a level & its spring or source, was at ye foot of a very large tree where it rose out of ye earth. This discovery, had ye appearance of causing an unlucky accident, as we lost ourselves so compleatly that we did not know which way to turn us, each of us had a different opinion & we all misled each other, however at length I took ye resolution of keeping to ye NE knowing that, that direction must lead us to that side of ye Isle, where ye Supply was at anchor, we were so thoroughly bewildered in impassable woods & deep hollows that we had no other prospect than that of sleeping all night in these dreary woods. At 6 in ye Evening we were near ye Summit of a very high hill, but the Woods was so thick that it was impossible to see thro' them, Mr Cunningham got into a tree & climbed to the top of it, from whence he saw ye Supply bearing NbE from us, by which we knew that we were on Mount Pitt (which is ye Name I have given to ye highest & only mountain on ye Isle). We immediately made ye best of our way to gain the bay. Our road to which lay down a water way between two very steep hills, fortunately at this season there is but little water in it. we met with a great many perpendicular rocks or water falls, down which we could perceive that the water fell with great force at times, at about seven we got to the end of ye water fall & saw ye supplys boat waiting for us. we rested here for ye surgeon of ye Supply who had not been able to keep up with us I sent ye Marine to look after him, who on hallooing was answered by Mr Callam soon after ye Supply made ye Signal for her boat to return onboard, I called the Marine & we embarked & got onbd ye Supply, thoroughly exhausted & fatigued with our excursion. The boat was immediately sent after ye Surgeon, but it being dark, he did not choose to answer, the person who went to search for him. It seemed the next morning when he came onboard, that he found himself much tired & exhausted & coming to a place where there was a number of dried leaves, & fearing he should not meet a better bed further on he laid himself down; It was not so far but he might have got to the boat in four minutes, but he recollected how very difficult it would be to get into the boat, at such a late hour, he therefore thought it would be more prudent to stay where he was, he saw nothing in the night; but heard something nibbling the leaves, like a hare or rabbit & heard the very distinct cry of yaho! ye same as one man calling to another, we heard this before we got to the boat & answered it, imagining some of ye people, belonging to ye Supply was onshore & wanted to join us. During this Excursion we have not seen a leaf of flax or any herb or grass whatever the ground (altho a deep rich soil) being quite bare; which is rather extraordinary as Capt. Cooke in his voyage says, that the Flax is more luxuriant here than at New Zeeland, however it is very possible that we have not been on that part of ye Isle where he saw it — Perroquets, parrots, Doves, & other birds we saw in great quantitys & so very tame that they might have been knocked down with sticks, we every where saw large pieces of Pummice stone, a proof that this, as well as ye other Islands in those seas, has been the production of a volcano, or some great shock of nature.

As ye sandy bay, or Ansons bay has not been explored to my satisfaction Lieut Ball proposed going round there in ye Brig, & endeavor to land, which if at all possible, must be effected now as the Wind is at ENE. March 5th at daylight we weighed & ran round to ye bay, when Lieutt Ball & myself went in a boat but found ye surf too violent to land, I now began to think it was impossible to land on ye Isle; As I have nearly made a circuit of it & found no place where there is a possibility of landing. The only prospect remained which was to search if a passage could be found through the reef which runs along Sidney Bay (which is ye name I give to the Bay on ye SWt side of ye Isle) we went there & ye Master was sent in ye Boat to examine it & on his return he informed us, that a landing was very easy. as a small break of ye Reef (large enough to admit two boats) was formed between two parts of it & boats might land on a sandy beach On his report, Lieut Ball & myself went to examine it, & found it just as he had reported, We landed on a fine sandy bay or beach without any difficulty whatever — above this beach lay a bank ye edge of which was surrounded by ye large kind of Iris, on peering thro' it we found a fine piece of ground, altho' well wooded (as is every other part of ye Isle) here I resolved at once to fix, & felicitated myself on having found a place out where I could make a commencement, I had no doubt but water would be procured & that at no great distance. as it was very late in ye Evening We returned on board & ye Supply was brought to an anchor in 20 fathom sandy bottom. I employed this evening in getting every thing ready & arranging all my business for ye ensuing day —

March 6 at Day break I left the Supply with 2 Boats, having in them all ye people belonging to ye settlement (except ye Women) the Tents, a quantity of each kind of provisions & ye most usefull tools, which we landed with great ease & ye people were instantly set to work clearing away ground enough to erect the Tents on & ye Colours were hoisted, before sunsett every thing & person belonging to the settlement were onshore & their Tents pitched. before the Colours were hauled down, I assembled all ye settlement & Lieut Ball present I took possession of ye Isle drinking “His Majesty” “the Queen” “Prince of Wales” “Governor Phillip & success to ye Colony” after which three Cheers were given — March 7th it blew so very hard all day & so great a surf that no boat could land this day I employed the people in clearing away a piece of ground for sewing some seed. The ground which I am clearing is on ye West side of the bank where I am encamped, the Hill has a tolerable easy ascent, & the soil is rich & deep. I therefore have resolved to grub ye trees up on ye side of this hill, which I think the best spot for gardens & other grounds. We soon after our landing found a very fine spring of freshwater at about three minutes walk from us, ye neighbourhood of which is very convenient, as it may be made to overflow a piece of flat ground which is at the foot of ye hill & would make a very good rice ground. The Isle is so very thick of Wood & underwood, that my progress will be but slow for some time to come with the few people which I have with me. It is rather extraordinary that we have not yet found a single plant of flax ye ground having ye same appce on ye South side ye Isle, that it has on ye North, with this difference that it is more accessible on this side than the other

Part Two Norfolk Island Journal (Volume I): 8th March 1788–12th January 1789.

March 1788

Week days  Mo day  Winds  State of ye Surf  Fish or Turtle caught.  Seeds sown  Seeds come up  Transactions on Norfolk Isle & state of the Weather 
Saturday 2d day of landing  E.b.S.  The surf ran very high till 9 in ye Morning at which time ye Supply's boat landed  A few large blue fish which eat very tough & hard  This day had Strong gales & Cloudy Wr at 9 in ye Morng hoisted ye Colours with a weft as a signal [to] ye Supply that her boat might land, at 11 received ye last of our baggage, provisions, & stores from ye Supply & hauled our boat up, at 4 in ye Afternoon Lieut Ball came onshore to know if I had any further occasion for the Supply, & not having any, he took leave, & soon after returned onboard, at ½ past 5 sailed hence for Port Jackson, His Majesties armed Tender Supply. by Lieutt Ball I sent my publick letter & Journal of my proceedings since we made ye Isle with my private Letters. The people (viz. 10 working men,) were this day set to work clearing away & grubbing up trees for a garden 
Sunday  9th  E.S.E  Very good landing all day  Two Green Turtle of about 100 lb each  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr at 11 in ye Morning assembled all ye people in my tent & performed Divine Service after which my Commission from his Excelly ye Governor was read. I this afternoon discovered that there were Turtle on ye Isle, by seeing four basking themselves on a sandy beach which lies at ye Eastern side of this bay, close under point Hunter, I immediately went away with some people & turned 2 of them which I brought to the Tents for publick use, all round this beach we saw a great number of Turtle swimming about 
Monday  10th  EbS  Good landing all day —  Nothing caught. Killed one Turtle for ye use of the Settlement  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr the heat very moderate The people were this day employed clearing away the ground for a garden, but ye roots of ye trees being very large & running a great way under ground renders it an arduous task. I this day began serving ye Commissarys provisions of which I have 6 months 
Tuesday  11th  ESE  Do very little surf  Killed one Turtle. No fish caught  Fresh breezes & pleasant Weather, In ye afternoon had a few showers of rain, the people were employed cutting, carrying away & piling up ye Timber off ye Garden ground. Died one of ye Ewes. 
Wednesday  12th  Do  Do  No Fish caught.  Opned 1 Cask of Bread 1 Do of Pease 1 Do of Flour & 1 Tierce of beef Contents 40 double pieces.  Moderate breezes & Cloudy Wr people enclosing ye garden ground, delving & clearing it of rubbish 
Thursday  13th  EbS  Do  Do  Do Wr ye people were employed as yesterday. 
Friday  14th  East ENE  Do  Turned 3 Turtle of about 100lb each  Potatoes Yams Turnips onions Lettuce Spinnage parsley Cabbage  Do Wr in ye Afternoon cloudy & an appearce of rain. at noon finished delving & inclosing ye garden, its size is 87 feet square the soil very rich & deep, began Squaring it out & sowing ye Seeds as marked in ye Column, at 4 in ye Afternoon I went with the people to ye Turtle bay & turned 3 which we brought here very day at low water we see three or four lying on ye beach asleep in ye Sun, but when it is cloudy they never land 
Saturday  15th  SE SSE South SW  good landing but more Surf than Yesterday  no fish Killed 1 Turtle  In ye Morning had fresh breezes with heavy rain In ye Afternoon very fresh Gales & heavy rain which came in strong Squalls, at 9 ye wind veered round to SW with heavy Squalls of. Wind & rain at 11 more Moderate & calm Weather. No work done to day — 
Sunday  16th  S.W. West Do  Landing not so good as some days past.  a few fish. Killed one Turtle.  Fresh gales & heavy squalls of wind & rain at 11 performed Divine service. In ye evening more moderate Weather. Two Convicts who I permitted to make an excursion into ye Country returned at sun-sett — Their account of it does not differ materially from what we saw of it in our excursion on ye No side of ye Isle. they did not see any flax but met with a quantity of water & a very good soil everywhere, but the Woods inpenetrable. they brought 4 parrots of a very large kind 
Monday  17th  W.N.W. West Do  The surf along ye reefs break with great violence but yet a boat might land at ½ tide or low water  Do  Potatoes Beets Early Cabbage o cauliflower + Mustard o Sib. Brocoli o Fennel o Thyme o Marjoram Shalott o Sorrel + parsnips parsley + Carrots Corn-sallad + Lettuce onion Indian Corn + French beans garden beans rhubarb 5 Coconuts  Turnips radishes Cabbages & Lettuces are out of ye ground  Moderate & Cloudy Wr. I this day employed 6 of ye People to clear away a piece of ground to ye right of ye Garden & above it, for to move ye tents to or erect houses on it as ye present situation of ye people is very uncomfortable & much exposed to ye weather. 3 Men were employed digging a saw pit. felled a pine near it, to saw into planks & scantling its length is 115 feet & 2F 3I diameter about breast high. Finished sowing seeds in ye Garden. leaving a square piece to transplant on. This day, I discovered that ye Flax-plant which Capt. Cook takes notice, of is no other than that plant which I have hither to called ye larger kind of Iris. with which ye Isle abounds. but it in no manner resembles ye Flax of Europe its appearance being more like Flags — a bundle of it was tied up & put into a pool of Water to soak intending to try it after ye European method of preparing ye Flax 
Tuesday  18th  SSW, South, SE  a great Surf breaks on ye Reef.  No fish  sowed 3 Cotten seeds on ye top of ye hill —  Lettuce  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr 6 men employed clearing away ye ground round ye Garden. 3 about ye saw-pit & one making a pen for ye Ewes & hogs - in ye Even'g thick hazey Wr 
Wednesday  19th  ESE, SE, SSE  very good Landing  Several Fish  Spinnach  Moderate breezes & Cloudy Wr in the Afternoon finished ye Saw-pit & began sawing a 12 foot length of ye pine into Scantlings for to erect a Store house ye other people employed as Yesterday — 
Thursday  20  EbS, ESE  Do  A few Fish  The cape cress which was sown ye 17th is come up the English cress sown ye same day is not yet come up  Moderate breezes & cloudy with a few showers of rain. at times. People all employed as yesterday, in the Afternoon very pleasant weather 
Friday  21st  ENE, NE  Do with little or no Surf  A few fish  Cress & Mustard from ye English Seed  Light breezes & Cloudy Wr people employed falling & clearing away ye timber, began framing ye Storehouse. Sawyer & another man sawing up ye pine into Scantlings & uprights &c for ye Store house — 
Saturday  22  NE, N.E.bN  Do  Do  onions. French beans & garden beans  Fresh gales & Cloudy Wr ye people employed as before P.M. Strong gales with heavy rain — 
Sunday  23rd  ENE East EbS  Do  Do  Indian Corn  Fresh breezes & Cloudy with drizling rain at 11 A.M. performed divine Service. P.M. Strong Gales with heavy rain I do not observe that there is any great sea running in the bay on ye contrary I think it is smooth water. I observed that it is high water here at full moon at 9 o'clock & ye tide flowes 7 feet per. 
Monday  24th  WSW West WSW  The surf rises landing good  Do  put some sugar Cane into ye Ground as I think it does not do well in the Tub left 2 Stalks in ye Tub  Potatoes just appearing —  Fresh gales & Cloudy. heavy rain all night. In ye Morning it cleared up with a few flying showers 2 Men employed sawing Scantlings 1 Man framing a Store house, 2 Men building a hutt & 4 Clearing away ye ground. 1 Cooking & 1 Sick the Women dragging away ye boughs. 
Tuesday  25th  SW South  Landing very good  very few Fish. no Turtle has been seen on ye beach since ye 14 when we turned 9  Opned a Cask of Bread.  Shalots Carrots — Cut some Cress  Very fine pleasant weather with Moderate breezes The people disposed of & employed ye same as Yesterday except breaking off one Man from Clearing away the wood to assist in framing ye Store house, at 4 P.M. ye Store house was framed & ready for boarding it, began boarding it up — 2 Men sick — 
Wednesday  26  SW Do WNW  Do & very little surf  Cauli-flower  Do Wr The People employed as Yesterday. As ye Man who assists ye Sawyer is not very expert, our progress in boarding ye Store house up is much retarded the Wr has been much warmer to day than it has been since our arrival here — 2 Men sick — 
Thursday  27th  West.  Do  Do Wr Employed as before. 1 Man Sick — 
Friday  28  WNW  good land but a great surf on ye reef  No fish caught  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy, in ye Night had some heavy rain; but little wind toward ye evening. The people empd as Yesterday 1 Man sick 
Saturday  29th  West.  good landing but little surf  Do  Raddish B.S. Raddish  Modt & Cloudy Wr had a few showers of rain in the Morning. The people all employed as before 1 Man sick — 
Sunday  30  West  Landing possible at Low water  Cut some cress & Mustard for ye People left some for seed —  Fresh gales & Cloudy Wr at 11 A.M. performed divine Service. The Surf breaks with more violence & farther out, than I have observed it to do since our Landing here. A Westerly wind always makes a great Surf on ye reef 1 Man Sick 
Monday  31st  West, S.W.  Landing possible at low water A very great Surf on the Reef  Strong Gales & Cloudy Wr with Squalls of Wind & rain, the people distributed & employed as follows — 2 Men Sawing 1 boarding up ye Store house & 6 Clearing away ground, Women burning ye Rubbish. In ye evening very heavy Gales of wind & thick Cloudy Wr with Squalls of rain — 

April 1788

Tuesday  1st  SW  No landg all day A very high Surf all along ye Reef & breaks with great Violence  Do Wr at times very heavy gusts of Wind & a great Sea running without — Employed clearing away the Wood off ye ground where ye Tents are to be removed to — Began clearing away ye ground, on ye N.E. side of ye hill, to sow Corn & Barley in. The Plants & Vegetables has received much damage from ye heavy Wind which blowing directly from ye Sea, has hurt them particularly the French beans & Young onions. At Sunsett ye Storehouse was finished — in ye evening very heavy Gales & thick cloudy Wr Strong Gales & Rain during ye night — 
WednesY  2nd  S.W., South, SE —  Do  Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Wr with a few showers of rain People employed for ye most part of this day, as Yesterday — at 9 A.M. shifted the Provisions & Stores from the Commandants & Store-tents into ye Store-house at 8 P.M. ye Wind shifted in a gust to ye SE — In ye Evening still fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr In the night Strong Gales — Every thing which was coming up quite flourishing in ye Garden is quite blighted & dead with the Wind. I was this day so unfortunate as to discover that the Rats had eaten a number of ye Indian Corn Shoots, close to ye ground — 
Thursday  3rd  SE, ESE  Much less Surf & decreasing fast landing good at low water  In ye Morning, Fresh Gales, but much more moderate than it has been since the 29th of last month, the Gale having blown with great violence during four days & nights, & has destroyed almost every thing that was growing in the Garden. the people employed clearing away ye Timber off ye ground destined to erect their tents on. Sawyers cutting Timber to erect the houses with & 2 Men clearing ye ground on ye N.E. side ye hill 
Friday  4th  Do, ENE  very little Surf, the Landing very good —  Three Quarts of wheat to try how it will thrive in the Garden ground —  Moderate & Cloudy Wr ye people all employed as before. As ye vegatables which were sowed in ye Garden has been quite destroyed (except a few Cabbage plants, Raddishes, Yams, & potatoes) by the late S.W. wind & not knowing how frequently they may occur during the winter months; I do not intend sowing any more garden seed in it, but have this day sown 3 Quarts of Wheat in a patch of it for a trial — 1 Man sick — 
Saturday  5th  Do  Do  several Turtle has been seen in the Bay but none came on shore  Moderate breezes & Cloudy The people employed as Yesterday In ye Afternoon shifted the Tents to the place which has been cleared for them In ye Evening very pleasant serene weather 1 Man sick 
Sunday  6th  ENE  very good landing the Surf moderate  4 Turtle has been seen in the bay but none on shore  Moderate & Cloudy Wr at 11 A.M. performed Divine service after which caused some orders & regulations to be read for ye preserving good order, regularity & cleanliness in the Settlement — 1 Man Sick — 
Monday  ESE  Do  Opened a Cask of beef & 1 of Pork  Do Wr The people distributed as follows, 5 Men clearing away the NE side of ye Hill 2 Men clearing away from the Ground where ye Tents are pitched on, to the fresh water stream — Sawyers at work as before — 
Tuesday  Do  Do  Do Wr The people all employed as Yesterday 
Wednesy  Do  Do  saw 1 Turtle onshore in the bay but did not disturb it —  Do & pleasant Weather — Employed as Yesterday. The Sawyers finished sawing ye plates &c for My house Carpenter & one Man employed in framing it 
Thursday  10  ENE, NNE  Do Wr people employed as before. in ye night Rain 
Friday  11th  Do, WNW  Transplanted some young bannana Trees & Lime trees into larger tubs which are kept under a Tent in ye garden which is opned in ye day time for them to receive the Sun —  In the Morning strong Gales & thick cloudy weather, with very heavy rain till ½ past 4 in ye Eveng when ye Wind came suddenly round to West & it cleared up people employed as before — in ye Night pleasant Weather. 
Saturday  12  West  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr at 10 in the Morning came on a very strong Squall of Wind & rain — It being too wet & dirty to employ ye people clearing on the NE. side of the hill. I employed them all clearing away from the Tents to ye fresh Water — 
Sunday  13  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy at 9 in the Morning came on a Squall the same as Yesterday, after which had moderate & pleasant Weather at 11 performed Divine Service, after which caused the orders & regulations to be read — opned a Cask of butter & Cask of bread — 
Week days  Mo days  Winds  State of Surf & Landing  Turtle or fish caught  Seeds Sown  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c 
Monday  14th  W.S.W., S.W.  A very great Surf all along the reef no landing  The Rats have destroyed every grain of Wheat & barly which were coming up, & ye Grubs have destroyed all the potatoes & other vegatables which were also coming up, except the Yams which they have damaged. On first discovering the Rats to be so numerous I fitted up ye empty Bread Casks as Traps in which I caught 20 of them which were killed & thrown about the Garden, to deter the living ones, but they soon grew too cunning to be caught in the Cask & too bold to be intimidated by their dead companions. The only means I had left was to pound some glass fine & mix it with oatmeal. they destroy a quantity of this every night but I fear very much it will not remove them. To destroy the Grubs I have try'd Ashes — lie of Ashes, & urine but all without Effect they are so numerous that it is impossible to thin them by picking them off.  Strong Gales & heavy Squalls of wind & rain, & a great Sea running without. The people disposed of as follows. 4 Men Clearing away as before 2 making a Thatched house for 6. 1 Man working under ye Carpenter, who is rendered incapable of working himself, having cut his hand across in a dangerous manner. 1 Man making a fish pot & Sawyers employed sawing boards — 
Tuesday  15th  South  Less Surf Landing good at low Water  More moderate than Yesterday but no rain, The People all employed as before. Died on of ye Ewes three only remains the rest being destroyed by the Scab notwithstanding the greatest care was taken of them — 1 Man lame — 
Wednesday  16th  West, W.N.W.  very little surf landing good  A few fish served ½ allowance of pease.  Moderate breezes & Cloudy. The people all employed as before & ye Women burning away the vine Tendrils which want clearing on the NE side of the hill — 
Thursday  17th  West  Do  Moderate breezes & Cloudy Weather. This Morning detected Jno Batchelor Marine in my Tent stealing Rum out of a Barreca, in which it was kept, As the Allowance of ye Officers & Men belonging to the Sirius, which I kept in my Tent not having a more secure place to put it in. An Attempt of ye same sort was made on the 2nd Instant but at that time I could not fix on the Thief — In the Afternoon I assembled the people together & punished him with 1 Dozen lashes for quitting his work, one dozn lashes for breaking into ye Kings Stores, & 1 Dozen for Theft, on measuring ye remaing Rum in ye barreca I find it 7 pints Short. ordered his allowance to be stopt till ye deficiency is made good. 
Week days  Mo days  Winds  State of Surf & Landing  Turtle or fish caught  Seeds Sown Observations on Seeds &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c 
Friday  18th  N.W.  Landing good  Fresh gales & Cloudy the people all employed as before In ye night had a few showers of hard rain — 
Saturday  19th  West.  AM good Landing P.M A great Surf  The Yams are now thriving very well & seem to bid fair to be out of ye reach of ye rats or Grubs. but I Still have my fears that the cold Southerly Winds will blight them not-withstanding I have sheltred them very well by a close fence —  Do Wr at times Strong Squalls. In the Morning got the frame of my house &[c] in its place & put it up, its dimensions is 24 feet long. 12 feet broad & 7 feet high people employed as before. The Sawyers has sawed up 898 foot of fir into Sleepers, Weather boarding, & quarter stuff for My house since ye 13th — 
Sunday  20th  WSW  The surf runs very high, Landing not possible  The Southerly Winds are now become cold & raw which induces me to call this about ye commencement of ye Winter —  Fresh Gales & cloudy Weather & a great sea running without. at 11 A.M. performed divine Service. In ye afternoon Charles Mac Lennand a boy of 14 yrs old was discovered stealing Rum out of the Surgeons Tent. punished him with 3 Dozn lashes. I have great reason to suppose some others were concerned with him, but not having sufficient proof against them, I forbear taking any notice of it, being determined & having assured the people that the next person which I detected in any theft whatever would be made a severe & dreadfull example of — 
Monday  21st  SW, South  Do  The Wind still blows hard & a great Surf. people employed as follows 3 Men clearing away on the N.E. side of the hill. 3 Clearing away towards the Fresh water. Carpenter & one Man assisting him in building my house & 2 Men employed Sawing — The women employed burning away the Rubbish 
Tuesday  22nd  SE  Very little Surf  Moderate Breezes & pleasant weather The people all employed as Yesterday 
Wednesday  23  NE  Landing very good Scarce any Surf  On ye 27th I discovered a great quantity of plantane trees, which grow close to the Stream of fresh Water which runs through the Valley which is in this part of it dry & not swampy as it is opposite the hill on which the Settlement is, & below it — The Valley is also very wide & bordered by some Small hills, which are as thickly covered with Wood as any other part of ye Iland but the Valley might easily be cleard, or at least a sufficient part of it for ye purpose of sowing Grain Gardens &c which it will produce abundantly if the Rats do not destroy it The Plantane trees grow close to the Water & are so thick that they choak each other besides the very great quantity of other small aquatic shrubs & the bear-bind with which they are interlaced must necessarily retard their perfection, I therefore as soon as a man can be spared intend clearing a spot round them & transplanting some of ye suckers into dryer ground. I shall send Mr Altree to stay there & build a house — I have no doubt but this Valley would produce an immense quantity of Grain as it can be so easily overflowed —  Little Wind & clear Weather. On digging about 2 feet under my house, I find the bottom is sand & a loose sand stone I therfore dug a cellar under a small part of it but the deeper I went I found the bottom dryer & judged it to be a very proper place to put the provisions in, as it will be both safe & dry & will add much to the security of the provisions in being under my immediate care & inspection & will prevent the building another Store house, for a considerable time I therefore broke two men off from clearing away on ye N.E. side of the Hill & began digging a cellar under the house the whole length & breadth of it viz. 24 feet by 12, & 5 feet deep. 
Thursday  24  North  Do  Little wind & very pleasant weather, the middle of the day rather sultry. The People all employed as Yestery 
Friday  25  NE  Do  Do Wr employed as before 
Saturday  26  N.W.  Do  In ye Morning Fresh Gales & Cloudy with Showers of rain In ye Afternoon moderate with heavy Showers of rain The people all employed as before. In ye Evening pleasant Weather — 
Sunday  27th  Do, SW, SSE  A great Surf landing impossible  At 2 in the Morning the wind shifted round to S.W. in a very heavy Squall & blew with great violence till 7 when it veered round to SSE & continued blowing hard all day with showers of rain. At 11 A.M. performed divine Service — Sawyers have sawn 866 feet of Wood since last Sunday — We have caught 40 Rats this week but they are very numerous still — 
Monday  28  SSE  Towards ye Eveng. little Surf, & Landing good —  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr the people distributed as follows — 2 Men digging a Cellar under my house for the reception of Provisions or other Stores 3 men clearing away on the NE side of the hill. 1 Man making a Killock to side ye boat & one Man Assisting ye Carpenter. Sawyers Employed & women burning the rubbish. 
Tuesday  29th  Do  Very little Surf  Moderate breezes & Cloudy the people employed as Yester. In ye Evening ye 2 Men finished digging the Cellar & ye Killock was also finished — 
Wednesday  30th  NE  No surf landing good  Do & pleasant Weather 4 Men clearing away on ye NE side of ye hill & ye rest a before. 1 Man sick — in dysentery 

May 1788

Week days  Mo days  Winds  State of Surf & Landing  Turtle or fish caught  Seeds Sown Observations on Seeds &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c 
Thursday  1st  NNE  Do  Fresh breezes & Cloudy people empd as before — latter part of ye day moderate & Cloudy 1 Man still sick 
Friday  2nd  NW, So, SE  Surf increasg.  First part light winds with dark Gloomy Weather, with heavy rain. No work done to day 
Saturday  3rd  SSE  A great Surf  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Weather with some heavy Showers of rain. In ye Intervals the people employed as before 
Sunday  4th  South  Do  Do & hazey Weather with a cold raw air at 11 A.M. performed divine Service 1 Man sick his complaint is a dysentery. Upwards of 50 Rats have been caught this last week. I was this day so unfortunate as to lose one of my sows. I imagine she was poisoned. 
Monday  5th  SSW, Et, NNE  Very little Surf landing good  Moderate & dark cloudy weather with frequent showers of rain ye People distributed as follows. 4 men clearing away on ye N.E. side of the hill. As I have every reason to suppose that the sow which died Yesterday had eaten something poisonous, I therefore have begun a hog pen made of stakes to confine the rest in altho I much fear that they will not be so well fed as before Sawyers & Carpenters ye same 1 Man sick. 
Tuesday  NNE, ESE  Very little Surf landg good  AM Little wind & a thick fog. P.M clear Weather The people all employed as before ye sawyers assist. & one Man sick 
Wednesday  East  Do  Little wind & very serene pleasant weather. The people employed as before one Man sick 
Thursday  NE  Do  Do Wr ye people employed as yesterday — In ye Evening of Yesterday the Sawyer his assistant & ye Carpenter was poisoned by eating some beans which had a very tempting appearance much like ye broad windsor bean, they have been so ill as not to do any work to day — 1 Man sick 
Friday  9th  East  Do  Do Wr The Sawyers & Carpenters unable to do any work, ye rest employed as before. The hog-pen was finished, began making a catamaran, to go off to the boat which I intend mooring to a killock in the middle bay where she will ride securely & in very smooth water, which is the only method we can take to catch fish. In ye Evening ye Catamaran was finished. 3 Men sick 
Saturday  10th  ENE, East, Variable  Do  Do Wr in ye Morning heavy clouds & rain at 11 o'clock came on a deluge of rain which lasted about 10′ minutes launched ye boat & Catamaran moored ye boat to ye Killock — +Punished Charles McLennan Convict with 3 Dozen lashes for uttering some very seditious & threatning words. In ye Evening very pleasant serene weather — 2 Men sick — + If there were more convicts here, they would not submit to having their salt provisions stopped where a quantity of fish were caught by them. 
Week days  Mo days  Landing state of ye weather  Turtle or fish caught Landg & Surf  Seeds sown  Seeds came up  Observations  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c 
Sunday  11th  S.E. East.  Do No Surf  Little wind all day, with dark Gloomy weather, at 11 came on a Torrent of rain which lasted the same time as Yesterday — after which had passing showers of rain at 11 A.M. performed divine service. 2 Men sick — 
Monday  12th  ESE  Do Do  Do Wr with such heavy & incessant rain that no work could be done. the wind was very faint throughout the day — 1 Man sick 
Tuesday  13th  SW, West  Do  Moderate breezes & pleasant weather, till the Evening then very Gloomy Weather & heavy rain but no wind 5 Men Grubbing up & Clearing away on ye NE side of the hill. 1. Man employed in sundry jobs about ye boat &c Sawyers sawing up boards & Carpenter finishg ye Commandants house — 1 Man sick — 
Wednesday  14th  Variable  36 fish  The boat returned without ye Grapnel & rope. ye people not being able to clear it of ye rocks —  Light airs & Cloudy Wr in ye Afternoon sent ye boat with the mate in her to fish without ye reef. at Sunset she returned with 36 very fine large fish 1 Man sick 
Thursday  15th  NW, NE, SW, NE  very good landing no salt meat issued  Do & sometimes Squalls (but not violent) with dark gloomy Weather & incessant torrents of rain, with distant Thunder & lightning. No work done to day 1 Man sick — 
Friday  16  Do  Do  op'ned a Cask of Pease & one of Flour  Moderate breezes & pleasant weather. people employed as before. broke two men off from clearing away on the N.E. side of ye hill to assist Mr Altree in removing his things to the plantane plantation where I have ordered him to reside in order to take care of those trees & cultivate the adjoining grounds which may be cleared away in a short time — 1 Man Sick — 
Week days  Mo days  Winds  Surf & Landg  Fish caught  Seeds sown  Observations  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c 
Saturday  17th  S.W.  28 Fish  Landing good  * As ye rainy Weather is now become incessant, & there is every reason to suppose it will be so for 2 or 3 Months to come which will endanger the peoples health by remaining in the Tents, as the weather is also cold, I have adopted the plan of clearing the Storehouse & lodging the provisions & stores in ye Cellar, & on ye top of my house & letting ye 5 men & three women (who are unhoused) have the Store-house till a house can be conveniently built for them, which will place the whole under Shelter; except ye Surgeon & Mate, a house for whom will be immediately begun —  Do Wr with heavy rain. The Commandants house was this day finished in ye Evening brought a quantity of ye provisions from ye Storehouse & put into ye Cellar sent ye boat outside ye reef to fish — & search for the Grapnel rope — at 3 in ye Afternoon she returned with 28 fish but could not find ye buoy or Grapnel rope 1 Man sick — 
Sunday  18  Do  served ½ allowance of pork  Moderate breezes & Cloudy — at 11 A.M. performed divine service — 1 Man sick — 
Monday  19th  Do, West  Do Wr 4 Men clearing away on the NE side of the hill shifted all the provisions & Stores from ye Storehouse into my house & placed them in the cellar & on the loft Carpenter fixing a loft to the Store house & Sawyers sawing plates for ye Officers house — 2 Men sick 
Tuesday  20th  SW  A great Surf Landing at Low Water.  Strong Gales & Cloudy the People employed as before & one making a Crab to heave the boat up by In felling a Tree it fell accidentally on one of the Turkey hens & killed it — 2 Men sick 
Wednesday  21  SW  A very great Surf all along the Reef  Very Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Weather in the morning had some heavy Squalls of Wind & rain. Sowed 2 Quarts of Wheat in ye Garden ground but am fearfull the rats will destroy the seed. People employed as before In ye night had some very heavy Squalls of wind which drove the boat from her mooring & forced her onshore on ye Sandy beach, where she received no damage. I do not intend to launch her till the Crab is ready for heaving her up 1 Man sick 
Thursday  22  South, SSE  A very high Surf  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather, the Sawyer was taken ill & could not do any work sent his assistant out to help Mr Altree in clearing away at the Plantation — the rest of ye people employed as before. The weather for these two or three days past has been very cold & bleak 1 Man sick 
Friday  23rd  ESE, East  Less Surf landing better than before  3 Quarts of Wheat  Moderate & Cloudy people employed as before As I shall have a sufficiency of Garden ground clear against the spring, I have this day caused the remaining part of the Garden ground to be turned up & Sown with Wheat. 1 Man ss — 
Saturday  24th  ESE  little Surf landing good  Do Wr In the Morning had some heavy Squalls of rain. The Carpenters & Sawyers assistant employed in making a framed Shed to cover the Saw pit that it may be possible for ye Sawyers to work in Rainy Weather — Sawyer Sick — 
Sunday  25th  East  a great Surf  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Weather. the air very raw & cold at 11.A.M. performed Divine service — 
Monday  26th  Do, ESE  Less surf  Do Wr with Squalls of rain people employed as follows 5 Men clearing away the ground on the NE side of the hill & burning ye rubbish 1 Man making a crab to heave the boat up by Sawyers & Carpenter employed as before 
Tuesday  27th  Very little Surf landing very good  Moderate & pleasant weather all ye people employed in felling a large pine-tree, which over hangs a part of the Hill which we are clearing, but contrary to our intentions it fell down hill, where it must remain which is of no great consequence as ye heart of it is unsound. 1 Man sick opned a Cask of Beef — 
Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Fish caught  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c 
Wednesday  28th  North  Do  Moderate breezes & pleasant weather, people employed burning up the rubbish of ye N.E. side of the hill 2 Men levelling the Ground, to erect the surgeons house on — Carpenter & Sawyers employed as before 
Thursday  29th  NE, NW, West, South  Very little Surf  Fresh breezes & Cloudy with two very heavy Squalls of Wind & rain from ye West. The People employed as Yesterday — during the night strong Gales of Wind 
Friday  30th  ESE, SE  Do  Moderate breezes & pleasant weather, people employed as before — Carpenter Framed ye Surgeon & Mates house — 
Saturday  31st  ESE, SSE  Do  Do Wr finished the Crab brought the boat down from the middle beach & hove her up. the people employed as before. In ye night had hard rain. opned a Cask Pork 

June 1788

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Fish caught  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c 
Sunday  1st  West, SSW, SW  Do  36 Fish, No Salt Provisions Issued —  Do Wr at day light sent the boat without the reef to fish at ½ past eight she returned with 36 very fine fish at 11. performed divine service at 2 in ye afternoon I went out in the boat & went round Nepeans Isle on ye S.W. side of which is a very fine sandy bay but the surf was too high to land on it, which I imagine may be done in fine weather & a N.E. wind. the Ground appears very fine & free from underwood. there is a very good passage between Nepeans Isle & Point Hunter. I sounded close to the Island & found 10 fathom Returned at sunsett — 
Monday  North, NNW, West  Do  Do Wr people employed as before & as follows. 5 men burning up the rubbish which was collected on the NE side of ye hill. ye rest of the people employed as before sent out 2 Sugar canes & an assortment of every kind of seeds to ye Plantation to be sowed there which was done. Sawyers have sawed since the 17th 1479 feet of boarding. 
Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Seeds sown  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c 
Tuesday  3rd  NNW, North  No Surf at all —  As I am provided with only 5 months bread & flour & having only 3 Cask of each left, which is 2 months provisions at whole allowance & ye rest of the provisions being for 6 months. I this day put every person in the settlement to an allowance of 2/3 of each article; letting ye Women remain at their original allowance of 2/3  Very pleasant serene weather the people all employed as before 12 plantane suckers were transplanted from ye rivulet into the plantation I also sent there the bannana trees, as well as the lime trees, which I brought with me — not doubting but they will thrive — opned a Cask of bread & one of flour 
Wednesday  4th  NW  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy, began breaking up part of the Ground on the NE side of the hill to sow wheat. At sunrise hoisted ye Colours, in observance of the Anniversary of His Majesties Birth Day & gave each of the people some liquor to drink His Majesties health & at their request excused them from any work in the Afternoon 
Thursday  5th  WNW Do  Do  Served ½ allowance of Pork; 1 Peck of Wheat —  Strong Gales & Cloudy — Sowed about a rood of ground on ye N.E. side of the hill with wheat & began turning up another patch. In ye Morning sent the boat just without ye Reef to fish — she returned with 30 
Friday  6th  W.S.W.  A great Surf  Do Wr with heavy Squalls of wind & rain. people employed as before sent a part of the stock to the plantation 
Saturday  7th  South, SSE  Do  2 Pecks of Wheat —  Fresh Gales & Cloudy. Employed as before in the Afternoon sowed a rood of ground with 2 pecks of Wheat as I have great reason to suppose that the seed is bad 1 Man lame 
Sunday  8th  SE, East  Do  Do Wr at 11 in the Morning performed divine service In the Afternoon Squally with rain — 
Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Seeds sown  Seeds up  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c 
Monday  9th  East, ENE  A great Surf  one Gallon of Wheat —  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather. people employed burning off & sowing ye Cleared Ground on the NE side of the hill — Sawyers sawing boards & the Carpenter building a house for the Mate & Surgeon. 2 Men Sick — 
Tuesday  10th  Do  landing very good  3 Peck of Wheat  Most of the seeds which were sow'd at ye Plann are out of the ground  Strong Gales & dark Cloudy Weather. People employed turning up & sowing the ground on the NE side of the Hill. the Weather is cold & Bleak. 2 Men sick — 
Wednesday  11th  Do  Do  Do Wr people employed as Yesterday one man lame 
Thursday  12  East  Do  1 Peck of Wheat  Do Wr People as before. in the Evening more Moderate 1 Man lame. 
Friday  13th  Do  Do  1 peck of Wheat  Do Wr Squalls as Yesterday. people employed as before in the Afternoon more moderate, with pleasant weather at 4 P.M. sent the boat without the reef to fish at 5 she returned with only 6 — hove the boat up. 1 Man lame Carpenter sick — 
Saturday  14th  Do  ½ a peck of Wheat.  Moderate & Cloudy people employed as before 1 Man lame & the Carpenter sick — 
Sunday  15th  But little Surf; & the landing very good.  Moderate breezes & very pleasant Weather, at daylight sent the boat with the Mate & 4 Men without the reef to fish. at 9 made the signal for them to return. In passing the point of the reef, the fineness of the Weather & there being little or no surf, threw them so much off their guard, that the boat ship'd a sea, which filled her & wash'd Jno Batchelor Mar[ine] overboard, who was drowned, the boat with the rest of the people drove in among the rocks to the Westward of the landg place, where they were with great difficulty saved having received violent contusions. got the boat round to the land & hove her up, found her much damaged, having 5 planks fore & aft on each side stove in lost ye killock & 20 feet of Rope, 3 fishing lines hooks &c. 1 hand line 2 lines & the Rudder 
Monday  16  E.S.E.  But little Surf Landing very good —  Moderate Breezes in the night very hard rain. in the Morning pleasant weather 4 Men Turning the ground up on ye NE side of the hill. Sawyer & one Man who were in the boat unable to work 1 Man lame. 
Tuesday  17th  N.E.  Do  Two Quarts of Wheat  Little wind & pleasant weather. people employed as before. P.M. got a piece of Timber on the pit, to saw into planks to repair the boat with. Sawyers have sawed since ye1st 877 feet of Boards &c — 1 Man lame. 
Wednesday  18th  Do  scarce any Surf  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather. People all employed as before 1 Man lame. 
Thursday  19th  Do  Do  Do Wr with very heavy rain. No work done 
Friday  20th  North West WSW  Do  1 Peck of Barley  Fresh breezes & Clear. In ye Afternoon hard rain, people employed as before finishing turning up ye ground on the NE Side of the hill 
Saturday  21st  S.W.  No Landing  ½ a peck of Barley  Excessive Strong Gales of wind, accompanied with very heavy Gusts & torrents of Rain during the whole night. A.M. ye Corpse of Jno Batchelor Marine, who was drowned on the 15th, floated & came onshore put the Corpse into a Shell & interred it near the Flagstaff. Finished turning up the cleared Ground ground on the NE. side of the hill & sowed it with Barley. 1 Man lame. Sawyer sick 
Sunday  22nd  South  A very great surf  Strong Gales & Squalls of rain at 11 A.M. performed divine service Sawyer sick & one Man lame. 
Monday  23rd  SSW  Do  Do Wr 4 Men employed turning up my garden ground on the S.E. side of the hill. 1 Man repairing the boat Sawyer sick & one Man lame. 
Tuesday  24th  NE  A very great Surf  Moderate with frequent showers of very heavy rain. in the intervals people employed as before Sawyer sick & one man lame 
Wednesy  25th  SW.  Do  In the night very heavy gales with torrents of rain during the day fresh Gales & Cloudy Sawyer sick & one man lame — 
Thursday  26th  S.W.  Do  In the night had very heavy Squalls of wind, with hail, Thunder & lightning, during the day had fresh Gales & Squalls of rain 4 Men employed clearing away Garden ground. the rest of the people employed as before Sawyer & 2 Women sick & 1 Man lame 
Friday  27th  S.W., South  Less Surf  The same weather as last night during the day fresh Gales towards Evening more moderate. People all employed as before — & ye Sick as Yestery 
Saturday  28th  South  Do  Moderate Gales & Cloudy Weather. the people employed as before. Sawyer & 2 Women sick & 1 Man lame 
Sunday  29th  SW, S.S.E.  A great Surf  9 grains of Indian corn at the Plantn  Fresh Gales & Cloudy at 11 A.M. performed divine service. the Weather during the last week has been very raw & cold — 
Monday  30th  East  Do  Do Wr 5 Men Employed clearing away garden ground on the side of the Hill, 1 Man repairing ye boat Sawyers & Carpenters as before 2 Women sick 

July 1788

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Land & Surf  Seeds sown  Seeds up  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island, state of the Weather &c. 
Tuesday  1st  Do  Do  Strong Gales & very Gloomy Weather. People as before. 
Wednesday  2nd  ENE, North  Little Surf —  Very heavy Squalls of wind & rain during the night & fore part of the day. In ye Afternoon people empd as before — 
Thursday  3rd  North  Little Surf  Fresh Gales & gloomy rainy weather, but very little work done on account of the great rains — 
Friday  4th  Variable  No surf  Strong Gales & heavy rain no work done to day 
Saturday  5th  Do  Do  The indian corn which was sown on ye 29th is come up. I mean this for a trial only  Wheat which was Transplanted this day was reaped Decr 11th & yielded 3 quarts  Squally weather with constant heavy rain. I this day transplanted all the wheat that is come up. (viz 260 blades) into a piece of Ground by itself to reserve it for seed — The Man who was repairing the boat taken ill — 
Sunday  6th  NW, West  Do  Very heavy rain all night. In ye Morning fresh Gales with heavy Squalls of wind & rain at 11 A.M. performed Divine Service 
Monday  7th  S.W.  Do  4½ Peck of Barley Turnips & Carrots in the Lower Garden —  Barley Reaped Novr 23rd  Squally Weather with passing showers of rain during the night & very fierce distant Lightning from S.E. to So. Sawyers as before 3 Men turning up my Garden Ground & 3 Men sowing barley in the lower Garden & on the N.E. side of the Hill where the Wheat was sown. one Man sick — 
Tuesday  8th  S.S.W.  More Surf  Fresh breezes & pleasant Weather. people all empd as before 
Wednesday  9th  S.W., West  Scarce any Surf.  Moderate with passing Showers of very heavy rain. finished turning up the Garden ground the size of which is [*] Carpenters & Sawyers as before 
Thursday  10th  S.W.  Do  Do Wr with very heavy rain. In the Afternoon fair weather people employed raising a close fence of Timber round the Lower part of my Garden to break the force of the South & S.W. Winds 
Friday  11  S.S.E., SW, South  Scarce any Surf.  Moderate Weather at 8 in the Morning had a very heavy Squall of Wind & Rain, after which had very pleasant Weather. People as before 1 Man sick 
Saturday  12  SE.  Do  Moderate breezes & pleasant Weather. People empd railing in the new Garden Ground. this day the Officers house was finished — 2 Men sick — 
Sunday  13th  East  Do  Do & very pleasant Weather at 11 A.M. performed divine Service 
Monday  14  NE  Do  The Barley & turnips which were sown on the 8th coming up very thick  Moderate breezes & pleasant weather. People employed fencing in the Garden. Carpenter & Sawyer, sawing up Wood to erect another house for the People — 
Tuesday  15th  NE  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy. People employed as before Op'ned the last Cask of Beef & the last of the Pork which will last 44 days longer at full allowance Therefore I intend putting myself, Officers, & people to ½ allowance on the 28th of this Month in case no supply of Provisions arrive here before that time. 
Wednesday  16th  Do  A great Surf  Strong Gales with constant heavy rain & thick Weather. the People unemployed on account of the Weather 
Thursday  17th  North.  Less Surf  Carrots English Seed which were sown on the 8th in ye old Garden ground —  Very heavy Gusts of Wind during the night & all the day with constant heavy rain — Several trees were blown down. This Gale of Wind is the most severe which we have felt here, as it blows a perfect hurricane at 4 P.M. the wind veered to North & Moderated 
Friday  18  NW  Do  Strong Gales & constant heavy rain. The people have done very little Work these three days past on account of the very heavy rains — 
Saturday  19th  SW  Good Landing  Turnips in the new Garden Ground.  Fresh Gales & Clear with flying showers. 3 Men fencing in the Garden 3 Turning up Ground to sow Barley in & 1 Man repairing the boat — 
Sunday  20th  W.S.W.  Do  Moderate Gales & very pleasant Weather. at 11 A.M. performed divine Service — 
Monday  21st  South  A very great Surf  Turnips ... gathd in Octr Carrots Lettices's of 3 sorts Do leeks Parsley ...Septr Celery Cabbage 5 sorts ...Octr Corn & Sallad Pruslain. Artechoks Fennel, Bazil  Do Wr with a few Squalls of Rain in the Morning 3 Men Employ'd turning up Ground to sow Barley 3 Men fencing in the New Garden ground 1 Man repairing the Boat & Women burning the rubbish turn'd up & sow'd a part of the Garden with the Seeds as per Column Sa[w] yers & Carpenter as before 
Tuesday  22  NNE  A little Surf  2 Quarts of the Provision Pease 1½ Peck of Barley  Never came up  Do Wr sow'd 1½ Peck of Barley next the old Garden in the afternoon every Person Empd getting the Butt of a Pine on the saw pit ye greatest part of which is to be saw'd into 3 Inch Plank for Port Jackson. turn'd up a part & sow'd a patch of the New Garden ground with Pease. 1 Man repairing the Boat 
Wednesy  23  WNW  Scarce any Surf  Planted 500 Cabbage plants from the Plantation in the New Garden & mountain spinnage  Do Wr at Noon came on a very heavy Squall of Rain 4 Men Empd clearing away the Ground behind my House to sow Barley & two Men making a fence round the new Garden 
Thursdy  24  Do  Do  Planted 200 Cabbage plants & 200 lettice plants. Sowed Beet seed Turnips  Fresh Gales & Clear Wr with two very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain 4 Men turning up the Ground behind my house to sow Barley & 2 Men making a fence round the New Garden 

Friday  25  Do  A very great Surf  Strong Gales & passing Squalls of very heavy Rain People empd as Yesterday 
Saturday  26th  WSW  A very great Surf  1½ peck of Barley  Cabbage Plants appearing  Strong Gales & Cloudy Wr sow'd the Ground behind my House with Barley at ¼ pt 5 in the afternoon His Majesteys arm'd Tender Supply hove in sight coming round Point Ross. She pass'd between Phillips Ilse & Nepeans. I imagine she is gone to Leeward of the Island to ride the Gale out 
Sunday  27th  SW  less Surf landing not good  Barley coming up which was sowed the 22  Do Wr very Squally at 11 AM perform'd Divine Service at 3 P.M. Messrs Waterhouse & Parker arriv'd here with my Dispatches from His Excellency the Governor they having landed in Balls Bay 
Monday  28th  SSW  Do at Noon very good landing  Do Wr at Day light the Midshipmen returned to Balls Bay to go on bd the Supply & Mr Cunningham with them People empd removing some large stones from the landing place & making a rolling way for the Casks Sawyers Sawing boards for Port Jackson 
Tuesday  29  SSE  But little Surf  Moderate & pleasant Weather People Empd clearing & fixing my Cellar for the Receipt of the Provisions serv'd full Allowance of Bread & Flower. at 8 am Messrs Cunningham & Waterhouse returnd from on bd the Supply with a message from Lieut Ball that, as the Wind remain'd Southly he meant to anchor under the NE part of the Island 
Wednesy  30th  SSE, ESE  Scarce any Surf  Modt Breezes & squally 2 Men turning up ground to sow grain, Sawyers sawing up plank for Port Jackson in the afternoon the Boat was finished. I sent a man over the Island to find out the Supply with a letter 
Thursday  31st  South  Scarce any Surf  The Rats having destroyed all the Peas which were sown the [*] sow'd more putting them much deeper in the ground  Fresh Gales & very squally at ½ past 11 the Supplys boat arriv'd here with a boar & sow & some other light articles, in her came the Carpenter to offer his assistance to build a convenient boat for this place which I accepted he began work immediately at ½ past 12 the Supplys boat return'd to go on board the Supply being at anchor off the Cascade 

August 1788

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing &  Seeds sown  Seeds up  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island 
Friday  1st  SSE  A great Surf  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr the Carpenter of the Supply & his servant with a Man to assist him & Sawyers sawing up plank Empd building a boat of the Coble kind 15 feet in length & 5 in breadth. two Men Empd turning up ground to sow Wheatnote I shall get from the Supply 
Saturday  SW  Bad landing  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr Carpenter of the Supply &c empd as before. People empd hedging round a patch of Barley 
Sunday  South, SSE, NNE  very good landing  At noon of this day the Man whom I sent to find the Supply out returned much exhausted & fatigued having lost himself & had nothing to eat for two days.  Little Wind & Cloudy Wr at 8 am saw the Supply under weigh at about 3 miles Distance working to the Sthward but having little wind & a whole tide against her she will loose ground the Supply remain'd shut in with Nepeans Isle the remainder of the Day. 
Monday  4th  NE  Do  Light rain & Cloudy Wr the Carpenters &c & Sawyers Empd about the Coble at Sunsett the Supply came round point Ross and Anchord in the Bay made a large fire on the shore 
Tuesday  NE  landing not prudent, Good landing  Fresh Gales & Cloudy with heavy Rain at 8 A.M. made the Sigl to the Supply that her boats could not land. at 2 P.M. made the Sigl that Boats could land launch'd the Jolly boat & sent her off recd part of the provisions & stores from the Supply The Carpenter return'd on board pr order of Lieut Ball to stock an Anchor hove the boat aft 
Wednesy  WSW  At daylight landing good but the tide flowing at ½ pt 7 made a great Surf till 1. PM after which had very good landing  At Day light Fresh Gales & Squally, hoisted the Coulours being the Sigl that a boat might land at 7AM hoisted the Colours half staff being the Sigl that landing was dangerous the Surf having considerably increas'd with the flowing tide at ½ p 7 the Supply weig'd, & soon after hove too & hoisted her boats out haul'd down the Sigl that landing was dangerous, & on the boats approaching the shore hoisted to Sigl again, that landing was dangerous. Fearing that if that boat persisted in coming in some accident might happen to her (as the Surf ran very high) I launch'd our boat & sent her with the Mate & four Men giving him positive orders not to go without the smooth water under the point of the Reef in order to be afloat & ready to give assistance to the Supplys boat in case of any accident our boat being swept to the W'ward by the tide & in endeavouring to get under the point of the Reef again, she was imprudently left broad side in a heavy surf which gave a very sufficient Warning; Unfortunatly it broke into the boat & oversett her, the Mate & Wm Westbrook Sawyer — Tomlinson Seaman belonging to the Supply & Wm Williams Convict were drown'd & one man sav'd with great difficulty, the boat drove out to sea & was lost — about 10 Minutes after the Supplys Jolly Boat landed safely, with 3 Casks of Flour & one of Rum — another of the Supplys boats were coming on shore observing she did not see the Sigl, fir'd musquets &c on which she return'd on board. Soon after the Supply bore up, & ran to leeward of the Island at 1 P.M. there being much less surf, the Supplys boat went off very safely & ran to leeward of the Island to get on board her 
Thursday  7th  SW, SSW, SE  landing good  punish'd Chas M'lennan with 3 Dozn lashes for stealing Eggs  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy People Empd clearing away the ground behind the store house to sow the wheat in which is on board the Supply 
Friday  8th  SE  Not good landing  The Carpenter of the Supply, return'd on shore, to finish the Coble if possible before the Supplys departure from hence  Moderate Breezes & pleasant Wr at Day light the Supply standing into the Road, made ye Sigl that Anchoring was good ½ past 7 the Supply came too & sent her boats with provision & Stores, after the boats return made ye Sigl that Landing was dangerous with the Flowing tide at 4 P.M. made the Sigl for Landing & reced more provisions. at Sunsett the Supply weighed. 
Saturday  9th  E.S.E., E.N.E., East  In the Morning good landing.  Moderate Breezes with dark cloudy Weather at Day light the Supply standing into the Road. made ye Sigl that landing was good received two turns of Provisions & Stores. at Sunsett the Supply weighed & stood out to the Southward — 
Sunday  10  N.E.  Good landing  Do with very pleasant Weather. at Day light the Supply standing into the Road, made the Signal that Landing was good. Reced the last of our Provisions & Stores. all landed in perfect safety. The Supply stood over towards Phillips Isle & at 2 in the aftn, anchored in Sydney Bay at Sunsett she weighed & stood to the Southward. 
Monday  11th  Do  Do  Beans of difft sorts. 2 kinds of Pease 60 Cotten Seeds. (Strasburg Deptford W Spanish) Onions  C'etait bien singulier que je n'ai été honoré d'une visite de Mons. Ball ni aucun de ses officiers depuis que la corvette est ici. Je crois q'ils ont peur d'attrapper quelque mal epidemique.  Strong Gales during the night, at 9 A.M. saw the Supply a great distance to the S.E. at 9 she came into ye Road, made ye Signal that landing was good, at ½ past the Jolly boat landed, Sent off the Carpr & My good friend Harry Waterhouse. with my dispatches for his Excelly the Governor, the Supply hoisted her boats in, & made sail for Port Jackson. People employed turning up ground to sow Wheat on. 
Tuesday  12th  N.N.E, N.W. W.N.W.  Scarce any Surf  (Deptford Strasburg W. Spanish) onions, Cress & Mustard, 1 Peck of Wheat  Very Strong Gales of Wind during the night with very heavy rain. In the Morning & Course of the day had fresh Gales & Squalley, at Sunrise hoisted the colours in observance of the anniversary of the Birth day of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. Sowed 1½ Rood of Ground with Cape Wheat received from Port Jackson by His Majs Armed Tender Supply. 
Wedy  13th  WSW  Do  3 Kind of Beans. Round & prickly Spinach with Salmon Lettuce.  Moderate Gales & very pleasant Weather. Every person employed Clearing away Ground to sow ye remainder of the Wheat in, Reced by the Supply. In the evening the Corpse of Jno Williams floated & came onshore. put it into a Coffin & interred it. 
Thursday  14  Do  good landing till flowing tide then a very high Surf.  Short top Raddish Spinach  Beans.  Fresh Gales with frequent Squalls of very heavy rains. People employed clearing away Ground to sow Wheat on, on the SW. Side of the Hill — I much fear that the other 3 Corpses are gone to sea by which means I shall be deprived of the satisfaction of rendring the last Christian Offices to the Deceased. (see Oct 23, 1789) 
Friday  15th  SW, S.S.W.  Good Landing.  Fresh Gales & Cloudy The air sharp & rather cold. People employed turning up a piece of Ground to sow the remainder of the Wheat in received by the Supply. 
Saturday  16th  West  Not the least Surf.  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather. Sowed 1 & ½ Rood of Ground with Wheat received by the Supply — Opened a Cask of Beef & one of Flour, the latter of which had a large Rats nest in it & several dead young ones. This Cask came by the Supply & wanted 50 lbs of the weight — 
Sunday  17th  WSW.  A very great Surf.  Strong Gales of Wind & very heavy rain during the night, with very fierce Gusts of Wind. which continued all day at 11 A.M. performed divine Service — 

Transactions on Norfolk Island State of the Weather &c. 
August 1788 Monday 18 Winds SSE Moderate Breezes & pleasant Weather the people employed Clearing away ¾ of an acre of ground at the Plantation to sow Indian Corn in. At daylight I sett of with Mr Morley & 2 Men to examine Balls Bay, & the Rock to the Westward of the Cascade, (recommended as a good landing place by Lieutt Ball) I left orders with the Surgeon to keep the people employed clearing away the Ground &c. After climbing & descending a number of Steep hills & some extensive flatts, we arrived at a Gully to the Wtward of Balls Bay, at 11 o'clock from thence we walked round to it by the Sea Shore The Bay is large & Deep & the beach is covered with a large loose Stone which runs out (as near as my situation on shore would permit me to judge of it) about one hundred Yards below low water mark & nearly on a flatt when it goes off very steep, There is very little surf at present as the Wind is right off the land, & what little there is, breaks on the beach or Stones, The only practicability of making a good landing place here is, running a pier out, which is a work that will demand a number of hands & some person conversant in an undertaking of that kind, Stones are ready & of an excellent kind, I should suppose forty Men might make a very lasting pier in six Months; where boats might land with the greatest ease, & from Whence Masts &c might be sent off & Ships of the Line launched from it if ye pier is made of a sufficient breadth. Within the Stony beach is a flatt of about 20 Yards to the ascent of the hills which are very Steep a very fine run of Water empties itself on the beach which is supplied by a small Cascade, which cascade is also supplied by a very fine Rivulet of Water which is deep & runs over a pleasant level ground on the top of the Hill, which is very difficult of access, but a good winding road may be made to it. I dined pitched our tent & lay there, this night. There has been scarce any Surf, but a boat would be much injured in landing on those Stones. 
Tuesday August 19 Very pleasant & fine Weather. at 5 in the Morning there was but just a rippling break on the Shore. at ½ past 6, We sett off to go round to the Rock to the Westward (the Cascade). Having mistaken our south & got close to the side of the Clifts we found getting into the interior parts of the Island difficult we therefore kept along ye sides of the Clifts nearest the Sea, where we found our way extreemly difficult & perplexing from the entangled state of the Woods which are of an almost impenetrable thickness, which joined to the very Steep hills or rather Mountains which we had to ascend & decend rendered our journey very fatiguing, it was not till 4 oclock in the Afternoon that we arrived at the rock, I cannot see that it would answer any other purpose than that of clearing a Vessell of any thing she might have to get onshore, With every possible exertion or contrivance I think they must remain there; as the Shore from the inner part of the rock to a Stony beach to the Eastd of it (& which is at the End of the Valley) is craggy & inaccessable. The Stony beach is quite open & of course a very heavy Surf rolls on it. The Valley is low & ye hills on both sides are almost perpendicular getting any thing of the Timber Kind off from hence is quite out of the Question. I went up to the Cascade which is beautifull but at the same time tremenduous we had to ascend some perpendicular rocks by going from the branches of one tree to another, when arrived at the Summit, we found a very pleasant levell piece of Ground watered by the Rivulet, which supplies the Cascade & which is large & deep — 
Wednesday 20th Winds West At day light sett off on our return to Sydney Bay where we arrived in four hours. I returned thro' the Center of the Island, which we in general found level. The Three first hills which we passed after leaving the Cascade are all surrounded by the same rivulet which waters the Cascade & would be a very Good situation for Cultivation. The Island is every where wooded the same & the Soil rich & fertile I do not think that there is 3 acres of unprofitable ground on the whole Island, When the Ground is turned up for sowing a part of the India Corn in, I intend sending every person to clear a way thro' the Stones on the beach in Balls Bay which I have marked out it is to be 10 Yards broad & to be cleared away as far as possible below the low Water mark, which is the only effort I can make towards rendring landing practicable in this Bay, which is very much to be desired. 

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c — 
Thursday  21st  NNW, g.l.  The Wheat which I received by the Supply is coming up I have sown a great number of the different English seeds received by the Supply, but none of them are stirring.  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy The people employed Turning up Ground for sowing Indian Corn on & Rice. Carpr & Sawyers Sawing Plank for roofing their house with 
Friday  22nd  North, g.l.  Do Wr People all employed as Yestery 
Saturday  23rd  NW  Fresh Gales & very heavy Weather afternoon had heavy rains People as before. 
Sunday  24th  WSW, S.S.E.  very good landing till noon then a very heavy Surf —  Modt & Cloudy at 11 AM performed divine Service — 
Monday  25th  SSW, SE  A very heavy Surf without & a great Surf along the Reef.  Strong Gales of Wind but clear Weather. with some showers of rain at day light sent away the Surgeon Mr Morley & 6 People to Balls Bay, to endeavour to make a landing place, which I have marked out they arrived there at ½ past eight & soon after began work — They carried four Tents. & a Weeks provisions for each man. 
Tuesday  26th  Do, East  An Exceeding high Surf and A very great Sea without  Do Wr The Carpenter employed building a house for himself, & one Man with the Women & Boy burning up some rubbish at the Plantation, sowed a number of Grains of Indian corn there, as also some pease & transplanted a number of Cabbages &c. 
Wednesday  27th  East  Do  Do Wr the People here employed as before, I this day at day light went to Balls Bay, where a very good commencement had been made, but they have been much retarded on account of the Neap tides, & the Wind being Easterly which throws a great Surf into the Bay which has made landing here impossible. I find the present undertaking will be too laborious for the few hands I have here I therefore mean to clear away as far as possible till the Spring tides when I shall be the better able to judge of the practicability of its succeeding. 
Thursday  28th  ENE.  Scarce any Surf  Moderate breezes & pleasant Weather, Sowed some Indian Corn, Pease, & one Peck of oats with a quantity of beans. 
Friday  29th  N.E.  Do  Do Wr there has been less Surf here to day than I have ever observed here. 
Saturday  30th  N.N.W.  Do  Do & very Serene pleasant Weather At 4 P.M. the People returned from Balls Bay. Scarce any Surf at all, along the Reef, Spars or any other thing might be sent off with the greatest ease, which has been the case these three days past. 2 Men lamed. 
Sunday  31st  NW  Do  Very Serene & pleasant Weather. at 11 A.M. performed divine Service. 

September 1788

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c — 
Monday  1st  SSE  Very bad landing in Sydney Bay  Fresh breezes & rainy Weather during the night, at Day light sett off with Mr Morley & four men to see what further could be done in Balls Bay arrived there at ½ past eight. found the tides of Yesterday had thrown in a great quantity of middling Sized Stones into the Cut which had been made. As the tide ebbed, I employed the people in clearing away a number of large Stones which lay in the Cut, & at low water removed all the Stones as far out as possible this I finished at 5 in the evening. The Cut is about 3 feet deep & at half tide 
Monday  1st  South  Very little Surf in Balls Bay.  there is upward of six feet water at the Entrance, With any other Wind than between SW & NW There is a Surf on the beach which sometimes breaks with so much violence as to render landing dangerous independant of the damage a boat would receive by beaching. Spars might be sent off from hence with great ease I think (with some trouble) a convenient Situation might be made here for launching Vessells of any Burthen, but it will be necessary to clear away a rolling place on the Side of one of the amazing steep hills with which this Bay is Surrounded. As I find nothing more can be done here with the few men that I have, I intend returning to Morrow. 
Tuesday  2nd  N.W.  Good landing some part of the day.  A Turtle came on the beach — but it soon went off again without being disturbed  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Weather at ½ past 10 returned to Sydney Bay with the People leaving four Tents pitched in Balls Bay. 
Wednesday  3rd  NE.  An increasing Surf  The Turtle staid 2 or 3 hours on the beach to day  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather, People employed assisting each other in getting their gardens cleared & Turned up Carpenter employed building his house. 2 Men lame 
Thursday  4th  East  A very great Surf  The Turtle which we turned to day had his back pierced thro' as if done by a peg.  Moderate & Clear with very pleasant Weather, People employed as before — one Man Sick & one Lame. As I have only observed one Turtle on the Beach & not imagining there are more in the Bay, I sent hands & turned it, brought it to the Settlement — 
Friday  5th  E.N.E.  good Landing.  Moderate & Clear with very pleasant Weather. The People employed turning up, & Clearing away each others Garden Ground. Carpenter building his house. 
Saturday  6th  North  Scarce any Surf.  Killed the Turtle & served a part of it, in lieu of Beef  Do Wr The people all employed as before. one Man sick, & one Man lame. 
Sunday  7th  N.E.  Do  No Salt Provisions issued Served Turtle.  Fresh Breezes & dark Gloomy Weather at 11 A.M. performed Divine Service, during the night strong Gales & hard rain. 1 Man lame. 
Monday  8th  Do  Do  The Indian Corn sown on the 26th is all come up  Fresh Gales & heavy Gloomy Weather with constant rain — No work done to day. 1 Man lame. 
Tuesday  9th  Do, SW.  Do  Transplanted a Number of Cabbages &c Served half allce of Beef.  Do & very hazey. The People employed as before Carpenter Sick. 
Wednesday  10th  Do  A very heavy Surf  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Weather. People employed Clearing away & Turning up the Ground for the Surgeons Garden — 1 Man Lame. 
Thursday  11th  SSW  No Landing.  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather, in the Evening the People finished turning up the Surgeons Garden Ground Carpenter Sick. 
Friday  12th  South  Very good Landing  Sent Mr Morley to Balls Bay to look at the landing there who reports it to be very good, & ye place cleard away, in much the same Situation as when left. I find a Number of plantanes damaged in my Garden by ye East Sea Winds Notwithstandg it is so well sheltred by a plaine  Do Wr People employed turning up & making Gardens for each other. Carpenter & one Man sawing up boarding for their house &c. 
Saturday  13th  East  Do  Moderate Weather with flying Showers of rain People all employed as before. 


Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c. 
Sunday  14th  Do  Do  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy, with Showers of Rain, at 11 AM. performed divine Service — 
Monday  15th  East  Do  I this day at 6 o'clock in ye Morning went with Mr Morley along ye sea coast to ye Western point of ye Island, found ye coast all along inaccessible & the woods in much more entangled state than in any other part of ye Island Return'd at sun sett — 3 Turtle on the beach —  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant weather, People employ'd turning up ground for sowing Indian Corn on — 
Tuesdy  16th  NE  Do  Opened a Cask of flower One turtle on the beach  Do Wr People turning up Ground for sowing Indian Corn which was finished & sowed in the Evening 
Wednesdy  17th  NNW  Do  During those last six days there has been scarce any Surf at all  Do Wr People employ'd turning up another piece of ground to sow the remaining Oats on in the Evening, sowed a peck of oats very thick as few of them will grow, In the Evening hard rain — Carpenter finish'd his house. 
Thursdy  18th  SE  Surf increasing but very good Landing  Sowed one peck of English barley receiv'd by the Supply, at the plantation Transplanted the few Blades of oats which came from that sown ye 28th Augt Very heavy during the night, every person employ'd clearing away the timber & making an opening to the Water side — sowed the remaining part of the oats at the plantation in order to save as much of the seed as possible — 
Friday  19th  SSE, South  Scarce any Surf  Moderate breezes, & very pleasant Wr The People employ'd clearing away the Timber & makeing a larger opening to the Water side — 
Saturdy  20th  SSW, South  Do  Do Wr People all employ'd as before & Carpenter making a Trough for the Grindstone 
Sunday  21st  SW, West  Do Surf increases as ye Wind becomes Westerly.  Little Wind & very pleasant Weather, at 11 AM perform'd Divine Service. In the Evening Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr 1 Man ss 
Monday  22nd  SW  Scarce any Surf  A Wale & Thresher were Close into ye back of ye reef for upwards of an hour fighting —  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather People employ'd making a larger opening to the sea side. In the Evening had very quick distant lightening to the SE — 1 Man ss 
Tuesdy  23rd  SE  A very heavy Surf less towards Evening  During the night had very heavy Gusts of wind & severe hard rain — all the day Strong Gales. In the Evening much more Moderate. People Employ'd as before, 1 Man Sick 
Wednesdy  24th  East  good Landing  Moderate Gales & very pleasant Weather Finish'd clearing away to the Water Side — 
Thursdy  25th  East  A very heavy Surf & a great Sea without  Do Wr Four Men employ'd Digging a Cellar under ye Surgeon House for the Reception of the Provisions, Expected by the Sirius, Carpenters have than Soling Plates &c for a granary & Mr Morley & co are then Making Shingles — 
Fridy  26th  East  The Surf continues very high & a great Sea without  The Barley is in most of the patches, shooting out the ear the difference Observe between that sow'd in April & that sowed in June & July, is very triffling except that the first is stronger & has more Stalks —  Moderate Gales & Clear Weather. 6 Hands employ'd digging out a Cellar under ye Surgeon House, Sawyers sawing plates for a Granary 2 Men making Shingles to Cover it with — 
Saturdy  27th  ENE, NE, NW  Surf decreases but not good Landing  In the Morning Fresh Breezes & Clear at Noon & the latter part of the day, little Wind. In the afternoon the people finish'd the Cellar & Carpenters finished sawing the plates for the Granary — no Shingles 
Sundy  28th  Do, Calm  Scarce any Surf  Little Wind with very pleasant Wr at 11 AM performed Divine Service In the Evening Gloomy Weather and very dark towards the S.W. — 
Mondy  29th  South, SSE, ESE  Do  A very sensible attractn is found in the Weather as ye Days are more very hot tho' not Sultry The Evening and Morning are rather Cold —  Do Wr & very pleasant Wr Carpentr & 4 Hands sawg flooring for ye Granary 4 Men employ'd Cutting posts & carring them to ye Ground where ye Granary is to be built 1 Man Makg Shingles — 400 — In ye Evening dark Gloomy Weather to the SE — 
Tuesdy  30th  East, ESE  good Landing  Fresh Breezes & Clear Wr Carpenter as before 3 Men & the Women clearing away the Ground on the Side of the Hill to sow Grain on for next Year. 2 Men making Shingles. 

October 1788

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c. 
Wednesdy  1st  Do  Do  Light winds People all employ'd as before & one Man making an inclosure to keep the poultry in 
Thursdy  2nd  NNW, NW, WNW  Good Landing on the ebb tide  Fresh Gales & dark Gloomy Wr Carpenter began framing the Granary, the rest of ye people employ'd as before — Very strong Gales & hard rain during the night 
Fridy  3rd  WSW, SW  Do  During the heavy rain which we had last night the Barley is much lodged —  Fresh Gales & Cloudy, Towards the Evening Moderate Weather. People employ'd as before — 
Saturdy  4th  Do, SW, S  Very good Landing  Do Wr at 6 AM had a very heavy Squall of Wind & rain, people employ'd as before — at 6 P.M. & the remainder of the Evening very Squally Wr with rain — 
Sundy  5th  SSW  A great Surf  Strong Gales & Cloudy Weather with some Squalls of Wind at 11 AM Performed Divine Service 
Mondy  6th  ESE, SE, East Variable  Do  In the night wind Shifted to S.East & Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr The people Employ'd sinking the posts for the Granary to be directed on. In the Evening dark Gloomy Weather — 
Tuesdy  7th  Variable, North  Do  The Weather as been Colder to day then I have yet felt it here — I this day discover'd the Grubs had distroy'd a great Quantity of ye Indian (Corn at the Plantation) which is now near 8 Miles high, Employ'd ye spare Lands in picking the Grubs out of ye holes & in the Evening water'd every Shoot & Sprinkled them with Wood Asshes, which is the only means with picking them off daily, that we know of rid ourselves of this distinctions. I saw a great Quantity of the Barley has been blown down by this Gale —  Variable Wr with thick Gloomy Clouds, In the Evening light rains — 3 Men Cropping the Wheat & Clearing away on the SE side of the Hill & 2 Men assisting the Carpenter in erecting the Granary, one Man sick — 
Wednesy  8th  North  Not the least Surf  Very strong Gales of Wind with dark Cloudy Wr Sawyer erected the Granary, its dimensions are 17 Feet, by 12, & 7 Feet high began closing it, in with Cabbage Trees — 3 Men Clearing away the SE side of the Hill Women burning up the Tops of the Trees, 2 Cropping the Wheat & three Assisting the Carpenter. 1 Man so employ'd picking off Grubs from about the Indian Corn at the Plantation 
Thursdy  9th  NNW  Do  There has been as good Landing here as Possible —  Very strong Gales of winds with heavy rain all the day long — One Man drawing down the Shingles for roofing the Granary, & the rest picking the Grubs from about the Indian Corn. In the Evening Moderate Weather — 
Friday  10th  Variable, Calm, NW  Do  Light Winds. 2 Men bringing a Cabbage Trees to erect the Granary with 4 Clearing away a peice of Swampy Ground to sow Rice on & the rest employ'd picking the Grubs, worms from amongst the India Corn — Carpenter Sick — 
Saturdy  11th  Calm, Variable  A very high Surf  The Surf has rose during the last night remark'd high altho' there is much less wind which I think must be owing to the great Sea Occasion'd by the late NW wind —  Light winds & very close Wr the air very heavy & much obscured with thick Mist. People all employ'd as Yesterday. Carpenter return'd to work building the Granary. 
Sundy  12th  West  Scarce any Surf —  Moderate Breezes & Clear Serene pleasant Weather at 11 AM Performed Divine Service — 
Mondy  13th  SW, Variable, E.NE  Very good Landing  The Grub Worm has eat away upwards of 50 heads of the Indian Corn & where the Mischief will end I cannot tell. Notwithstanding I use every means to prevent their bad effects. The rats have also begun distroying the Barley half of which is lodged by the heavy rain, & late gale of Wind — Sent off by every boat a quantity of planks Spars &c on Governments Accounts The Coble with 3 of the Convicts Empd discharging the Golden Grove —  Light Winds & very pleasant Weather at Daylight perceived the Golden Grove at Anchor in the Roads, hoisted the Colours. In the Course of the day receiv'd on Shore The party of Marines all the Convicts, (Except four left onboard to help discharge the Ship) and almost all the Stores, with some Provisions The Carpenter of the Golden Grove caulked our Cobles — one Man ss — 
Tuesdy  14th  Do  Do  Do Wr Receiv'd on shore 56 Casks of Flower and 18 Casks of Provisions beside a Quantity of other stores. one Man ss — Turned a turtle of near 200 lb The Golden Grove's long boat Anchor'd close in to the back of the Reefs loaded with Provisions cleared her by the other boats — 
Wednesy  15th  NW, West, SW, Variable, SE  Not the least Surf The Whole Day  No Boat could reach the shore after the Flood began to make at 2 O'Clock The wind Blowing strong & the tide running very rapid it being full Moon Yesty. During the last 3 days a boat might have Landed in great Safety loaded to the Gunwale —  Till Noon had very pleasant serene Wr after which had flying Squalls with rain at 2 The Wind came to SE & had a dirty appearence. During the Morning Receiv'd on shore [*] Casks of Provisions at ½ past 2 the Coble returned with 4 more Casks, soon after which the Golden Grove losed her fore Topsail Sigl that she was going to lye on & off all night, Sawyers sawing Boards for Port Jackson — 8 Men cutting spars for Do & 6 Men Clearing away & Grubbing up Ground for sowing Seeds on — 
Thursdy  16th  ESE  Very good Landing  Fresh Gales & Cloudy, people Employ'd Cutting spars Sawing Boards & Clearing away ground for Port Jackson, Landing has been very good all day but the Flood tide running all the Morning & the Wind to the Estd has prevented ye Golden Grove from working up in ye Afternoon she fetched point Ross but the Eastwd Tide Making she was sweep to Leeward 
Friday  17th  ESE  Landing possible but not adviable  Moderate Gales & Cloudy. At Daylight the Golden Grove Standing into the Roads, at 7 she Anchored, The Surf was not so very bad as to apprehend any Accidents, but did not make the Signl for Landing, at 3 in the Afternoon I sent off the Coble & the Surf encreasing made the Sigl for her to be hoisted in the Golden Grove weighed & stood off & on, The people employ'd Variously & Sawyers sawing up Plank for port Jackson — 
Saturdy  18th  SE, Variable ESE, SSE  Scarce any Surf  Killed the Turtle & issued it to the People in lieu of to day, & a part of to morrows Salt provisions. 3 lb of Turtle for 1 lb of Beef  Light Winds & very Sincere pleasant Weather The Tide of Flood running strong & ye Golden Grove not being in sight — Suppose she cannot work up, the wind being variable at 11 our Coble came on shore, & at 2 The Golden Grove came into the road & Anchor'd sent ye Coble off & receiv'd on shore 18 Cask of Flower & 5 officers The other people Employ'd as before — 
Sunday  19th  NW  but little Surf  Moderate Breezes & clear Sincere Wr. Receiv'd on shore 63 Casks of flower & pease 2 Cask of seed Wheat &c. at 11 AM performed Divine Service — 2 Men Sick 
Mondy  20th  Do, West  Do  Strong Gales of Wind & Squally Wr with rain Empd Turning up Ground at the plantation in Arthurs Vale Receiving the Remainder of the provisions & stores from ye Golden grove & in good order & very safe, & the Boats unhurt — NB 3 hogsheads of Rum not yet come, being oblidged to have it brought onshore in small casks — 
Tuesdy  21st  Wt  Do  Fresh Gales & Squally Wr. Made ye Signl twice during ye day that Landing was good, but there being a short sea, without & ye Golden grove sighting her Anchor as the occasion no boats came before 6 in ye Evening at 4 sent the Coble off with 3 Empty Cask ye Rum came in made ye Signl to ye Golden grove to hoist her in & haul'd up ye Jolly boat as neither of them could get on shore or onbd before night reced one Quarter Cask of rum by the Jolly boat people Employ'd as Yesterday 
Wedny  22nd  SW, South, SSE  Bad Landing till Evening then good Landing  The Golden grove [sailed] at 10 P.M. & was not her own length to Windd of ye Rocks of ye SE part [of] Nepean Island in passing it —  During the Night had very strong Gales of wind with some very heavy Gusts at day light perceiv'd the G.. Grove had left the road, Imagine she is gone into Cascade Bay, Sawyers sawing for Port Jackson, 10 Men Clearing & turning up Ground in Arthurs Vale & the rest variously — Hard Gales all the Day — sent round to Balls Bay, where the Landing is as safe as possible — 3 Men sick — 
Thursdy  23rd  SSE, ESE  Landing good on ye Ebb —  Fresh Gales & pleasant Wr people employ'd bringing Timber to ye pitt & others Grubbing up Trees & Clearing away Ground for sowing Indian Corn on sowed 1 rood of Indian Corn 
Friday  24th  NE, NW, WNW  Not the least break without the Reefs —  Reced by the Golden Grove Mr H. Donovan — Mid — a Serjt Corporal & 6 privates 21 Male Convicts 11 Female Do 2 Years provisions & a quantity of Stores  Do Wr with some showers of rain — at Noon the Golden Grove anchor'd in the road, sent the Jolly boat off with a Logg of pine, the Coble came on shore The Carpenter of the Golden Grove employed repairing her & fitting some Timbers & knees into her, sent off another Logg of Timber & the G: Groves Fore Yard — 
Saturdy  25th  WNW  Not the Least Surf —  Moderate Breezs & Cloudy after sunrise very pleasant sincere Wr The G. Grove at day light standing into the roads. Made ye Signl that Landg was good she soon after came to Anchor Employ'd all day in sending off Balks-planks-spars &c 6 Men clearing away at the plantation ye Carptr of ye G. Grove repairing our Coble. punished Leonard Dyer Convict with 4 dozen lashes for Mutinous Expressions & daring Language to Mr Donovan [?] 
Sunday  26th  WNW  Not any Surf.  Strong Gales & some very heavy rain during the Night at Daylight made the Sigl that Landing was good. Sent off Plank Spars &c inbd ye G.G. at 11 A.M. performed Divine Service 
Monday  27th  West, WNW  Do  At 9 in the Morning had a very heavy Squall accompanied with heavy distant Thunder. Sent off Spars, Plank, &c. People employed falling pines &c. 
Tuesday  28  Do  An Increasg Surf.  As there is not much Wind here, I imagine the alteration in the Surf is owing to [blowing] Weather to ye South.  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy thick Weather. at Daylight made ye Signal that landing was good, at 7 the Golden Grove Cutter came on shore, perceiving an increasing Surf did not send her off. The Surf continuing suspicious hauled the Boat up people Employed clearing away Ground & digging a New Sawpit &c — 
Wednesy  29  NW, SW  Landing possible often easy  Moderate Gales & thick Wr with almost constant rain at 7 AM. the Golden Groves boat retd onboard & at 8 She weighed & made sail for Port Jackson. Empd digging a new Sawpit & repg the old one. 6 Men clearing away at ye Plantn 
Thursday  30th  SW.  Good Landing on the Ebbg tide —  Turned a Turtle of about 160 lbs weight  Fresh Gales & Clear Weather. 8 Men digging another saw pit, & repairing the old one. 3 Men building a Roof over the Coble. 4 Men Making & Drawing Shingles, 8 Men Clearing away Ground. 
Friday  31st  South, East  Scarce any Surf  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy — Lower Sawpit at Work on a piece of pine for under cover for the Roof of the Granary. 3 Men digging & fixing the other Sawpit. The rest of the People employed as before — 

November 1788

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c. 
Saturday  1st  East.  Do  Killed the Turtle & issued it in Lieu of to day's Salt provisions 2 lbs of Turtle for 1 lb of Beef  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Serene weather. People all employed as before 
Sunday  2nd  ENE  Do  Do Wr at 11 AM. performed Divine Service — 1 Man ss 
Monday  3rd  North  Not the least Surf.  Fresh Gales & Clear serene Weather, The People who arrived by the Golden Grove employed in clearing away Ground for their Gardens & Houses except the 2 Sawyers & Blacksmith. Sawyers sawing boards for the roof of the Granary & Carpenters fixing the rafters Purlines &c 4 Men Clearing away at the Plantation — 2 Men ss — One of the Sawyers sick 
Tuesday  4th  NNW  Not the least break of a Surf on ye Reef.  Strong Gales & very Cloudy Close Weather after 3 PM. had constant Heavy rain. The People all employed as Yesterday one Man sick — at 2 P.M. sent the Coble out to fish at 5 she returned without having caught any. 
Wednesday  5th  West, South, SE  A great Surf.  Moderate Gales & Clear Weather. People all employed as before. One of the Sawyers sick — & 2 of the Coble Men. 
Thursday  6th  SE, ESE  Landing possible  Strong Gales & Cloudy. People employed as before. One side of the Granary finished ready for Shingling — 1 Man sick & one lame. 
Friday  7th  SE  Very good Landing.  Fresh Gales & Clear, People All employed as before. One Man Shingling the Granary. at 9 A.M. sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at one made the Sigl for her to return, found they had caught 26 fish distributed them among the People. 1 Man sick — 
Saturday  SSE  A very heavy Surf.  Very Strong Gales of Wind. People all employed as before. 1 of the Sawyers Sick — The Weather is as cold, as in the Month of June. 
Sunday  9th  SE  Do  The Weather more moderate but still Fresh Gales & Cloudy. At 11 A.M. performed divine Service. 1 of the Sawyers Sick. Boards &c sawed this Week 791 feet. 
Monday  10th  SW  good landing  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr 13 Men employed. Clearing away Ground, burning up refuse wood & making Shingles 2 Men Covering the Granary with Shingles, Carpenter fitting Lockers &c to the Coble. & Sawyers Sawing up roofing. The Marines Clearing away ground for themselves One of the Sawyers Sick & one of the Labourers 
Tuesday  11th  South  Landing possible but not advisable  Do Wr with distant Thunder & Lightning, In the fore part of the day very heavy rain, at 4 P.M. Had a very heavy Squall of Wind. The Weather is very raw & cold. 2 of the Sawyers & another man Sick The people employed as before. 
Wednesday  12th  South  A very heavy Surf —  Strong Gales & very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain. People all employed as before 2 of the Sawyers & 2 Laboures sick — 
Thursday  13  SSE, SE  Do  Fresh Gales & Squally. People all employed as before; 2 of the Sawyers & 1 Labourer ss. Roof Began — Shingling the other side of the Granary 
Friday  14th  SSW  Less Surf but landing dangerous  Landing these 4 days past has been very bad & the Wr almost as Cold as in the depth of Winter  More Moderate & pleasant Weather. People all Employed as before, in the Evening finished Turning up a part of the Ground which is clearing & sowed it with Indian Corn. 
Saturday  15th  SW  Very good Landing.  Strong Gales & Clear Pleasant Wr. The People all employed about their own Grounds &c. One of the Sawyers & one of the Labourers Sick. 
Sunday  16th  WNW  Do  Moderate Gales & pleasant Weather. At day light sent the Coble without the Reef to fish, at 11 She returned with 52; issued them out to Officers & People at the rate of 4 lb per man for which one pound of Meat is Stopped from each Person. at 10 A.M. Performed Divine Service. 1 of the Sawyers & one Man ss. 
Monday  17th  West, SW, SE  Do  Fresh Gales & thick Cloudy Wr with a few showers of rain. 12 Men Employed Clearing away at the Plantation, both Sawpits at Work, Blacksmith making Nails out of Iron Hoops for Shingling 2 Men Drawing & Shingling the Granary & 2 building a House for Mr Dunavan Sett off for the Cascade Bay at 6 AM. & returned from thence at 3 PM. after having staid 2 Hours there. Thick Wr with rain all night — 
Tuesday  18th  SE  A Very heavy Surf  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr People all employed as before women making pegs for Shingling one Man ss. 
Wednesday  19th  ESE  A very Great Surf.  Moderate Gales & very Cloudy Wr People all employed as before 2 Men sick — 
Thursday  20th  East  Surf decreasing  Little Wind & Cloudy Wr The People all employed as before, broke off 4 Men from Clearing away, to reap the barley which was sown on the 7th July. 1 Man ss. 
Friday  21st  NE, West  Scarce any Surf  Light Winds & very serene pleasant Weather. People all employed as before. Sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at 12 She returned with 26 Fish issued them out to the Officers & people, for which ½ a pint of pease was stopped from each man, for 3 lb of Fish. 1 Man ss. & one Man Lame. Finished Shingling the Granary. 
Saturday  22nd  Do  Very good Landing.  Moderate Breezes & Clear Serene Weather. The People all employed clearing away their Garden Grounds &c. I went out in the Coble & sounded between Point Hunter & ye North Side of Nepeans Island found a very good channel of 4 fathoms water, close to the Point & to ye Island & 8 Fathoms in the mid-channel. The shore of the Island is Steep all round, 1 Man Lame & one Man ss — 
Sunday  23rd  SW  Do  At 11 AM. performed divine Service —  Moderate breezes & dark cloudy Wr with drizling rain at daylight sent the Coble out to fish at 9 she returned with 20 fish & one Shark issued them in lieu of ½ a pint of pease, 1 Man lame & 1 ss. 
Monday  24th  SSE  Very Bad Landing.  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather. 9 Men clearing away Ground in the Vale. Both Sawpits at Work & Carpenters Employed about the Granary. 2 Men reaping & Threshing Barley The Coble Men, Gardners & another man Clearing away ground for themselves to build their houses on one Man sick & one Lame. 
Tuesday  25th  South  Do  Fresh Breezes with a thick clouded air. The People all employed as Yesterday. 4 Men sick. 
Wednesday  26th  Do  Do  Moderate Breezes & Clear Weather. The people all employed as Yesterday. 4 Men ss — 
Thursday  27th  SW.  Good Landing.  Moderate breezes & very Sultry Warm Wr People All employed as before at Daylight sent the Coble without the Reef at noon she returned with 46 Fish issued them to the Settlement at 6 lb of fish for one lb of Meat — 4 Men ss — 
Friday  28th  SSW.  Do  Do Wr People all employed as before. At day light she returned with 26 Fish distributed them among the People. 7 Men Sick — 
Saturday  29th  NE  Not the least Surf  The Indian Corn planted in ye 27th August is just Tasselling & has a very promising appearance.  Do Wr The people all excused from Work to cultivate their Gardens &c at 9 AM I went out in the Coble & landed on Nepeans Isle which I found a lump of entire Sand which is kept together by a border of rocks Notwithstanding the deep sand, this Island produces near two hundred very fine Pines. There is no fresh water at all on the Island — 4 Men ss. 
Sunday  30  NE  Not the least Surf.  I this day changed the Working hours on account of the great heat of the Weather. viz. To go to Work at Day light ½ past 7 to breakfast, eight to work till eleven, at ½ past 2 to Work again till sunsett by which means the people are off Work three hours & half in the heat of the day.  Light Winds & very pleasant serene Weather at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service 1 Man ss. 

December 1788

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c. 
Monday  1st  SW  Do, SW, Variable  Do Wr At day light sent the Coble to fishing, at Noon she returned with 39 fish issued them in lieu of beef at the rate of 3 lb of fish for ½ a pound of beef. Sawyers sawing Plank &c for the Commandants house & the rest of the People all employed clearing away Ground. In the afternoon I sounded round Nepeans Island & the Channel between it & Point Hunter — 
Tuesday  2nd  North  Do  Do Wr People all employed as before. At 6 AM I went in the Coble to Phillips Isle where I landed on a rock in Collins's Bay at ½ past 7 & Climbed up the Hills which I found a fine rich red Clay. A Valley in the form of a half Moon runs round the Hills over Collins's bay & is as well as the Hills Wooded but not thick I do not suppose that there is above 150 pine trees on the whole Island most of the Hills are covered with a thick entangled Kind of Reed which only wants burning to clear away 100 acres of Ground which would make a fine Wheat land if not too dry, As I saw a number of Pidgeons & Parrots &c I imagine there must be some fresh water on some part of the Island, having satisfied my self with respect to the Soil & the face of the Island I returned to the boat & left Collins's Bay at 10 clock & landed in Sydney Bay at 1 PM At 2 sent the Coble fishing, in the Eveng she returned with 30 fish Issued them 3 lb for ½ a lb of Beef. 
Wednesday  3rd  NW  Not the least Surf  On the 8th I housed all the Barley which has been raised off an acre of Ground sowed in June & July During its growth it had a most promising appearance; but when the ear was shot out & nearly filled in September, some very heavy rains laid a great part of it down which drew the rats & quails, to it, & the devastation they made in a fortnight was very great indeed, having destroyed upwards of 2/3rd of what had every appearance of Yielding us 50 bushels at least, the whole quantity gathered in is, 10 Bushells. The grain is plump & fine a Bushell weighing [*] lbs. grains? 116 Ears were produced from one grain of Barley. There is a small patch of barley growing in the Garden at ye Vale which is quite covered with caterpillars they are picked off dayly but come on in the night, as thick again. This patch is entirely destroyed by them. Sowed Marrow put pease & dwarf speckled French beans & a few long pods raised here.  Fresh Gales & Close Sultry Wr People all empd as before at day light sent the Coble without the Reef at Noon she returned with 60 small fish issued them at the rate of 4 lb of fish for ½ a pint of pease — 2 Men ss — 
Thursday  4th  Varble  Do  Little Wind & very Close Sultry Wr People all employed as Yesterday — Coble Men clearing away the Rocks for running the Skids lower down at the upper Landing place 3 Men ss. 
Friday  5th  East  Do  Do Wr People all employed as Yesterday 3 Men ss — 
Saturday  6th  ENE  Do  Do Wr The air very close & Sultry. People working for themselves. at day light sent the Coble outside the Reef to fish at Noon she returned with 30 fish issued them 4lb of fish for ½ a lb of Pork. 14 Men unserved — 2 Men ss. 
Sunday  7th  East.  Do  Do Wr Clear Serene Weather. at Daylight sent the Coble to fish at 8 she returned with 10 Fish & one Stingray weighing upwards of 100 lb at 11 A.M. performed divine service 2 Men ss. 
Monday  8th  SE  Do  Fresh Breezes & Clear Wr 12 Men Employed Clearing away in the Vale, Upper & lower Sawpits working 2 Carpenters employed about the Commandants house in raising it higher. 1 Man thrashing out Barley. Coble men variously employed & Marines creating a temporary Guard house. 3 Men ss & 1 Man lame — 1 Marine & blacksmith cutting wood for making charcoal — 
Tuesday  9th  SE  Very good landing  Near the Sea side the air is as Sharp as it was with this Wind 4 Months ago In the Vale it is very warm & sultry. during the last 12 days landing has been as safe as at a Wharf in the Thames. A Vessell might have been launched from hence with great ease & safety & lain these 12 days in the Road in perfect smooth Water —  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Weather. People all employed as before. at day light sent the Coble without the Reef to fish As I was apprehensive the surf might increase with the flowing tide I made ye Signal for her to return at 10 oclock having caught but 7 fish there being a Sea running in the Bay 2 Men ss & 1 lame 
Wednesday  10th  Do  Do  Do Wr People all employed as before 1 Man ss. & 2 Lame 
Thursday  11th  Variable  The surf bad Landing good.  Little Wind & very warm Weather People all employed as before 1 Man Lame 
Friday  12th  Do  Landg very good —  Do Wr People all employed as before. Sent the Coble out at Noon she returned with 29 fish issued them at the rate of 4 lb of Fish for one lb of Beef. 1 Man lame 2 Men sick. 
Saturday  13th  Do, SE  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Gloomy Weather. The people all employed Working for themselves. 
Sunday  14th  East  Do  Do Wr & very cool. at 10 In the Morning performed Divine Service. One of the Sawyers lamed dangerously. 
Monday  15th  SE, South, Variable  Do  The 260 Ears of Wheat has yielded 3 full Quarts of a very fine full grain —  Moderate Breezes, & very pleasant Serene Weather 2 Carpenters & 4 Sawyers Empd for the Commandants house — 12 Men Clearing away — 4 Making & drawing Shingles. 1 Man assisting the Surgeon Clearing away Ground for a Garden. 1 Man lame. — 
Tuesday  16th  South, SW  Do, A heavy Surf —  Light winds in the Morning. at 7 sent the Coble out fishing at 10 Came on Fresh Gales from the SW & a rising Surf made ye Signal for the Coble to return which she did not observe till too late for them to pull up agt the ebb tide made the Sigl for them to go to Balls Bay Went round there with some people & hauled her up. at Sunsett returned with all the people — 
Wednesday  17th  SW, South  A Very heavy Surf.  As I find it very necessary to have two or three trusty people settled there I sent three people there with orders to Mr Altree who has the direction of them to employ them building houses for themselves & clearing away Garden Ground. & if possible to get an acre of ground cleared away by the end of May for sowing Wheat  From Midnight till 3 AM had a very heavy Storm of Wind, Rain, Thunder & Lightning after which had very heavy Gales of Wind & Cloudy Weather. People all employed as before. 
Thursday  18th  SW, South, WSW  A Very heavy Surf  I intend sending every person on the 26th when it will be high tides to make the Channel on the beach deeper & to clear away if possible more stones from without I also intend erecting a Crab there as soon as Convenient, for the better heaving the boat up whenever She may be obliged to go round there or when it may happen that it would be necessary to heave any Ships boat up.  Very heavy Gales of Wind in fierce Gusts & very heavy Sea running. At Daylight Sent Mr Altree Thos Webb & Jno Anderson Convict, to Ball Bay to Settle there sent eight Men with them to carry their Cloaths, Beds, &c. at 4 PM. The People returned, the Landing in Balls Bay is very good & here the Surf rolls very high indeed 1 Man ss & 1 Man lame. Began unroofing the Commandants house to put a new Roof on as the old one leaked all over much to the endamaging the provisions &c stored in the Cellar. 
Friday  19th  WNW  Less Surf but still very high  Strong Gales & dark Gloomy Wr with heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain. Carpenters & people all employed as before — 1 Man ss & 1 Lame. 
Saturday  20th  South, ESE  Less Surf  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr People all employed working for themselves. 1 Man ss. & 1 Man lame 
Sunday  21st  Variable North  Surf Decreasing  Little Wind & very pleasant Weather. at 10 AM performed Divine Service. 
Monday  22nd  East, NE  Very good Landing  Moderate breezes & Clear Sultry Weather. Sawyers Sawing up Boards &c. Carpenters at Work on the Commandants house. 9 Men clearing away Ground for sowing Wheat &c on. 5 Men clearing a Road from hence to Ball Bay & 4 Men Making Shingles. The Coble returned from Ball Bay at 2 P.M. sent her back again with a part of the Baggage belonging to those who are settled there. 
Tuesday  23rd  ENE  Scarce any Surf.  Do Wr People all employed as before. The Coble did not return from Ball Bay before eleven They did not land there last night till dark. In the evening hauled the Seine in the middle bay, but caught no fish. Cut the Wheat which was sowed August 11th — 
Wednesday  24th  North  An increasing Surf.  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather with frequent Showers of rain. People all employed as before at 2 P.M. sent the Coble out, but there being a Great Swell she was obliged to return not having Caught any fish — 
Thursday  25th  East  Very good Landing.  Moderate Gales & dark Cloudy Weather at Sunrise hoisted the Colours in observance of Christmas day. & gave the Convicts double allowance of Pork & half a pint of Rum. at 11 A.M. Performed Divine Service. 
Friday  26th  East  good Landing A great Swell in the Road.  The Weather since the 16th has been changeable & very violent, & the air as sharp & Cold as in the Winter months. I really think the Wind has blown a perfect Hurricane —  Strong Gales & Cloudy with heavy Squalls. at 7 A.M. Sent the People to Balls Bay to enlarge & deepen the Channell for the Boats landing this being Spring tides. Sawyers & Carpenters employed as before — 
Saturday  27th  SE, SSW, South, SE  Landing very dangerous.  Very Strong Gales of Wind & heavy Squalls of Wind & Rains. The Air is as Sharp & cold as in the Winter Months, Near the Sea, but in the Valleys it is very pleasant Warm Weather. The People employed working for themselves in their Gardens &c. 
Sunday  28  South  Do & a very great Sea running  At 5 PM of this day the bad Weather began to moderate  Do Wr & Squalls very violent, at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service. 1 Man ss — 
Monday  29th  SE, Calm  The great Sea going down & the Surf much decreased  Master Carpenter & 2 Men employ'd about ye Commandants House.  Moderate breezes & very hazey with hot sultry Weather. Sawyers sawing boards Scantling &c for their own houses. 12 Men Clearing away Ground for sowing Wheat on next Year, 3 Men Making an inclosure for the Stock in the Vale, & one Man & Woman reaping the Wheat that was sowed 18th August Carpr sick 
Tuesday  30th  Variable  Landing very good —  Light winds & very hazey Sultry Weather. at 6 A.M. sent the Coble out to fish at 1 P.M. she returned per Signal with only 6 fish. Sent the Coble with the rest of the Baggage round to Ball Bay where she was hauled up, as they would not be able to reach this before dark People employed as before. 
Wednesday  31st  East.  A great Surf  Having Six Musquets, besides the Marines Arms, I judge it proper to instruct all the Free people on the Island (being Six) In the use of Fire arms In case of the Marines being sick or any other exigency wherefore I gave orders to the Serjeant & Corporal of Marines to exercise them regularly every Saty Morning As well as the Marines — when the former are tolerable expert, I mean that they shall fire half a dozen rounds once a Month — which is putting the Island In the best state of defence in my power —  Strong Gales of Wind & sharp cold Weather Cut the Wheat which was sown 16th Augt People all employed as before. 1 Man ss. 

January 1789

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island State of ye Weather &c. 
Thursday  1st  East  Do  Fresh Gales & a great Sea running. AM the people all employed as before. at Noon hoisted ye Colours in observance of New Years day. & excused them from Work in the Aftn gave each of the Convicts a ¼ of a pint of Rum. 1 Man ss. 
Friday  2nd  East, ENE  Not the least Surf.  Fresh breezes & Cloudy. People all employed as before 1 Man Thrashing out Wheat at 7 AM sent the Coble Men to Ball Bay to bring off the Coble at 2 She landed here not having been able to catch a fish on account of the Swell. 
Saturday  3rd  East  Do  Do Wr People employed Working for themselves one Man Thrashing out Wheat. 2 Men ss. 
Sunday  4th  Do  Do  Moderate Breezes & Clear Wr at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service at daylight sent the Coble out to fish at Noon she retd with 21 Fish issued them out to the people 3lb of Fish in Lieu of ½ a lb of Pork each man 21 Men not served — 
Monday  5th  Do  Do  Do Wr B[oth] the Sawpits at Work — 12 Men clearing away ground in the Vale Carpenters about ye Commandts house at day light sent the Coble out & compleated Yesty serving. at 1 P.M. I went afloat & examined the Wt & North sides of the Island. landed in Anson Bay & returned at Sunsett. 
Tuesday  6th  East  Not the least Surf  It appears to me hitherto, that the Westerly Winds are the reigning Winds during the Winter Months & Easterly during the Summer But I do not mean its being uniformly so on the contrary I think the Winds here are equally as variable as they are ten degrees further beyond the Tropics —  Little Wind & Clear Sultry Weather People employed as before. at 7 AM sent the Coble out to fish at noon she returned with 86 issued them in Lieu of 1lb of Salt beef at 10lb of Fish each man. at 2 P.M. sent the Coble to Ball Bay with some things where she was hauled up. 
Wednesday  7th  Variable  An increasing Surf  In the Morning Modt breezes & dark gloomy Weather. with a few heavy Showers of rain Housed the remr of ye unthrashed wheat before the rain came on P.M. People all employed as before one man Thrashing out Wheat 1 Carpenter ss — 
Thursday  8th  Do  Good Landing.  Light winds with a Swell, people all employed as before. 1 Male Child born. Norfolk. 
Friday  9th  East  An increasing Surf.  Do Wr People all employed as before. 
Saturday  10th  Do  good Landing.  Strong Breezes & Cloudy Wr People all employed working on their Gardens &c. 
Sunday  11th  Do  A great Swell has rolled in these Bay these some days past notwithg the Wind has been moderate —  Moderate breezes & Clear Warm Weather at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service 
Monday  12th  Do  A very heavy Surf  Do Wr people all employed as last Week a very heavy Surf rolls in which is rather extraordinary as there has been very little wind & that blows right in to Ball Bay where there is smooth water. 

Written inside back cover of Volume 1: gave ye Carpenters orders to obey J. Livingstone — Novr 22nd 1788. Livingstone Employed about the Granary from that time to ye 30 Novr then began about my house which was finished

160 Cobbs of Indian Corn sowed four Acres of Ground in Augt 1789 —

Landg rock point) Lieut Ball) Cook discovered N. I. 10 Oct. 1774 Nepean Id visit'd Nov 29/88 Cascade Aug 19 & 20/88 Ball Bay Wendy Aug 27/88 Phillip Id Dec 2/88 Bananas & Limes planted 3d June/88 Winds &[ca] Jan 6/89

Part Two Norfolk Island Journal (Volume II): 13th January 1789–5th April 1790.

This Book to be transmitted to His Excelly Governor Phillip in case of any accident happening to me—

Norfolk Island Jany 1st 1789—



January 1789 [cont.]

Week Days  Mo Days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observation &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c 
Tuesday  13  EbN  Very good Landing  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy weather. 12 Men clearing away & Turning up Ground in Arthurs Vale. 8 Clearing away in the Swamp. 1 Man Thrashing of Wheat, both Sawpits at Work & Three Carpenters about the Commandants house. Blacksmith also employed making Iron work for a roller— 
Wednesday  14  NE  Do  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy dark Weather. people all employed as before. at 6 AM. sent the Coble men to Ball Bay, But a great Surf running there, prevented them from bringing her here. 
Thursday  15th  NE  Do But a great Swell betn the Islands  Mary Gamble one of ye Female Convicts wounded a Boar in a dangerous manner by throwing an ax at it, Tyed her to the Cart & sentenced her 12 dozen lashes but in consideration of her being the 1st Woman brought into that situation I forgave her—  Strong Gales & Cloudy Wr—People all employed as before. Sent Party's out to different parts of the Island to search after Jas Robinson who has been missing since his returning from Ball Bay Yesterday. In the Eveng the Partys returned without any tidings of him— 
Friday  16th  Do  good landg here but a great Surf in Ball Bay this Wind bearing right in—  Do Wr with heavy Squalls of Wind at 6 AM Sent out another party to find Jas Robinson at 8 they returned with him he being much fatigued & hungred not having had any thing to eat since the 14th in the Morng. People all employed as before— 
Saturday  17th  Do  Do  Do Wr Squalls as before. People employed Workg on their Gardens. 
Sunday  18th  NE  Not the least surf. A surf still running in Ball bay which prevents our launching the Boat.  Fresh Gales & Clear Weather. at 10 AM performed Divine Service & Baptised the new born Infant by the Name of Norfolk, he being the first born on the Island— 
Monday  19th  NE  Very good Landing-  Strong Gales of Wind. 12 Men Turning up Cleared Ground in Arthurs Vale for sowing Wheat on, Both Sawpits at Work, 3 Carpenters about the Commandants house, one Man making an inlosure for keeping poultry. There being but little surf sent the Coble men to Ball Bay to bring the Coble round at 2 she landed here & hauled her up. Punished Thos Watts alias Watson with 2 dozen Lashes for contemptuously neglecting going to Work on being ordered by the Corpl of Marines 1 Man Lame— 
Tuesday  20th  North East  Do  The Caterpillars are very Troublesome destroying every vegetable as fast as it comes up & likewise eating off the pods & seeds of those which are preserving for seed—which I imagine is owing to the great drought—  Fresh Gales. People all employed as before at daylight sent the Coble to fish at 11 she returned with only 10—Cut a small patch of Barley, sowed in [*] 1 Man Lame— 
Wednesday  21st  North  Do  Do & dark Cloudy Weather with a few light Showers of Rain. At noon the 12 men employed in Clearing away Ground, compleated their Task of Clearing & turning up two acres in 28 days. they began 29th December & their term finishes on Sunday Monday will be given them as some of the People has been lame—Carpenters & Sawyer as before. Sent the Coble out to fish she returned with only 20 Issued them to a part of the people 4 lb of Fish in Lieu of ½ a lb of Pork— 
Thursday  22nd  NNW  Very good Landing.  Very Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Weather, Carpenters & Sawyers employed as before—1 Man Lame 
Friday  23rd  WNW.  Do  Do Weather with very heavy rain, during the night & day, Carpenters employed as before. At noon read the Articles of War, As well as the Rules & Regulations for the Marines when serving on shore—1 Man lame. 
Saturday  24th  West, Variable  Not the least Surf.  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather. at 9 AM Robert Webb Gardner came to the Commandant & informed him that a plan was laid by the Convicts to take the Island. The Circumstances attending which are contained in the different depositions, Confined Noah Mortimer, Wm Francis & Samuel Pickett Convicts as principals, also Jno Thompson Convict for stealing Indian Corn, off the Corn growing in Arthurs Vale. Removed the Sergt & Corporals house from the Water side to its place next the Surgeons, pitchednote the Marines & free People round the Store houses & caused every person to come in out of the Country. 
Sunday  25th  Not the least Surf  variable  Moderate Breezes & dark Gloomy Weather with frequent Showers of very heavy rain. Sent the Coble round to Ball Bay to bring every thing belonging to those settled there. at 11 AM Performed Divine Service— 
Monday  26th  A very great Surf  ENE  Administred the oath of Fidelity & allegiance to the Officers Marines & Free people.  Strong Gales of Wind & heavy rain most part of the day during the Morning examined Witnesses on oath respecting the Plot laid to take the Island &c. After which discharged Noah Mortimer (who did not appear to be so guilty as S. Pickett & W. Francis) keeping Irons on him as also on Thos Watson. they being both in some measure Guilty. In the afternoon Employed the Convicts Cutting down trees & opening an avenue round the Commandts house. Punished J. Jones Convict with 3 dozn lashes for insolence & contempt to Messrs Donavan & Jamison 
Tuesday  27th  Do  NE  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather with heavy rain at times. Convicts Employed Clearing away & Cutting down trees to enlarge the ground where the houses are built, in order to place the Convicts by themselves. 2 Men Sick—began gathering the Indian Corn that was sowed in [*] 2 Men Sick. 
Wednesy  28th  ENE  A great Surf  I am very much of opinion that this is the rainy Season As the Rain was very violent & frequent when we first came here in March—  Moderate Gales & very dark Cloudy Weather with almost constant Showers of Rain. People Employed Clearing away round the houses &c. Punished Joseph Long Convict with one dozen lashes for leaving his work & absenting himself without leave. 5 Men blinded by the Maple Sap getting into their Eyes— 
Thursday  29th  NE  Do  Strong Gales & very dark Cloudy Weather, People all employed as before. 4 Men sick & Blinded. Incessant rain all day— 
Friday  30th  Do  The Surf very heavy  Do Wr with rain as before, People all employed as before. 2 Men sick— 
Saturday  31st  NNW  Surf Decreasg fast.  Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Weather, People all employed as before 2 Men sick, at Noon punished Wm Thompson Convict with 50 Lashes for stealing Indian Corn from the Plantation. A heavy rain in ye night 

February 1789

Week Days  Mo Days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observation &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c 
Sunday  1st  North  good Landing  Do Wr with very heavy rain during the whole Day & night, 2 Men sick, at 11 AM performed Divine Service & read the Articles of War. 
Monday  2nd  NW  Do  Almost every Vegitable seeding is growing out again by the late Rains, & the Trees are covered with fresh leaves—  Very heavy Gales of Wind & Strong torrents of Rain. Very little Work done on Account of the Weather 1 Man ss. 
Tuesday  3rd  Do  Do  Do Wr with less Rain. Convicts employed opening the ground round where the houses are built in order to erect more houses there. The late Wet Weather has almost spoiled the whole of the Barley cut the 20th Jany
Wednesday  4th  NE  Very good Landing.  The Indian Corn & plants growing in different places has received much damage by the Constant rain.  Very Strong Gales of Wind with Almost constant Showers of very heavy rain, which was so violent As to prevent any work—2 Men lame 
Thursday  North  A great Surf  I think it will be necessary for the future to sow the Indian Corn, in June or July at the latest, in order to get it off the Ground in December, before the rainy Wr setts in.  Do Wr with constant torrents of Rain. No work could be done on account of the very heavy rain. 2 Men lame 
Friday  6th  Do  Do  The Barley cut on the 20th Jany is quite spoiled by the constant rain—  Excessive heavy Gales of Wind & very heavy Squalls of Wind & torrents of Rain during the Whole night, with very Severe Lightning, & but little Thunder. More Moderate Towards Noon—People employed Felling Trees & Clearing away round the houses—2 Men Lame— 
Saturday  7th  NNW.  Very good Landing  The Swamp is quite overflowed by the late heavy rains—  Strong Gales of Wind & very heavy torrents of rain in Squalls. People employed building up Hutts 
Sunday  8th  West  Do  Fresh Gales with some showers of heavy rain at 10 A.M. Performed Divine Service— 
Monday  Varble  Do  Moderate Breezes & dark Cloudy Wr the People all employed building up their houses & getting Timber to the Pitts. Punished Thos Watson Convict with 3 dozen Lashes & Josh Robinson Convict with 1 Dozen, for absenting themselves from their Quarters after 10 at night with a bad intention. 2 Men Lame. at daylight sent the Coble outside the Reef to Fish at 11 She returned with 30 fish issued them to the People 3lb of Fish for ½ a lb of Pork. 8 Men unserved— 
Tuesday  10th  NNE  Bad Landing.  Strong Gales & Dark Gloomy Weather, with very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain, in the intervals people employed building up their houses One Carpenter boarding in the Granary. 2 Men Lame— 
Wednesday  11th  Do  Less Surf  Sent the Coble fishing at noon she returned served 3 lbs of Fish for ½ a lb of Pork  Do Wr & Squalls more Violent than Yesterday People employed building up their houses & 2 Men ss. 
Thursday  12th  Do  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr with some very heavy squalls of rain. People all employed as before 2 Men Lame 
Friday  13th  NW  Do  This is the first dry day, that we have had since the 24th of Jany having had for the most part torrents of Rain.  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr with 2 Showers of Rain sent ye Coble out to fish at noon she returned with 30, issued them 3 lb of fish for 1 lb of Beef 
Saturday  14th  ESE  Bad Landing.  Very heavy Gales of Wind. The People finished all their houses 1 Man Lame. 
Sunday  15  East  Do  Moderate Breezes & very serene pleasant Weather at 10 A.M. performed divine Service. Samual Pickett and Wm Francis were forgiven by the Commandant, but ordered to wear light Irons untill the Governor in Chiefs orders should be received respecting them. 1 Man Lame 
Monday  16th  East  Very good Landing  Moderate Breezes & very serene pleasant Weather on getting up the Ground two of Flour Cask from under the Surgeons house found a Great Quantity of Water had lodged during the yrs rains On Opening the Cask found the Flour in them very much damaged, As Many of the Casks were like dough, Cannot ascertain the Quantity lost till the whole 36 Casks which were in Ground Store are opened People Employed Felling Trees Sawyers Sawing 2 Carpenters Variously—2 Men Lame. 
Tuesday  17th  Do  Not the least Surf.  Do Wr Employed Airing & Cleaning the damaged Flour 2. Men Lame. 
Wednesday  18th  Do  Do  Do Wr 12 Men at Task Work, in Clearing away Ground, Sawyers at Task Work also 4 Men bringing in flax plant &c for building a house for the Corporal. at Daylight sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at noon she returned with 40 fish issued them 4 lb of fish for ½ a lb. of Pork— 1 Man Lame— 
Thursday  19th  NE  Do  Do Wr & very hazey with some drizling Rain, People all employed as before. 2 Men Lame. 
Friday  20th  Variable  A very heavy Surf  Little wind & very Sultry close foggy weather People all employed as before at task Work— 
Saturday  21st  East  Do  Do Wr People Empd Working for themselves In the afternoon the Marines & Militia fired 15 Rounds of Powder 
Sunday  22nd  East  Very Bad Landing.  Moderate Breezes & dark Cloudy Wr with a few Showers of light rain, at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service 1 Man Lame— 
Monday  23rd  NE  Surf decreasing—  Do Wr with Rain as before 12 Men employed at Task Work Carpenters building a house for the Serjeant of Marines 12 feet by eight. Sawyers at Task Work, & the rest of the people bringing in Flax plant for thatching & Poles for paling— 
Tuesday  24th  North  Scarce any Surf.  Moderate Breezes & dark Cloudy Wr with almost constant light rain. People all employed as before. 
Wednesday  25th  NE East  Do Increasing after Noon.  First part Light Winds & dark Cloudy Weather with Constant Torrants of very heavy Rain. after noon, had very heavy Gales of Wind with Rain as before, Sent the Coble out to fish at noon she returned with 40 fish Issued them 3lb of fish for ½lb of Pork—People all employed as before—No work today— 
Thursday  26th  ESE untill 11 AM then South at eight PM SSW.  The Surf rose to a very great height & broke most tremendously. The Sea between the Island's ran Mountains high, very often hiding Nepeans Island entirely—  At Midnight very heavy Gales of wind & torrents of rain, the Wind at ESE & increasing in violence at 4 A.M. several pines of 180f in length & [*] yds in girth were blown up by the roots, one of which fell on the Pigs Stye & killed a Sow with a litter of Pigs belonging to the Commandant from 4 A.M. till Noon the Wind increased to a dreadfull hurricane, with deluges of Rain Pigs & livestock, Trees of the largest kinds were blowing down every instant tearing up their Roots & Rocks with them, leaving, beds of 10 feet deep & the longest & largest Roots I ever saw, some of these very large trees were thrown by the violence of the Wind at some distance from where they grew, those pines which were strong enough to resist the force of the Wind bent their tops very near the Ground, Nothing but horror & desolation presented itself on every side which can only be equalled or conceived but by those who have seen the dreadfull effects of a Hurricane in the West Indies, what added more to the Horror of the Scene was a very large live oak tree being blown on the Granary, which dashed it to pieces & stove a Number of the Casks of Flour, but by the General Activity of every Person, the Flour Indian Corn & Stores, were in a Short time Collected & removed to the Commandants house with the loss of about half a Cask of Flour, & some small Stores. At Noon the Gale blew with the utmost Fury & violence sweeping, Woods of trees up by the Roots & carrying some of them to a considerable distance, at one oclock there were as many Trees fell round the Settlement as would have employed 50 Men a fortnight to fall, The Swamps & Vale were quite overflowed by 11 oclock & had every appearance of a large navigable river It was a fortunate Circumstance that on the discovery of the Plot a great number of Pine & live oak Trees were falled round the Houses, to open the Ground, had not this been done all ye houses would have been destroyed & a Number of lives must have been lost, but only one man received a Contusion on his Hip by a branch of a Pine falling on him The Gardens, at this Settlement were quite destroyed the Cabbages Turnips & other Plants were torn up by the Roots & those few which withstood the hurricane appeared as if they had been burnt—The Sugar cane growing here is much damaged altho' Supported by a Stick & screened by a high Fence. at 3 oclock the Wind having veered to South it moderated & Continued Moderating untill the next day—Ab't 4 oclock P.M. The Gardner with 2 Convicts & one Convict Woman came in from the plantation in Arthurs Vale having had several narrow escapes, by the Fall of trees & the great depth of Water in many places, Their Houses which were built & framed with Strong logs were all Blown down. The devastation done in the Vale is beyond belief nor can the dreadfull effects of the Hurricane there be described, whole Woods being blown up by the Roots & many Trees blownnote on the 3 Acres of Cleared Ground, The violence & Direction of the Wind is marked by all the Trees on the hills on the Right hand side of the Vale being blown down & very little damage being done on the left hand side several Clumps of very large trees which were left Standing on the flat part of the Vale were torn up by the roots & an acre of Indian Corn which would have been fit to gather in 3 Weeks, & was in a very promising state was all laid flatt & overflowed some feet by the Water, every Thing growing in the Garden is almost quite destroyed. There is no appearance on any part of the Island of a Gale of Wind of this Kind having ever happned before, It may be said that the Vale & the Spot where the Settlement is made, was a direction for the Wind, But the great damage & the number of Trees blown up by the Roots in places which were not cleared at all sufficiently proves that Hurricanes of this Kind are not frequent. 
Friday  27th  SW  A Very heavy Surf.  Fresh Gales with passing Showers of Rain, Every Person in the Settlement employed earthing up the Indian Corn blowed down Yesterday, & about some other necessary work—killed a Young boar belonging to ye Crown which was bruised by the Falling of a pine on the pig stye Yesterday, servednote out to the Officers & a part of the people in Lieu of Salt Pork—The Swamp is entirely overflowed— 
Saturday  28th  Do  A great Surf but decreasing.  Do Wr & Cloudy. People all employed as Yesterday. The Swamp continues overflowed 

March 1789

Week Days  Mo Days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observation &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c 
Sunday  1st  Do  Sea & Surf decreasg  Fresh Gales & very Cloudy Wr did not perform divine Service the Commandants house being full of Flour. The Swamp is still much overflowed. 
Monday  2nd  Do  Very good Landing.  One Female Child born— At 4 PM the Supply weighed & stood off & on for the night lighted a Fire—  Moderate Breezes in the Eveng Fresh Gales at day light perceived His Majesties Armed Tender Supply standing in to the Roads. Made the Alarm, & kept the Marines & Militia under Arms. Sent the Coble with Mr. Dunavon onbd the Supply, when he got onboard dismissed the Marines &c. In the Course of the day got most part of the Convicts provisions & Stores from onboard the Supply. 
Tuesday  3rd  ENE  An increasing Surf  Reced one ½ barrell of Gunpowder— 4 prs of Pistols. Pistol Flints Musquet Flints  Moderate Breezes & Pleasant Wr At Daylight received onshore one turn of Provisions An increasing Surf coming on did not receive any more for the day. 6 Men at Task work Sawyers sawing for Port Jackson 
Wednesy  4th  NE  Very good Landing  Do & Very pleasant Weather, received all the people & provisions, as also ye two three Pounders. People all employed as before— 
Thursday  5th  East  good Landing did not make the Signal—  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Wr. The landing to day is good, but not advisable The Supply anchored in the Road at 10 in the morng & at 2 P.M. Weighed & stood off & on People all employed as before— 
Friday  6th  Do  A bad Surf  Modt Breezes & pleasant Wr The Supply standing off & on & her boats Sweeping for her anchor People all empd at Task Work & bringing in Wood &c for erecting the houses for those who came last 
Saturday  Do  No Surf  Do & very pleasant Weather In the Morning sent the Coble off to the Supply & reced onshore all the ordnance Stores belonging to the two, two pounders & one half barrell of Gun powder. People employed working for themselves. 
Sunday  ESE  Bad Landing.  Fresh breezes & Cloudy. The Supply standing off & on all day, at 10 A.M. The Surgeon examined all the people who came by the Supply, at 11 performed Divine Service— 
Monday  9th  East  Very good Landing.  Do Wr 12 Men Employed at Task work, those who Came last employed building their houses The Supply sweeping for her anchor I went off & dined onboard her. 
Tuesday  10th  ENE  Do  Modr breezes & Cloudy. People employed as before sent a quantity of Plank onboard the Supply At 4 In the Afternoon His Majesties Armed Tender the Supply sailed hence for Port Jackson— 
Wednesy  11th  East  good Landing  Fresh breezes People all employed as before & Clearing away about the houses. 1 Man ss. 
Thursday  12th  SE  An increasing Surf  Do Wr & dark & Cloudy. Wind increasing, People employed variously this being a broken week 1 Man ss. 
Friday  13th  ESE  A great Surf  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather, with a few showers of Small rain, People employed building their houses & one Sawpitt at Task Work Almost all the People who came last, are got into very comfortable Houses. 2 Men ss 
Saturday  14th  East  A very great Surf  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Wr The People who arrived here by the Supply are completely housed & under Cover. The People Employed working for themselves The Marines & Militia fired 9 rounds of Powder—2 Men ss— 
Sunday  15th  ENE  The Surf decreasg  Moderate Breezes & pleasant Weather. at 11 A.M. Performed divine Service 1 Man sick & one Man Lame. 
Monday  16th  Do  An Increasing Surf.  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy, Squally Weather. 24 Men at Task work in the Vale, clearing away 4 Acres of Ground Sawyers at Task work 2 Marines Lame, & one Convict Sick. 
Tuesday  17th  NE  A Bad Surf  Very Strong Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Weather with some Showers of Rain. The People all employed as Yesterday 2 Marines Lame, & one Convict, Sick 
Wednesy  18th  Do  Good Landing but a great Sea without  Do Wr at 8 A.M. sent the Coble without the Reef to fish, she returned immediately there being too great a noteSea, & it blowing hard. People all employed as before—2 Marines Lamed, & one Man Sick 
Thursday  19th  NE  Very good Landing but a great Sea without  Fresh Gales & Squalley, 30 Men at Task Work clearing away Ground &c the Water Course in Arthurs Vale—at 8 in the Morning sent the Coble without the Reef to fish, at nine She returned not being able to ride at her Killock, 2 Marines Lame— 
Friday  20th  Do  Do  Do Wr with some Showers of hard Rain.—The People all employed as before—2 Marines Lame 
Saturday  21st  ENE  Do  Do Wr with some Gusts of Wind—People employed Working for themselves 2 Marines Lame— 
Sunday  22nd  Do  Do  Do Wr with some heavy Showers of Rain during the night, at 7 A.M. confined Thomas Watson, Convict, for having stolen 3 lbs of flour from Wm Mariner Convict—at 11 A.M. performed Divine Service 2 Marines & 3 Convicts Lamed— 
Monday  23rd  SE  Do  2 Marines Lame & one Sick—  Do Wr with Rain as before, 30 Men at Task Work clearing away Ground in the Vale Sawyers Sawing Boards for Roofing the Surgeon & Midshipmans houses. At 7 A.M. assembled every person, the Marines & Free people under arms & examined Witnesses on oath respecting The Theft committed by Thomas Watson finding him, guilty. he was continued in Confinement to be sent to Port Jackson there to be tryed 
Tuesday  24th  SE  Very good Landing.  Strong Breezes & Cloudy Weather, at daylight sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at Noon she returned with 20, issued them out to a part of the Officers &c in Lieu of one lb of Salt beef deducted from each Mans allce for 3 lbs of Fish—People all employed as before 2 Marines Lame & one Sick 1 Convict Sick— 
Wednesday  25th  SW  Not the least Surf  Moderate Breezes & Very Pleasant Serene Wr People all employed as before, at 6 AM. sent the Coble without the Reef to fish, at Noon she returned with 60 fish, issued them to the people to compleat Yesterdays Serving at ye Rate of 3 lb of Fish for 1 lb of Salt Beef, at 3 PM punished James Davis Convict with two Dozen Lashes for Throwing the Fish away Contemptuously 1 Marine Lame & one Convict invalided— 
Thursday  26th  NE  Do  Little Wind & dark Cloudy Wr with servl Showers of Rain People all employed as before at daylight Sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at noon she returned with 60 issued them to ye People 3 lb of fish in lieu of ½ a lb of Pork— 
Friday  27th  NE East EbS  Very good Landing  Moderate Breezes with dark Gloomy Wr People all employed as before, 3 Winnowing the Seed Wheat which is much injured by the Weevil— 1 Marine Lame & 2 Convicts Sick. 
Saturday  28th  Varible  Do  Do Breezes & very pleasant hot Weather, The People employed Working at their Gardens &c. some Employed getting the Weevils out of the Seed Wheat. 1 Marine Lame 
Sunday  29th  So  Do  Do Wr Sent the Coble out to fish at noon she returned with 40 fish Served almost the whole with 9 lb of fish each man for 1 lb of Beef 1 Marine & 2 Convicts Lame 
Monday  30  SW  An increasing Surf  Carpenters began framing a Storehouse of 24 feet Long by Sixteen wide 1 Marine & Convict Blacksmith making Fish Hooks, inside bars for doors, Handle for mounting another Grindstone  Fresh Gales with some passing showers of rain. People all employed at Task Work Died one of Governments Sows, on opening her found she had been Stabbed which had caused an inflammation of the Intestines This amongst a number of other acts of atrocity distinguish the Convicts here as an act of hardened Miscreants 
Tuesday  31st  NE  Bad Landing & Swell in the Offing  I was this day told that one of the Convicts had found out the bark of a tree fit for making lines or Rope, on examing it I found it (as far as I can at present Judge) very proper for the purpose of making Lines Ropes or Cloths. It in many respects answer the descrip given of the Chinese Mulbery paper, by Capt Cooke of which the Inhabitants of Otaheite make their Cloths—On Trial we find that this bark will answer every temporary purpose of tying, but as it very soon rots when Exposed to the Weather it will not answer to be worked—  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather with an Appearance of Rain The people all Employed as before. The Sugar cane which was planted soon after I landed, being in a very bad place & much exposed to blighting winds, I this day shifted it into the Vale, & found there was a produce of 106 Canes from four Canes planted out—Gathered the remainder of the Indian Corn which was much damaged by the Hurricane 1 Man ss & 1 Lame—1 Marine & Convict Blacksmith as before 

April 1789

Week Days  Mo Days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observation &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c 
Wednesy  1st  NE  A very heavy Surf.  Very Strong Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Weather with some showers of Rain, People all employed as before—2 Men ss 1 Marine & Convict Blacksmiths Employed as before at 7 P.M. Fired a 3 pounder as a direction for two Marines who had lost themselves in the Woods. at 8 P.M. they returned having heard the Gun. 
Thursday  2nd  NE  Do  Very Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Wr People Employed as before. Died a Sow of Governments the apparent cause of it was occassioned by eating a quantity of the Fern root—Sowed ¾ of an Acre of Ground with Wheat. A Very heavy Sea runs in the Bay— 
Friday  3rd  NNE  Very good Landing.  Fresh Gales & Cloudy People all employed at Task Work at 8 A.M. Sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at noon she retd without having caught any—sent them to fish behind ye Reef in order to compleat ye Survey of the 29th March which was compleated— 
Saturday  4th  Do  Do  Do Wr People employed at their Gardens &c. Too much Sea without to send the Coble out— 
Sunday  5th  North  Not a break of a Surf.  Strong Gales & Dark Gloomy Weather. at 5 PM. came on heavy rain with some Thunder & Lightning. at 10 AM. performed Divine Service. Thos Jones Convict acquainted the Commandant that his Term of Transportn expired this Day, on which the Commandant declared him to be a freeman & at liberty to work for the Crown, or Individuals untill His Excellency the Governor in Chiefs order should be received respecting him.note 
Monday  6th  + Varble  but little Surf.  Sent the Coble out & served 9lb of Fish for ½ a lb of Pork—  Moderate breezes & very pleasant Weather 30 Men employed at Task Work. Sowed 1 Acre of Wheat in Arthurs Vale, Carpenters building a Store house & Sawyers Sawing for it Boards— 
Tuesday  7th  Nory  Very good Landing.  Upward of 80 Large hooks have been broken & near 3 dozen of Lines carried away by the very large Sharks & Rock Cod which abound here, The largest hooks with links are quite necessary  Do Wr People all employed at Task Work Carpenters at Task Work building a Store house. at daylight sent the Coble to fish at Noon she brought a quantity but not sufficient to serve all hands. at ye rate of 3 lb of Fish for 1 lb of Beef 
Wednesday  8th  Varble  Do  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather, at day light sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at Noon she retd with just sufficient to serve the people that were not served Yesterday All the Hooks & a large line carried away by very large fish. at 4 P.M. punished Noah Mortimer Convict with 5 Dozen Lashes for refusing to Work, on being ordered by the overseer, this is the sixth offence of the Kind he has been guilty of 
Thursday  9th  ESE  Do  Do Wr & rather Sultry, Got the Forge up again & employed Jno Willamson Marine, Making Fish-hooks, ye large fish having carried away all the hooks which were brought & sent here as also six made since. People all empd at Task Work— 
Friday  10  NE  Do  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather, this being Good Friday no work was done & performed divine Service.— 
Saturday  11th  NE  Not the least Surf  Blacksmith finished six hooks & Chains for fishing—10 of the Convicts were lost in the Woods owing to the darkness of the Wr. Fired 2 Great Guns for them at 9 they returned being directed by the Guns—  Strong Gales of Wind & hard Rain most part of the day. 3 of the Tasks finished—sent the Coble out but it blowing so very strong was obliged to return immediately. 
Sunday  12th  Do NW  Do  The Beans & many other things growing at the Garden in the Vale, is quite Blighted by the WNW Wind, which confirms me in the Idea of not sowing any Garden seed before June. It is very unfortunate that I am obliged to sow all the potatoes as they grow out fast, & to keep them would be loosing them entireley & I think there is a great chance of their not doing well at this Season, but every precaution will be taken for their preservation.  Very Strong Gales of Wind & some very heavy gusts accompanied with heavy torrents of Rain at 11 A.M. Performed divine Service 1 Man ss. 
Monday  13th  S.b.W.  A Very heavy Surf.  Very heavy Gales of Wind & the Gusts frequent & very Strong, at 3 A.M. it came on to blow much harder & ye Wind shifted from WNW to S.W: There being four pines left standing which made it dangerous for the people to Stay in their houses called every one up & fell the above four pines. The People empd a part at Task Work & a part Sowing 3 Acres of Wheat, with 4 Bushell & one peck of Seed—This is ye upper patch. 
Tuesday  14th  SSE  Do  Strong Gales of Wind with Squalls, Two Gangs Clearing away ground at the Garden & ye other 3 Gangs time is not yet Expired, put one of them to dig out a Cellar under the new Storehouse for containing Salt provisions. 
Wednesy  15th  South  A great Surf.  Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Weather with some Squalls of heavy Rain the People all Employed as before This is the first Southerly wind which has blown with any degree of Force & from the 6th of March (ye day I landed) to the 1st of April we had no Southerly winds which makes me imagine that the Southerly & Westerly Winds are not frequent in the Summer not having Experienced one Gale from that Quarter during the Last Summer— 
Thursday  16th  SSE  Do  Do Wr with Squalls as before, 3 Gangs employed sowing 3 Acres of Ground in the Vale & one bringing in Stakes & Flax for repairing the Guard house &c. The Weather is rather sharp & Cold. 2 Men ss. 
Friday  17th  SE  A decreasing Surf  Moderate Gales & Squalley Weather. 2 Gangs bringing in Flax &c for rebuilding the Guard house & 2 Gangs getting Timber off The Hill— 2 Men ss— 
Saturday  18th  Do  Do  Do Wr with some showers. People Employed Working for themselves, 
Sunday  19th  ESE Calm.  Very good Landing.  Moderate Breezes & Warm Weather. at daylight sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at Noon she returned with sufficient to serve ½ the people. at 11 AM performed Divine Service— 
Monday  20th  NE  Not the least Surf—  Reced Fish enough by the Coble to compleat the Serving of Yesterday.  Do Wr with Clear pleasant Serene Weather & rather Sultry. 3 Gangs of 6 Men each clearing away ground, in the Vale 4 Men assisting the Surgeon & Midshipman in clearing their Garden Ground &c. Sawyers at Task Work & Blacksmiths making bolts & hinges for the Commandants house. Carpenters about the Commandants house as there is not a sufficiency of Boards cut for their going on about the Store house. Levingstone making a Spinning Wheel for making fishing lines. 
Tuesday  21st  NNW  Do  Eight acres of Wheat is up & has a very fine appearance vizt seven acres in the Vale & one in the Back field—  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather at daylight sent the Coble to fish at noon she returned with fish sufficient to serve a great part of the people in lieu of ½ a lb of Pork—The People all employed as before. Carpenters making a roller for rolling Wheat. 
Wednesday  22nd  NW WSW  Not the Least Surf  I shall be obliged to break up the first gang, as The Shingle maker is in it. & as it will be necessary to make the landing Place as commodious & safe as possible shall not form that Gang again as they are six of the best convicts on the Island. & will do a great deal of necessary Work in the farming Way & still be kept at Task Work—for this month to come it will be necessary to keep them at short Tasks on acct. of Clearing away the Reef at Low water.—sent the Coble out she brought fish enough to compleat Saturdays Serving  Very Strong Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Wr with some very heavy Squalls of Rain—at daylight sent the Coble out to fish & received by her a Sufficiency to serve the people—Empd 4 Men working for 2 hours at knocking off the outer part of the Reef to facilitate the entrance of Boats. One Man making Shingles to cover the Store house & 2 others cross cutting 
Thursday  23rd  S.W.  A great Surf  Moderate Gales with some heavy Squalls of Rain, People all employed as before 
Friday  24th  Do  But little Surf.  Moderate breezes & Clear Wr People all empd as before. at ½ Ebb employed Six men to knock away the outer part of the Reef till ½ tide. 
Saturday  25th  WSW  Do  Do Wr People employed Working for themselves at Noon sett a party of Hands about clearg away ye outer part of the Reef till ½ flood. 2 Men ss—Sent the Coble out & reced sufft to serve most part of the people. 
Sunday  26  Do  Not any Surf.  Very pleasant Serene fine Weather. at 10 AM performed Divine Service —1 Convict Lame. Confined John Williams Marine for breeding a Quarrell & fighting with one of his Comrades in a Convicts house. 
Monday  27th  Do, WSW  Do, Not the least Surf  On the 29th I found that 30 Bundles of Flax put into Soak in Octr was sufficiently rotted to pass it thro' the Hackle broke off 4 Men to Clean it. I think that had there been a large pitt made & a great quantity of the Flax put in, that it would have been in a state of preparation much sooner— I mean to let it remain 3 days longer in the Water & on Monday next to make the Women Wash it in running Water, & afterwards dry it & then pass it thro' the Hackles.  Do Wr at 10 AM Assembled the Marines & Free people under arms; under the Flaggstaff on which the Colours were hoisted & punished John Williams Marine with 1 Dozen Lashes for Challenging his Comrade, & unsoldier like behaviour & one Dozen Lashes Striking & fighting with his Comrade in a Convicts house. 3 Gangs at Task Work Clearing Ground, four Convicts assisting the Mid. & Surgeon—one Gang making Shingles & Clearing away the landing place at ye lowwater Sawyers Sawing board &c for the Store house & Carpenters Employed Variously— 
Tuesday  28th  Do  Do  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy. The people all employed as before at Day light sent the Coble out to fish at Noon she returned with sufficient to serve all but eight—1 Man Lame & one Sick. 
Wednesday  29th  Nory ± Varb.  Do  Do Wr had three very heavy Squalls of Rain from the Westward, People all employed as before 1 Man Lame & 1 Sick the Coble brought in fish enough to serve for this Week— 
Thursday  30th  East  Do  very warm Weather  Do Wr People all employed as before—The Weather has been very pleasant all this Month, & this day is as warm as the midst of Summer, altho' it cannot be said the we have experienced any Sultry Weather. 1 Man Lame. 

May 1789

Week Days  Mo Days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observation &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c 
Friday  1st  NW.  Do  Dark Gloomy Weather, in the Evening had very heavy Showers of Rain, The People all employed as before 1 Man Lame 
Saturday  2nd  Varble  Very good Landing  On ye 7th I observed all the Wheat which had a very fine appearce was blighted in many places particularly where thinnest sown on looking into it found it was entirely covered by a small caterpillar which had eaten off ye stems that occasioned ye blades dying, it is rather alarming; as I did hope by the Wheat being sown at this time of ye Year that nothing would have infested it.  Little Wind & dark Cloudy Weather with heavy Showers of Rain— People working for themselves—1 Man Lame. & 1 Sick 
Sunday  3rd  W.S.W.  Indifferent Landing.  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Weather at 10 AM Performed divine Service 2 Convicts Lame & one Sick. 
Monday  4th  WNW  Bad Landing  Do Wr 3 Gangs Clearing away Ground, one Gang Rolling Wheat, one Gang Sawing making & Drawing Shingles, 2 Sawpits, sawing Weather boarding for ye Store house 4 Men assisting the Midshipman & Surgeon in clearing away &c. 2 Men & all the Women washing Flax. 2 Convts Lame 
Tuesday  5th  West  Indifferent Landing.  Do Wr during ye night & till 8 in the Morng had very heavy rain, People all empd as Yesterday—1 Man Lame 
Wednesday  6th  North  Bad Landing.  At 8 P.M. ye Wind shifted to W.S.W. had Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather with rain all the Day. People all employed as before—2 Convicts Sick & one Lame 
Thursday  7th  WSW.  Do  Very heavy Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Weather with almost Continual Heavy Rain 2 Convicts Lame & 3 Sick— 
Friday  8th  SW  Do  Very Strong Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Wr with heavy rain People all employed as before. 1 Convict Lame— 
Saturday  9th  South  A very heavy Surf  The immense quantity of Catterpillers that have settled on the Wheat is surprizing & hardly to be credited as they may be gathered off in handsfull. I am much afraid that the total destruction of the Wheat will follow, which will be an afflicting Circumce as I have only eight Bushell of seed reserved on the 9 I sent every person out to cut off the tops of 3 Acres which are the worst & hoping that their treading will kill some of them but I much the fear that the evil will not be removed. It is extraordy that nothing is hurt or touched in the Garden which lies between two patches of Wheat one of 3 Acres & ye other of 4 which is covered.  The Gale is Still very violent, accompanied with heavy Squalls of Rain. Sent all the Convicts into the Vale to Cut off the tips of the Wheat. 2 Convicts Lame. punished Elizh Pipkin Convict with 3 dozen for infamous beh[aviour] 
Sunday  10th  SE  Do  Strong Gales at times very Violent. at 11 AM Performed Divine Service. 
Monday  11  Little wind & Variable  Surf Increasg  Sent all the Women with Straw to beat the Ground where one acre of Wheat is quite eat close to the earth. An astonishing number were killed but in two hours after the Caterpillars were as numerous as ever. reced Fish enough to serve to ye People in lieu of 1 lb of beef—  Moderate Breezes & pleasant Weather a Frost in the Morning. at daylight Punished Wm Dring Convict with 3 dozen Lashes for absenting himself from the Settlement without Leave. Assembled Every person belonging to Settlement Marines & Free people under arms & Examined Witnesses on Oath against Thos Watson Convict & a Prisoner for stealing a Shirt from James Williams Private Marine. 4 Gangs Clearing away ground in Arthurs Vale. one Gang making & Drawing Shingles Sawyers at Taskwork sawing boards for ye Storehouse & Carpenters building it, four Men assisting Do in putting [shoars?] under it &c, The [blades of ye] Wheat is entirely eat off by the blight or Caterpillars, which Cover the whole [surface of ye] ground. 
Tuesday  12th  Varible in the NW  good Landing  I find this destructive Caterpillar is hatched from the Eggs of a Moth one species of which is about the size of a small Fly & the other is as large as a bee They Fly in a Cloud about sunsett & then deposit their Eggs which in the Morning covers the surface of the Ground on the [*]  Light winds & Variable with some heavy showers of Rain & dark Cloudy Weather. People all employed as before. 6 Men employed beating ye ground where the Wheat is eat away, with Turf beaters, to endeavor & kill ye Caterpillar. Reced Fish enough to serve half the people. 
Wednesy  13th  Varble S.W.  Do A great Surf:  The Catterpillars are beginning in the upper three Acres, the other four acres being quite destroyed—they are also got into the garden  Moderate Gales & Cloudy Weather People all employed as before. Reced Fish enough to serve all hands In the Evening & night, had Strong Gales with some Rain. 
Thursday  14th  From South to S.W.  Do  Very Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Weather all ye Tasks finished except one which began in ye middle of ye Month The Squalls heavy & very violent during ye Night— 
Friday  15  SE  Do  Moderate & Cloudy Weather. All ye Tasks finished Ground now Clear in All belonging to the Crown 13 Acres. 1 Man ss & 2 Lame. 
Saturday  16th  East  Good Landing  Do Wr People all employed working on their Gardens &c Sent ye Coble out to Fish at noon she returned with sufficient to serve most part of the People. 
Sunday  17th  NE  Do  Do Wr Performed Divine Service 
Monday  18th  NNE  good Landing  I do not think that beating the Wheat in order to kill the Caterpillar has answered any good end as in an hours time, they are as thick as ever. One only thing remains which is collecting all the Urine & mixing it with ashes (some who pretend to be farmers advise boiling it) & then Sprinkle or wash the Wheat & Vegitables with it but this, will take a long time to collect sufficient Urine for one Acre of ground however I have ordered & shall see the order enforced, that every person urines in tubs which are placed for that purpose, in the Camp & where the people work. I have ordered two men to collect it & boil it otherwise preparing it for laying on the Ground.  Light Winds & Cloudy Weather—6 Men employed Cutting a Road from hence to Cascade Bay. 12 Men beating down ye upper 3 Acres of Wheat (that is not quite destroyed) with Turf beaters, in order to destroy the Catterpillar if possible. 4 Clearing away Ground for putting the Vines &c in, that are expected here Sawyers & Carpenters employed about ye Store house & Blacksmiths Cutting & Splitting Wood for Charcoal. 1 Man Sick & 2 Lame. 1 Gang Splitting & drawing Shingles for covering the Store house. 
Tuesday  19th  North  Do  Fresh breezes & Cloudy People all employed as Yesterday 3 Men ss & one Lame. Reced fish enough to serve most of the people. 
Wednesday  20th  NNW  Do  Very Strong Gales & heavy rain during the whole day which prevented Working. 3 Men Sick & one Lame. 
Thursday  21st  Do SW  very good Landing a High Surf.  In the Morng light breezes & pleasant Weather. sent ye Coble out to fish. at 10 Came on a very heavy Squall of Wind & Rain which brought the Wind Round to SW. when it blew a heavy Gale The Coble being to Leeward of the Island & not being able to pull up & the landing being dangerous, made ye Sigl for her to go to Ball Bay where she was hauled up. The People all employed as before except 6 Men Sent to Ball Bay to haul up ye Coble 3 Men ss & 1 Lame. 
Friday  22nd  S.W.  A great Surf  The Urine & ashes have been tryed but without any Good effect whatever & the Caterpillears are times ten more numerous than ever, & grow very large some of them being an inch & half long. The Whole of the Corn is eat off Close to ye mold & I fear is quite destroyed—  Very heavy Gales of Wind & Squalls of Rain The Road to the Landing place & the Cascade, at Cascade Bay is finished. This being a broken Week People empd Variously 3 ss & 1 Lame 
Saturday  23rd  Do  Do  The Gale very violent & Squalls of Wind with Rain—People employed Working for themselves—1 Man ss & 3 Lame. The air is very raw & Cold— 
Sunday  24th  SW to South  Do  Do Wr with very heavy Squalls in the night at 10 AM performed Divine Service—1 ss & 3 Lame. Thos Jones who is become a Settler this day took possesion of a Lot of Ground near the Great Cascade— 
Monday  25th  Do  Do  The Gale is still very Violent. One Gang empd removing some of the Marines houses in order to create a Wooden one where they stood. the rest of the Convicts employed mending the road to the Plantation in Arthurs Vale. 1 ss & 3 Lame. 
Tuesday  26th  Varble WSW SSW  Do  had some very heavy Squalls of Wind & rain 3 Gangs Empd at Task Work in clearing away Cutting down & getting the Timber off 3 Acres of the Hill. The Carpenters finished the Store house & the 4th Gang finished their Task they have a week to Spare. 3 Men Lame & 2 Sick. 1 Blind. 
Wednesday  27th  Variable SE  Bad Landing  As the Cockswain of the Coble has been obliged to under-goe a Surgical operation the boat cannot be launched from Ball-Bay before his recovery.  Strong Gales & heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain, People all employed as before. Carpenters Employed putting some additional Shores under the Store house—3 Lame 2 Sick & one Blind— 
Thursday  28th  East.  good Landing.  As I perceive little or no alteration in the Caterpillars only that they grow much larger, it is my intention not to sow the remaining 3 bushell of Wheat Seed, untill ye latter end of June; As it may be, that these distructive Vermin may be gone & if they they remain all the Year, It will be a terrible Misfortune—note I much fear totally put a Stop to the raising of Wheat or Barley. I shall sew one acre in the Vale with Barley & Wheat drilling it in next Week—  Moderate Gales with a few Showers of Rain People all Employed as before 3 Men ss 2 Lame 1 Blind— 
Friday  29th  Do  Do  Do & pleasant Weather. Sowed My Town Garden which contains [*] Rods of Ground with 3 Pints of Wheat which I drilled in as recommended in Tullsnote horse hoeing husbandry. I believe much less Seed would have ansd ye purpose—Shifted all the Provisions & most of the Stores into the Store house I find the Quantity of Flour now in Store will last eight Months, supposing all the Cask to be good, 3 Men Lame & 2 Sick— 
Saturday  30th  NE  good Landing  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather people working in their Gardens &c. Sent Some Men round to Ball Bay to bring the Coble round. hauled Do up here 3 Lame & 1 Sick— 
Sunday  31st  NE North SW  No Surf—  Very Strong Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Wr with heavy rain during the whole day, till 4 PM when the Wind Shifted to SW 2 Lame 1 sick— 

June 1789

Week Days  Mo Days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observation &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c 
Monday  1st  SW.  Very good Landing  Excessive heavy rain, during the night, at daylight Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr 3 Gangs Cutting down Trees & Clearing 3 Acres of Ground on this Side the hill, The time of one Gang not Yet Expired. Sawyers Sawing Weather boarding &c Carpenters Time not Expired, Reced Fish enough by the Coble to compleat Last serving. 2 Lame one Sick 
Tuesday  2nd  WbS.  A great Sea bad Landing.  Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Wr with frequent Squalls of very heavy rain, People all Employed as Yesterday 2 Lame & one sick— 
Wednesday  3rd  WSW  Do  The Gale still continues with great Violence People all Employed As before, 2 Lame & 1 Sick. Killed a boar belonging to ye Crown & deducted ye Weight 40lb from My Allce of Salt provisions. 
Thursday  4th  SW, South, West  Do, Very Bad Landing.  Fresh Gales & Cloudy with some Squalls of Rain at Sunrise hoisted ye Colours in observance of His Majesties Birth day, at Noon Assembled The Marines & Militia under arms on the Parade. The Male Convicts drawn up on one Side & ye Other A Guard brought ye Colours out & planted them on one of the Guns, fired 3 rounds of ye Great Guns & Small Arms after which the whole gave 3 Cheers. When they were dismissed, gave the Marines double allowance of Rum, to each of the Male Convicts ½ a pint & to each Woman one Pint of Wine at Night Bonfires were lighted & ye front Windows of my house was illuminated As this is the first Celebration of His Majesties Birth-day on this Island I forgave Thos Watson a Convict till now under confinement for theft which was proved on him & he was intended to be sent to Port Jackson to be tryed for it 2 Lame 1 Sick—NB 3 rounds of the Great Guns were fired on drinking His Majesties health after dinner; having invited all the Officers to dinner on the occassion 
Friday  5th  South.  Bad Landg  The Caterpillars are quite gone & ye four acres of Wheat are shortly out again—3 Acres are quite destroyed—  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr People all employed as before I went to Cascade bay where the Water is as smooth as possible & not a break of a Surf on the beach—2 Lame 1 Sick—The Rod of Wheat sowed on the 29th May is up & has a very fine appearance— 
Saturday  6th  SSE  good Landing  Little Wind & pleasant Weather, people working at their Gardens &c 
Sunday  7th  East  Do  Do Wr at Daylight sent the Coble out at Noon she returned with only 7 Fish performed Divine Service— 
Monday  8th  Do  No Surf  Very pleasant Weather 9 Gangs Clearing Ground, one Felling Timber & 3 Men making Drills for Wheat The Coble out all day & caught Only 6 Fish—Carpenters & Sawyers about a house for Mr Marley & ye Carpenters 2 sick & 2 Lame Women gathering Roots 
Tuesday  NW  No Surf.  Variable Wr with Some very Strong Squalls of Wind & Rain at daylight sent the Coble out to fish at 10 The Wr having a very threatning appearance fired a 3 p[ounde]r for her to return reced only 7 Fish. Broke off one Gang in the Afternoon to enlarge the opening of ye reef 2 Sick & one Lame 
Wednesdy  10th  WNW SW  Do A Very Light Surf  In the Morning Little Wind & Cloudy Wr Launched the Coble, but expecting bad Wr hauled her up again, People all Employed as before. 2 sick & 3 Lame sowed 1 Peck & one Gill of Wheat in half an acre drilling it in—The Coble Men Barking fallen pines to prevent the Worm eating into them— 
Thursday  11th  SW to South  Do  Very Strong Gales of Wind & Cloudy Wr with freqt heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain People all Employed as before 2 ss. 3 Lame. Sowed ye Remainder of Plot hill with Wheat drilling it in, The Side sown containing 60 Rods & whole Quantity of Grain put in is 30 pints—Sowed also—18 pints of Marrow fat pease. 
Friday  12th  South  Do  Do Wr with less frequent Squalls of Wind & Rain People all employed as before 
Saturday  13th  WSW  A Very high Surf  Fresh Gales & Squally, at day light sat ye Supply in the Road. The Flood tide running Strong, a Great Swell & little Wind prevented her getting to Ball Bay untill 3 o'clock when I received my Despatches. 3 sick & 2 Lame. punished Mary Gamble with 3 dozen lashes for theft. 
Sunday  14th  Little Winds E.S.E.  Bad landing till High Water.  Moderate Gales & Cloudy Wr the Surf high untill high Water at 3 P.M. then landed from the Supply Lieut John Cresswell & 14 Private Marines with a part of their Baggage. 
Monday  15th  East  A Very high Surf.  Fresh Gales & Cloudy. Supply in the Road no boat could Land. 3 Gangs Clearing away one Turning up Ground Sawyers sawing boards for finishing one house for ye Commandg Officer of ye Troops. 
Tuesday  16th  E.S.E  Do & Moderate  Moderate Gales & dark Cloudy Wr The Surf has been dangerous till, 3 P.M. then moderate enough to receive in shoar 2 boat loads of Baggage, belonging to the Troops People all employed as before, 2 sick & 3 Lame— 
Wednesday  17th  Variable ENE  Very good Landing  Little Winds & very pleasant Wr in the Course of ye day received 5 Tunns of ye Supplys 2 Boats & ye Coble laden with provisions & Stores—People Empd getting Wood to ye Pitt for building a New boat the Carpenter of the Supply being landed for that purpose. 
Thursday  18th  East  Do  Do Wr Reced all but 16 Casks of Flour from ye Supply in the Course of the Day The Surf increasing very much in thenote Evening made ye Signal for ye Supply to hoist ye Coble in. Gangs as before. 
Friday  19th  Do  A very great Surf.  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Wr with a great Sea & Surf people all empd as Yesty Sawyers sawing boards for building ye Boat. 
Saturday  20th  Do  Do  Do Wr The Supply standing on & off People all Empd as before 
Sunday  21st  ENE  Good Landing.  Light winds & pleasant Wr at noon reced all our provisions & stores from the Supply 
Monday  22nd  ENE  Good Landing  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Wr People all empd as before one Gang sending off Plank & Water on board ye Supply. Sent a Crossjack Yard & Topsail &c on board the Supply 
Tuesday  23rd  NE  Do  Very pleasant Wr People all employed as before & one Gang sending off Water &c on board ye Supply. & The Carpenter of ye Supply building a boat. 
Wednesy  24th  Do  Do  Drilled in 2 peck of Wheat in 1 Acre of Ground—  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr People all employed as before, Carpenter of ye Supply building a Boat sent off Water &c onboard ye Supply. 
Thursday  25th  Do WSW SW  Bad Landg  Sowed an Acre of Wheat in Vale with 1 & ½ bushell of Seed  Strong Gales with some Squalls at 9 the Supply passed between Neps Island & Pt Hunter People all empd as before. Sowed 1¼ Acre of Wheat with 1½ bushell of Wheat. 
Friday  26  SW  A heavy Sea & Surf  Sowed 2 Acres of Ground with Wheat Seed—  The Gale very heavy & the Squalls frequent sent round to ye Lee Side of ye Island but could not see the Supply. People all empd as before— Punished—[William] Holmes Convict with 3 dozen lashes for absenting himself from his task. 
Saturday  27th  SW South SE  A very great Surf  Very Strong Gales of Wind with heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain— People working for themselves sent round to Cascade Bay but could not see the Supply. 
Sunday  28th  ENE  Surf decreasing  The Gales more moderate, Saw nothing of the Supply suppose she is drove to Leeward of the Island, & cannot beat up at 11 A.M. performed divine Service The Carpenter of ye Supply &c employed about the Boat— 
Monday  29th  Varble  good Landing  Light Winds & thick Cloudy Wr 3 Gangs Clearing away on Mount George, 8 Men making a fence hedge round the Garden in the Vale As ye last SE Wind, has much Injured the potatoes & other things Growing there—Carpenter of the Supply &c making a Boat 2 ss & 3 Lame Supply not in Sight. 
Tuesday  30th  NE  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr People all employed as before, at daylight the Supply pulld out to ye Southward, & working up. at 4 P.M. sent ye Carpenter of ye Supply & my dispatches onboard by the Coble, & soon after sailed the Supply for Port Jackson. The new boat not quite finished but we can go on. 

July 1789

Week Days  Mo Days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observation &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c 
Wednesday  1st  North  Very good Landing  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather. Finished ye Coble employed paying her bottom the rest of ye People all employed as before. 
Thursday  2nd  Do SEbE  Do  Fresh Gales & Do Wr with Constant heavy rain during the day & night. The people all employed as before 2 Men ss & 1 Lame 
Friday  3rd  South  Indifferent Landg  Strong Gales, & dark Cloudy Wr People all employed as before & Coble-men building a dryer house for themselves. 9 Men making a Hedge round ye Garden in Arthurs Vale. 2 ss Squalls of rain during the night. 
Saturday  4th  Do  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr with heavy Rain. People working for themselves. 4 Men ss & lame— 
Sunday  SW  very good Landing  Moderate breezes & Cloudy Weather at 10 A.M. performed divine Service. 
Monday  WSW  Do  at 2 P.M. punished Edward Gaff Convict with 100 lashes for stealing 3 Quarts of of Wheat out of ye bag of Wheat which he was carrying to Arthurs Vale to be sowed there.  Do & very pleasant Warm Weather 3 Gangs finishing their task clearing away ground on Mount George. One Gang making a high Fence to break off ye wind from ye Garden in Arthurs Vale. 4 Hands making a Sawpit & one Pitt at Work ye others time not being up. 
Tuesday  7th  Varble  Very good landing  payed the Small Coble with Tar & Turpentine . Eleven Acres of Wheat is now up in Arthurs Vale & has a very fine appearce NB 4 Acres is drilled in.  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Wr Three tasks finished clearing away on Mount George Employed them during the remainder of this Week in Working at Clearing Ground for the Mid. & Surgeon &c. One Gang making a hedge round ye Garden in Arthurs Vale, & Sawyers &c as before—2 Carpenters Sick 
Wednesday  8th  Do, SW  Do  Do Wr with a heavy Shower of Rain in ye Eveng The Coble out all day & caught only eight Fish, issued them to compleat in part ye serving of July 3rd 2ss—People as before 
Thursday  9th  Variable  Do  The late Southerly winds has damaged ye potatoes greatly, which are growing at ye Plantation in Arthurs Vale. Every other Vegetable is very thriving.  Do Wr People all employed as before the Coble out all day & Caught only 15 Fish. issued them to Compleat in part the serving of June 3rdnote 4 sick & lame 
Friday  10th  Do  Do  Do & Cloudy thick Weather People all empd as before The Coble out all day & only caught 15 Fish issued them out to a part of ye people in Lieu of 1 lb of Salt Beef—2 ss & 2 Lame— 
Saturday  11th  East  Do  Fresh Gales & dark Wr with heavy rain all day. 2 sick, Carpenter & 3 Men lame 
Sunday  12th  Varble  Very good Landing  Little Wind & very dark Cloudy Wr with heavy rain in ye Afternoon at 10 A.M. performed divine Service. 2 ss & 3 lame. 
Monday  13th  Do  Do  Light winds with Squalls of very heavy rain & Thunder & Lightning in ye Squalls. 18 Men Employed getting timber off ye Cleared Ground on Mount George. 8, Making & finished a hedge round ye Garden in Arthurs Vale brought the Commanding officer of the troops house up, & placed it on ye left of my house. Carpenters Employed about it. & Sawyers Sawing boards &c. Blacksmith making Keel bands &c for ye large boat. 2 sick & 2 Lame. 
Tuesday  14th  South  Do An increasing Surf—  Fresh Gales with passing Squalls of rain. 12 Men Making a Fence at ye foot of Mt George, & 5 in ye Valley The rest as before. 1 Gangs time not expired. 2ss & 3 Lame. 
Wednesday  15th  Variable  Good Landing  Hauled the Small boat out of ye Boat house to repair her being very leaky  Do Wr People all employed as before 2 ss & 3 lame. 
Thursday  16th  East  Bad Landing.  Moderate breezes & Cloudy Wr 5 Gangs of 6 Men each began their task Work of Clearing away 5 Acres of ground in Arthurs Vale 1 Gang Cutting & drawing Shingles. the Rest of ye People employed as before 2 ss & 2 Lame 
Friday  17th  East  Indifft Landing.  Strong breezes & pleasant Wr broke off one Gang to burn the piles of Rubbish on Mt George but found it would not take fire the Rest of ye people Employed as before, payed the insides of the large & small boats with Tar & Tallow &c—2 ss & 2 Lame. 
Saturday  18th  Do  good Landing.  Do Wr The people employed working for themselves— 
Sunday  19th  Do  Do  Do Wr at 10 AM performed divine service. 
Monday  20th  Do  Do  Do Wr 5 Gangs Clearing away Ground in Arthurs Vale; 1 Gang making & drawing Shingles Carpenters building a house for Lieutt Cresswell & 3 Sawpits Sawing boards &c for various purposes. Sent the Coble out & reced only 18 Fish served a part of them in lieu of 1 lb of Beef. 
Tuesday  21st  Do  Do  During the last five days The Weather has been very pleasant & as warm as in the some of the hot Summer days.  Light Winds & very pleasant Wr people all empd as before The Coble out all day & caught only 4 fish. 
Wednesday  22nd  Soy  Do  Do Wr People all employed as before. Jno Jones Male & Mary Gamble Female Convicts, informed me that the term of their Transportations Expired this day, Ordered the same Answer to be read to them which was read to Thos Jones on the 4th April. 
Thursday  23rd  WS.W.  Bad Landing  Eleven Acres of Wheat in Arthurs Vale, & one Acre of Barley on ye No side of Mount George has a very promising appearance  Fresh Gales with some Squalls, broke off four Gangs to burn up the Piles of Wood in Mt George ready for sowing Wheat on it. 3 Lame 2 ss. Carpenter Fitting Stern Sheats & bottom boards to large boat. 
Friday  24th  Do SW ESE  Do  The Weather is now very raw & Cold  Do Wr The People all Employed as before broke them off In ye Afternoon to get a piece of Pine on the Pitt 3 ss & 2 Lame— 
Saturday  25th  East  Do  Do Wr with some Squalls, people working for themselves 3 Lame 2 sick— 
Sunday  26th  Varble  Do  Moderate Breezes with dark Cloudy Wr at 10 AM Performed divine Service. 
Monday  27th  Do  A Bad Surf—  Do threatning rain; five Gangs of 6 Men each clearing away four Acres of Ground in Arthurs Vale, One Gang Splitting & drawing Shingles Sawyers Sawing & Carpenters about Lieutt Cresswells house 2 lame & one Sick— 
Tuesday  28th  NE  A great Sea but little Surf.  I am very unfortunate in ye loss of this Man As he was one, amongst ye very few good men that are here  Strong Gales & dark Gloomy Weather with Rain People all employed as before. at 10 AM a large tree fell on John Bryant Convict working in Arthurs Vale & bruised his head so much that he died in two hours. at 4 PM interred ye DD. & read ye Funeral service over him 1 Lame & 2ss. 
Wednesday  29th  North NW, West  good Landing  During the Night Fresh Gales & very heavy rain. In the Day Fresh Gales & fine Wr Broke off All the Gangs & sowed the remainder of ye Wheat seed viz. 3 Bushells & half on three Acres of Ground. on the Side of Mount George. Got timber to ye Pitts—1 Lame & 2 ss— 
Thursday  30th  WSW, SW  A very great Surf.  Fresh Gales with Squalls of Rain & Wind in the Evening very Strong Gales, People all employed at their Task Work The Carpenters empd fitting ye lining to the large boat & cutting oars &c—1 Sick—sent ye Small Coble to fish inside ye Reef She could not catch or see one fish. 
Friday  31st  Do  A very heavy Surf.  Strong Gales & Squalley with some showers of rain People employed bringing in Spars for oars people making them in the Afternoon Employed 2 Gangs Getting timber to ye pitts. Cropped 1 Acre & half of Wheat on Plot hill it growing very rank—1 Lame & 2 sick— 

August 1789

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island Wr &c 
Saturday  1st  WSW  Surf decreasing  Killed a Boar belonging to Government weight 40 lbs for which 40 lbs of Salt Meat is deducted from my familys Allowance—  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Wr People working for themselves 1 Lame.— 
Sunday  2nd  West North  Do  Do Wr till Evening. then hard rain at 10 A.M. Performed divine Service. 
Monday  3rd  Do SW  Bad Landing.  Strong Gales with very heavy rain during the night People all Empd till 8 AM getting Timber on ye Pitt for building a Barn in Arthurs Vale. Afterwards Employed at Task Work & one Gang making Singles— Sawyers at Task Work & Carpenters about Lieutt Cresswells house. 
Tuesday  4th  SSW  A very Great Surf  Do Wr The people all employed as before The air very Sharp & cold— 
Wednesday  5th  ESE  Do  Fresh Gales & a raw cold air. The people all employed as before— 
Thursday  6th  NE  Do  Strong Gales & Dark Cloudy Wr People all employed as before. One Gang finished their Task— 
Friday  7th  ENE  Do  Very heavy Gales of Wind with constant heavy rain. The Gusts at times very violent No work done on Account of the very bad Wr— One Marine Sick— 
Saturday  8th  WNW  Good Landing a Great Swell  Strong Gales & heavy rain till 8 AM then Fresh Gales & Squally— People working for themselves—1 Marine sick— 
Sunday  9th  W.SW.  Do  Do Wr with Excessive heavy Gusts of Wind & Squalls of Rain 2 Sick— 
Monday  10th  SW  Do A Very heavy Surf  Do Wr with very heavy Gusts of Wind & Squalls of Rain. 3 Sick—four Gangs of 6 Men each clearing away Four Acres of Ground in Arthurs Vale Sawyers Sawing for Commandants house & the Barn Carpenters about Lieutt Cresswells house One Gang Sawing Splitting & Drawing Shingles Got a piece of Timber on the Pit. 
Tuesday  11th  Do  Do  The Gusts of Wind very violent & Squalls very frequent. People all employed as before 2 Sick 
Wednesday  12th  Do  Do  Fresh Gales with a few heavy Squalls of Rain & Wind at Daylight hoisted ye Colours in observance of His Royal Highness ye Prince of Wales's birth day. At Noon fired 3 Rounds of Artillery The Troops drawn up on the Parade fired 3 Rounds of Musquets after which the Whole gave three Cheers. Excused ye convicts from work. 
Thursday  13th  WSW.  Bad Landing  Moderate Breezes & pleasant People all Employed as before. Carpenters repairing one of ye Sawpits. 1 Man ss. 
Friday  14th  NW  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy. People Employd as before. & 4 Men Cutting ye Wheat down which is growing quite Rank. 
Saturday  15th  Varble  Do  Fresh Gales with a few Squalls of Wind & Rain—The People all employed working for themselves. The Carpenters finished Lieutt Cresswells house. 
Sunday  16th  Do  Very good landing.  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather. at Day light sent the Coble out to fish at 3 P.M. She returned with only four Performed Divine Service. 
Monday  17th  NE  Do  Put the forge up to do some necessary Jobs & employed Jas Williamson Private Marine to Work at it—  Fresh Gales & very pleasant Wr People all employed as before Carpenters began building an addition to my house. As I am apprehensive of its oversetting in the Violent S.W. Winds. In ye Morning Got Timber to the Pits. 
Tuesday  th 18  NW  good Landing.  Strong Gales of Wind with incessant heavy Rain from Midnight till Noon P.M. People all employed as before. 
Wednesday  19th  S.W.  Indifft Landing.  Fresh Gales & Clear Wr The four Tasks finishing thier works. Their time does not Expire untill ye 26th of this month Carpenters Sawyers &c employed as before. 
Thursday  20th  Do  Do  Do Wr The Sawyers tasks finished this day their time does not Expire untill ye 24th of this Month. Carpenters as before. 
Friday  21st  Do  Do  Do Wr Carpenters Employed as before & 1 Gang bringing Stones & building a Chimney behind ye addition building to my house Cropped ye Acre of Barley on ye NE side of Mount George— 
Saturday  22nd  Do NW  good Landing  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr with Rain in the Evening. People Working for themselves— 
Sunday  23rd  NW WSW  A Great Sea & Good Landing  The Indian Corn which has been sowed in difft places in the Valley & other places, has been dug up & eaten by the Rats. I therefore have put 5 Grains in a hole & sowed that in the Ridges very thick—  Very Strong Gales of Wind & dark Gloomy Wr with constant heavy Rain till 6 PM. then the Wind came to ye South. 
Monday  24th  SW  A heavy Surf—  The Wheat growing on the South Side of Mt George is quite Blighted & Black with the Southy Wind. I think it will be no otherwise injured than Kept. back— This Gale has been the longest we have had here in this Quarter it has blown with very great force.  Do Wr with very heavy Gusts of Wind & Squalls of Rain Employed all the people making holes & planting Indian Corn in the four Acres cleard last in Arthurs Vale—One Gang bringing in Stones & building a Chimney to my house. 3 Men making & drawing Shingles—2 Sick— 
Tuesday  25th  SSW.  Do  Do Wr The Gale very violent the People except one Gang working for themselves as their time does not Expire till Thursday night The rest Empd as before. 
Wednesday  26th  Do  Do  Do Wr & ye Gale still very violent People all as Yesterday—1 Man ss & 2 Lame. 
Thursday  27th  South  Do  The Gale a little Moderated but still very Strong Gales with some very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain The People as before. 
Friday  28th  Do SW  Landing possible.  Fresh Gales & Squally. Employed all ye People Cutting a Water Way Making drains, Sluices &c & sowing 3 Peck of Rice. 1 ss & 2 Lame. 
Saturday  29th  ENE  good Landing.  punished Ann Coombs Female Convict with 50 lashes for defrauding Thos Jones of a Quantity of Provisions—  More Moderate & pleasant Weather People working for themselves. 1 ss & 2 Lame— 
Sunday  30th  West, NW  good Landing a Great Swell  Messrs Cresswell & Jamieson went to Anson bay by land, they found it very difficult getting down into it. Landing was Very good there. No water within ½ a mile.  Moderate Breezes & Very pleasant Wr at 10 AM performed Divine Service. at 1 P.M. punished Ann Coombs Female Convict with 100 Lashes for Stealing two Cheque Shirts from Francis Mee Private Marine, which she hid & refused to produce them— 
Monday  31st  North  Very good Landing.  Do Wr Four Gangs of 6 Men each Clearing away 4 Acres of Ground in Arthurs Vale. 1 Gang making Shingles Coblemen & 3 others employed occasionally. Sawyers sawing boards for building a Barn. 1 Carpr Empd about My house. 

September 1789

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c.  Transactions on Norfolk Island Wr &c 
Tuesday  1st  Northy  Do  The Grubs are beginning to be very troublesome destroying all the onions. In The Surgeons Garden every Thing is quite destroyed. & Most of the people have had all their Indian Corn torn up by the Rats & what they have spared the Grubs have destroyed.  Do Wr People all employed as before. The Coble out all day & served only 28 people at 3 lb of Fish in lieu of 1 lb of beef each man. Carpenter & another man sick. 
Wednesday  2nd  Do SW  Do  Do Wr with heavy Squalls of Wind afternoon Sent ye Coble out but she could not pull up again & was obliged to Land in Ball Bay. People all Employed as before Carpenter & 2 Men Lame—4 Men Employed making a railing round an Acre of Barley to keep the Stock out As ye Hedges are not sufficiently Strong. 
Thursday  3rd  East  Bad Landing.  The Morning & Evening are very Sharp & Cold. The Grubs are beginning to destroy ye 4 Acres of Indian Corn planted Augt 24th.  Heavy Gales of Wind with some Rain & ye Wr very Sharp The people all employed as before. Carpenter & 2 others lame 1 Sick— 
Friday  4th  Do  Do  Fresh Gales & pleasant Wr The people all Employed as before Sick & lame as before 
Saturday  5th  ENE  Do  This Evening—Some Notorious Villians Stole almost Every Article of Vegetables out of Corporal Govens Garden which he had with great industry & perseverance Cleared & Cultivated, The Theft Must have been committed between dark & eight o'clock As all ye Convicts are mustered in their houses after the Watch is sett.  Moderate Breezes & pleasant Wr The people working for themselves. 2 Lame & one Sick. 
Sunday  6th  NE  Do  Do Wr at 10 A.M. performed divine Service. 
Monday  7th  North  No Surf.  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Wr in ye Evening heavy Rain. 4 Gangs of 6 Men each Clearing away four Acres of Ground of in Arthurs Vale. Carpenters about ye inside of My house. Sawyers Sawing boards. 5 Men making a paled hedge, round ye lower acre of Wheat. & one making Oars &c. Punished Catherine Johnson Female Convict with 50 lashes 
Tuesday  8th  NW.  Do  Do Wr with heavy rain all night & ye fore part of ye day. AM Employed ye People fitting Timber to ye Pitts. PM All empd at Task Work & as before 
Wednesday  9th  WSW  good Landing  The Rats have destroyed a great quantity of the Indian Corn growing on the four acres sowed Augt 24th Many Gardens are quite destroyed by the Grubs which are destroying every thing before them. I think they breed from eggs deposited by some kind of Fly, on ye leaves of the plants where they remain untill they have got strength by destroying the leaf; & then fall on the Ground & destroy the Root or Stalks as they increase in size—  Fresh Gales & Cloudy at Midnight had a Very heavy Squall of wind with a torrent of rain. the people all employed as before. 
Thursday  10th  South  Indifferent Landing  Strong Gales till P.M. then Moderate. People all employed as before 1 Man making Oars for ye large Boat 4 Making Shingles—2 ss— 
Friday  11th  S.S.E.  Do  Moderate Breezes & pleasant Wr People all Employed as before. Some people sowing ye 4 Acres of Indian Corn where the Rats have eaten it up. 2 Men ss & 1 Lame 
Saturday  12th  North  good Landing  Do Wr The People all working for themselves. 1 Carpenter ss— 
Sunday  13th  West  Do  Moderate breezes with Rain untill 10 AM, then Performed Divine Service. 1 Carpr sick & 2 Men lame— 
Monday  14th  SW.  Do  Very heavy Rain all night untill 8 A.M. then pleasant Wr 4 Gangs of Six men each clearing away 4 Acres of Ground in the Vale. One Gang making Shingles, Coble men about ye Boats. Sawyers Sawing Stuff for building a Barn Carpenters lining my house & built a Centinal Box. One Female Child born. 1 Carpenter sick. 
Tuesday  15th  West.  Indifft Landing.  Quantity of Seed Sowed & up—  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather. People all Employed as Yesterday 1 Carpenter Sick— 
Wednesday  16th  SE  good Landing  15 Acres of Wheat 1 Do of Barley. Seven of Indian Corn  Do Wr The people all employed as Yesterday Sowed part of an Acre with Indian Corn. Sent round to Ball Bay & brot ye Coble from thence. 
Thursday  17th  NE  Do  The Grub worn is very troublesome destroying every Vegetable & plant of Indian Corn as fast as it comes out of the Ground.—  Do Wr The people all employed as before 1 Carpenter Sick 
Friday  18th  Little Wind.  Do  Do Wr The People all employed as before sowed one Acre of Ground with Indian Corn. 1 Carpenter Sick— 
Saturday  19th  WSW  An increasing Surf:  Do Wr The People all working for themselves 1 Carpenter Sick & 2 Lame— 
Sunday  20th  NW  A bad Surf  Squally Wr with Some very heavy Squalls of Rain at 10 A.M. Performed divine Service & Christned ye New born Child— 
Monday  21st  SW  Do  Fresh Gales & Squalley, 3 Gangs Compleated clearing away 3 Acres of Ground in Arthurs Vale. Their time does not expire untill ye 29th One of ye above Gangs cutting down one Acre of Trees to let the Sun in on ye Indian Corn The 4th Gang still at Work, their task being increased to 1¾ Acre, The other two Gangs making holes for ye Indian Corn & Sowed the whole 3 Acres. One Gang making Shingles Carpenters lining my house & two Sawpits at Work. Sowed 8 Roods of Potatoes. 
Tuesday  22nd  East  A great Surf  At Sunrise hoisted ye Colours in observance of His Majesties Coronation  Fresh Gales & dark Gloomy Weather. People all as before. The Coble men Employed taking down the old Boat Shed & Erecting a New one, making Skids &c. — 
Wednesday  23rd  NE East  Do  The Ground Grub is destroying Every plant & vegetable very fast. & has began Upon the four acres of Indian Corn. a quantity of it is eaten as is also some of ye Barley by Caterpillars. The women will all be constantly Employed in picking ye Grubs which I fear will not check their progress.  Do Wr with very heavy rain all day ye Gangs whose task is not yet finished could not work Carpenters as before. 
Thursday  24th  Do  Do  Moderate Gales & Cloudy Wr The Gangs all Finished their tasks. 
Friday  25th  Do  good landing  Do Wr 2 Sawpits finished their task time Expires on Monday next. 1 Sawpit & Carpenters as before. Coble men finished the Boathouse. 
Saturday  26th  Do  Do  Do Wr People working for themselves. Four four Casks of flour damaged & short of Weight 104 lbs — 
Sunday  27th  Do  Do  Do Wr at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service. 
Monday  28  NE, NNE  Do  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Wr The four gangs times not Expired Carpenters finishing my house Sawyers Sawing for the Granary or Barn at 8 AM Sent the Large Boat out to fish at 4 P.M. she returned with only 6. dug up 3 Rod of Ground planted June 1st with 240 Setts of Potatoes which Yielded 5 Bushells of very fine Potatoes 
Tuesday  29th  North  good Landing.  Strong Gales & Dark Cloudy Weather. Two Gangs times up employed them Cutting a drain for carrying ye Water off ye lower part of ye Wheat in ye Vale. Coblemen making Skids for hauling the Boats up upon The Rest of the People as before. 
Wednesday  30th  N.N.W.  A Very great Surf —  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Weather. The two Gangs whose time is up Employed Hedging, making Shingles &cc. the Rest of the People as before — 1 Man ss — 

October 1789

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c — 
Thursday  1st  ESE  Do  Strong Gales & dark Cloudy Weather. People all employed as before 1 Man ss — 
Friday  2nd  Do  good Landing a great swell without —  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather Some hands employed making a Fence overflowing the Rice &c. The rest as before. 1 Man ss — 
Saturday  3rd  Do  Do  Moderate Gales & a great Swell without people Employed Working at their Gardens &c. 
Sunday  4th  NE  good Landing  Moderate Breezes & pleasant Warm Weather at 10 A.M. Performed Divine Service 
Monday  5th  North  A great Swell.  Strong Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Wr 3 Gangs Empd clearing away ground in ye Vale for sowing Indian Corn & Potatoes on 1 Gang bringing in Logs for buildg a house for ye Carpenter. 2 Men Making Shingles. Carpenter & 2 Men to assist them framing a Barn. Sawyers as before. 
Tuesday  6th  SSW SSE SE  good Landing  The Grub Worm is still numerous, Notwithstanding the Women are employed dayley in picking them out of the Ground & off ye plants, Yet no decrease of their numbers can be perceived. They have destroyed One Acre of Indian Corn entirely & are going on very fast in destroying the rest. Every Cabbage & other plant is eat off as fast as it appears out of the Ground, which has quite prevented any Cabbages being planted out for these six weeks past, where the Evil will end I know not. As the rearing of the Stock must in a great measure depend on ye Growth of ye Indian Corn.  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr — The people all employed as Yesterday — Too much Swell without to Send ye Boat out — 
Wednesday  7th  East  A great Swell  Do Wr People all employed as before. 2 Men Squaring Loggs for building the Carpenter a house — 
Thursday  8th  ESE  Do  Do Wr People all employed as before 4 Men Sawing lengths for Shingles There has been a great Swell these some Days past. 
Friday  9th  Do  A very heavy Surf —  Moderate Gales & Warm Weather people all employed as before The four Men who were sawing lengths for Shingles Yesterday Employed hoing up ye Indian Corn in Arthurs Vale Punished Noah Mortimer, Thos Watson & Jno Holmes Convicts with 2 Dozen lashes each for loitering & Idling their time at Work — 
Saturday  10th  Do  Do  Do Wr The people all employed Working at their Gardens &c — 
Sunday  11th  SE  A very heavy Surf  Moderate Gales at 10 AM. performed Divine Service — 
Monday  12th  Do, SW  Surf decreasing  Do Wr Most Part of the People employed Working for themselves this being a broken week & some time due to many of them Sowed 1 Acre of Indian Corn Carpenters, & Sawyers about ye Framing of the Barn &c — 
Tuesday  13th  Do, ESE  A great Surf  Some Very Strong Squalls of Wind & in the night a Shower of Rain, Most of the people taking ye time that they have saved of their respective Tasks — Carpenters & Sawyers as before — Sowed a quarter of an acre of Potatoes in Arthurs Vale. 
Wednesday  14th  South  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy cold Weather. Six Men at Work carrying out the Frame of ye Barn where it is to be be placed in Arthurs Vale. The rest as before. 
Thursday  15th  ESE  A great Surf.  Fresh Gales & Cloudy. The people who are at Work, Carrying out the Frame &c of the Barn — 
Friday  16th  SE  Do  Do Wr People all Employed as before 
Saturday  17th  Do  Do  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather. The people all working for themselves. 
Sunday  18th  ESE  good Landing  Do & Cloudy at 10 A.M. performed divine Service. 
Monday  19th  NW.  Do  Coble out all day & caught only 6 Fish  Moderate Gales & pleasant Weather. Sent 6 Men to Cut a Road from hence to Anson Bay. 6 Men Assisting the Carpenters in putting up the the Frame of the Barn, 8 Men clearing away a piece of Ground Sawyers sawing Stuff — 
Tuesday  20th  Varble  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy people all employed as before — 
Wednesday  21st  Do  Do  Moderate Gales & Cloudy Wr Finished Cutting the Road to Anson Bay. 14 Men Cutting the Wood Clear of ye Water Way. 
Thursday  22nd  Variable  good Landing  Moderate Gales & Cloudy Wr People all Employed as before & ye People who were Cutting ye Road to Anson Bay, Employed Repairing the Road to Ball Bay. 2 Men Empd about hoing up Indian Corn &c — 
Friday  23rd  NW  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy People all employed as before I went along shore this Morning & found a part of ye Bones belonging to one of ye People who were drowned here in August 1788 — Brot them to Sydney Bay & interred them — 
Saturday  24th  ENE  Do  Moderate Breezes & very hot Sultry Weather ye People Employed Working for themselves 
Sunday  25th  NE  A heavy Surf  Do Wr at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service 
Monday  26th  Varble  Do  Do Wr & very Sultry. 2 Gangs of 6 Men each Clearing away an acre of Ground in Arthurs Vale One Gang building a Shed over one of ye Saw pits, One Gang digging a Sawpit to saw up some fallen pines which cannot be removed. Coble men building a Hut for ye Man who is to take Care of the Boat. Carpenters, Sawyers & Shingle makers about the Barn. 
Tuesday  27th  East  A Great Surf —  This is the first rain which has fallen since ye 23rd of Septr which was much Wanted. The Wheat is all in ear & has a very good appearance. The Grubs have almost totally disappeard But we are now plagued with ye Perroquets which destroy a Quantity of ye Seeds, I much fear that if they find out the Wheat a great quantity will be destroyed by them  Strong Gales & Cloudy with some very heavy rain in the Morning. people all Employed as Yesterday 
Wednesday  28th  Do  A very heavy Surf.  Do Wr People all employed as before. Punished Joseph Long with 100 Lashes for lending out Shoes which he had to mend — 
Thursday  29th  ENE  Do  Do Wr People all employed as before Eight men assisting ye Carpenter in fitting a Sawpit 
Friday  30th  North  Surf decreasing —  Fresh Gales & Squally The people all employed as before. 2 Men Lame. 
Saturday  31st  NNW  Very good Landing  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather People all employed working for themselves. I went out in ye Boat & fished but could not catch one. could not catch one. 

November 1789

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c — 
Sunday  1st  NE  Do  Do Wr at 10 AM performed Divine Service. 
Monday  2nd  ENE  A Very heavy Surf  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Wr 2 Gangs Clearing away and turning up an acre of Ground for Sowing Potatoes. One Gang making Shingles, one Gang hoing up Indian Corn & ye rest employed ocassy 
Tuesday  3rd  East  Do  Do Wr People all employed as before at 8 in ye Morning launched the large Boat & moored her within the Reef in the Middle Bay in order to soak her Carpenter Shingling the Sawyers house. 
Wednesday  4th  NE  A great Surf.  The Catterpillars are again returned & are destroying the leaves &c of all the plants.  Strong Breezes & Cloudy Wr The people all employed as before. The Boat drove on shore brought her round & hauled her up here. 
Thursday  5th  Do  Bad Landing.  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr Sowed ¾ of an Acre of Potatoes. Most of ye People taking their time of what they have saved from their Respective tasks — 
Friday  6th  ENE  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy People all as before 
Saturday  7th  Do  Tolerable Landing.  Modt Gales & Cloudy. People Employed Working on their Gardens &c — 
Sunday  8th  NE  Good Landing.  Do & Very Pleasant Weather. Performed Divine Service Sent ye Coble out she returned with 15 fish issued them. 
Monday  9th  NNE  Do  Most of the Plants & other Vegetables are stripped of their leaves & Stalks by the Catterpillar.  Do Wr 2 Gangs of 6 Men each, clearing away an acre of ground to sow Potatoes on. One Gang Clearing away a piece of Ground for lieutt Cresswell. One Gang hoing up Indian Corn. & the rest Employed occassionally the Sawpit at Work The others & Carpenters taking their time that they have saved from their task Work. Master Carpenter Shingling the Surgeons House — The Barn finished. 
Tuesday  10th  ENE  Do  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy People all employed as before. four Men Sawing Lengths for Shingling. The Coble went out & brought in fish enough to serve a part of the People. 
Wednesday  11th  NE, South in the Squall, ENE  Good Landing  The very heavy rain & Wind has lain the Wheat all down  At day Light Moderate Breezes & Clear Weather Sent the Coble out to fish at ½ past Eight Came on very Suddenly a heavy Gale of Wind & hard Rain which lasted untill 3 in the Afternoon when it Cleared up. The Boat Returned on perceiving the Change of Weather. People all Employed as before — 
Thursday  12th  Do  Do  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr People all Employed as before; Coble men Building a hutt. 
Friday  13  NW, WSW  Do  Do & very pleasant Weather. The People all employed as before Sent the Coble out to fish she returned in ye Evening not having caught any. Lieut Cresswell turned a turtle in Cresswell Bay. 
Saturday  14th  SSE  Do  Do Wr The people employed working for themselves. Sent the Boat out to fish At 2 P.M. she returned with 36. Issued them in the lieu of 1 lb of Salt Pork, each Man. 
Sunday  15th  East  Do  Robert Webb Seaman belonging to the Sirius this day went to the Cascade Bay to settle there Sent The Coble Men to Carry His things round there by hand —  Very Pleasant Wr at 10 AM Performed Divine Service. 
Monday  16  ENE  Do  Began Cutting the Barley —  Do Wr 1 Gang Clearing away Garden Ground for Lieutt Cresswell, 2 Gangs Clearing away & Turning up One Acre of Ground for Potatoes. One Gang fetching Thatch. Carpenters taking their time Except 1 shingling ye Surgeons House. Sawyers sawing lining boards &c. 
Tuesday  17th.  ENE  good Landing  The Weather during this last month has been very Sultry & hot & the Wind has been Constantly from the Eastward which I think is the trade wind that reaches thus far.  Moderate Breezes & excessive Hot Sultry Wr People all Employed as Yesty 4 Men hoing up Indian Corn 
Wednesday  18th  East.  Do  The potatoes which are growing at the Farm & were sowed September 7th & during that Month; are all running to Stalk there is not a single potatoe at their Roots, the Tubers run very strong & shoot up out of the Ground, notwithstanding they have been very well earthed. I much fear that from the intense heat of the Weather, They will run to haulm & not firm into Potatoes — The Perroquets which are in very large Flocks are destroyg the Wheat having made great havock in one acre — viz Plot hill  Do Wr People all employed as before Shingles being finished Carpenter, Making Oars for the Boat. 6 people employed Carrying the Barley to the farm. Women employed leasing the Barley. 
Thursday  19th  Do  Do  Do Wr People all employed as before — 
Friday  20th  WSW  Do  Do Wr People all employed as before. 
Saturday  21st  Varble  Do  Do Wr The people Employed at their own Gardens building houses &c. 
Sunday  22  SW ESE  Do  Do Wr at 11 A.M. performed divine Service. 
Monday  23rd  ENE  Do  Began Cutting the Barley —  Do Wr & very hot. 2 Gangs which were clearing away an Acre of Ground taking their time which does not Expire untill Friday One Gang hoing up Indian Corn The rest of the[m] Employed about a number of necessary Jobs. Carpenter fitting the large Coble with a Steering Oar & noteSawyers Sawing ¾ boards for lining a part of the Barn & Lieutt Cresswells House. at daylight Sent the Coble out & reced 28 Fish issued them 2 lb of Fish in lieu of ½ a lb of Salt Pork — One Man Thrashing out Barley 
Tuesday  24th  NNW  good Landing.  The Wheat throughout ripens very fast & as it is well filled I do not apprehend much damage from ye Caterpillars which are very thick indeed As the path ways are Covered with them.  The Weather very hot & Sultry with an appearce of Rain, People all employed as before 5 Men Making Hog pen, Duck Yard &c at the farm. Carpenter Repairing the Boats. 
Wednesday  25th  Do  Do  Do Wr The People all employed as before. Sent the Coble out & reced fish enough to serve most part of ye People at 2 lb of fish for ½ a pound of Meat. 
Thursday  26th  Do  Do  Do Wr & Exceeding hot. People all Employed as before. 1 Gang bringing in logs for making a fence round ye Barn. 
Friday  27th  Do  Do  Do Wr & close. People Employed as before except one Gang Cross cutting lengths for the Pit Sent ye Coble out to fish — 
Saturday  28th  Do  Do  Do Wr & extremeley Sultry hot Weather the People all employed working for themselves. 
Sunday  29th  ENE  Do  Do Wr at 10 AM. performed Divine Service Killed a Boar belonging to ye Crown Weight 46 lbs. stopt Salt meat for Do 
Monday  30th  Variable  Do  1st day of Wheat Harvest.  Do Wr 2 Gangs Cutting down trees off 2 acres of Ground in Arthurs Vale. One Gang bringing in Rails & paling for inclosing ye Barn Yard. four Men Reaping Wheat. Carpenter fitting & Repairing ye Small Boat. Lucas's time not expired till Decr 10th 

December 1789

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of the Weather &c — 
Tuesday  1st  Varble  Do  In ye Evening Squally Wr with heavy rain  Do Wr People all as before Carpenter Flooring Lieutt Cresswells house Reced Fish enough by ye Coble to serve a part of ye People. 
Wednesday  2nd  Varble  good Landing  It is rather Extraordinary that ye Supply when 2° to ye Southward of this had Constant heavy Rains whereas for this Considerable time past we have had a very great drought —  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Hot Sultry Wr People all employed as before. 6 Men Making an inclosure with Stakes round the Barn reced fish enough to compleat ye serving of Yesterday 2lb of Fish in lieu of ½ lb of Pork. 
Thursday  3rd  SSW  Do  Fresh Breezes & pleasant Weather at Daylight perceived His Majesties Armed Tender Supply at 8 Reced ye Letters & in ye Course of the day eight Women Convicts landed & a part of the Provisions & Stores. The people all employed as before. Reaping Wheat. 
Friday  4th  Do  Indifferent Landing.  First part Do Wr People all employed as before. Reced one turn of provisions & Stores. In the Afternoon Fresh Gales with Squalls of Rain The Supply standing off & on People all employed as before. The Weather is remarkably Cold & raw 
Saturday  SSW  Bad Landing  This day put the Settlement to an allowance of 2/3rd of all spieces per order of His Excellency the Governor.  Strong Gales all day, at 9 the Supply bore up & ran to Leeward of the Island Messrs Jamieson & Cresswell went onboard her People Working for themselves. 
Sunday  6th  SSE  Do  More Moderate at 10 A.M. performed divine Service Went onboard ye Supply 
Monday  7th  SE  Do  Pleasant Wr Got every thing & person from the Supply at 4 P.M. she sailed hence for Port Jackson — 
Tuesday  8th  ESE  Very good Landing  Three Men Threshing out Wheat. + The Catterpillars are still very troublesome destroying every plant & Vegetable. The Wheat is nearly all ripe but there are many patches which are still quite green it is my intention to begin reaping ye Whole of it next Week & letting the Green patches remain, as the Parroquets are destroying vast quantitys of it  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather People making a staked Fence round the Barn in Arthurs Vale others bringing in Wood. Carpenters about Messrs Cresswell & Jamiesons houses — 
Wednesday  9th  Do  Do  Do Wr People all Employed as before 6 Men Turning up a piece of Ground to Sow potatoes on. sent ye Coble fishing she returned not having caught any + 
Thursday  10th  Do  Do  Do Wr & very Sultry. People all Employed as before The Coble returned with Fish enough to serve every person 2 lb in lieu of ½ a lb of Pork, viz. from ye Short allowance 
Friday  11th  Do  Do  Light Winds & Very Sultry hot Wr Six men reaping Corn 3 Thrashing. 8 bringing in Thatch 4 Carrying Wheat to ye Barn. & ye Rest Empd Cross Cutting Timber. 
Saturday  12th  Do  Do  Do Wr the People Working for themselves Excepting two Men thrashing out Wheat 
Sunday  13th  Do  Do  Do Wr at 10 AM performed divine Service 
Monday  14th  NNW  good Landing  Strong Gales of Wind & very dark Cloudy Wr threatning much Rain. Most of ye People Employed Getting in the Harvest Thrashing &c. at Noon punished Jno Anderson Convict with 200 Lashes for Robbing a Garden, pursuant to the Sentence of the two Justices & Wm Blackhall Convict with 50 lashes for treating Mr Dunnavan with Contempt & ye Commandants orders with Insolence — 
Tuesday  15th  Do, SSE, SE  Bad Landing  This is the first rain that we have had to speak of since ye 23rd of Septr  A Very heavy Gale of Wind untill 2 AM with Constant heavy Showers of Rain untill 6 AM at 2 AM. ye Wind shifted in a Squall to SSE & Continued blowing Strong all Day. People all employed about the harvest &c — 
Wednesday  16th  ESE  A great Surf  + The Wheat I much fear will be spoiled if this Wet Wr Continue long. a Rick of about 2 Acres is up. 3 Acres cutt is on the Ground. The Wet Wr coming on before it could be taken up 3 Acres is not yet Cut down but is dead ripe.  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Wr People all Employed getting in the Harvest. Threshing out Wheat & making Ricks &c — in ye Evening drizzling rain. 
Thursday  17th  Do  Do  Do Wr with Constant heavy Rain all Day No harvest Work could be done. 
Friday  18th  Very heavy Rain with hot Sultry Wr. In ye Evening came on a torrent of Rain which lasted the Whole night.+ 
Saturday  19th  ESE  Bad Landing  + There is every appearance of the Wheat yielding well it is all in Ricks & all Thatched except one which cannot be compleated for want of Straw — Two Men will constantly be kept Thrashing.  Fresh Breezes, The Rain during the Night very heavy, During ye day some intervals of Dry Weather. The people all employed turning the Wheat that is cut down & was housed. 
Sunday  20  Do  Do  Do Wr & very pleasant till 4 PM then Threatning Rain People all employed Reaping, binding up ye Wheat & making Ricks, getting ye Wheat &c in for its preservation — 
Monday  21st  Do  good Landing  Do Wr with a few light Rains every person employed Reaping, carrying & ricking the Wheat Women Gleaning &c. 
Tuesday  22nd  Do  Do  Do Wr People all Employed as Yesterday at Noon Got all the Wheat in & four Ricks Thatched one Rick remains to be thatched. 2 Men Thrashing+ 
Wednesday  23rd  Do  Do  Do & very pleasant Weather people all employed Variously. 
Thursday  24th  Do  Do  Sent ye Coble out but caught only 16 fish.  Do Wr Gave the People this day on account of their Working last Sunday. 
Friday  25th  ESE  Good Landing  Moderate breezes & pleasant Wr at Sunrise hoisted ye Colours in observance of Christmas Day. at 10 AM performed Divine Service killed 2 Hogs belonging to the Crown Wt 180 lb & issued them 1 lb & ½ to each person & as our Crop of Wheat has been a good one gave Them 2 lb of Flour each Man & one pound to the Women — 
Saturday  26th  SW  Do  Do Wr People all employed, Working for themselves. 
Sunday  27th  Do  Do  Do Wr at 10 AM Performed divine Service. The Wr very hot & Sultry. 
Monday  28th  Varble  Do  Smiths Ground began  Light Winds & very Sultry hot Weather. 2 Gangs of six men each Turning up the Ground that the Wheat came off from. One Gang clearing away Ground The rest of ye Convicts Employed Threshing, making paling round the Barn. &c — Carpenters empd about Lieut Cresswells & Surgeons houses 
Tuesday  29th  NW  Do  Do Wr The people all employed as before At day light Lieut Cresswell went with both Boats to Phillip Island & returned at one PM. He went over the Island but could not find any Water. The Weather Very hot & Sultry. 
Wednesday  30  Do  Do  Do Wr but dark heavy Clouds & hot Sultry Weather. The people all employed as before. Employed 4 Men Thatching ye last Rick. Sent ye Coble out of fish but caught only 16 Issued them in lieu of Short Allce 
Thursday  31st  NNW  An Increasing Surf  Fresh Gales & heavy Rain all Day. People not Employed on account of the Weather except the 2 Men who were Threshing & Carpenters. 

January 1790

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observations &c.  Transactions on Norfolk Island Wr &c 
Friday  1st  SE  A Great Surf  Strong Gales of Wind & incessant heavy Rain all day Excused the People from Work this being New Years day — 
Saturday  2nd  Do  good Landing  Fresh Gales & Cloudy — People working for themselves — 
Sunday  3rd  Do  Do  Do Wr at 10 AM Performed Divine Service A Male Child born — 
Monday  4th  ESE  A very great Surf  Strong Gales of Wind & dark Weather. One Gang Clearing away ground for Next Year A Gang bringing in Stakes for building a house for the Store keeper. One Gang Cutting down Trees off an Acre of Ground; four Men Cross Cutting lengths & one Making & three drawing Shingles. Two Men Threshing. Two Endeavouring to make Querns for Grinding Indian Corn but find the Stone is too hard — This Wind blights all the Garden Seeds. Some Indian Corn Sowed ye latter end of July was got in to Day. finished making a fence round the Barn. The Weather very Sharp & Cold — 
Tuesday  5th  SE  Do decreasg  More Moderate than Yesterday. the People all Employed as before. The people who were at Work about ye fence round the Barn Employed building a log house for the Storekeeper. Carpenters making ye lower mast of a Flaggstaff & lining Lt Cresswells house 
Wednesday  6th  ESE  Do  Do Wr the People all employed as before. Carpenters about ye Flagg-staff & Lieut Cresswells house The Rest as before — 
Thursday  Do  Less Surf  Do Wr The People all empd as before 4 Men Winnowing Wheat — 
Friday  Do  Do  Do Wr The people all as before. The perroquets are distroying ye Indian Corn having almost totally distroyed the Crop of some individuals. 
Saturday  9th  Do  good Landing  Do Wr The people all Empd Working at their Gardens &c — Carpenters finishing the Flaggstaff. The Perroquets are very troublesome. 
Sunday  10th  Do  Do  Do Wr at 10 AM performed Divine Service 
Monday  11th  East  A great Surf  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Weather. from day light till Eight oclock Employed Getting up Sheers & Stepping a Flagg-staff & getting the Topmast up in ye Front Yard of the Superintendant & Commandants House. People afterwards Employed bringing in posts & logs of Wood for erecting a Stoccade inclosure round the Superintendant & Commandants House in which inclosure is hereafter intended to build Barracks for the Marines. 1 Carpenter about Lieutt Cresswells house. Sawyers sawing Stuff for Do — 
Tuesday  12th  ESE  Do  Do Wr People Employed most part of the Day bringing a Spar from Turtle Bay for a Topmast. Four Men Making a Stocade inclosure the rest as before. 
Wednesy  13th  Do  Do  Do Wrnote 3 Gangs of 6 Men Each Cutting down Trees & Clearing away Ground 5 Men Making a Stoccade. 6 Men bringing in Thatch & Thatching the Store keepers house. 5 Do breaking down ye Cobs of Indian Corn The rest employed occasy & necessarily 1 Sawpit Sawing boards. 
Thurdy  14  North  Less Surf  Strong Gales of Wind & some Showers of Rain People all employed as before. 2 Men bringing in Stones for building a Chimney for the Surgeon. 6 Men ss. 
Friday  15th  South  A great Surf  Do Wr with some Showers of Rain The People all Employed as before — 6 Men Sick 4 Men breaking down Indian Corn. 
Saturdy  16th  SE  Less Surf  Moderate Gales & Cloudy — The People all Employed Working for themselves 
Sunday  17th  Northy  good Landing  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather at 10 AM performed Divine Service 
Monday  18th  NE  Very good Landing  At Day light sent the Boat out to fish at Noon She returned with 40 Issued them to a part of the people in lieu of of the Short Allce stopped. Some of the Convicts killed a Sow belonging to the Crown which could not be discovered.  Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather at Sunrise hoisted ye Colours in observation of her Majesties Birth Day. One Gang bringing in Logs for making a Stoccade round the Superintendant & Commandants house. Filling the Barn & Thrashing. 2 Carpenters about Lieutt Cress-wells house & 2 about ye Store keepers. One Gang Clearing away Ground. 
Tuesday  19th  East  Do  Sent the Coble fishing at 2 PM She returned with 60 fish Issued them to ye People in Lieu of the deduction in the Allowance  Do Wr 3 Gangs Employed Clearing away Ground for Cultivation Two Men bringing in Stone for building a Chimney for the Surgeon. Only one Sawyer at Work ye other Sawyer Very ill. 2 Men Thrashing & ye rest Reapg 
Wednesy  20th  Do  Do  During this Month a greater Number of people have been sick than has been the Case since I landed The Complaint is mostly a diarrhoe, but they soon recover of it. The Surgeon thinks it is owing to the Vast quantitys of Vegetables that are eaten —  Do Wr People All Employed as Yesterday The Weather Exceding hot — 1 Male Child born 
Thursday  21st  ENE  Do  Do Wr Employed as before Gathering Indian Corn. Punished James Burn Convict with 25 lashes for Stealing Indian Corn — 
Friday  22nd  Do  Do  Do Wr the People all employed as before Repairing the Small Coble 
Saturday  23rd  NE  Do  Dark Cloudy Wr inclinable for Rain — People Working for themselves — 
Sunday  24th  NNE  Do  Moderate & Very Sultry hot Weather at 10 AM performed divine Service 
Monday  25th  NNE  Indifft Landing  Very hot Sultry Weather — 4 Men putting up a Stoccade round the Store house & Commandants house 4 Burning & getting up Earth 1 Gang Clearing away Ground two Thrashing ye Rest of the labourers time saved, not Expired Till tomorrow & Wednesday 2 Carpenters about Lining Lieutt Cresswells house One Sawpit sawing Joists &c for putting another floor to the barn to Contain The Indian Corn — The perroquets are destroying it very fast — 
Tuesday  26th  Do  Do  Do Wr People all Employed as before 2 Gangs Turning up Ground in Arthurs Vale 1 Man building a Chimney for ye Surgeon Carpenters about ye Stoccade & making oars — 
Wednesy  27th  WSW  Do  Do Wr & very Sultry. People all Employed as before 
Thursday  28th  Do, ESE  Do  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Weather People all Employed as before — 12 sick & lame. 
Friday  29  Do  Bad Landing  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Weather. at day light perceivednote His Majesties Armed Tender Supply in the Road Sent the Coble off & reced ye Despatches no Landing the Remr of day — 6 Convicts were put on Shore from the Supply in Ball Bay. People all empd as before. 
Saturday  30th  ENE  Do  Do Wr Landing still very indifferent — Reced in the Course of the day the Remain[in]g[?]note Convicts from the Supply in all 22 Male & 2 Female noteChildren with 1 Child 
Sunday  31  NN[E?]  Strong Gales of Wind & very dark Cloudy Wr with heavy Rain in ye Morng before the thick Wr Came on sent the Coble onbd ye Supply where she was hoisted in 

February 1790

Week day  Mo day  Winds  Landg & Surf  Observations &c.  Transactions on Norfolk Isld Weather &c — 
Monday  1st  SE  good Landing  Moderate Gales & Cloudy during the day received every thing from the Supply — a Part of ye People turning up Ground & ye rest Empd occassionally & at task work 
Tuesday  2nd  Do  Bad Landing  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather. The Surf running high could not send the dispatches onboard the Supply untill 4 P.M. when she sailed for Port Jackson — The People Employed as Yesterday. 
Wednesy  3rd  NE  good Landing  Do Wr with heavy Rain most part of the Day. The Convicts who came by the Supply Employed buildg their Houses. 2 Gangs Turning up Ground, 6 Covering in one of the Sawpits. [*] Women & 5 Men Gathering & Husking Indian corn 2 Men Thrashing out Wheat Sawyers & Carpenters about a floor for the upper part of the Barn to Contain the Indian Corn 2 Men Shingg ye Mids[?] housenote 
Thursday  NW  No Surf  Very Strong Gales & dark Cloudy Weather with almost constant Rain people Employed at intervals as Yesterday 
Friday  Do  Do  Do Wr with less Rain Employed some hands & Women gathering & husking Indian Corn the Rest Employed as before. 
Saturday  6th  NE  Do  Moderate Breezes & very hot Sultry Weather The People all working at their Gardens &c — 
Sunday  7th  Do  Do  Do Breezes with incessant heavy Rain at six AM sent the Boat to Phillip Island at Noon She returned with fish enough to Serve every person in the Settlement 21bs. 
Monday  8th  ENE  Indifferent Landing.  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather 3 Gangs of 6 Men each Clearing away 3 Acres of Ground. A Number Employed Gathering, husking, & getting Indian Corn to the Barn Thatching ye Roof of one of the Sawpits, & a number of other necessary Jobs — Carpenters about Lieut Cresswells house putting a Floor to the Barn — &c — 
Tuesday  9th  NE  Do  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Weather. People all Employed as before. 11 Sick & Lame. 
Wednesday  10th  ENE  Do  Do Breezes & very Sultry hot Weather The People all Employed as before. 
Thursday  11th  Do  Do  Very Pleasant Sultry Weather. People all employed as before. Sent the large boat to Phillip Isle. at 3 P.M. it returned with fish enough to serve 81 people. 
Friday  12th  Do  Do  Do Wr & very Sultrynote The People all employed as before Sent the Coble over to Phillip Isle at 3 P.M. she returned with Sufficient fish to serve the remainder of the people. 
Saturday  13th  Do  Do  Do Wr & very Cloudy The People working for themselves. 
Sunday  14th  Do  Bad Landing  Fresh Breezes & very Gloomy Weather. at 10 AM performed divine Service. 
Monday  15th  Do  Indifft Landing.  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Weather 3 Gangs Employed Clearing away Ground 3 Sawpits at Work for Barracks &c Carpenters occasionally. 6 Men Carrying Thatch 7 Men Assisting Officers & Settlers at their Grounds 4 Men Making Shingles Women & 3 Men Breaking down & gathering Indian Corn — 8 [?] sick — 
Tuesday  16th  East  good Landing.  Moderate Breezes & Very hot Sultry Weather. The people all Employed as Yesterday 14 Lame & Sick 5 Men building a Log house for a Settler 
Wednesday  17th  Do  Do  Do Wr The people all employed as before & getting Timber to the Pitts — One Man Repairing & Caulking the Small Coble 15 Lame & Sick 
Thursday  18th  Do  Do  Do Wr Employed the People All as before four Men Sifting & Cleaning the Wheat The rest as before 
Friday  19th  Do  Do  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Wr people all Employed as before. Got in the last of the Indian Corn — 16 Sick & lame Some showers of rain in the Night 
Saturday  20th  Do  Do  Moderate Breezes & pleasant Weather with some Showers of Rain in the Night The people all Employed working for themselves — 14 Sick & Lame 
Sunday  21  NE  Do  Do Wr at 10 AM. performd Divine Service 
Monday  22nd  NE  good Landing.  6 Men building a house for a Settler in Phillimore's Valley.  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Weather with some showers of rain in the Night 3 Gangs of 6 Men each Clearing away Ground for Cultivation & Sawpits Sawing framing & Scantling for building Barracks Carpenters finishing Lieut Cresswells house. Eight Men Employed getting timber to the pits afterwards harrowing Turnip seed in getting in Indian Corn &c 5 Men Making Shingles & 4 digging a new Sawpit Punished Jno Boyle Convict with 25 lashes for absenting himself from his Work — 10 Sick & lame 
Tuesday  23rd  NE  Do  Do Wr people all Employed as before 2 Men bringing in logs for the Stoccade 2 Men Thrashg out Wheat. 
Wednesday; Thursday  24; 25  NE  Do; A great Sea without  Very Strong Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Weather The People all Employed as before on Thursday Got 2 Ricks of Wheat into the Barn — 8 Sick & Lame 
Friday  26th  NE  good Landing  Strong Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Weather. The people all Employed as before Carpenters finished Lieutt Cresswells house. 18 Sick & lame 
Saturday  27th  Do  A great Sea with[out]  Fresh Gales & Cloudy People all employed working for themselves. 
Sunday  28th  Do  Do  Do Wr with some heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain. at 10 AM. Performed Divine Service 

March 1790

Week day  Mo day  Winds  Landg & Surf  Observations &c.  Transactions on Norfolk Isld Weather &c — 
Monday  1[st]note  East SE SSW WSW  good Landing  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy 3 Gangs of 6 Men each Clearing away 3 Acres of Ground, Eleven, Getting up Roots off 7 Acres of Ground in Arthurs Vale Carpenter fitting up the Stoccade 3 Sawpits Sawing Scantling & framing for the Barracks. 2 Men Thrashing 10 Convicts With Officers & Settlers 4 Overseers four Men finished building a house for one of the Settlers. The rest Sick & em[p]loyed occasionally — 4 Men bringing in Logs for the Stoccade 
Tuesday  2nd  SW  Bad Landing  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Wr The People all Employed as before. Women & three Men Stripping Indian Corn off the Husks. 
Wednesday  3rd  Do  Do  Do Wr with little Wind toward ye Evening. People all employed as before. 
Thursday  4th  Varble  A Great Surf.  Light Wind with Calms. The People all Employed as before The Weather very hot & Sultry. 
Friday  Do  Good Landing  Moderate Breezes & very dark Cloudy Weather with Constant heavy rain Some of the Convicts Employed Stripping Indian Corn off ye Husks. 
Saturday  6th  Do  Do  Light Winds & dark Cloudy Wr with Rain at times Served 111 Quarts of Indian Corn in Lieu of Pease at one Quart per Man. ye Rest in Rice. People workg for thems
Sunday  7th  NE  Do  Strong Gales & Incessant heavy Rain all the day. 
Monday  8th  SW SSW SbE  good Landing  Moderate Gales & Cloudy Weather. 2 Gangs began Clearing away Ground in Arthurs Vale, 2 Do fixing a Shed over a Sawpit Six Men bringing in Logs for a Stockade & four about it 4 Men Making a fowl Yard two Threshing 3 Sawpits Sawing Framing &c for building Barracks. Carpenters Time Not Up — 1 Man taking Care of Stock. With Officers, Gardners &c. — 4 Overseers. Marine & Convict Blacksmith Employed Making hinges for ye bedsteads for the Barracks &c — 3 Making Shingles for the Barracks &c 
Tuesday  9th  ESE  Do  Do Wr The People all Employed as before 
Wednesy  10th  NE  Do  Fresh Gales & dark Cloudy Wr with almost Constant Rain The People all Employed as before — 
Thursday  11th  NE SW  good Landing.  Very heavy Rain during the night at 8 The Wind shifted to SW after which had fresh Gales during the Day at 1 the boat went over to Phillip Isle to fish. at 3 P.M. she returned with only 5 Fish. Carpenter making a hatch for ye 1st floor of the Barn — 
Friday  12th  S.W.  Do  Strong Gales & Cloudy The People all Employed as Yesterday 
Saturday  13th  SW  Very Bad Landing.  Do Wr at day light perceived His Majesties Ship Sirius & Supply armed Tender in the Offing at 10 Received the despatches from Ball Bay & the Sirius & Supply went round to Cascade Bay where the detach[ment] of Marines were landed & Convicts — 
Sunday  14  SE  Bad Landing  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr Sent All the Convicts round to Cascade Bay where a Great part of the Luggage The Detatchment of Marines & most part of the Convicts were landed. at Noon Lieutt Governor Ross Came to the Settlement & requested myself & Lieut Cresswell to Carry on the duty as usual until my departure. 
Monday  15th  ESE  Do  Fresh breezes Sent the Convicts round to Cascade Bay & reced a great part of the Baggage from the Sirius & Supply. had a Survey on the Stores & Provisions remaining in the Settlement. 
Tuesday  16th  NE  good Landing  Strong Gales of Wind & thick Cloudy Wr with almost Constant Rain The Sirius & Supply were seen from Mount Pitt. Off the SE Point, Some distance off at Sea. Jeremiah Leary ran the Gauntlet among the Convicts for theft & was severely punished. 
Wednesday  17th  Do  Do  Very Strong Gales of Wind & dark Cloudy Weather with heavy rains. People Employed Variously the Sirius & Supply working up. the Supply Came into the Roads about 1 oclock; sent the Boats Off & received on shore a part of the Luggage, Stock, & 13 Casks of Provisions. 
Thursdy  18th  Do  Do  Strong Gales of Wind with Exceding heavy Rain all night could not see any Vessell before 4 P.M. when the Supply was in the SW People all Employed occasionally 
Friday  19  ESE; At Noon; SE; South  Very good Landing all the Day  The Ship lies broadside to the Surf which breaks over her Chess tree  noteModerate Gales at daylight made the Signal that Landing was very good & that the large Boats could Land. The Supply in the roads & the Sirius Standing in. Received every thing from the Supply. at Noon the Sirius having twiced missed Stays & being Embayed, struck on the outer part of the Reef — Received a Small Quantity of Provisions from her by the boats, but the Surf being much increased along side her & the Wreck of her Masts having staved some of the Boats, no more Could lay along side. In the Evening The Weather having a very bad appearance & knowing that the Ship would not possibly hold together if the Surf increased more on the Flowing tide which was very likely to happen, I made signsnote for that remaining onboard the Ship was dangerous. Having got some hawsers from the Ship & a Traveller tonote of them. Hauled the Captain & part of the Officers & people on shore & saved their lives with difficulty having dragged them across ye Reef thro' a Very great Surf Most part of the Officers & people remained onboard the Sirius's wreck all night 
Saturday  20th  South  Bad Landing  At daylight perceived that the Sirius had swung on the reef & brought her stern right off —  Strong Gales & Cloudy Employed getting every person out of ye Sirius's Wreck which was finished by 4 oclock in the Afternoon The Master & Boatswain came last a Small Quantity of Beef was received by rafts & a quantity of the Officers & peoples Effects The Ship lies off & on, & ye Midship frame is loosned The provisions are mostly on deck & it is likely that none of it will be lost. at 9 AM. of this day the Lieutt Governor assemblednote all the Commission Officers belonging to the Sirius & Marines, when a number of resolutions were agreed to in order to ensure peace & good order in The Settlement. 
Sunday  21st  SW  A very heavy Surf  Very Strong Gales of Wind & a great Sea Running. The Sirius end on off the Reef, & altho' a very great Surf runs with Violence Yet she does not appear worse than Yesterday when the last of her Company quitted her from which Circumstance It is hoped that every Article of Provisions as well as most of her Effects will be saved. At daylight I accompanied Capt. Hunter to Cascade Bay where we met Lieutt Ball & Capt Hunter Settled the Number of Men to be sent to Port Jackson Convicts Carrying my things to Cascade Bay where they were sent onbd ye Supply & the Sirius's Ships Company Clearing the Wreck of the Main Mast. 
Monday  22nd  SW; WSW; WbN  A very heavy Surf  Fresh Gales & Cloudy at 8 AM. Every person in the Settlement were assembled under the lower Flagg-Staff. where the Union was hoisted. The Troops were drawn up in two lines, leaving the Union at their head in the Center, with the Colours of the detatchment displayed; The Sirius's Ships Company on the right & ye Convicts on the left; the Officers in the Center, When the proclamation was read, declaring the Law Martial, to be that by which the the Island was in future to be governd by, untill further orders. The Lieutt Governor addressed the Convicts, after which the Whole gave three Cheers, & then every person beginning with the Lieut Governor & Capt. Hunter passed under the Union in token of a promise or oath to submit & be amenable to the Law Martial then declared. The Convicts & Sirius's Ships Company were then sent round to Cascade Bay, where a proportion of Flour & pork were received from the Supply & brought round to the Settlement. Several things belonging to myself were also sent onboard the Supply. At 9 in the Morning John Branagan & Wm Dring Convicts having offered to go onboard the Sirius & heave over board the live stock that remained onboard had permission from the Lt Governor & Capt. Hunter. They sent A Number of Pigs &c onshore but neglected coming on shore themselves. At dusk in ye Evening perceived they had a light, & fearing an Accident by fire. Some Volleys of Small Arms were fired but the light not being put out a three pounder shotter was fired at the Ship, which had one Effect. John Ancott a Carpenter offered to go off to the Ship & altho the Surf was very high, he got onboard, & obliged the other two Convicts to quit the Ship, by the Hawser, Ancott remains onbd ye Ship all night 
Tuesday  23rd  Do  good Landing.  Strong Gales. at Day light The Supply working up at Nine Sent the large Coble off with some of my Things & the Officers &c of the Sirius at 10 there being too great a Sea in the Bay she bore up & ran for Cascade Bay at day light The Master of the Sirius & eight Men went onboard by the Hawser. A triangle was erected on the Reef to keep the bight of the Hawser up, which will greatly facilitate the Getting Provisions &c out of the Wreck — Mr H The Master of the Sirius informed Capt. Hunter by a letter, +ye two Convicts had set fire to the Ship which had burnt thro' ye gun deck but was happily Extinguished by the Man that went onboard to send them out. +Jno Brannagan & Wm Dring were taken into Custody, & will be tried for setting fire to ye Wreck 
Wednesday  24th  SSW  Do  Moderate Breezes & pleasant Wr at 8 A.M. I went in the Coble to Cascade Bay where I found the Supply & Embarked onboard her as did Lieutts Fowell & Waterhouse with 22 of the Sirius's Company. at 12 we Saild for Port Jackson When I left Sydney Bay there was every appearance of seeing every thing that remained onboard the Wreck & The provisions will not be damaged as every thing is on the Gun, & upper decks — 

Week days 1790  Mo Days  Winds  Course  Distce  Lattde in  Longde in  Bearing &c —  Transactions & Weather from Norfolk Island to Port Jackson 
Thursday  25th  SWbW; SSW; South  S70° W  9′8  29.35  166.31  Lord Howe Island S70° W 400 Miles  Moderate Breezes a great Swell from the Southward, some part of the 24 hours Calm — saw a great quantity of Tropic Birds round the Vessell I think from ye vast quantitys of these birds which are about the Islands at this time that they have a peculiar Season. In the Spring & summer scarce any are to be seen. 
Friday  26th  South  West  40  29.35  165.46  S70° W 357′  Light winds with calms during most part of the night. The Swell from ye Southward still continues 
Saturday  27th  E.S.E.  S60 W  151′  30.48  162.59  S76° W 200′  At 9 AM came on a gentle breeze at ESE a great Swell from the Southward continues, which is very confused & short. 
Sunday  28th  East  S71W  130  31.27  160.42  N88° W 279′  Moderate Gales & very Pleasant Weather with a very great Sea from the Southward 
Monday  29  ENE  S43° W  45′  32.08  158.30  Port Jackson S74W 370′  Moderate Breezes & Cloudy Wr The Swell is not so great as Yesterday. 
Tuesday  30th  Do  S66°W  67′  32.36  157.03  S75° W 295′  Moderate & hazey Wr with a very great Swell at 11 P.M. saw Lord Howe Island bearing SWbW 10 Leagues. 
Wednesday  31st  NE  S66°W  96  33.01  155.11  S75° W 194  Do Wr at 3 AM Mount Gower NbW 5 or 6 miles passed between Pt King & Balls Pyramid — The Weather very pleasant & smooth water. 
Thursday  1st  NE  S57° W  109  34.00  153.23  N85 W 98′  Very pleasant Weather & smooth Water. The Winds rather light & variable. 

Friday  2nd  SW; NW  S57° W  109  No obs'e  153.23  N85 W 98′  Moderate Breezes & hazey Wr at 6 A.M. saw the land bearing West about 10 Leagues. at Noon the Nort Land bore NbW. ye Hatt Hill NWbW. ye Southery land South & Cape three points SW½W distance from the Nearest Shore about 4 Leagues. 

(The entry opposite is written on a loose strip of paper — perhaps a book mark. Although dated 5th April 1790, we believe it should be placed here. Eds.)

Monday 5th April 1790

This is a record of the return from Norfolk Id to Sydney & describes the measures which had become necessary on the loss of H M S Sirius at Norfolk Id:

Week days  Mo days  Winds  Observations &c 
Saturday  3rd  SSE  Fresh Breezes & Cloudy Weather at 6 P.M. Cape Three points SWbW. & Hatt Hill NW½N In the Night had Squally Weather with heavy Thunder lightning & Rain Working to the Southward for Port Jackson — We find a Strong Current Setting to the Southward. 
Sunday  4th  SE  Fresh Breezes & Squally at day light the Entrance of Port Jackson bore WbS 7 Leagues at 8 oclock bore in Within the heads Worked up the harbour at 9 left the Supply & met the Governor Coming down in his boat. The Astonishment which our unfortunate acc[ount]s Respecting the loss of the Sirius occasioned is fully seen in the Countenance of every one here This Settlement has been at less than half allowance since [*] March — It is really wonderfull that No Vessells have yet arrived 
Monday  5th  West  Moderate & Cloudy Weather. In the Evening all the Military & staff were assembled at the Government house, when his Excellency laid before every one present the Situation of the Colony, respecting the Provisions, which was become necessary from the unfortunate loss of His Majestys Ship Sirius. The Governor pointed out the Great Necessity their was for an immediate Reduction of the Present Rations. Every persons opinion was asked respecting how Robbing Gardens cd be prevented. & what was the best made ye cd be adopted for procuring fish to make a saving of the Salt provisions. when it was determined to Call in all private Boats & to Employ them fishing for the publick that an Officer was to Superintend the Fishery. That the Game keepers were to kill kangaroo for the Publick & that the following Ration shorts commence on ye 12 of this Month. Two pounds & half of flour Two pounds of Pork, & two pounds of Rice for seven Men for one day. at which Ration there will be Pork untill ye 26th August. Rice untill ye 13th Septr & Flour untill ye 19th of December. The Supply is also to be sent to Batavia for Provisions & Her Commander is ordered to take a Ship up to bring a further Supply. I am to go onbd ye above Vessell & to make the best of my way to England with Governor Phillips dispatches — Sailed from Port Jackson ye 17th April — Carried on in The Loggs Private Remarks in this — 

Parts Three And Four New Zealanders' Language and Visit to New Zealand

Elements.  New Zealanders language 
Fire  E-ha-he 
Earth  E'Whenua 
Water  Ewy 
flame of the fire  Emuda 
Summer  Edou-ma te 
Winter  Echo-touké 
North  Emaru-ngi 
South  Ebow-howoodoo 
East  Etonga 
West  Etehu 
To See  Ete-te-do 
To hear  Edongo 
To feel  Edomi-domi 
To Smell  Ehongi 
To Taste  Emeité 
Hi ti-ti-eshownote 
New Moon  Ye te de how 
Full Moon  Epo-po-ne-nu-ee 

this seems confined to the land they live in as They had no idea of any other Country —

I cannot find that they have any other divisions of time than in Calculating by Moons — 100 Moons is an Etow by which means they count their ages & all other events — Tooké exactly ascertains the time that Capt Cook was first in New Zealand, & anchored at or near Ho-do-do where he & his people were a guest of Tookes Father, this he has from his father as he says he was but just born.

Last Quarter of the 
Moon  Ede-deké 
Sun  Eda 
Sun rise  Eputa 
Noon  Ea-wa-tere 
Sunsett  Ea-hi-aie 
Night  Eapo 
Star  Ewhatu 
Rainbownote  Yen neak newanote 
Wind  E Matang æ 
Rain  Ehu-a 
Lightning  Eu-eda 
Thunder  E.wet-e-teda 
Heat  Em-ma-hane 
Cold  Maka-riedé 
[Indistinct]note  Eco-hoo 
Dew  Epo-caca 
A Storm 
To Freeze or Ice  Eco-peué 
To Snow — or Snow  Ewhatu 
Yesterday  In-ā-nhai 
To day  N'agoon ai 
Tomorrow  Apōpō 
Day after to Morrow  Ata-hy ha 
Day after that  Awākā 
the Human Body 
The Head  Yen gang 
Hair  Ha-ho-do-ho-do 
Ear  Eta-dingā 
Forehead  Eda-hin 
Eye  Cano-wá 
Cheek  Pa-pa-reenga 
Nose  E'Eshu 
Beard  Ecou-wy 
Neck  Eka ka 
Arm  Poco-fe[e?][a?] 
Breast  Edai-ee 
Nipple  E oo 
Navel  E'pee to 
Thigh  E Hoo-haa 
Leg  E Wa Wy 
Fingers  E mata kara 
Finger nails  Ecoro-eté 
The Skin  He-ia-daré 
Lips  Ing-oo-too [?] 
Mouth  Ewa-ha 

Etoudi preceeding Eta dinga signifies deaf.

Throat  Ecoro-coro 
Hand  Epāro 
Belly  Ecopû 
Knees  Eture-pona 
Feet  Eda parapa 
Privities of a Man  Eude 
Do of a Woman  Etecki 
Back  Etoo-orā 
Back side  Ecumo 
Bald headed  Pa-ke-da 
To laugh  Ekata 
To Cry or Weep  Etangé 
To Spit  Etoo-ha 
Breath  Eco-wara 
Groan  Ema-my 
Sigh  Esha 
Sneeze  Te zeé ou wanote 

Hiccough  Eco-shou 
Sleep  Emoé 
Fat  Eda-hee 
noteo other term than Great or Small. 
Lean  EEt—As Eat — 
Health  E'ora 
Silk  E'matté, means also dead 
Handsome  Epi — also clean 
Ugly  Ekēno — [also] Dirty 
Belly ach  Em-a-mir, & pain in general. 
Tooth ach  Inni-jow. Eloongha 
Head Ach  E-ōō-dee 
An Itching  Ede-kara-ka 
Love  E-huf-fé 
Hatred  He-de-de 
Fear  Ema-ta-ku 
Joy  Eka-tou 
Anger  no other term than Hatred 
Shame  Eko-ke-pe 
Loathing  Ekow-wa 
An Error or Mistake  Ewara wara 
A Cut  Eko-Cut 
A Blow  Emo-to 
To faint  Ehou-dang-é 
A Man  Ta né — A sounded long — male Child tanu-ette An Infant Eco té-ro Ecoro-wa-ke 
A Woman  Wa-hei.né 
An Old Man  Ecoro Whai [?]acé 
An Old Woman  Edu-a-hené 
A Young Man  E Tam a reké 
A Young Woman  E'Tam a. hene 
Father  Matua Tā né 
Mother  Matua Wāheiné 
Sister  Tua heiné 
[Brother]  Tong-a-ne 
Brother Elder)  Tua Cā né 
Younger)  Teiné 
Twins  Emi yanga 
Children call their Father  Pā Pā 
Do their Mother  Ha tyé 
Husband  )no other distinction 
Wife  ) the Tahne & Waheine 
To Eat  He-haie 
To drink  HE-É nu 
To Walk  Eira 
Run  Eo-mu 
Jump  Edāre 
Swim  Eka-ou 
To follow  no other term than come here — E hi da my 
To Meet  Etu-take 
To Make haste  Ke-ŏorŏ-mi 
To sit down  E-No-ho 
To get up  Ewaka-te-ca 
To Work  Emo-ki 
To touch 
To Shut a Door  Ha kopi 
To Open Do  Eu waki 
To fill  Ede-ding-ee 
To give, or reach  Eomi 
To plant  Ewak-a-tu 
To tye or bind  Edā-fé 
To Untie  Ewa-wetté 
To plúck up  Eo-hoo tee 
To throw away  Emāca 
To look at  Ete-te-do 
To break anything like a plate  E-ko-ré 
break as a Stick  Ewhatte 
To tear  Ehi-yi 

To Cut  E-Ko—Cout 
To find  Ca-ke tera 
To seek to look for  Ing-ha roo This also means Surf 
To Stain or dirty anything  E-ke-no 
To clean  Em-oo-Roo 
To wash  Eo-roo-ee 
To build  E yhay-a 
noteTo pull down is crossed out  note 
To forget where anything is put or layn  E'Waru-Waru  E'War[r*] a - War[r*] a 
To dance  E ha-ka 
To Steal  E-hu-na 
To Drown  Eta-poko 
To Sing  Ewy-attā 
To dream  Ewa [Indistinct, possibly die or dic] 

To tell lyes  Eteka 
To tell truth  Epenó 
to hidenote  E-ka-yá* 
Good  My-ty 
Ill Bad or Wrong  Mack-row-a 
Great  Enué 
Little  Emoro-eite 
Thick  Emāta-to-too-roo 
Thin  Edāa-eda-hi 
High or tall  Edo-aw 
low  Epoto 
Long  )No other meaning 
Short  )than Edo-wa & Epoto 
Wide  Ewa nue 
Narrow  Ewa ete 
Fat  Eda-he 
Lean  Eat — pronounced as Eat 
heavy  Eti ma ha 
Light  Ema-ma 
full  Ede-dingé 
Empty  Ema-dinge 
Hard  Ema-row 
Soft  Ing-now-arey 

Visit to New Zealand

The principal distinctions of People at New Zealand are

Etanga-tedá Eti-Ket-i-ca —  A Chief or Man in great authority 
Etanga-teda-Epodi  A Subaltern Chief or a Chief or a Gentleman 
Etanga-roa  A priest, it seems the authority of the priest is equal, if not greater than the Etanga-teda Eti-Ket-a-ca 
Ta-āne-Emoki  A labouring Man who we are told is under very great Subjection to the Chief. 
Eta-ro-na  To hang ones self 

Suicide is very common among the New Zealanders which act they often Commit on very slight occasions, A Woman being beat by her husband hangs herself without any Ceremony which mode of putting an end to their existence they are perfect adept in — Tooké having given me some reason to be angry with him, I express'd my Anger by looking stern at him, he went out of the house with a determination to hang himself, but he was pursuaded to remain a little longer in this World & soon after laughed at his attempt

Tooké confirms the account of the different tribes living in a Constant state of Warfare but obstinately denies that the Whole of the N. Zealanders are Cannibals & it was not but with much difficulty that we could persuade him to enter on the subject; after having been with us some time he owned that all the Inhabitants on the N & W of Cookes Straits Sound* are Cannibals, also those which inhabit a part of the North point of Ea-hei-no maue, moodee-whenua & all the Inhabitants of the Southern Island Poo-nam-moo. The intermediate part between ye North & South parts of Ea-heino-maue as described in Tookes Chart is thickly inhabited by a peaceable people divided into a number of Tribes who are constantly at War with the people of T'sou-duckey Moodee Whenua & Terry-inga

The dead are buried & according to their Notions, ye third day after interment the Heart seperates itself from the Body, & its escape from the Grave, is announced by a gentle breeze of Wind which warns an inferior Ea tooa which is hovering over the Grave of its approach who receives it & carries it to the Clouds, In his Chart delineated a Road which goes the lengthway of Ea-hein-o-maue viz from Sow ducké to Terry inga. On the Death of any person their evil genius quits their body & is conducted by a Eatooa along this Road to Terry inga from whence it is precipitated into the Sea Ekara Kee ā To pray — Every undertaking whether it is to fish or any other common occupation is preceeded by a prayer addressed to the Supreme Ea Tooa, all Cultivated Grounds are consecrated once in a hundred Moons or one Etow /eight Years/

Tookee points out a very good Fresh Water River on the West side of Ea hein mauie but is not Navigable & by his description of it it must be to the Southward of Gannet Island The River & the district round it is Called Eho-ke-anga. The Etang teda Eti-keta-kay To ko-hā lives on the North side of the River about half way up — he describes the Country to be covered with very large pine Trees & good soil — On this Chart he has delineated Capt. Cooks river Thames, which he calls Wongo-roa His habitation is the South side of a very large River which he calls Ho-do-do & I have no doubt is Doubtless Bay.

A little to the Southward of Ho-do-do lives a powerfull Chief called Te wite-e-wee Who is Chief of the District — he says the Inhabitants of Ho-do-do subject to the following Chiefs is not more than 1000 Men

Principal Chief or Etanga teda Etiketica — Te-wyta-weé Lives to the Southward of Doubtless Bay

2nd  Etanga teda Etiketica ——— Wy-too-a  Lives at the head of the district 
Etang a teda Etiketica ——— Moodee-wye  lives on the North Side of Doubtfull Baynote 
4th  Etanga teda Etiketica ——— Waw-way  lives on the N side of Ds Bay 
5th  Etanga teda Etiketica To-Moco-Moco  lives as above 
6th  Do Do  Pock-a-roo —— lives with Wy tooa — 
7th  Do Do  Tee-koo-reé —— Youngest Son of Te wyte-wee 

Tookee & Woodoo do not inhabit the Same district, Woodoo lives in a district called Teer-ah-wette which is 2 days Journey from Ho-do-do & One Day by Water he describes the Road as very hilly, but the Country very thickly inhabited —

Notwithstanding their being so great a misunderstandg among the difft Tribes yet they have intervals of peace when they are very friendly & visit each other Woodoo & Tookee both agree that the Greatest Quantity of Flax grows in & about Hododo, the People of Teara-witte often fetching it from thence —

A Great many  Emā hā 
A Door  Ewa-te-toka 
Epuki  A Hill 
Etiané  Sand or beach 
Ep oo poo  Hello 
To-ko-hai-ya  How many 
Amoko  The Marks on their face & Bodys 
Ewak-a-teka  Earings 

At 5 P.M. with a Mdt Breeze at West on Tuesday rounded ye North Cape at the Extremity of which we saw a number of Houses & soon after opened a Fortified place or Hippah standing on a hill over the Beach just within ye Cape. 6 Boats were then seen coming to the Ship, They soon Came along side immediatly on Tooke & Woodoo showing them selves & were rejoiced byd discription at meeting with their Countrymen who were not backward in testifying their Joy at so unexpectedly meeting them. the Number of Boats soon encreased to 10 in which were at least 20 men in each most of them came out of their Boats & began a traffic for Iron hoops, axes & knives &c

The Wind was now dying away, at 7 All the Canoes left the Ship, about which had been soon [indistinct] after the Ship came [indistinct] at ¼ past 8 the Master of the Ship through the medium of Tooke & Woodoo purchased their Canoe for [knives?] & Chizzles & 4 Natives who came off in it took up their Quarters abd for the night without the least apprehension. In relating the News of their Country, they gave an account of the T'Souducky Tribe having made an irruption into Woodoos Country & Killed the Son of his Chief Povoreek & 30 Men Warriors, Woodoo burst into a flood of Tears nor could he be consoled or cease Crying the rest of the Night.

Tooke took some pains to find the actual state of the Moodoo Whenua people & his Countrymen from our Guests who very satisfactorily corroborated the information he had received from a Chief which came in the first Canoe, viz. that the Two districts were not only at peace & in Amity with each other but y+ ye Moodee Whenuans had joined the people of Hododo & Wangaroa & Terr-a-witte against the People of T'Souduckey & had lately returned home, also that Tewy-te-wy & Moodi-wy Chiefs of Tookes district, had 3 Weeks ago been on a visit to Ko-to-ko-ke, the Chief of the Hippah, above described where they remained some time Tooke also received the pleasing intelligence that his parents & his Wife & Children were well & also that great grief was expressed by them for his supposed loss. It remaind Calm during the whole of the night & next Morning untill Ten O'clock, at Six a large Canoe with 30 men & a Chief Clad in White & making Signals was seen paddling to the Ship, they soon came along side when Tooke was enquired for & to his great Joy he recognised the Eti-ket-i-ca, Kato-ku-ke or Chief of the Hippah who came onboard & hug our Tooke shedding abundant Tears, Tooke introduced him to me & after going through the Ceremony of Ehonge /joining noses/ he took off his Hoahow & put it on my Shoulders for which I returned him a present of Green Baize, Hoahows, Axes & Chizzles — Soon after 7 Canoes came onboard & the Ship was full of N. Zealanders among whom were four Eti-Kiticas & several Epodis the Whole Number onboard & along side were 150 Most of whom were in general the most muscular & tallest Men I have ever seen, The place where Tooke lives was now 24 Leagues to the Southd of ye place of where the Ship now lay becalmed. This was the fifth day since notehaving been so long on our passage it was necssy* we left N I. & I was anxious to return if my friends could be safely disposed of. I therefore asked Tooke whether the Information he had received [answered?] any apprehension of his being in safety if he landed at M. W,note to which he seemed extreemley averse, giving two principal reasons that those who had given him ye infn were only Epodis, & therefore might be suspected of not tellg ye truth, & that if I did not go to Hododo he should be prevented from sending some tokens of his love & Esteem to his friends on Norfk Id without urging the Matter any further nothing more was said about [it] untill Ko-to-ko-to came onbd when all his doubts vanished & he told me with tears of Joy that he was willing to go with K who had confirmed all he had heard before who had promised to take them to Ho do do the next Morning. with all his & Woodoos things which Consisted of 2 Bags containing Six Shifts of Linnen & 2 Suits of Green faced with Orange, 3 Swords Needles thread, Knives, lookg Glasses & many other necessary articles — the other contained 30 hand axes 46 Chissels 2 Carpenters Axes 4 Spades 1 Hand Saw 1 Piece of Green Baize, & another of blue and several other articles which I got from the Master of the Ship I also gave them of Wheat, Maize, & Pease, a Bushell of each besides a Quantity of Garden Seeds I also gave them Three Boars & Seven Sows, Unfortunately The three Goats which were the only articles of Stock brought from Norfolk Island all died the day before Tooke & Woodoo was landed having eat a quantity of a bark off some Spars — it was my intention to have given them some fowles & Ducks but as they would not be landed at the place where they lived, I deferred giving them any more Stock untill I might visit them again at their dwelling, which reason prevented my giving them many other articles which I had brought for them such as Frock Trowsers, Jackets Hats &c — this was the fifth day we had been from N Id owing to Light winds Tookes Residence was at least 24 Leagues further to the Southward of where the Ship lay, it was now a dead Calm & has the appearance of continuing so, if the Wind had enabled us to pass near tonote the Bay of Ids /near which T. lives/ in 3 days I should have gone with them & landed but as that was not the Case I did not consider my self Justifiable in detaining the Ship longer than was absolutely necessary to land Our two friends or put them into safe hands. Tookee has often told me that Notwithstanding the difft tribes being Occasionally at War with each other. yet they are for a length of time very good friends, & such had been the Case with the people of Hododo & Moodee Whenua for upwards of 30 Moons, When our Seperation came to this point, I felt much anxiety for the fate of our friends & expressed my doubts that this tale of K & his people might be an incentive to get them into his power & that they might not only be robbed of their [effects] I had given them but might also be killed, & added that if it should continue Calm or the wind come from the Southd /which would occasion a great loss of time & be the means of the Ship being long detained from pursuing her voyage to Bengali/ that I would much rather take them back again & wait for another opportunity than put them into the hands of those who could injure them & take their property, To this Tooke answered that an Eti Ketica never told a lye or deceived & that they were ready & wished to go, I took the Old Chief & another with Tookee & Woodoo into the Cabbin, When I explained to him with the help of T how much I was interested in my friends getting safe home & showed him a present I had made up for him consisting of Axes & other Carpenters Tools (which was to him an invaluable present) I told him that I should most Certainly return in 2 Moons & go immediately to Ho where if I found T was safely arrived with his effects I should then return to Moodee Whenua & make him & his tribe some very considerable presents which I enumerated I thought it unnecessary to threaten any punishment for failing in his engagements & which the parting of T & W rendered still more needless. The only answer the Old Man made me was by joining his Nose to mine & putting both hands to the Sides of [my] head, making me do the same to his, in which situation we remained near five minutes, after which he embraced tooke & Woodoo seperately for a much longer time & shedding tears of real Affection & Joy. I then repeated my former doubts to T & W & made the same offer of taking them back again but they repeated with an honest Confidence what they had before said that an Etiketica never deceived & they now considered him as their father. Whilst I was busied in getting what things I meant to send with them ready /which fell very short of what I should have given them had we been able to reach Ho-do-do/ Tooke who is a priest had made a campnote circle in the Center of which was [the Old Chief] & in a Summary way was telling them what he had seen

Part Five Letter to Under Secretary Nepean

Draft of Letter to Under Secretary Nepean. November 1793?

To my publick Letter respecting my trip to N.Zealand

My to refer you for every circumstance attending it & I hope my proceedings in that business will be approved of & I am confident much good & publick utility would result to Great Britain & Her Colonies if a Settlement was made at the Bay of Islands or the River Thames however I have given you my sentiments on this in my preceding Letters, to which I must refer you, with this addition that since I went there I am more confirmed in my ideas of its apparent utility. In my publick Letter to Mr Dundass I have supported a circumstance respecting my leaving the Command of the Id during my absence with your Brothernote When I resolved upon going: I issued the General order a Copy of which is in my Enclosures to Mr Dundass, Mr Abbot came to me in the most improper Manner & before the Dy Survey ornote he positively & unequivocally /in his own name & that of ye other Subs/refused obeying the order. in one respect, I endeavoured to point out what I thought the Consequences of such behaviour might be but that only served to make him more irritable & obstinate in continuing his vowed intention of totally disobeying the order, which he doubted whether Capt Nepean would obey or not. On my sending for Capt N[epean] on my putting ye Question to him said he considered himself as an Officer liable to be called into Service in these Colonies on any Emergency & that he considered it his duty to obey any legal order which he might receive from a Superior Officer for the good of the Kings Service — Mr A did not now think proper to continue his declaration of disobeying the order but said that he should consider further about it & left me & intended to Embark early the next Morng it was now 6 oclock in the Evening & he did not think proper to obey the order by untill 7 Oclock the next Morng when he told me that he should not retard the service by continuing this Disobedience, but that he should represent the Oppres[s]ion he laboured under, as this is the substance of this business I must leave you to make your Comments on it. A current account of thatnote Officers Conduct I shall by the first opportunity lay before Major Grose, & if it appears to Major Grose that I made any improper use of My Authority I shall then lay before him the following reasons /which/ independant of the necessity I found my self under to leave a Sufft Number of Officers to form a Court Marshal.) in my opinion militated against my leaving Lt Abbot in charge of ye Govt during My Absence, That Officer had some 6 Months ago, engaged some private Soldiers to pick a Quarrell with a Settler in order to beat him, which the Settler having notice of had collected other Settlers to repel force by force, but fortunately for the peace & Tranquility of this Id the Soldiers did not put it in Execution this came before me as a complaint That officer has also been guilty of a Neglect of Duty in not laying before me, a Complaint made to him by the Jr. Officer in Command at Phillip[s]burgh respecting unfair proceedings in the issuing of provisions, the Next Subt Officer in Command to Lieutt Abbot is a perfect drunkard & by no means fit to succeed to the Charge of the Id in case of accidents happening to Lt Abbot. had I been inclined to leave the Govt with him.

Lt-Governor King to Under Secretary Nepean

As published in Historical Records of New Zealand. Vol. 1 pp. 179–181.

Dear Sir,—

Norfolk Island, 19th November, 1793.

To my publick letter respecting my trip to New Zealand I must refer you for every circumstance attending it, and I hope to hear that my proceedings on that business will be approved of. I am confident much publick good would result to the commerce of Great Britain and these colonies if a settlement was made at the Bay of Islands or the river Thames. To my letters I must refer you for my ideas on that subject. Since my return from that country I am more confirmed in its apparent utility. Weavers and rope-makers should be sent out with their proper implements, as it will answer much better to send the flax manufactured than in the raw state. If the plants get safe home, I think too much attention cannot be paid to the cultivation of it, as it will grow most luxuriantly in situations where scarce anything else will vegetate. I have sent a box with some very fine plants to Sir Joseph. I now come to the point which I intended this letter for. In my publick letter to Mr. Dundass respecting my going to New Zealand I have suppressed a circumstance respecting my leaving the command of the island to your brother during my ten days' absence. For my reason I must refer you to the above letter. When I had resolved on going, I issued the General Order which is an enclosure in No. 2. Mr. Abbot, who is the senior of the three subalterns, came to me, and in the most contemptuous, and I may also say mutinous, manner (in the presence of the Deputy Surveyor), and positively and unequivocally (in his own name and that of the other subs.), refused obeying the order in any one respect. I endeav'd to point out what I thought the consequences of such behaviour might be, but that only seemed to make him more irritable and obstinate in continuing his avowed intention of disobeying the order in toto, which he doubted if Capt. N. would obey or not. On my sending for your brother, on putting the question to him and stating Mr. Abbot's conduct (which he avowed before Capt. N.), he answered that he considered himself as an officer liable to be called into service in these colonies on any emergency, and that he considered it his duty, as a capt. belonging the the N.S.W. Corps and in full pay, to obey any legal order which he might receive from a superior for the good of the King's service. After Mr. Abbot had for some time endeavoured to persuade Capt. N. that he was totally incompetent to take the command, and that I had grievously oppressed him (Lt. Abbot) in thinking of such a thing, I cut the matter short by telling Lt. A. that as Capt. Nepean thought it his duty to obey my orders he might do as he chose, on which he left me, saying he should consider more about it. It was now seven o'clock in the evening, and I intended to embark early next morning. The next morning, at seven o'clock, Lieut. Abbot came to me and said that he should not retard the service by continuing a disobedience to the order, but that he should represent the oppression he laboured under. At nine o'clock, my commission, with my order to Capt. N., was read, and I embarked, and neither at my embarking or landing did any one of those officers attend me. After my return Lieut. Abbot sent Ensign Piper to me to ask whether I meant to write home respecting what had taken place previous to my embarking, because if I did he would make a representation to ye Sec'y at War. I declined giving that officer any information on that head. Soon after I received a letter from Ensign Piper denying that he had ever given Lieut. Abbot the least reason to make use of his name (in refusing to obey the order), as Lieut. Abbot had not even spoken to him on the business previous to his (Lt. A.) coming to me and making use of both the officers' names. The other sub'n was so much intoxicated with liquor that he was incapable of giving any opinion. Mr. Abbot thought proper to wait upon me, and before the D'y Surveyor he acknowledged that neither of the officers gave him permission to make use of their names, and that he had never consulted them previous to his making me that declaration, but that they since were and continued of his opinion. As this is the substance of this business, I must leave you to make your comments on it. Independent of the necessity I found myself under to leave a suff't number of officers to form court-martials, I had another reason which, in my opinion, militated against my leaving Lieut. Abbot in command here. Six months ago that officer engaged some soldiers to pick a quarrel with a settler in order to beat him, which the settler having notice of had collected other settlers to repel force by force, but, fortunately for the peace and tranquility of this island, the soldiers did not carry their plan into execution. This came before me as a complaint. This was one reason which I had not to give the command to Lt. A. Another reason was that the officer next to him is a beastly drunkard, and by no means fit to succeed Lt. Abbot in case of death, had I been inclined to leave the government with ye latter. I find some kind of representation is sent by Lt. A. to the Secretary at War. I do not wish to injure Mr. A., although I have great reason and provocation. I have therefore suppressed making any mention of this transaction in my publick letters, leaving it to you to make what use of this you may think proper. If N.Z. should be seriously thought on, would it not be advisable for some person to examine the country before any people are sent there? I should have no objection to performing that service, which might be completed in two months on sailing from hence.

By your brother I have sent you a box of N.Z'd curiosities, which you will dispose of as you may think proper.

  I am, &c.,


1792 — English Prices according to Capt Raven

Flour  15/6 p[er] 112 
Barley  14/6 Do 
Wheat  6/ p[er] Bushell 
Malt  5/6 Do 
£ s 
Beef  3.14 a Tierce Prime Meat 
£ s 
Pork  2.19 a Barrell 200Cwt 
Brandy  2/10 p[er] Gallon — Engd 
Best Vinegar  1/6 p[er] Gallon 
2nd Do  1/2 p[er] Gallon 
[£ s] 
White Lead  2–2 p[er] Cwt 
Kegs of Tripe  8/6 a Keg 
Herrings  14/ a Keg 
Hams  /9 p[er] lb 
Genoa Oyl  7/2 Gallon 
Tongues  3/ a piece 
[£ s] 
Mustard  1. 1 p[er] Dozen 
[£ s] 
Old Cheese best sort  2:16 p[er] Cwt 
Candles Common  8/8 p[er] Dozen lb without draw 
Molds  9/8 Do back 
[£ s] 
Soap  2–12 p[er] Cwt 
Hyson Tea good  6/6 p[er] lb 
Congo[u]  4 [/-] —— 
[£ s] 
Loaf Sugar  6.4 p[er] Cwt Drawback off 
Rum  4/9 now 6s p[er] Gallon 1793 
Red Port  19/6 p[er] Dozn [word indistinct] 

£ s 
Porter  2.16 a [word indistinct] Drawback off 
Canvas — No 1/2 p[er] Yd 
) 2.6d Yd drawback off 
Canvas — No 11½d Do 

Recipe for Curing Hams — [Capt.] Raven

Cut the Meat up hot — then dip the Ham into Boilg Water, then put it into a Strong Pickle, then head it up in a Cask & bury it under Ground

Sherry  42 — — p[er] Butt 
Fresh Beef  1 — 8 p[er] Cwt 
Victualling 22 people at 1 a day — 
for  Days 
Six Sows & four Boars  2/16 ea — 
Three Goats —  £9 — — 
3 dozn Knives —  2 dozn lookg Glasses 
3 dozn Scissors —  1 Dozn Razors 

Gave ye Govt to Nepean ½ past ye Friday morng Nov 8th embarked with Nepean S.C. 2 N.C & 12 P & 1 C. saluted 11 Guns made sail at 4 Oclock Wind North — Saturday Light winds NW-S Calm Weather

NOTE: Some of King's notes of his visit to New Zealand appear to have been entered upside down on the page. The above entry is inverted in the last page of the Journal. The entries on the facing page (p.379) are written on the inside back cover.

brought with me

Pt Ross — Rocky Point & one Pine point bears NNW½N of each other— PGK 7/110

Bark for tanning or rope Ungeria  Apl 1/89 — 
1st Celebrate H Majs Birth day  June 4/89. 
Jones the first Convict become ) 
free took the farm near ) 
Cascade — — — — — — — — —)  June 26/89note 
Webb seaman of ye Sirius settld 
in Cascade — — — — — — — —  Nov 15/89 
PGK embarked. superseded by 
Lt. Govr Ross — — — — — — —  Mar 24/90 

no previous