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Part One From England to Norfolk Island: 4th February 1787–7th March 1788

PGK 1786

Sailed from Spithead 14 May 1787.

Landed Norfolk Id 5 March 1788

Settled at Sydney Cove 26 Jany 1788

Remarks & Journal kept on the Expedition to form a Colony in His Majestys Territory of New South Wales Under the Command of His Excellency Arthur Phillip Esqr His Majestys Governor & Captain General of ye said Territory & its dependancies Kept by Lieutenant Philip Gidley King Second Lieutenant of His Majesty's Ship Sirius. Employed on ye above Expedition

As I write this Journal for my own satisfaction, I do beg & request, that, into whatever hands it may fall, (in case of any accidents happening to me) To give or forward it into the hands of His Excellency Governor Phillip, or in case of his demise, to Lieut. William Dawes of the Marines, who I instruct to destroy it; if any of the materials can be of service to the latter he is perfectly welcome to them —

   Philip Gidley King

His Majestys Ship Sirius of 20 Guns 612 Tons & 160 Men for which Ship I received my Commission as second Lieutenant, was commissioned ye 24th of October 1786 & ordered to be fitted out with the greatest despatch, as it was presumed that she would proceed on ye Service for which she was destined, early in December, Captain Arthur Phillip was appointed to the chief command of her as 1st Captain & Capt Jno Hunter was promoted from Master & Commander to ye Rank of Post Captain, by an order of His Majesty in Council & acted as second Captain. The first Captain who has likewise a Commission under ye Great Seal of Great Britain as Captain General & Governor of His Majesties Territory of New South Wales; (extending from ye 44th degree of South Lattitude to the 10 Degree of South Lattitude & from ye 135° of East Longitude to Ed. The Islands thereon dependant),1 he is supposed at all times to command ye Ship & when he thinks it expedient for the publick service is at liberty to embark onboard her. The other officers & names are expressed in the beginning.2 The construction of a Kings Ship not being deemed proper for this Service the Berwick Store Ship was pitched on by the Admiralty & her name changed to the Sirius, so called from the bright star in ye Southern constellation of the Great Dog. She had been purchased on the Stocks by Government in 1781 & was sent once to America as a Storeship during ye War & once after the peace to ye Wt Indies since which time she had lay'n in ordinary at Deptford, till named for this Service, when she was taken in to dock & as the Yard people said, thoroughly overhauld, however we have frequently had reason to think otherwise, in the course of our Voyage — The Supply armed Tender of 170 Tons 8 Guns & 50 Men commanded by Lieutenant H.L. Ball; was formerly a Navy Transport — her size is much too small for so long a voyage which added to her not being able to carry any quantity of Provisions & her sailing very ill renders her a very improper Vessell for this Service. The Transports taken up for ye Service are as follows, — as well as their Complements of Seamen Marines & Convicts embarked on board them at the time of our leaving England —

Alexander, 452 Tons 30 Seamen 35 Marines 194 Convicts

Lady Penrhyn, 333 Tons 30 Seamen 3 Officers of Ms 101 Female Do Convicts

Charlotte, 335 Tons 30 Seamen 42 Marines, 86 Male & 20 Female Scarboro, 430 Tons 30 Seamen 44 Marines 205 Male Convicts

Friendship 274 Tons 25 Seamen 40 Marines 76 Male & 21 Female Do Prince of Wales, 350 Tons [*] Seamen 29 Mars 2 Male & 47 female Cons Fishburn, Victualler, & Agents Ship of 378 Tons 22 Men Golden Grove, Do 335 Tons 22 Men Barradale, Do 275 Tons 22 Men

The terms of the Contract with the owners of the above Ships are 10 Shillings per Ton per month till their arrival at Deptford, except the Lady Penrhyn, Charlotte, & Scarboro which ships are no longer in the Service, when they are cleared of their Cargos in Botany Bay & from that time their contract ceases with Government & they begin a new one with the East India Company on whose account they go to China for a Cargo of tea to carry to England. Lieutenant Shortland of the Navy has the Appointment of Agent of Transports & is to return to England with the other three Transports & ye three Storeships, the instant, the Governor has no further occassion for them — The transports are fitted up for the Convicts the same as for carrying troops; Except the security, which consists of very strong & thick Bulkheads, filled with nails & run across from side to side in ye tween decks3 abaft the Mainmast with loop holes to fire between decks in case of irregularities, The hatches are well secured down by cross bars, bolts & locks & are likewise nailed down from deck to deck with oak stanchions. There is also a barricadoe of plank about 3 Feet high, armed with pointed prongs of Iron on the upper deck, abaft the Mainmast, to prevent any connection between the Marines & Ships Company, with the Convicts. Centinels are placed at the different Hatchways & a guard always under arms on the Quarter deck of each Transport in order to prevent any improper behaviour of the Convicts, as well as to guard agt any surprize. Each Transport has onboard a Certain quantity of each kind of Utensils proper for agriculture, as well as a distribution of other stores for the use of the Colony, so distributed that an accident happning to one Ship would not have those disagreeable consequences, which must be the case, if ye whole of one Species of Stores was onboard each Ship. The Victuallers are loaded with two years provisions of all species for the Marines, Convicts &c for two Years from the time of their landing in New South Wales — The Sirius and Supply tender dropped from Deptford to Longreach ye 10th of December & lay there till the 30th January waiting for the Alexander & Lady Penrhyn who were taking in their Convicts at Gallions, we anchored in the Downs ye 4th of February with the above two Transports & Supply tender, & were detained there till ye 19 by very heavy Gales of Wind at S.W. On the 20th We weighed with the Wind at N.E. & came to anchor on the Motherbank ye 22nd where we found the three Victuallers Scarborough & Prince of Wales Transports. The convicts were all embarked on ye 6th of March & ye Charlotte and Friendship from Plymo with Convicts joined us soon after, It was not till ye 11th of May that the Governor joined us he having been detained in Town untill the Ministry had arranged & fixed the different orders settling a number of things so incident to ye great voyage we are about to undertake. On ye 12 The Ships Company was paid their two Months advance, & on the same day we were joined by His Majesties Ship Hyena.4 Captain De-courcy who was ordered to proceed with us as far as Capt. Phillip might judge proper. A disagreement now took place between the Seamen of the Transports & Victuallers, with the Masters of them, in which I think the Seamen had a little reason on their Side. They had been in employ upwards of seven Months, during which time they had received no pay except their River pay & one Months advance. The great length of the Voyage rendered it necessary that they should have more Mony, to furnish themselves with such necessarys as were really indispensable. But it became the Masters interest to withold their pay from them, that they might be obliged to purchase those necessarys from them on ye course of the Voyage at a very exorbitant rate; However our sailing, obliged some of them to return to their Duty, others compromised with the Masters, & ye Fisburn lost 5 Men which never returned — The 14th at day break we weighed & ran thro' the Needles & by Noon got a good Offing with the Wind at E.S.E. May 15 at Noon we took our departure from ye Start, bearing N.E.b.E. 8 Leagues, had the Wind then at S.W. but in the Evening it shifted round to ye S.E. & ye next day to West where it continued till ye 21st when we parted Company with the Hyena returning the usual salute of three Cheers — by her we sent our letters to dry land — From the 21st of May till the 26th had variable winds from S.W. to S.E. with very fine Weather. The Thermometer since we left England has not been lower than 60° or higher than 64°. Variation ye 26th by a mean of eight azimuths & one Amplitude 20°.30′ Wt. May 30th saw ye Deserters bearing No 74° W. distant 5 Leagues By an altitude which Mr. Dawes took soon after we made ye Land & on deducing the true time of the time keeper from ye time at the Ship we find the Longitude of ye Eastermost Deserter to be [*] & by the requisite Tables the Longitude is [*]. In coming from ye NE, the Islands or rocks called the Deserters are very high & may be at first mistaken for Porto Sancto. May 30th at noon I take my departure from ye Lattitude observed 32°.18′ N & Longitude by the Time Keeper 16°.29′ W. The Eastermost Deserter then bearing No 17° W distance 4 Leagues.

The 30th & 31st had ye Wind from W.N.W. to S.W. with Calms at noon of ye 31st June5 being then in Lattitude 30°.47′ N and Longitude [*] Wt per Time Keeper, the Supply was ordered ahead to make ye Land & at ½ past 3 P.M. she made the signal of having discovered it. By our Run from the Deserters, as well as our observations of to day & Yesterday, We find the exact Lattitude of the Salvages to be 30°.13′ No. In most tables of Lattitude & Longitudes they are laid down in 30°.00′ which is undoubtedly a Mistake. by a private journal of Capt. Cookes he takes notice of the same error, Their Longitude by the Time Keeper is 15°.56′ Wt. Took our departure from ye Grand Salvage at 4 AM. bearing NW½W distant 5 Leagues had ye Wind at S.W. in which quarter it continued veering to ye Westward till ye 3rd at night when it shifted round to North & N.N.W. at Day light in ye Morning saw ye Island of Teneriffe bearing SWbW 15 Leagues. having very thick weather we could not distinguish ye peak or even the form of ye Land, the Eastern point is very high & bluff off which lye 4 high Rocks. We rounded this point Steering S.W. The Distance from this point to the Town & Road of Sta Cruz is about 4 Leagues.

This side of ye Island, as well as ye others, does not give a flattering idea of a fruitfull & plentifull Island which it is in reality; altho the prospect of it from ye Sea, is no more than a heap of Rocks piled the one on the other; & cut into very deep ridges without the least appearance of any kind of verdure. At 7 o'clock came to an anchor & moored Ship off the NE end of ye Town of Sta Cruz which has a good appearance from ye Road. It is needless to try for soundings till you are within 1 mile of ye Shore when you have 80.F. soft mud the bank goes up steep & very near the shore there is not less than 7.F. We anchored in 15 F & moored Ship a Cable each way the proper way of mooring here is No & So. on account of the violent winds which often blow at NE & S.W. When moored ye Eastermost part of ye bay or Le Rocquet bore N 78° E. The Fort to the Southward of the Town S 45° W & ye Church of St Francisco S 73° W. distance off Shore about ½ a mile. It is necessary to have ye Cables floated With Corks to prevent their being nibbed by the quantity of Ballast which is hove out here by ye Spanish Merchant men. this is a precaution not to be neglected. The Bay is open from E.N.E. to S.W. The anchorage good there are two Rocks in ye Bay the smallest lyes in 7 F close in with the Eastermost fort & has 14 feet water on it. the other bears SSE from ye Pier head & has 50 F. water on it, both of them are very small. a very good stone pier is run out for boats, where the water is conducted down, that Ships fill their Water cask in their own boats — The next Morning June 4th I went on shore to announce Governor Phillips visit, with the officers of the Ship & Garrison to the Governor; at the same time to apologize for not saluting the Fort on account of our being so much lumbered with Cask &c on ye Gundeck. The Spanish Governor (the Marquis of Brance forte) returned the visit onboard the Sirius the next day accompanied by six of his principal Officers. His aid-du-camp came onboard just after with an invitation from His Excellency, to Governor Phillip requesting the pleasure of His Company & twelve of his officers to dine with him the following day. The Governor accepted the invitation & went accompanied by twelve officers amongst which number I was one. We were received & entertained with that Liberality & Elegance for which the Spaniards are so much distinguished. The Marquis de Brance forte (from whom we received the greatest attention & politeness during our Stay at this place) has resided here five Years as Governor of the Canaries, altho' the Seat of Government is at ye Grand Canarie where the Bishop resides as well as all ye Gens de droit. I believe the Inhabitants of this Island (Teneriffe) will meet a severe loss whenever he is recalled as Thousands daily experience his unbounded liberality & humanity. Amongst a number of publick spirited actions which has marked the whole of his Government is one which (ought to be made known to Europe at large,) & which does great honor to the head & heart of this estimable Nobleman. On the Day we dined with His Excellency after having taken our leave of him, we were carried by an English Merchant to see an institution formed at ye Expence of the Marquis. On arriving at ye Building which has been erected6 for the purpose, we found a number of Men Women & Children at work some weaving, knitting sewing & divers other employments, within this building (which serves as one side of a Quadrangle open at each corner) was another building in which he has established a Manufactory of coarse linnens & woollens, Ribbans Tape &c which is performed by Children & Women from seven Years old to eighty, they are selected from among the poorest people on the Island; in short every female who is left an Orphan, or who is distressed, has only to present themselves, in order to partake of the humane benevolence of the founder. When we were there, The Number of the females were 120, from 7 Years old to 20; & 60 from 20 to 90. The sale of their work, maintains them, & ye surplus goes to a fund for portioning off those that has been there 7 Years, from ye age of 12; & to provide for those whose age &c may exclude from ye addresses of a suitable husband. The Town of Sta Cruz has a good appearance from ye road, The streets are wide but ill paved, there are some good houses here, which are augmenting daily, as this is ye center of ye commerce of all the Islands, with Spain & ye Carracao. There are two convents of Men. one Franciscans & ye other dominicans, both of which are poor, altho' their churches are elegantly decorated & are not wanting in a certain degree of Catholic beauty in their construction. During our short stay here, We made a party to visit Laguna & ye Country of which we had not formed a very favorable idea from ye appearance of the Island. Having provided ourselves with Horses, Mules, & asses each accompaned by his conductor. we sett of from Sta Cruz about eight in the Morning being fourteen in all, besides our numerous attendants, whose principal business it was to accelerate ye nature of the Cavalry, by means of long staffs pointed with Iron, & with which they also leaped with surprizing agility from rock to rock. The Road for the first Mile was very uneven with large loose stones & the country on both sides had very little appearance of cultivation. We soon passed a small redoubt erected on ye summit of the first hills which we were informed by an English Merchant who was with us was erected in the last War, intended for ye Garrison of Sta Cruz to retire to, in case of its being taken: However ye Spaniards might have saved themselves that trouble as a trench thrown across defended by 50 Men would stop the incursion of an enemy however formidable he might be. The scene was now changed & instead of barren burnt rocks the eye was agreably diverted by corn fields, Vineyards &c & the sourrounding hills covered with Thickwood. from the Fort, to Laguna, the distance is about 8 miles, thro' a very pleasant picturesque country, the beauties of which were much heightned by the harvest which they were at this time getting in. The City of Laguna stands in the centre of a large plain, bounded by very high Hills. The Streets are wide & well paved & the Houses are also very well built many of which have the air of hotels. with porte cocheres. The plain on which the Town stands was formerly a Marsh, but was drained, altho' not sufficiently to exclude very obnoxious damps & Fogs particularly in the Winter which renders this a very unwholesome place, and it is principally on this account that the Inhabitants are taking up their residence at Sta Cruz. From Laguna we went to the Summit of the Steep hills which surround ye plain on which the City stands. had it not been for the excessive heat we should have found our excursion exceeding pleasant. On one of these Hills we found a small plain, which is called ye plain of ye Wanches or original inhabitants of this Island; a number of large flat stones, were dispersed about, which had much the appearance of an Altar ruo loqual y cifircas na suneo7 a little distant from this plain on the side of a hill, we found the spring of water (which is walled round) which conducted thro' Wooden Trunks convey the water to Laguna & Sta Cruz. We returned down ye Hill about half way when we halted at a small chappel, where we found our provision Mule, waiting for us: from hence we had a fine coup d'oeil of Laguna on ye plain below us, & the Hills on both sides, & in front, covered with a beautifull Wood, tended to render our repast one of the pleasantest & most agreable I ever made. Nor did we forget our friends in Old England; whose healths we addressed with drinking, in some Porter which we had carried with us. at 6 in ye Evening we remounted our Cavalry & returned to Sta Cruz being much amuzed on ye Road with the singing & mirth of our Sunburnt guides. I could not learn that there is any remains of the ancient inhabitants Except their name. Soon after the Earthquake which was felt here severely in 1736 several Corpses were discovered in the interior Mountains in as perfect a state as the Egyptian Mummies The Method they had apparently taken, was by embowelling the bodys & sowing them in four different Skins of animals, so tight as to exclude ye air: they were then buried six feet deep, where they must have lain some hundred Years. The only fruit which was in season at this time were figs & Mulberries. Pumkins & Onions are in great plenty, poultry dear. Beef with which the Ships Companies, Marines & Convicts were supplied with daily, was very poor the Market price of which was 2½d per lb. Wine is very Plenty at all times of ye Year, tho of Different prices there is but one kind of Wine which assumes different names & prices according to the number of times it is rack'd off & its age.8 the Contract price of ye Wine whilst we were here was 22d per Gallon. On ye 8th June two days before our departure from this place Joseph Powers one of ye Convicts onboard The Alexander, was was permitted to work as a Seaman, found means to put a boat from ye Stern During the night, he was missed about four hours after his evasion & was found among some rocks where ye boat had drifted. We found that he had offered himself onboard a Dutch Indiaman which lay astern of ye Alexr but was refused — By several equal Altitudes of ye Sun we find the Longitude of Sta Cruz bay to be 16°.17′.30″ West of Greenwich & ye Variation.

The Transports & co. having compleated their Water &c on ye 10th We made ye Sigl for every Person of ye Fleet to repair onboard their respective Ships & unmoored; And ye next Morning we weighed with a light air at NNW which lasted just long enough to give us an offing when it fell calm with light airs from ye SW. nor did we clear the Island before the 13th when we got the N.E. Trade. from that day to the 18th we steered SW½S when being in Lattitude 18°.44′ S° Longitude per T.Keeper 22°.17′ Wt. We steered S.S.W. at 3 P.M. & at 9 AM Saw ye Island of Sal Bearing NWbW¼W about 3 Leagues. The True Lattitude of ye South End of ye Isle of Sal By a Meridian observation is 16°.51′ N° Longitude by the Time keeper 22°.51′ W in passing this Island we had Strong Gales & hazey Wr which is the General Weather among the Cape de Verde Steering S½E from Sal from which place we took our Departure at 11 A.M. we made ye Island of Bonavista at 2 P.M. on ye 19th. In rounding the Island which we did within 2 or 3 Leagues we had a good view of ye Reef which lyes off ye NE end it bears from [*] to [*] in length & is about two miles long, & spits off about 2 Miles. The Sea breaks very high on it — I think Ships in making these Islands should always endeavor to make Sal. from whence a South Course will carry them well without the Ledge of Bonavista, & in sight of it. We ran that night (ye 19th) SWBS. till 12 when we made ye Sigl & brought too with our head to the Eastward till day light when we saw ye Isle of May bearing NWbW 4 Miles. at Noon ye East end of St Jago bore W.S.W. 2 Leagues. Ships bound into Port Praya may run close along ye Isle of May & steer over from thence West by Compass which will fetch about 2 Leagues to the NE of ye Port. If ye NE Trade blows fresh it will be best to keep close in with the Island till the Reef which lyes off ye Western point of Praya Bay opens, (which may be further known by the Isle of Quails which lye within it.) then luff close round ye Eastern point when the port & Flagg will open bring it to bear NW½N the East point E½S & ye West Point SWbW with which bearings you will have 7.F. Mud & Clay Those remarks I made when here in the Europe of 1783. At ½ past 12 Opned ye reef of ye Western point of ye Bay & had at that time a very fresh breeze at NBE but in hauling round ye Eastern point we were taken aback with the Wind at SW & soon after it fell quite calm with partial catspaws. We observed that the Wind blew right in, by a Portugueze Brig Riding in the Roads as well as by the Flagg — The convoy came about us in a cluster & were likewise becalm'd A great Swell was running & had we persevered in endeavouring to get in I make no doubt but one of ye Vessells might have been disabled by carrying away a Boltsprit or some such accident which would have been a severe stroke to us as it was impossible to replace any thing of that kind at this or any of the Cape de Verde. many of the Transports were not more than ½ a mile from ye Reef. There was no regular wind in the Bay, nothing but Catspaws & calms; The bay not being above 1½ mile over from ye East point to ye Reefs & a great swell it was more than probable that some of the Ships might foul each other. Therefore however anxiously it might have been wished for, by many of us, Capt. Phillip in my opinion judged proper in ordering the Convoy to get an offing as soon as possible, which was rendered a long task from ye Calms & cats paws with which we were surrounded; however at 2 P.M. we got into ye true Wind & proceeded on our Voyage. Ships never anchor at Port Praya during the Autumnal months but this is rather early to have ye S.E. Wind here, which we think must be rather uncommon. On ye 21st ye day after we left St Jago observed a boat passing from ye Alexander to another of the Transports. we made her signal & reprimanded ye Master for suffering visits at Sea which is a Custom that ought to be put a stop to, as it has been prooved to be of a most dangerous & sometimes fatal Tendancy without considering how much it retards a Voyage. We kept the N.E. Trade, steering South, till the 24th of this month (June). then being in Lattitude 9°.02′ N Longd per Timekeeper [*] Wt from this day to ye 7th July had ye Wind in the SW Quarter seldom varying two points attended with frequent squalls of very heavy rain, Thunder & Lightning. Our run between those dates were seldom more than 45′ a day & we generally found the observation 12, 16 or 18 miles to ye Northward of ye Reckoning each day & once 26 Miles; We also found by ye Lunar observations & Time Keeper that the ship had been sett in a like proportion to ye Eastward. On ye 7th of July when we got the SE Trade we were then 4 degrees to ye Eastward of our reckoning being then in Lattitude 5°.16′ N Longitude by The Time keeper 18°.57′ Wt & by mean of 28 distances of Sun & Moon taken by Capt. Hunter Messrs Dawes, Bradley & self our Longitude was 18°.36′ Wt Longd by account 22°.46′ on this day we spoke an English Sloop of 40 Tons called the Remembrance from London bound to Falklands Islands she had been 12 Weeks from England & 5 from ye Isle of May; The Master of this Vessell informed us that he hath had ye Wind from ye SW for more than three Weeks. The Wind continued in light Breezes from ye SSE till the 12th July with fine pleasant weather from this date to our crossing the Equator on the 15th we found the Ship was sett considerably to the Westward of our reckonings. The Time keeper some days giving 30, 40 & even 50′ a day more than the log would give by which means we crossed the line much farther to the Westward than was wished, altho' no opportunity was ever lost of getting Easting. We crossed the Equator ye 15 at 8 P.M. with a Moderate Breeze at S.E.b.E. & pleasant Weather. Our Longitude by Time keeper 26°.10W. by Account 26°.29′ W Variation 5°.20′ Wt by a very good Azimuth which we had ye preceeding day. Nothing can be a stronger proof that the Currents about the Equator are entirely directed by the Winds than that we were set to ye NE dayly, while we were to ye Northd of ye Line & had ye Wind from ye S.E. insomuch that on getting the SE Trade we were 4° to ye Eastward of Account & from the Time we get the S.E. Trade we were set so much to the Westward, that our Longitude by Timekeeper & Dead reckoning agreed very nearly on crossing the line. From ye 15th to ye 20th July had moderate Breeze & often a great head swell with the Wind from S.E.b.E. to Eb.N some days we were set 12, 18 & some times 22 miles per day to ye Northd & Southward alternately which I attribute to the head swell & not having distance enough given & perhaps a Current may have had some share in those Errors nor was the error confined to the Lattitude as we found the Ship constantly set to the Westward of Account. On ye 20th our Lattitude was 6.57 S. Longd per Time keeper 27°.42′ by Lunar observations Taken by Captn Hunter Messrs Bradly Dawes & self 27°.09′ Wt by Dead Reckoning 26°.12′ From this date to the 29th the Wind continued well easterly accompanied at times with very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain in one of which we carried away ye Main Topsail Yard in the Slings which was soon replaced with another. On ye 29th our Lattitude was 19°.37′ S° Longitude per Time Keeper 33°18′ Wt Variation 3°.30′ Et. The Wind shifted round to NE with very fresh Gales & in general clear which Wind continued till We Made Cape Frio. The Morning on which we made ye Cape Augt 2nd at 3 P.M. we spoke a Portugueze Snow from ye Coast of Guinea bound into Rio de Janeiro, his bearing from Cape Frio was West 15 Leagues. Our Lattitude observed at Noon was 23°.02′ S° Longitude by Time Keeper 49°.31′ Wt & by dead Reckoning 36°.N at which time Cape Frio bore by the former N 83°.35′ Wt distant 21 Leagues, & by the latter N 88.36 Wt distant 96 Leagues. We then steered W½N Till 3 in ye Afternoon when we made Cape Frio bearing W½S 7 Leagues. We then ran WSW½W till twelve at night when ye Cape bore NNW at which time we were abreast of it. our Course & distance at this time worked back to Noon was S 84° E distant 64′. from our getting within the Cape till ye 5th we were becalmed & had light airs off ye Land, & on that Evening we anchor'd within ye Isle of Raz which bore SbW 1 Mile The Sugarloaf at ye Wt Entrance of ye Harbour NW½N & Rodondo SWbS 2 Miles. The next day ye 6th at Daylight I was sent by Capt Phillip to wait on the Vice King at Rio de Janeiro & demand permission to enter the Harbour for Refreshments &c which being granted & having assured myself (as I was ordered) that an equal Number of Guns would be returned to our Salute, I returned onboard & a Sea Breeze springing up at 3 o'clock we Weighed & on passing the Fort of Sta Cruz saluted with 13 Guns, to which they returned an equal number. at 7 we anchor'd in 17 Fm all ye Convoy coming too at the same time. The next Morning we Moored Ship a Cable each way the Best Bower to ye SE & Small Bower to ye S.W. The Flaggstaff on Sta Cruz bearing S.E.b.S. ye Sugarloaf S¼Et & ye Flagstaff on ye Isle of Cobres WbN. about 1½ mile from ye Town. The next day August 7th The Governor Officers of the Sirius, Supply, & the Marine Officers went on shore to pay their visit to the Vice King & Governor Phillip was received on landing by the Captain of ye Guard & a Religieux who conducted him to ye Palace, (which is close to ye landing place) Where we waited about five minutes in the Audience Chamber when a Curtain was drawn which discover'd The Vice King in the Drawing room to whom we were introduced seperately by our Governor. from thence we retired into an inner room where the Vice King & Governor Phillip conversed together for some time after which we took our leave. During our Stay here Governor Phillip was always received at Landing by the Vice King's Guard. The Hospitality & attention to every person in our fleet by the inhabitants of this place of all Ranks, merits the warmest gratitude on our parts, & I am very happy that no improper behaviour of Soldier or Sailor gave them any reason to be sorry for their civility & attention to us. We got every thing here in great plenty & very cheap such as Beef (with which every person in the fleet was supplied with dayly) Mutton, Poultry; Oranges, Bannanas, &c Indeed I never recollect being in so good a port for Refreshments of all kinds. The Convicts & Marines were victualled with fresh beef &c at 3½d per day. The water is very good & is filled in ye boats with a hose.

In falling in with Cape Frio (which is an Island & makes like two hills) Ships should not risque getting in with the Land to ye Northward of the Cape, which runs into a deep bay & in which are several Islands & are called ye Islands of Ancora & St Ann But if a Ship should be forced in among them by a S.E. Wind, there is good Anchoring within the Isle of Ancora in 15 fm 1 League from ye Island. As it is in General thick Weather about ye Cape, Great care should be taken in running for it to Keep the lead going as there are not soundings above 10 Leagues out where you may have 150 F If to the Southd of the Cape you have a Kind of Yellow Mud; but if to ye Northward [*] These soundings decrease gradually & the depth from ye Cape to the Isle of Raz is from 42 to 15 fm. The Harbours Mouth bears from ye Cape West 18 Leagues. Ships bound in should leave no opportunity of getting in, as it often happens that the Sea breeze does not come in for days together tho' in general the Land & Sea winds are tolerable regular. We were four days before we got in after being abreast of the Cape. In standing to ye Wtward from Cape Frio Two Sugarloaves will be seen the Western of which is that at the Harbours mouth. In thick Weather strangers some times mistake ye one for the other the difference is easily known as ye Eastern Sugar loaf bilges out to ye Wtward, & ye Westward one bilges to ye Eastward [?]W —— E [?]

The Islands of Paya & Maya may be sailed round by a first rate so close as to touch her sides without any danger. If there is not Sea breeze sufficient to carry a Ship into the Harbour they may anchor within the Isle of Raz bringing it to bear South 1 Mile or nearer. The Isle of Rodondo & other Rocks & Islands to ye NW is a sufficient Shelter against every wind but the SE with which wind you may run into the Harbour. There is no danger but what is visible in going in, or inside this Harbour. the Marks to sail in are to steer towards ye Sugar loaf till ye Church of Notre Dame de bon voyage is upon of the Fort at ye Right hand of ye Entrance called Sta Cruz opposite to which about ¾ of a mile is ye fort of Lege, situated on a small rocky Island. When between these forts, which may be called the bar you have 6 F & not less. be carefull not to be got into either of the bights within those two forts. As ye Ebb sets strong into that of Lege & ye flood into that of Santa Cruz but of the two it is better to get into that of Sta Cruz where you may anchor. which is not altogether prudent to do on ye other side it being very rocky. from the forts run up [*] for ye Isle of Cobres & bring the Bearings on which I mentioned before for our Mooring. The ground is good; altho' rather poor from ye town, for ships which have to Water however Those who mean to remain here any time, go behind ye Isle of Cobres where the portugueze Men of War & ye Brazil Men lye on that Island are rings to heave down by. The Rock was blown up & the Rings put in by the Anna Pink & the other Ships of Lord Ansons Squadron which hove down by them in 1742. The Harbour is spacious & safe & ye largest I ever saw except Trincomalay. it is very well defended Yet I think ten sail of the line & 5000 Troops would give a good account of the Gold crosses9 with which their churches are well furnished, in a short time, if well conducted. The Tide flows here 2½ hours full & Change & rises about 4 feet but this depends greatly on the winds as I once saw it rise 7 feet. There are forty Islands in the harbour the largest of which is called Governador, which would have been the healthiest situation for the Town. Its present site is very unhealty as the High Mountains round it entirely excludes the Sea breeze which renders it excessive hot altho' the Streets are wide — There are some good buildings in the City the principal of which are the Churches Convents & ye Viceroys Pallace which is a very spacious & not inelegant building; it is situated close to the landing place near it are ye Vice Kings Stables. Opera. Mint Court of Justice &c. The Title of ye Vice King is Vice King & Captain General of ye Brazils by Sea & Land; His fixed salary is but 2000£ per Annum however if he wishes to treble that sum he has it much in his power. An Officer of the Rank of Lieutt Colonel who is stiled Adjutant des ordres is in constant attendance at the Pallace to give out orders & transact all the Military business. there are besides this Officer a great number of others who are likewise on Constant duty at the same place. The Troops are well disciplined & appointed & ye subordination is kept very high. There are now about 5000 Troops viz ye Regiments of Braganza. Estramodo & Moira. these 3 Regiments Came from Lisbon in 1768 & were to remain only 3 Years. however they are not yet gone or any likelihood of it. there are besides 2 Companies of Cavalry & 2 Companies of Artillery with 3 Provincial Corps — The Town can arm 6000 trained Men. The Town contained according to a statement made in 1784 about 30,000 Souls but I am credibly informed that is far short of ye Number. The Country about ye Town, as well as around ye Harbour is romantic & picturesque beyond description, & was it in possession of any other European Power excepting Spain, it might be made to produce every article. But the Portuguese content with ye natural riches of the country & their native indolence, prevents them from turning these Territories in this part of the Globe to account. The Present Vice King & a few publick spritied people particularly a Signor John Hopman has roused them from their lethargy. in ye Year 1700 all their Spirits, Corn, Coffee, &c &c came from Lisbon. but they are now so well improved at present that besides having a very ample supply for themselves & ships that may touch here they are enabled to export yearly 6000 Cases of Sugar at 1240 lb each 5000 Cases of Rice 36,000 lbs of Indigo 2000 pipes of Rum beside cochineal & Woods for dying & Building.

A Kings Ship comes here once a Year to carry home ye Diamonds & Gold. I could not learn ye Quantity or Value of the Diamonds which are sent to Portugal Yearly in their Rough state as no lapidary can polish a Diamond here under pain of Death — The Quantity of Gold which is sent to Lisbon Yearly is 32,000 lbs or 3200 Arobes — Beside Diamonds There is a Quantity of Topazes Amethystes & other precious stones found here with a Quantity of Medicinal Drugs particulary ye Balsam Capivi & Castor oil both which I am told is very good.

On our arrival here Governor Phillip got permission to Land Lieut Dawes of ye Marines with ye Astronomical Quadrant Clock Time Keeper &c on ye Island of Anchades10 an Island in ye harbour which bore from the Sirius per Compass N 50°.24 Wt 2¾ Miles Mr Dawes remained there till ye Day before we sailed but unfortunatly the Weather was always too obscure to observe the Eclipses of the Satellites. However by some tolerable distances of equal Altitudes he fixed ye Longitude to be 43°.21′ Wt of Greenwich.

Having finished our business at this Port we saild September 5th & on our passing the Fort of Sta Cruz were saluted with 21 Guns, which was the last mark of attention & respect which we met with from Luis Velasque de Concierge Viceroy of the Brazils We lost sight of ye land on the evening of the 5th the 6th the Wind freshned & veered to the NE & ENE in which Quarter it remained till the 8th at Midnight when it shifted round to ye WNW & South with heavy squalls of Wind rain, Thunder, & Lightning, Lattde 25°.54 Longitude per Time Keeper 39.39 Wt from the 7th to the 11th found a Current which sett us 12′ to the Northd in ye 24 hours — ye 12th had ye wind at ENE from whence it shifted round to North with a great Western Swell, had at times violent Squalls of wind & Rain — 15th was Calm, almost ye whole day & tolerably clear which enabled Mr Dawes to take some good Altitudes by which we found our Longitude by Time Keeper was 31°.39′ Wt Lattitude 30.37 So from this day till the 20th had fair Winds — On ye 21st ye Wind came round to SE with a Swell — Septr 22 Moderate Breezes at 3h58′.33″ Longd in per mean of 8 distances of [?] & [?] was 22°.34′.36 Wt

By the Time Keeper 22°.33′ Wt Lattde 33°.04′ So & Variation 2°.33′ Wt — 23rd had ye Wind at NE with Squally Weather & the latter part had hard Gales with a great Sea running. The 24th the Wind shifted into the NW Quarter & blew with great force & often accompanied with heavy squalls of wind, rain, thunder & lightning. On the 27th Mr Dawes took 6 Altitudes which gives the Longitude per Time Keeper 9°.2′.30″ Wt by Dead Reckg — 8°.31′ Wt Lattde 34°.26′ So — I have hitherto' omitted making mention of the Birds which are met with in these Seas, many of which are of the common kind such as Grey, Black, & White Gulls, ye brown & black peterels, Albatrosses & Pintada birds, the last we first saw in Lattde 32°.10 & Longitude 25°.25′ Wt nor did they forsake us till our arrival at the Cape of Good hope, The Albatrosses were not so attentive yet scarce a day past without seeing one or two of them, among which some were very large, but as they are so well known shall not attempt any discription of them — 28th Fresh Gales at NW our course EbS as it has been ever since we could lay it. Lattde 34°.26′ Longd 5°.35′ Wt by Time keeper Having had ye wind nearly aft for these some days past & a rolling sea, the Ship has labourd very much which obliged us to house the Guns & lash the ports in fore & aft. a discovery has also been made which tends to prove (if it is necessary) the extreem negligence of the Dock Yard Officers in not giving the Sirius the inspection they certainly ought to have done. It being found necessary to rip up the lead which lined one of the Scuttles, the Carpenter in doing it perceived a rotten piece of Wood, which was broke off from one of the Top Timbers, on inspection we found that not only the top Timbers were rotten, but also that many of the futtocks were in the same condition, which brought the following anecdote respecting the Ship to light. She was built in 178[*]11 in the River & intended for an East country man but in loading she took fire & was burnt to her wales, Government being in want of a burthensome ship to send Stores abroad in, the Navy board purchased the bottom of this Ship, she was taken into dock & ran up with the refuse of the Yard, I have already said she went two voyages as a Store Ship since when she has had no repair as the late Surveyor of the Navy & Builder of ye Yard at Deptford reported her fit for the Voyage to which she is destined, Such is the Ship in which is embarked an Officer, whose reputation as well as that of the Nations, is concerned in the present arduous undertaking — Septr 29th had Strong Gales at S.W. which veer'd round to SbE with a great sea, which obliged us to hand our Fore & Mizen Topsails but the weather moderating towards noon enabled us to set them again 30th The Wind continued in the S.E. Quarter At noon of the 1st of October ye Wind shifted to North, we steered SEbE being in Lattitude 33°.54′ So Longd by time keeper 2°.27′ Wt — The 2nd & 3rd had ye Wind in ye SW Quarter with light breezes. Lattde ye 3rd at Noon 35°.20′ So Longitude 1°.25′ Et Variation 12°.08′ Wt 4th Moderate Weather Wind at NNE. the Supply informed us that the Convicts onboard the Charlotte were getting very sickly —

5th Variable Winds with drizling rain Lattitude 35°.51′ Longitude 3°.55′ —

6th The same Winds. The Alexander hailed us & sent his boat onboard with the Master & Marine officer, who informed, that a plan had been laid by some of the Convicts & Seamen to give all ye former their liberty, for which purpose, iron crows, & other utensils had been furnished them by the Seamen The principals of ye Convicts were stapled to the Deck, & four of the Seamen were brought onboard the Sirius — 7th & 8th had ye Wind at NE, with fine weather & smooth Water. ye 9th the Wind veered round to NW with fine Weather The Lattitude this day 36°.28′ So Longd in by Time Keeper Variation of ye Compass 16°.45′ Wt

10th & 11th had fresh Gales at WSW with which we steered East — found ourselves both days 11′ to the Northward of account — Lattde ye 10th, 35°.00′ S Longitude — 12th had ye Wind from SSW to SSE Lattitude 34°.28′ So Longitude by Dead Reckoning 16°.39′ Et by The Time keeper 16°.59′ Et Variation 20°.6′ Wt

13th The Wind the same as before at noon made ye Supplys Sigl to go ahead & look out for the land at 6 in ye Evening the Variation was 21°.52′ Wt The bearings of the Cape Town by Time Keeper N [*] E distt [*] Leagues by Dead Reckoning N [*] E [*] Leagues saw ye land at day break & at Noon the Lyons Rump bore E½S 2 or 3 Leagues from ye time I mentioned ye bearings we have run East 59′

At 6 in ye evening of ye 13th, We anchor'd in Table Bay with all ye Convoy, in 6 Fathom & moord Ship with a Cable each way, ye Best Bower to the S.W. & small bower to the N.E — Robbin Island N½E. Green point N.W.½W Flag-staff W.b.N. I went onshore to visit the Dutch Governor Monsieur Van de Graaf — who received me with great politeness & assured me that our salute should be returned with an equal number of Guns & that all our wants should be supplied excepting Grain & flower, to which he could give no present answer on account of the great scarcity of Corn the last year. The Sirius saluted the Fort with 13 Guns to which an equal number was returned & the Signal was made that the Port was open. The day after our arrival Octr 14th I accompanied Governor Phillip to Monsieur Van de Graaf, who received us with great Politeness, The conversation turned on our Wants, which consisted of Cattle, Wine & Corn for ye Voyage & bread for daily use — Monsieur de Graaf very readily assented to the two first articles; but respecting the corn he could give no answer till Governor Phillip should state in Writing (addressed to the Governor & Council) an account of what quantity he might want which Monsieur Van de Graaf requested might be done as sparingly as possible nor could he promise the smallest quantity to us, the reasons for this restriction was, the great famine for the two preceeding years, he admitted that the present harvest promised much, but there was a great demand from the Isle of France & Batavia To the former he was bound in gratitude to send what quantity he could, as the Cape had been greatly assisted from thence during the famine; to the latter; (Batavia) they were obliged to send a quantity yearly & this was the first year out of 3 that he had a prospect of sending any. It was with great difficulty that he would consent to the daily bread being permitted to be sent off, nor was it till the Twenty third (ten days after our arrival) that an answer was given, when a letter was sent to Governor Phillip couched in very respectfull terms, according him every thing which he had demanded, which was not done till a number of spirited remonstrances were made on the part of Mr Phillip — The Contractors were Petrus Dewit & Johannes Kerstan, whose integrity & probity ought ever to recommend them to Whoever may touch here in future. From having the honor of Governor Phillips confidence I am very certain of What I now assert, & I do firmly believe that a great sum might be saved government by employing these Young Men, provided those who employ them, keep their hands as clean as Mr Phillip did his — The whole number of Sick in ye Fleet on the day of our arrival did not exceed Twenty & those few were perfectly re'established in three or four days after our arrival & continued so till the day of our departure, nor did we land etther Soldier or sailor at Sick Quarters, which is a very rare circumstance at this place — The Cape Town is situated on an amphitheatre at the head of the Table bay, The Table hill, Devils hill Sugar Loaf & Lyons Rump forms the Amphitheatre which has a most picturesque appearance. The Streets are wide & drawn at Right angles & canals running thro' them The houses are all well built, commodious, & very clean, which with the appearance of the inhabitants, gives this place very much the appearance of a European Town. There are a number of Forts erected which are judiciously placed, but may all be [illegible] The population was ascertained in 1784 to be [*] Whites [*] Blacks throughout all the settlements which the Inhabitans agree is a just calculation. The Inhabitants of the Town & Country are formed into a Militia, which is exercised twice a Year for which purpose they meet & are under a very tolerable discipline As this Militia are formed of true patriots who fight for every thing which is dear to them I think they would be found a very formidable opposition to the taking this place. Every person here is perfectly at their ease, as they are not suffered to enter into any kind of commerce except that of supplying the wants of passengers & that is subject to a duty paid to the Company, to whom this place belongs & from whom the Civil & Military Officers secure their appointments — It is strictly forbid any Inhabitant to have a larger boat than two men can row or one man conduct in sailing — Every article of refreshment is to be got here in the greatest plenty but very dear the following is a list of the prices at this time in Spanish Dollars & Sterling . . a Cow 40 Sp. Dollars A Sheep 4 Do Fowles 2s each — Turkies 8s each — Geese 6s each Potatoes 19s a sack about 150lb — Cabbages 6s each Barley 3/3d a bushell Mutton or beef bought when killed 4d per lb — & every other article in proportions. It is customary for every person that can be spared from the duty of the Ships that touch here to live onshore, as every house in the place are lodging & boarding houses which is conducted in a very agreable manner on the parts of those to whom they belong — As I said before the houses are extreemly clean & commodious: for one person the terms are now 6s or a Ducatoon per diem, for which you have breakfast & an exceeding abundant dinner & supper with good lodgings, the people of the house expect to buy every article their Guests may want; on which they charge a commission of 5 per cent & if they give mony for bills the discount is 8 per cent. The soil of the interior parts is very good, though only cultivated in plantations, which are in general very fertile. There are plantations at 100 Leagues nearly in Land but the plantations along the Coast are at a greater distance. the ground that all those different colonies take up would form an immense colonie if the different habitations were contigious to each other but as the Cultivator has chosen the best grounds & the fattest pasturages, they are very far from each other. The fertilite of the country & the number of their flocks, enables the inhabitant to live very cheap, which is by no means the case with foreign vessells. the Company having reserved to themselves the right of furnishing them with provisions & even workmen which are charged at a very high price. it is nevertheless very agreable to find on the extreeme point of Africa, a resting place where Dutch Industry has proccured every article necessary for the fatigued, scorbutic, Seaman, to refresh himself with before, he begins a long voyage after having performed one — The Garrison consists of the Regiments of Gordon & the Regiments of Wurtemberg in all about 2500 Men & a very excellent Company of Artillery which are kept in high order. The Commanding Officer of the Troops is Colonel Gordon (of Scotch extraction) a Gentleman whose extensive knowledge, & great perseverance will enable him, one day, to favor Europe with an account of this Country which will do him infinite Merit I have seen his Charts & drawings which are exceeding fine, he has performed two journeys into the interior parts of the Caffres Country in which he has been above eight months each time & has penetrated above two hundred leagues, accompanied only by four chosen hottentots in whom he places an implicit confidence

List of The live Stock which we embark at the Cape of Good Hope for

the use of the Colony destined for New South Wales.

Mares 4 Stallion 1. 1 Stone Colt & 2 mare colts

Cows 6. Bull calf 1. Bull 2 Yrs old 1

Ewes 120, Goats [*] fowles &c a great quantity

Having finished our business at the Cape we unmoord the 11th November & should have sailed the same day. but the Wind being at NW that & the following day, we did not sail till the 13th Novr at 2 in the Afternoon with a fresh breeze at S.S.E. on hauling round Penguin Island we spoke ye Kent of London who had been from England about four months out East from St Helena Bay, where she had got 40 Tons of Oyl & was bound to cruize to the Eastd of the Cape in quest of more Wales —

The 14th the Wind continued still at S.S.E. with a great swell from ye Southward, This day the Officers & Men as well as Convicts were put on an allowance of 2 Quarts of Water per Day Lattde at noon 35°.14′ So Longd by the Time Keeper 15.07 Et

15th Wind at South with fresh breezes, but towards noon light winds at 9 A.M. tacked to ye Eastward Lattitude 35°.22′ So Longd Per T.K. 13°.29′ Variation 22°.23′ Wt found a Current which set us 12′ to the Northward of account in ye 24 hours —

16th Wind the same at 8 P.M. tacked to ye Westward. Lattitude this day 35°.43′ Longd per T.K. — 12°.37′ we were this day 10′ to ye Northd of Acct —

17th Wind still the same with small rain. — our Lattitude this day 36°.40′. Longd per T.K. 11°.42′ Et

18th Wind still at SSE with Moderate Breezes The Variation per Amplitude 21°.03′ Wt Lattitude 37°.13′. Longitude per Time Keeper 10°.43′ Saw a great number of Whales & Grampusses — The Longitude in per mean of eight distances of Sun & moon was 10°.39′ Et the mean of Capt. Hunter, Messrs Bradley & Dawes was 10°.49′ which different observations correspond exactly with the Time Keeper which makes us [*] to ye Wt of Account

19th The Wind veered round to E.S.E. the latter part of the 24 hours calm with a great Swell from the Westward: Lattitude this day 37°.40′ So Longitude by Time Keeper 10°.21′ Et Variation per Azimuth 20°.54′ Wt This day at Noon Captain Phillip signified his intention of going onboard the Supply & proceeding with her, & the Alexander Scarboro & Friendship Transports, to the place of our destination; but in case the Transports (which are the best sailors of the Convoy) should not be able to keep up with the Supply it is his intention to leave them under ye care of Lieutt Shortland Agent for Transports, Who is furnished with very ample instructions in what manner to conduct the Vessells under his Charge. Captn Hunter is to be charged with making the best of his way with the rest of the Convoy consisting of the Sirius, Lady Penrhyn, Charlotte, & Prince of Wales with the Three Victuallers — Capt. Phillip Lieutt Dawes of the Marines, and myself are to go in the Supply with 6 Artificers. Major Ross & Lieut Long Adjutant of the Marines are to go onboard the Scarboro & Lieutt Shortland removes from the Fishburn into the Alexander. The end proposed by this separation is, that the governor flatters himself that he shall arrive at the place of our destination (Botany Bay) a fortnight before the Transports in which time he will be able to make his observations on the place whether it is a proper Spot for the Settlement or not & in the latter case he will then have time to Examine Port Stephens before the arrival of the Transports on the Coast; Should Botany Bay answer our expectations he may have time to erect a Log Store house for the reception of the Provisions which will hasten the departure of the Store Ships & Transports. It being calm the Afternoon of this day the Sig1 was made for The Transports to come under our Stern & some arrangements were taken in shifting water from the Alexander, to the Lady Penrhyn & Store ships, Some baggage was sent onbd ye Supply & Scarboro & some convicts artificers, were sent with our 6 Men onboard the Supply, at Sunsett every thing was ready for the intented separation, which was deferred till we should be 100 Leagues to the Eastward of the Cape of Good Hope —

20th It continued calm all this day till eleven in the Morning when a breeze sprung up at N.E.bE. with which we Steered S.E. The constant Southerly Winds which we have had ever since we left the Cape have driven us considerably to the Westward our Longitude by Account being this day at noon 13°.26′ Et but by the Lunar observations of to day by ye mean of sight very good distances of the Sun & Moon it was 10°.44′ & by the Time keeper 10°.21′ Et which proves that we have had a Strong Western Current, Lattitude 37°.38′ South Variation 18°.00′ Wt

21st Wind increases gradually at N.b.E. with a following sea. our Lattitude 38°.40′. Longd by Time keeper 12°.57′ Et Variation 20°.56′ Wt

22nd The Wind veered to WNW & NNW with fresh gales & a following sea, at Noon imagining our selves in a very good lattitude to make our Easting in The Course was changed to E.S.E. It is rather extraordinary that in our present Lattitude viz 39°.00 we should still feel the effects of the Western Current particularly as our distance Run in ye 24 hours is 156 miles. Yet we find from some very good Altitudes taken this Morning that there is a difference between the Time Keeper & Run of 21′ of Longitude, which places the Ship 21′ to ye Westward of the Run. The Lattitude does not agree with ye run, being 12′ to ye Southd of what the Log will give — Lattitude at Noon 39°.00 So Longd by Time Keeper 15°.48′ Et Variation 20°.03′ Wt — many petrels, Albatrosses, & Whales about ye Ship —

23rd Had very strong Gales & a great sea both which fell before 4 P.M. afterwards light winds. The Lattitude at Noon 39°.08′ S No Altitudes taken for ye Time Keeper. Wind NW from this day to the 26th at Noon had Moderate Breezes at Wt N.W. & SW. The 26th, I went onbd His Majesties armed Tender Supply, Lieutt Henry Lidgbird Ball Commander, with Governor Phillip & Lieut Dawes of the Marines, The other changes took place which I mentioned on ye 19th & at one o'clock we parted Company with the Fleet which at Sun sett were hull down The Wind fresh at West —

At Day light of ye 27th The Sirius & her Convoy were out of sight. A great number of black & Blue Petrells round ye Ship with a prodigious quantity of Whales. By Altitudes taken for ye Time Keeper (which the Governor has brot with him) we find the Ship has been sett between the 25th & 26th, 40′ more to ye Eastward than what the Log gives, of which Current we have felt no other effect, except being 39′ to ye Northward of our Account which may be owing to bad steerage & heave of the Sea. Lattitude this day 27th 38°.08′ So Longd by Time Keeper 27°.03′ Et — The 28th at 11 P.M. The men on ye lookout forward called out rocks under the bows, on which the helm was put a lee & instead of rocks, were presented with the view of 2 very large Whales, & so close to the Vessell that I could have stept from the Gunnell on either of their backs. The Vessell was felt going over their tails by those below. had very heavy Squalls with fresh Gales all this day & a very high Sea running got no observation our Course still being E.S.E. having the Wind at NE & North The Brig labours much, & is very uncomfortable It must be acknowledged that ease & convenience were not our errand onboard this Vessell

29th In the Evening had Squalls of Wind & Rain, & one of the most confused Tumbling seas I every beheld, the Rain & squalls brought the Wind round to WNW & the Sea abated much The latter part of this day had very pleasant & serene Weather, which in a Vessell of this kind is a very disirable circumstance if it were only to dry ones Things, as the Sea yesterday made fair breaches over her & many of them Wetted the head of ye Fore sail — A great number of Albatrosses & pettrels round us, we passed thro' a long string of fish sperm of a sand colour — Mr Dawes this day took some Altitudes for the Time Keeper, (which we have not been able to do before since ye 27th) by which we find our Longitude this day at Noon to be 34°.18′ Et which differs only 10′ in the two days to the Eastward of the Run Lattitude 39°.44 S° When ye Wind blows worship the Echo! —

c'est bien a propos ce soir

30th — Very fine Wr with the Wind at SWbS The mean of Variations in the Morning & Evening 30° Wt A great quantity of different birds amongst which were those called Petrels which are thus distinguished. The small birds of a sooty brown, & in flying trip one leg on ye Water is called ye Petterel or Mother Carys Chicken, ye large bird of ye same colour & form as ye small pettrel is called by the Seamen Mother Carys Goose; the small White Bird is also called ye Blue pettrel it having a blue spot on its back. It is rather singular that in our Voyage from Rio de Janeiro we were accompanied quite across by the Pintadoe bird or Cape Pettrel, which we have not seen since our departure from the Cape altho' we have daily a great abundance of Albatrosses, Gannetts, Pettrels, & Gulls —

Decr 1st Fresh Gales accompanied with Squalls of Wind & Rain. at 21h.55′.11″ found ye Longitude to be, by ye mean of four Distances of ye [?] & [?] Centers 38°.52′ Et Longitude by the Time Keeper at the same time 38°.37′ Et. Variation 29°.23′ Wt. Lattitude at ye time of observation 39°.45′ S° The 2nd, 3rd & 4th had Strong Gales & a heavy Sea from ye West which veered round to NW & N.b.E. & from thence shifted suddenly on the Afternoon of ye 4th to SbE & SSE with rain which made it so very cold that Many of the people were affected so much by it, that some were obliged to quit their duty, particulary the Man at the Helm John Breedon, who was affected with a kind of Stupor. I have observed both in our Run from the Brazils to the Cape of Good Hope & on this run that the Wind commences after a Calm to blow at West & NW from whence it Veers round in Squalls of Rain to North & SW but never recollects its veering round ye contrary way — The 5th Moderate breezes at WSW with a great Western swell — 6th Wind from E.b.S. to N.E.b.N. with very heavy rain & Thick foggy Weather with distant Thunder in the SW Quarter had no Meridian Altitude this day —

7th Wind Moderate in ye NW Quarter the most part of this 24 hours a Thick Fog, which renders our present situation rather perilous as no Ship ever ran in this parrallel of Lattitude before, so far to the Eastward The Lattitude by a Meridian Altitude this day at Noon gives 41°.13′ South, its being rather cloudy all the Morning could get no Altitudes for the Time Keeper

8th Fresh Gales which veered from NW to NE & back again to NW with a great Sea our distance ran by the log 158′. The Lattitude observed 41°.01′ Variation 33°.00, but as the Brig has much motion I do not think it correct, on the contrary should apprehend that it decreases instead of increases as we go to the Eastward — at 10 AM Lieutt Ball being on deck perceived (as he thought) a Rock on ye Larboard bow, but soon after we percieved it was a Combat between a Whale & a very large Thresher which could not be less than twenty feet long. As ye Whale swims along the Thresher watches when the Whale is going to Spout, at that time he throws himself out of the Water & falls with the greatest force on the Whales head or shoulders The Whale defends himself by endeavoring to strike the Thresher with his tail —

From ye 8th to ye 14th The Wind has generally been fresh in ye NE quarter our distance run each Day about 160′ keeping in ye Parrellel of 41°.30′ Lattitude in the 14th At Noon 41°.41′ Longd by Time Keeper [*]. This day we crossed ye Meridian of ye Island of St Pauls, with a Fresh Gale, at SW & Clear Wr The Birds which we have seen for these some days past have differed much to what they were before, instead of having so many Pettrels about us we have an immense quantity of very large Gulls & enormous Albatrosses. also a large bird, which is quite Brown except a White spot on ye Extremity of its Wings the Tail is Fan tailed like a Pidgeons We have also passed a quantity of Rock weed which may be accounted for from our vicinity to The Island of St Pauls which bears this day at Noon by the Timekeeper & my reckoning (which agree within two miles of each other) N 14° Wt distant 79 Leagues Variation 26.08 Wt

From the 14th to the 17th had fresh Gales of Wind from the SW to NW making each day about 160′ Variation on ye 16th 23°.00′ Wt Lattde at Noon Longitude by Time keeper brought on from ye 14th, 88°.00 Et

“On ye 17th the Time Keeper was not thought of till about 6 oclock “in the Evening, when it was found to have been down about an hour, “it soon after was wound up & sett a going, & the next forenoon “some very good Altitudes were taken, from which the Longitude of “the Ship was found (supposing that the Time keeper had not stopped)

                                         
“to be  107°.31′.5″ 
“But the Longitude of the Ship brought on by ye 
“log from ye last observations on ye 14th at 
“21h.29′ is  90°.05′.5″ 
difference turned into time  5 17°.26.0 
3 3°.29.2 
“shews how long the Time Keeper stopt —  1 .09 .44 
“And that being added to what the time keeper 
“would have been too slow for mean time at 
“Greenwich on the 18th at Noon  24′.40 .91″ 
“Gives what the T.K really was too slow for Gh 
“at that time  1 .34 .24 .91″ 
“From the 18th at noon mean time at Greenwich the rate will be 
“continued as before — 3.17 
“Longitude made from ye 14th Noon to ye 
“17th Noon  9°.10′.8″ 
Extract from Mr Dawes's Journal 
19th at 5h.51′.11″ Longitude by mean of 4 distances of Sun & Moons Centers was  93°. 3′.45 Et 
D° by Mr Dawes's mean of 5 Distances —  91 .01 .30 
Mean  91 .02 .35 
Longde brought on for the Time Keeper  91 .58 .00 

As the above distances were very good ones I think it is very probable that the time between ye Time Keeper & ye Lunars ought to be divided, wherefore, I shall call the Longitude at this time 91°.30′.30″ East From ye 18th to the 24th Had very strong Gales of Wind from ye SW to NW with a very heavy Sea running which keeps this vessell almost constantly under water & renders the Situation of every one onboard of her, truly uncomfortable — The Squalls during this time were very violent & great quantitys of rain, Sleet, & large hail stones, & when the Wind is to the Southward the Cold is as extreem here as in England at this time of ye Year, altho' it is the height of Summer here; Great Numbers of Albatrosses, Pettrels, & Port Egmont hens about us & a quantity of Rock weed, On ye 24 (Natural day) at 9h.0′.0″ observed the Eclipse of the Moon but as the Weather was extreemly cloudy could not see the ending the Longitude given by this eclipse gives [*] From ye 24th to ye third of January had the Wind constantly in the NW Quarter Lattde by a Meridian Altitude on the 2nd was 44°.06′ South Longitude in by Time Keeper 142°.23′ Et Variation by mean of a number of Azimuths was 36′ East. In the Morning of this day had very heavy Gales & a Tumbling sea from ye NNW. which obliged us for the first time since we left England to furl the Topsails. The Brig labours very much & Ships a great quantity of Water. Third of January had little Wind from ye NW to West with a very great Sea & in the Night dark Cloudy weather with fierce forked lightning; at ½ past 10 in the Morning we were satisfied with seeing Van Diemans Land its extreems trending from NNE. to EbN & at Noon the SW Cape bore E½N, Nomans Land, NbE & ye Southermost Land E½S — Lattde in by Mer. Alt. 43°.39′ Et & Longitude in by some very good Altitudes taken for the Time Keeper gives 144°.51′ Et. This day at Noon Mr Dawes took several Distances of the Sun & Moon Centers

           
The Result of which gave  145°.16′.34″ 
Longitude of ye SWt Cape by Capt. Cook  146 .07 .00 
The Difference  50 .26 
turn'd into time shews how much less than 
1h.09′.44″ ye time Keeper was down —  0h.03′.21.7″ 
Therefore the Time Keeper was down —  1 .06 .22.3 

Therefore 50′ must be added to the Longitude found by Time Keeper since ye 17th when it went down The Land about here is of a good heighth but very uneven, being obliged to make ye best use of the Westerly Wind which then blew, we could not explore this part of the Coast more than Capt Cook has already done. We steered ESE & at 6 PM on the 4th The Mewstone bore NbW½W 5 Miles & ye South Cape NE½E & at 8. The Eddistone bore NE½N 7′ or 8′ It continued fresh breezes & Clear all night the Wind veering to NNW & North & at 8 A.M. ye South Cape bore W½S 9 Leagues of which we lost sight at noon Lattde by Merd Alte 43°.33′ Longitude by Time Keeper 148°.35′ Et Variation next day 5°.5′ Et. Jany 5. had Moderate breezes & Clear from ye Northward found a Current which had sett us 21′ to ye SE — 6th Wind continued from NbE till 8 in ye Evening when it shifted suddenly to S.W. in a very heavy Squall which gave but little Warning Lattd this day at Noon 41°.39′ So Longitude by Time Keeper 151°.17′ Et which gives 17′ to ye Eastward of the Log —

7th Wind mostly from ye NbE Variation by 57 good Azimuths & Amplitudes gives 10°.00 Et Lattde at Noon 40°.44′ So Longitude by Time Keeper 150°.26′ Et found a southerly Current of 10′ in ye 24 hours —

8th had in general light Winds from the Northward, & Foggy Weather — Lattde 40°.05′ So Longitude by Time Keeper 149°.41′ Et Variation 10°.30′ Et 17′ to ye Eastward of what ye logg gives — Sounded frequently with 120 fathom but could get no ground.

9th had fresh Gales from ye Northward Lattd at Noon 40°.4′ So no altitudes for the Time Keeper the Variation was 10°.08′ Et.

10th had Moderate breezes from North veering round to ye Westward with a great head sea from ye Northd. Lattd at Noon 39°.17′ So Longitude by the Time Keeper 152°.00′ Et found we had been sett 48′ to ye Eastward of what the logg will give since we had the last Altitudes on ye 8th.

11th The Wind still the same in ye P.M. of this day we saw a Turtle —

13th Had ye Wind from ESE veering round to NNW with pleasant Weather, at ¼ past 9 Saw the Land extending from N 36° Wt to S 67° Wt — at Noon, Were about 5 Leagues from it Lattde by a very good Meridian Altitude was 34°.48′ So & an eminence on the Land (which is high & tolerable even) bore at this time W½S 4 Leagues which we take for a mountain ressembling a hatt which Capt. Cook takes notice of & places it about 9 miles to the NW of Red point, before dark it was thought proper to shorten sail & lay her to or stand off & on till the Morning, it soon after came on to blow hard from the So & a great Swell we continued standing off till 12 at night where we were & stood in again, at 2 A.M. put too with her head off shore till day light when we made the Land bearing from NbE to WNW, which in appearance ressembled an Island, but we soon after found it to be a projection of the Land, which was Chalk Clifts & its ends ressembled the North & South Foreland. at Noon our Lattde by Meridian Altitude was 35°.14′ So which is 26′ to ye Southd of our Yesterdays observation notwith-standing we ran 22′ to the Northward, & according to our calculation we had made 6 miles Northing since we brought too. all which shews that there is a Strong Current or tide setting to the Southward, which is also taken notice of by Capt. Cooke; at Noon Cape Long nose bore NW 14 miles ye Southermost Land in sight West & ye No Point of ye Land which we made in the Morning, NNW we could discern The Land further to the Eastward but it being very Cloudy could not determine its extent — ye Longitude by Time Keeper at 9h was 150°.43′ Et & Lattde by two Altitudes at ye same time 35.01 So.

at Noon of ye 14th it fell calm & soon after a breeze Sprung up at SbE We made sail immediately & steered NNW & by ½ past four, finding the Breeze was not sufficently strong to rundown ye Distance to Botany Bay

15th Throughout this 24 hours had Fresh Gales from North to NNE. with a little Swell at ½ past 12 Tacked & stood in shore till four in the Evening we could plainly perceive that we were set very much to the Southward — at 4 Tacked & stood of till 7 when we stood in again till 8 then Tacked & stood of till 9 in the Morning then tacked & stood in again at Noon found our Lattitude by Meridian Altitudes was 35°.58′. The Logg gives with every allowance, a due East course, since Yesterday at Noon. wherefore we have had a Current which has sat us 44′ to ye Southward in 24 hours, bearings of Cape Longnose at 4 PM NbW 5 Leagues —

16th In ye beginning of this 24 hours the Wind was Moderate still blowing from ye North, at six it encreased so much as to oblige us to hand our Topsails & Ballance reef the Mainsail at 6 we were & stood to the Eastward. A great Sea running & Cloudy dirty Weather — at 9 in the Morning it Moderated a little which enabled us to sett our close reefed Topsails & Main stay sail our Lattitude this day by a tolerable Meridian Altitude was 36°.17′ South — which agrees very well with the run —

17th Wind & Weather much ye same as Yesterday except it being very Squally in the Night with some heavy rain & lightning to the Northward, our Lattitude this day at Noon by a very Good Meridian Altitude is 35°.39′ ye Log will not give more than 16′ Northing wherefore we have had a Northerly Current at ye rate of 21′ in ye 24 hours. Longitude in by the Time Keeper 152°.52′.30″ Et Longitude by D.R. brought on from ye Lunar Observation & Time Keeper on ye 15th when in sight of Long nose gives 151°.35′ Et which gives a difference of 72′ to ye Eastward of Account —

18th The First part had fresh breezes from ye North West & at Midnight it shifted round to S.W. at 6, P.M. by a Meridian Altitude of the Moon found our Lattitude to be 35°.01′ S which is 7 Miles to ye Northd of ye Logg, at 8 in the Morning we discovered ye Land from WSW to NW & at the same time saw ye Hill ressembling the Crown of a hatt which bore W½S — we stood in NNW & NW till within about 3 miles of ye Shore when we steered North, The Shore along here is steep & a surf beating on it. The hills are cloathed with a verdant Wood with many beautifull slopes, at Noon observed our Lattitude by a very good Meridian Altitude was 34°.14′ at the Same time a very high Chalk clift which rose perpendicularly from the Sea bore NWbN & the Northermost Land in sight bore NNE. This Chalk Clift is mentioned by Capt. Cooke in his first voyage but he has neglected remarking that there are five of those Chalk clifts the Northermost of which is just at ye Commencement of the Land which forms Botany Bay, As it is impossible to Miss this place with Capt. Cookes description before one I shall remark nothing of it, but that. we we hauled in for the harbour at a quarter past 2 in ye Afternoon of ye 19th when abreast of Point solander we saw several of ye Natives running along brandishing their Spears & making towards the harbour we came to an anchor on the Northern side of the Bay, that the Ships which were following might not miss the harbour, when moored Cape Solander bore [*] Point Sutherland [*] & ye Bare Island [*] at 3 the boats were hoisted out & Governor Phillip & some Officers belonging to ye Supply with Lieut Dawes & Myself, landed on ye North side of ye Bay & just looked at the face of the Country, which is as Mr Cook remarks very much like the Moors in England, Except that there is a great deal of very good grass & some small timber trees. we went a little way up the bay to look for water, but finding none we returned abreast of the Supply where we observed a group of the Natives, we put the Boats onshore near where we observed two of their Canoes lying, they immediately got up & called to us in a Menacing tone, & at the same time brandishing their spears or lances, however the Governor shewed them some beads & orderd a Man to fasten them to the stem of the Canoe, we then made signs that we wanted Water, when they pointed round the point on which they stood & invited us to land there; on landing they directed us by pointing, to a very fine stream of fresh water, Governor Phillip then advanced toward them alone & unarmed, on which one of them advanced towards him, but would not come near enough to receive the beads which the Governor held out for him, but seemed very desirous of having them & made signs for them to be lain on ye ground, which was done, he (ye Native) came on with fear & trembling & took them up, & by degrees came so near as to receive Looking Glasses &c, & seemed quite astonished at ye figure we cut in being cloathed & I think it is very easy to conceive ye ridiculous figure we must appear to those poor creatures who were perfectly naked, we soon after took leave of them & returned onboard N.B This is ye evening of ye 18th Natural day, which I shall carry on —

19th at day light we went on shore to haul ye seine on ye North side, but caught very few fish, just as we were going onboard the Natives came down & were much more confident than they were the night before; at eight o'clock, we were very agreably surprized with the appearance of ye Alexander, Scarboro & Friendship coming round point Solander. they anchored about 10 o'clock When Major Ross ye Lieutenant Governor came onboard; As preperations were made in the Morning to explore & examine all ye North side of ye Bay. Major Ross was added to our party which consisted of ye Governor, Lieuts Ball, Dawes, Long & myself in three boats, & left ye Brig, at 11 o'clock. A Shoal which lay a long way off stretching near ye middle of ye Bay towards ye upper end of ye North side of ye bay prevented our Keeping near the shore, but its edge directed us to the opening of ye River at ye NW side of ye bay which we went up for about 6 miles, finding the Country low & boggy, & no appearence of fresh water, we returned down again & ran along ye upper part of ye bay, to ye entrance of ye first inlet on ye SW side of ye bay which in this part is very wide, here we went onshore & eat our salt beff & in a glass of Porter drank ye healths of our friends in England, we walked some little distance along shore, & could find but one little rivulet of fresh Water we saw several huts & lances but no natives at 6 in ye Evening we returned onboard again —

20th at 8 in ye Morning we were again gratified with seeing the Sirius & all her convoy coming round Point Solander, & they anchored in the Bay at ½ past 9 — Thus this long voyage has been compleated in [*] Weeks from our leaving England, having lost only [*] Men [*] Women [*] children during ye Whole voyage, of this time we have been 9 weeks in port, The fleet on arriving here had only [*] sick & no accident of any kind has happned to any of ye Ships of ye Convoy — at 10 o'clock the Governor, Lieut Governor, & Capt Hunter went over to the south side of ye bay a little within point Sutherland, & I was ordered with Lieut Dawes of the Marines, to explore all ye South side of ye Bay, & trace the two inlets on the South side as high as possible. I ran up the Southern shore till I rounded [*] point off which lies a long shoal which is in many places quite dry at low water we ran up the first inlet about a mile when we came to the head of it, I returned down again & crossed over to a point which from what happned there I gave it the name of Lance point perceiving that it was the highest hill here about, I imagined it was probable that we should find some good water there; on landing, I ascended the hill & found ye soil an exceeding fine black mold, with some excellent Timber Trees & very rich grass, arrived at ye top of the hill we perceived a red fox dog, & soon after discovered a number of ye natives who halloo'd & made signs for us to return to our boats, having only three Marines with me & Lieut Dawes I advanced before them unarmed presenting some beads & Ribbands, two of the Natives advanced armed, but would not come close to me, I then dropt ye beads & baize which I held out for them & retreated, they took it up & bound the baize about their head they then in a very vociferous manner desired us to begone & one of them threw a lance wide of us to shew how far they could do execution, the distance it was thrown was as near as I could guess about 40 Yards & when he took it out of the ground where it struck; it required an exertion to pull it out, as I took this for a menace that more could be thrown at us if we did not retreat & being unwilling to fire amongst them, there being twelve of them, I retreated walking backward till I came to the brow of the hill, where I halted & again offered them presents which they refused, on descending the hill they showed themselves on the top of it & were ten times more vociferous & very soon after a lance was thrown amongst us on which I ordered one of the Marines to fire with powder only, when they ran off. — with great precipitation, I embarked & governor Phillip joined me from the South side of ye Bay where he had found ye Natives very sociable & friendly we relanded on Lance point & ye same body of natives appeared brandishing their lances & defying us however we rowed close in shore & ye Governor disembarked with some presents which one of them came & received thus peace was re-established much to the satisfaction of all parties; they came round ye boats & many little things were given them, but what they wanted most was ye great coats & Cloathing, but hatts was more particularised by them, their admiration of which they expressed by very loud shouts, whenever one of us pulled our hatts off, when they found us so very friendly they ran up to the man who had thrown ye lance & made very significant signs of their displeasure at his conduct by pointing all their lances at him & looking at us intimating that they only waited our orders to kill him, however we made signs for them to desist & made the culprit a present of some beads &c. Governor Phillip then went up another branch & I followed the one we were in, & soon perceived that the natives were following us, we soon came to the head of this inlet where we perceived the same party of Indians, wading over, we rowed up to them & many of them came up to the boat, we made them a few more presents, but found it necessy to put a stop to our generosity as they were increasing fast in numbers & having only a boats crew with me I was apprehensive that they might find means to surprize us as every one of them were armed with lances, & short bludgeons — I gave two of them a glass of Wine which they had no sooner tasted than they spit it out, we asked them the name of a number of articles, which they told us & repeated our words & had already learnt so much English, as to express their want for any thing by putting their finger on it gently looking me in the face & saying “No”? I must do them the justice to say that I believe them to be concientiously honest. When they found we were not disposed to part with any more things, they entered into conversation with us, which was very fully interpreted by very plain Signs they wanted to know of what sex we were, which they explained by pointing where it was distinguishable, As they took us for women, not having our beards grown, I ordered one of the people to undecieve them in this particular when they made a great shout of Admiration, & pointing to the shore, which was but ten yards from us we saw a great number of Women & Girls with infant children on their shoulders, make their appearance on the beach, All in puris naturalibus pas meme la feuille de figeur — those natives who were round the boats made signs for us to go to them, & made us understand their persons were at our service; however I declined this mark of their hospitality but shewed a handkerchief which I offered to one of the women, pointing her out, she immediately put her child down & came alongside ye boat & suffered me to Apply the handkerchief where Eve did ye Fig leaf, the Natives then set up another very great shout & my female visitor returned on shore — As ye evening was coming on fast & we were twelve miles from ye fleet it was time to return, we wished the natives, good be wi'ye which they repeated, we got onboard about midnight when we found the Governor preparing to go the next Morning at day break in some long boats to explore broken bay & port Jackson, he that night ordered me to pursue the service that he allotted me in exploring coves at the head of the bay, & to sett out next Morning —

21st at 6 in the Morning Governor Phillip Capt Hunter & ye Judge Advocate with the Masters of the Sirius & Supply & some petty officers, set off in three boats to examine Port Jackson & Broken Bay & Mr Dawes with myself & a petty Officer went away in two boats to explore the upper part of ye Bay in which we found some very large & deep coves & some extensive lagoons but no fresh water we returned onboard again at about eight in the evening, & on the 23rd in the Evening Governor Phillip & his party returned. orders were immediately given to get the Transports & Victuallers in readiness to sail, As Port Jackson was judged a very proper place to form an establish[ment] in.

the 24 in the morning two Strange Ships were discover'd to ye Southward of Cape Solander & we soon after discover'd that they were French one of which wore a Chef d'escadres pennant from which we conclude them to be La Boussole & l'Astrolabe under ye orders of Monsieur De la perouse on discoveries, but the Wind blowing strong from NNE prevented their getting in, or our going out at four in ye Afternoon they were out of sight & at day light on ye 25 we weighed in the Supply having received a Company of Marines & 40 Convicts onboard, The wind blew so strong from ye SSE that we were obliged to anchor & wait for the Ebb tide & at Noon we weighed & turned out of the harbour In running a long shore we observed a number of steep Rocky clifts & after having run about 3 Leagues we were abreast of some high sand Clifts at the Northern extremity of which the Land of ye Entrance of Port Jackson commences & the entrance is soon discoverd lying between two steep bluff heads. there is no danger in entering the harbour but what is visible, & when within the heads a rock lies in the Mid channel ye shoal of which extends a cables length round, this rock is just covered at high Water. when in ye inside of the harbour ye Larboard arm leads to the place where the Settlement is formed which lies about 6 miles from ye entrance of the harbour, we anchored there, ye same evening at about 7 o'clock, being obliged to turn up — The next day at Day light the English colours were displayed on shore & possesion was taken for His Majety whose health, with the Queens, Prince of Wales & Success to the Colony was drank, a feu de joie was fired by the party of Marines & ye whole gave 3 Cheers which was returned by the Supply. at Sun sett The Sirius & all the Convoy anchored here. Capt. Hunter informed the Governor that the French Ships had entered the bay just before he left it, & that they were la Boussole & l'Astrolabe commanded by Monsieur De La Perouse on discoveries The next Morning Jany 27th A great part of the Troops & Convicts were landed, & the latter was immediately sett to work clearing away the ground, ready for ye encampment The Place on which ye settlement is to be made is at the head of a Cove at ye head of which a small rivulet empties its self. The Shore on each side is bounded by rocks, within which there is a very fine soil & full of trees which will require some time & labour to clear away, the Marines & Convicts are to be encamped on ye West side & ye Governor, & Staff with his guard & a small part of the Convicts on ye East side of ye Rivulet —

On ye 28th All ye Marines & Male convicts were disembarked from ye different Ships & encamped, the Females were kept onboard till the ground was further cleared. The Stock was also landed this day on ye Eastern point of ye Cove. I should have mentioned before that from ye time of our sailing from England to our arriving here we have lost only 32 people including Marines Seamen & Convicts — but were so unfortunate as to loose a part of our Stock. we landed only, ———

4 Mares & 2 Stallions — 4 Cows 1 Bull & 1 Bull calf [*] Ewes, a good stock of poultry & 3 Goats with [*] Hogs, which are ye Property of ye Governor & Government, the Officers private Stock has been tolerably well preserved —

29th A Great deal of work has been done in clearing away but much remains to be done some Carpenters preparing for fixing the Governors Portable £115 House12 & a number of ye Convicts digging up ye Ground for a garden

30th A Number of Plants belonging to the Governor was landed & put into ye ground —

31 In the Evening had some very severe Thunder & ye quickest & fiercest lightning I ever saw. We have observed that at Botany Bay & at this place many of the Trees are, burnt from top to bottom; singed as it were, which makes us apprehinsive that it is caused by ye lightning, as no fires of ye Natives could scorch them so regularly. On ye 2nd Feby in a very severe Storm of Thunder a Tree was Shivered by the Lightning, close to ye Governors Guard & ye following night another tree was split to pieces & [*] Sheep & [*] Lambs were killed by ye same cause, however it is to be hoped that when ye Country is cleared this calamity will be much lessned —

Feby 1st This day His Excellency Governor Phillip signified his intention of sending me to Norfolk Island with a few people & stock to settle it. Lieut Ball of ye Supply was ordered to receive the Stores onboard necessary for that purpose & the following day at 2 in ye Morning Lieut Dawes of ye Marines & myself sett off in a Cutter for Botany Bay, to visit Monsieur De La perouse on the part of Governor Phillip & to offer him whatever he might have occassion for, we got down to ye harbours mouth at day light, finding a light air from ye Southward, we were obliged to row all ye way & arrived onboard ye Boussole at 10 o'clock in ye Morning where we were received with the greatest politeness & attention by Monsieur de la perouse & his Officers, after delivering my Message to him, he returned his thanks to ye Governor for his attention to him, & made ye same offers which he had received, & added that as he should be in France in 15 Months & having Stores &c enough onboard for three Years he should be happy to oblige Mr Phillip with any that he might want — Monsieur De La perouse informed me that a number of ye Convicts had been to him & offered to enter but he had dismissed them with threats; & gave them a days provisions to carry them back to ye settlement. As ye Wind came on to blow fresh from ye Northward I yielded to the sollicitations of ye French Commodore & consented to dine with him & stay the remainder of ye day & return to Port Jackson next morning. In ye course of my conversation I found that he had touched at & been off ye following places viz. Madeira, Teneriffe, Sta Catherina, he had run down ye Coasts of Chili & California, been at Kamschatka, where he replaced the wooden Inscription near Capt. Clerke's Grave, with a Copper one for which I thanked him in ye name of the Corps. from Kamschatka he went to Macao ye Phillipines, Sandwich Islands, Isles des Navigateurs discovered by Bougainville, Friendly Islands & Norfolk Island from which last place he came on this coast. At the Island of Maouna (one of ye Isles des Navigateurs in Lattitude 14°.19′ S° Longitude 173°.23′.20″ East of Paris) he was so very unfortunate as to lose Monsieur De langle, Captain of L'Astrolabe 8 Officers, 4 Men & .1 Boy who were massaccred by the natives, besides a great number wounded — he relates the Story as follows. The two Ships had been some days at this Island, & had been on very good terms with the natives, who had furnished him with every article of Stock in ye greatest profusion, for barter, but he found it very necessary to be on his guard, against a treacherous disposition which he discovered in them, when every thing was ready for their departure, & ye Ships were under weigh, De Langle, requested Perouse would permit him to get another turn of water, which he De La perouse, consented to with as much reluctance as De langle seemed sollicitous to obtain his request. As the Long boats were not hoisted in They were ordered on this service, with 2 other boats to attend them, under ye orders of ye unfortunate De Langle. The Ships were lying too, & a strong Current sett them round a point out of sight of ye place where the boats landed, On landing they were surrounded as usual by the inhabitants who did not immediately discover any hostile intentions. The people in the Long boats had let them take the ground, & in using means to get them afloat again, the Natives were very troublesome & pressed close in upon them, De langle gave orders to the rowing boats to be ready to fire, but not to do it without his orders, some little altercation happening in consequence of their pressing so very close on ye French, which might have produced a blow from one of ye Natives, which was taken as a signal by the rest & ye Massacre began The natives were armed with short heavy Clubs by which means they rendered the Fire arms useless, orders were given to fire the Swivels but it was too late altho' the Natives fled the instant they were fired on dragging the bodies after them it was supposed that 30 of ye Natives were killed. Those belonging to the long boats, which had escaped, swam off to ye rowing boats & were carried onboard ye Ship, many of whom had received violent contusions on their heads as all their blows were aimed at that part. de La Perouse thought proper to quit the Islands immediately. after endeavoring to regain his long-boats which he found the Natives had destroyed. He represents the Inhabitants of these Islands as a very strong, & handsome race of Men scarce one among them less than 6 Feet high, & well sett, The Women have a certain delicacy of features not common among the inhabitants of the Islands in those Seas. Their Canoes houses &c are all well constructed, & they are much more advanced in internal order & policy than any of the Islands in the Pacific Ocean, but like the rest of them they are surrounded by a coral reef, but Boats may land with great ease. In a Letter to Mr Phillip, which he charged me with he recommends these Islands to his attention, for the great quantity of Stock with which they abound — Excepting the above unfortunate disastre, they have not lost a single man since they left France, when he leaves this place it is his intention to go round New Ireland to ye Moluccas, & Batavia from thence to ye Isle of France, Cape of Good Hope, & Europe where he hopes to arrive in about 18 Months

The Astrolabe & Boussole were fitted out with the greatest liberality, Monsieur de la perouse told me, that ye King told him to get whatever he wanted & he added that if he was now at Brest & had to equip his Ships for ye remainder of his voyage, that he could not think of any article that he stood in need of. Besides ye Astronomer Monsieur Dagelet. he is provided with a very capital Botanist from ye Jardin du roi called de la Martinniere also a draughtsman, in every line, I saw his collection of Natural History which is very compleat. An Abbe who is also on the expedition as a collector of Natural Curiosities13 appears a Man of Letters & Geniality

This Abbe+ has under his care a great number of Philosophic instruments & the Astronomer has also every instrument necessary. each Ship has 3 Time keepers. which are hung on gimbals made by Berthand & goes with a short pendulum, they are rather complicated as an allowance is to be made for ye degree of heat, for which purpose a small Thermometer is kept in each of ye boxes. They have also a dipping needle which was with Capt. Cook. lent them by ye board of Longitude. They had not been more attentive to their Time keeper than we were to ours as they had been let down three times on bd both ships

+ [King's note] He died at Botany Bay soon after we left port Jackson to go to Norfolk Island, & was buried near where the French had their observatory, an inscription carved in Wood was put near his grave which the Natives tore down on wh occasion Govr Phillip repaid the Kamschatka14

After dinner I attended ye Commodore & other Officers onshore where I found him quite established, having thrown round his Tents a Stoccade, guarded by two small guns in which he is setting up two Long boats which he had in frame, An observatory tent was also fixed here, in which was an Astronomical Quadrant. Clockes &c under the Management of Monsieur Dagelet Astronomer, & one of ye Acadamie des Sciences at Paris he has fixed the Lattitude to be 33°.59″.1′ & Longitude [*] East of Greenwich — Monsieur De La perouse informed me that at every place where he has touched at or been near that he has found all ye Astronomical & Nautical works of Capt. Cook to be very exact & true & concluded by saying … “Enfin, Monsieur Cook a tout fait qu'il n'a me rien laisse a faire, que d'admirer ses oeuvres” In the evening I returned onboard ye Boussole & was shown all ye Drawings made on ye Voyage & ye next Morning at 5 I took leave of them, but did not arrive onboard ye Sirius 7 in ye Evening having been obliged to row all the way against the wind & a great swell —

Between ye 7th & 13th my time was wholly employed in sending the Stores, Provisions &c (onboard the Supply) which I was to carry with me to Norfolk Island, consisting of six Months provisions, & tools & utensils of all kinds, on ye 13 I embarked ye Officers & people destined to go with me who were

Mr James Cunningham — Masters Mate

Mr Thos Jamieson — Surgeons Mate

Mr Roger Morley — an Adventurer, had been a Master Weaver

Two Marines & one Seaman belonging to ye Sirius

9 Male Convicts & 6 female D°

I that morning received my Commission from the Governor together with my instructions; by the commission; I was appointed Superintendant & Commandant of Norfolk Island. As my stay at Port Jackson was so very short I am not able to give account of it, at least satisfactory to myself but as a future occasion may present itself — shall pass on to my departure from thence in his Majesties armed Tender Supply which happned at 7 in ye Morning on ye 15th Feby with a very fine breeze at WSW we got down to ye harbours mouth at 8 when we found that it blew very fresh without, & as we got off from the Land it came on blow a perfect Hurricane with a most tremenduous Sea, several of which broke into ye Vessell. The Gale kept up with great violence all this day & I very often thought the vessell was in a critical situation — At 2 in ye Morning of ye 16th the Gale veered round to SbW & moderated but a heavy Sea was Still running at Noon ye Gale & sea both decreased Gradually found our Lattitude at Noon was 32.22′ S Longitude 154°.11′ Et In ye Evening of this day a Flying fish flew onboard, which is rather an extraordinary event in such a high Lattitude — On ye 17th had Fresh breezes with a few Squalls. Wind in general from ye S.E.

18th at Daylight Land was discovered bearing ESE & as we thought only 18 miles & took it for two small Islands. at the time we first discovered them we were standing to ye Northward with ye wind at ESE at 8 in ye Morning we tacked towards them but it being light winds we made no great progress towards them, at Noon had a very good Meridian Altitude which gave us 31°.10′ 55″ S° at that time ye largest hill bore S 60° Et & ye smallest one South 70° Et At ye close of Evening the largest of ye two bore E½S & at Midnight (being near full moon) it bore EbN. in ye night ye wind shifted to NEbN

On ye 19th at 4 in ye Morning having neared the Island considerably, we perceived a pointed Rock right ahead & at some distance from ye Island; on which the Mn Topsail was hove to the Mast & we sounded with 120 fathoms but no bottom The highest hill bearing NEbE at Day light we made sail & found the two Islands or hills that we had seen the day before, were two immense high rocky mountains, on ye South point of an Island, extending from N37° Et to N° 55° Et & this side of it forming a deep bay in which appeared to be good Shelter from ye NE. All ye Land except the two high Mountains appeared to be cloathed with Wood. at Noon we had a very good Meridian Altitude by which our Lattitude was 31°.40′ S° & ye Center of the Island at that time bore from us N 30° Wt about 6 miles, consequently we place the Island in 31°.35′ S° & by some very good distances of Aldeberan from the Moon, at 8 this Evening ye Island being in sight, we make its Longitude 160°.36′ East of Greenwich & by Dead Reckoning 159°.11′ Et. The form of ye Island appears to be a crescent & is very narrow. at 1 oclock we were between ye South end of ye Island & ye high Rock which lie from each other NW½& SE½E about 13 miles asunder & I dare say are both quite steep too. This singular rock rises perpendicularly from ye Sea in the form of a Pyramid, to a very great heigth, we saild in a direct course from it 22 Leagues when we could plainly see it. There are some Rocks which spitt off from ye south W side of this rock; at about a miles distance, but the most dangerous rock is a single one which lyes nearly in the same direction from ye Pyramid, that ye pyramid does from ye Island. it is about 9 mile off & as the whole appears a kind of ridge. I think it is highly probable that there may be some sunken ones between, however the Sea appeared quite clear all round it, a Small Island lies off ye Eastern point of ye Large Island, to which Lieut Ball who was certainly the first discoverer of it, has given the Name of Lord Howes Island & to ye small one, Lidgbird's Island & to ye Pyramid we have given it the name of Balls pyramid —

On ye 20th at Noon we lost sight of ye Island & Pyramid in the haze after having run 22 Leagues from it in a straight direction. I think that in clear Weather it may be seen at 25 Leagues distance The Lattitude & Longitude of this Island is 31°.36′ So & 160°.36′ Et of Greenwich. the first was determined by a mean of 4 very good meridianal Altitudes & ye latter by eight very good distances of ye star Aldebaran from ye moon both on ye 19th.

From ye 19th to 24th had very pleasant Wr & smooth Water ye Wind from E.S.E. to E.N.E. with little of it: in ye Lattitude of 31°. we saw several tropic birds & flying fish of a large size we have every day an immense number of Gannets Pettrels & other Sea fowl —

From ye 25 to ye 29 had Strong Gales of wind & Squally Wr mostly from ye ESE, with a high cross sea running —

The 28th the Wind veering early in the Morning to SW & imagining ourselves by our reckoning to be about 15 Leagues to ye Westward of Norfolk Isle at 7 in ye Evening we hove too & next morning at day light made sail steering East, the great number of birds round us, & ye Clouds hanging so very thick to ye Westward, indicates our being near ye Land, but it was not till eleven in ye forenoon that we made ye largest of the two Isles which lye off ye S.W.15 end of Norfolk Isle bearing [*] & to which I have given the name of Phillip's Isle, in honor of His Excellency Governor Phillip. at one we made Norfolk Isle point Howe or ye North point bearing [*] & ye south point, or point Ross. At 4 in ye Afternoon we rounded Point Howe, soon after hove too off a Cascade which lies near about ye middle of ye Eastern side & down which a very fine fall of water fell with great force & noise. The boat was immediately hoisted out, in which Lieutt Ball & myself went, to examine if it was possible to land near ye cascade, but found it impossible as ye Shore was lined with high pointed rocks & ye surf broke so very violent on them that a landing could not be attempted in ye finest Weather. At Sunsett we returned onboard & ye boat was hoisted in, Stood off & on all night the Wind moderate from S.W.

March 1st Early in ye Morning Lieut Ball & myself went in a boat to examine ye Isle whether we could find a landing place from ye Southermost (or point Ross) to ye NW point, or Point Howe, which is with the present Wind WN.W. ye Lee side of ye Isle. Arrived at point Ross16 we observed a large sandy bay which was near 1½ mile from point to point but it appeared so compleatly surrounded by a reef of rocks, that Landing was impossible, round ye Eastern point of this bay lies another bay which goes in deep but the beach which is a very small one is covered with a very large round stone on which ye surf breaks with great violence, which renders Landing here very dangerous not only for ye boats, but also for ye people, we rowed along the shore but could find no place to land, & could we have landed it would have been impossible to have climbed ye steep cliffs with which the Isle is surrounded off ye NE part of ye Isle lie a great number of very large rocks, behind which Capt. Cook landed in 178…17 but found landing here impossible on account of ye Surf & Rocks Altho' this may not be the case in very fine weather in ye Evening we returned onboard without having set our feet ashore this night had light winds at SW which with a current in ye Morning had sett us a great way from ye Isle, which at day light bore [*] miles, we did not get under ye Lee of ye Isle again before 3 o'clock in ye Afternoon of ye 3rd, when we came to an anchor in 18 fathom sandy bottom, in a bay in which lie the rocks, behind which Capt. Cooke landed, & to which bay I give the name of Duncombe Bay, after ye Member for Yorkshire. point Howe ye No[r]th point bearing from us E½N & a large Rock which forms ye other point WSW At 4 o'clock Lieut Ball & myself landed in ye bay on a large rock, but with great difficulty being obliged to watch an opportunity to jump on ye rock after ye surf had broken we had then to drop ourselves down from ye inner part of this rock, which lay in the wash of a great surf, which broke on the shore with violence, it being covered with large round stones. — as it was near evening when we landed, we very soon returned onbd again with a quantity of sorrell, which we had found near ye shore. The Wind blew strong all night & had veered round to ye ESE.

March 3rd at Day light Lieut Ball & Mr Jamieson, went onshore to examine whether any thing could be landed, where we landed last night, for ye use of ye settlement. Myself & Mr Cunningham went in ye Supplys largest boat, at ye same time to make a circuit of ye Isle going round point Howe ye Western side being now ye Lee part of ye Isle, we rowed round this side, till we opned Phillip's & Nepeans Isle of ye south point of Norfolk Isle but found it blew too hard & too great a sea running to pull the boat ahead. on this side ye Isle there is only one landing place which is in a deep bay just round point Howe. The bottom of it is a fine sandy beach but ye Surf broke on it with such violence as to put Landing out of ye question at two in ye Afternoon we returned onboard, where we found Messrs Ball & Jamieson returned just before us, they giving it as their opinion that Duncombe Bay was by no means a fit place to settle at, independent of ye difficulty of landing there, (which is only practicable for a man without any incumbrance) it is not possible to get a cask up a Clift which leads to a deep ridge down which a torrent of water falls, in the rainy season, & the Hills on both sides are quite steep & so very full of underwood as hardly to be penetrated. As it blew fresh all night next Morning I resolved to go across ye Isle towards ye sandy bay, which I had seen Yesterday, by which means I should be enabled to form a little oppinion of ye Country & see if landing was practicable in this sandy bay, to which I have given ye name of Anson Bay, after ye Member for Litchfield Unfortunately Jno Jay one of ye Supplys Quarter Masters, was drowned in attempting to catch a Turtle, altho' desired to desist. The next Morning, March 4th at 7 o'clock, myself Messrs Jamieson, Cunningham, & Callam Surgeon of ye Supply with 1 Marine landed on ye rock, & ascended ye Northern hill which is very steep. we found ye Woods so very thick & so much underwood which was rendered still worse by a large kind of supple jack which formed an impenetrable net work thro' which we had to cut our way, the ground was quite free of any kind of herb or plant whatever, & ye soil every where rich & good this I attribute, to the thorough exclusion of sun & air which prevents this kind of vegetation. The pines which are very numerous are of an incredible growth, one of them which had been blown down, or fell by age, measured 140 feet & several others which we measurd were 27 feet in circumference they grow quite straight & not an exuberance of any kind whatever on them from ye top to the bottom. Another large tree (of which we saw a great number) greatly resembles ye Maple At 11 we found ourselves on ye opposite side of ye Isle just above ye Sandy or Anson's bay a part of which we could perceive thro' the Trees, we found our road must be down ye hill which is perpendicular & quite full of a large kind of Iris,18 which was a providential circumstance for us as they served us to hold by, when we were all falling & had they not presented them selves we must have fell down a depth of 90 feet, We were too much pleased & thankfull for our escape, to put our trust in a second attempt as every part seemed ye same at this time it was one o'clock, I proposed returning to Duncombe Bay where ye Supply lay, by making a small circuit to ye Southward, we had not gone far before we discovered a spring of very fine water which ran in a direction towards ye North end of ye Isle, which we traced to its source its direction was almost on a level & its spring or source, was at ye foot of a very large tree where it rose out of ye earth. This discovery, had ye appearance of causing an unlucky accident, as we lost ourselves so compleatly that we did not know which way to turn us, each of us had a different opinion & we all misled each other, however at length I took ye resolution of keeping to ye NE knowing that, that direction must lead us to that side of ye Isle, where ye Supply was at anchor, we were so thoroughly bewildered in impassable woods & deep hollows that we had no other prospect than that of sleeping all night in these dreary woods. At 6 in ye Evening we were near ye Summit of a very high hill, but the Woods was so thick that it was impossible to see thro' them, Mr Cunningham got into a tree & climbed to the top of it, from whence he saw ye Supply bearing NbE from us, by which we knew that we were on Mount Pitt (which is ye Name I have given to ye highest & only mountain on ye Isle). We immediately made ye best of our way to gain the bay. Our road to which lay down a water way between two very steep hills, fortunately at this season there is but little water in it. we met with a great many perpendicular rocks or water falls, down which we could perceive that the water fell with great force at times, at about seven we got to the end of ye water fall & saw ye supplys boat waiting for us. we rested here for ye surgeon of ye Supply who had not been able to keep up with us I sent ye Marine to look after him, who on hallooing was answered by Mr Callam soon after ye Supply made ye Signal for her boat to return onboard, I called the Marine & we embarked & got onbd ye Supply, thoroughly exhausted & fatigued with our excursion. The boat was immediately sent after ye Surgeon, but it being dark, he did not choose to answer, the person who went to search for him. It seemed the next morning when he came onboard, that he found himself much tired & exhausted & coming to a place where there was a number of dried leaves, & fearing he should not meet a better bed further on he laid himself down; It was not so far but he might have got to the boat in four minutes, but he recollected how very difficult it would be to get into the boat, at such a late hour, he therefore thought it would be more prudent to stay where he was, he saw nothing in the night; but heard something nibbling the leaves, like a hare or rabbit & heard the very distinct cry of yaho! ye same as one man calling to another, we heard this before we got to the boat & answered it, imagining some of ye people, belonging to ye Supply was onshore & wanted to join us. During this Excursion we have not seen a leaf of flax or any herb or grass whatever the ground (altho a deep rich soil) being quite bare; which is rather extraordinary as Capt. Cooke in his voyage says, that the Flax is more luxuriant here than at New Zeeland, however it is very possible that we have not been on that part of ye Isle where he saw it — Perroquets, parrots, Doves, & other birds we saw in great quantitys & so very tame that they might have been knocked down with sticks, we every where saw large pieces of Pummice stone, a proof that this, as well as ye other Islands in those seas, has been the production of a volcano, or some great shock of nature.

As ye sandy bay, or Ansons bay has not been explored to my satisfaction Lieut Ball proposed going round there in ye Brig, & endeavor to land, which if at all possible, must be effected now as the Wind is at ENE. March 5th at daylight we weighed & ran round to ye bay, when Lieutt Ball & myself went in a boat but found ye surf too violent to land, I now began to think it was impossible to land on ye Isle; As I have nearly made a circuit of it & found no place where there is a possibility of landing. The only prospect remained which was to search if a passage could be found through the reef which runs along Sidney Bay (which is ye name I give to the Bay on ye SWt side of ye Isle) we went there & ye Master was sent in ye Boat to examine it & on his return he informed us, that a landing was very easy. as a small break of ye Reef (large enough to admit two boats) was formed between two parts of it & boats might land on a sandy beach On his report, Lieut Ball & myself went to examine it, & found it just as he had reported, We landed on a fine sandy bay or beach without any difficulty whatever — above this beach lay a bank ye edge of which was surrounded by ye large kind of Iris, on peering thro' it we found a fine piece of ground, altho' well wooded (as is every other part of ye Isle) here I resolved at once to fix, & felicitated myself on having found a place out where I could make a commencement, I had no doubt but water would be procured & that at no great distance. as it was very late in ye Evening We returned on board & ye Supply was brought to an anchor in 20 fathom sandy bottom. I employed this evening in getting every thing ready & arranging all my business for ye ensuing day —

March 6 at Day break I left the Supply with 2 Boats, having in them all ye people belonging to ye settlement (except ye Women) the Tents, a quantity of each kind of provisions & ye most usefull tools, which we landed with great ease & ye people were instantly set to work clearing away ground enough to erect the Tents on & ye Colours were hoisted, before sunsett every thing & person belonging to the settlement were onshore & their Tents pitched. before the Colours were hauled down, I assembled all ye settlement & Lieut Ball present I took possession of ye Isle drinking “His Majesty” “the Queen” “Prince of Wales” “Governor Phillip & success to ye Colony” after which three Cheers were given — March 7th it blew so very hard all day & so great a surf that no boat could land this day I employed the people in clearing away a piece of ground for sewing some seed. The ground which I am clearing is on ye West side of the bank where I am encamped, the Hill has a tolerable easy ascent, & the soil is rich & deep. I therefore have resolved to grub ye trees up on ye side of this hill, which I think the best spot for gardens & other grounds. We soon after our landing found a very fine spring of freshwater at about three minutes walk from us, ye neighbourhood of which is very convenient, as it may be made to overflow a piece of flat ground which is at the foot of ye hill & would make a very good rice ground. The Isle is so very thick of Wood & underwood, that my progress will be but slow for some time to come with the few people which I have with me. It is rather extraordinary that we have not yet found a single plant of flax ye ground having ye same appce on ye South side ye Isle, that it has on ye North, with this difference that it is more accessible on this side than the other

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