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February 1789

                                                         
Week Days  Mo Days  Winds  Landing & Surf  Observation &c  Transactions on Norfolk Island state of Wr &c 
Sunday  1st  North  good Landing  Do Wr with very heavy rain during the whole Day & night, 2 Men sick, at 11 AM performed Divine Service & read the Articles of War. 
Monday  2nd  NW  Do  Almost every Vegitable seeding is growing out again by the late Rains, & the Trees are covered with fresh leaves—  Very heavy Gales of Wind & Strong torrents of Rain. Very little Work done on Account of the Weather 1 Man ss. 
Tuesday  3rd  Do  Do  Do Wr with less Rain. Convicts employed opening the ground round where the houses are built in order to erect more houses there. The late Wet Weather has almost spoiled the whole of the Barley cut the 20th Jany
Wednesday  4th  NE  Very good Landing.  The Indian Corn & plants growing in different places has received much damage by the Constant rain.  Very Strong Gales of Wind with Almost constant Showers of very heavy rain, which was so violent As to prevent any work—2 Men lame 
Thursday  North  A great Surf  I think it will be necessary for the future to sow the Indian Corn, in June or July at the latest, in order to get it off the Ground in December, before the rainy Wr setts in.  Do Wr with constant torrents of Rain. No work could be done on account of the very heavy rain. 2 Men lame 
Friday  6th  Do  Do  The Barley cut on the 20th Jany is quite spoiled by the constant rain—  Excessive heavy Gales of Wind & very heavy Squalls of Wind & torrents of Rain during the Whole night, with very Severe Lightning, & but little Thunder. More Moderate Towards Noon—People employed Felling Trees & Clearing away round the houses—2 Men Lame— 
Saturday  7th  NNW.  Very good Landing  The Swamp is quite overflowed by the late heavy rains—  Strong Gales of Wind & very heavy torrents of rain in Squalls. People employed building up Hutts 
Sunday  8th  West  Do  Fresh Gales with some showers of heavy rain at 10 A.M. Performed Divine Service— 
Monday  Varble  Do  Moderate Breezes & dark Cloudy Wr the People all employed building up their houses & getting Timber to the Pitts. Punished Thos Watson Convict with 3 dozen Lashes & Josh Robinson Convict with 1 Dozen, for absenting themselves from their Quarters after 10 at night with a bad intention. 2 Men Lame. at daylight sent the Coble outside the Reef to Fish at 11 She returned with 30 fish issued them to the People 3lb of Fish for ½ a lb of Pork. 8 Men unserved— 
Tuesday  10th  NNE  Bad Landing.  Strong Gales & Dark Gloomy Weather, with very heavy Squalls of Wind & Rain, in the intervals people employed building up their houses One Carpenter boarding in the Granary. 2 Men Lame— 
Wednesday  11th  Do  Less Surf  Sent the Coble fishing at noon she returned served 3 lbs of Fish for ½ a lb of Pork  Do Wr & Squalls more Violent than Yesterday People employed building up their houses & 2 Men ss. 
Thursday  12th  Do  Do  Fresh Gales & Cloudy Wr with some very heavy squalls of rain. People all employed as before 2 Men Lame 
Friday  13th  NW  Do  This is the first dry day, that we have had since the 24th of Jany having had for the most part torrents of Rain.  Fresh breezes & Cloudy Wr with 2 Showers of Rain sent ye Coble out to fish at noon she returned with 30, issued them 3 lb of fish for 1 lb of Beef 
Saturday  14th  ESE  Bad Landing.  Very heavy Gales of Wind. The People finished all their houses 1 Man Lame. 
Sunday  15  East  Do  Moderate Breezes & very serene pleasant Weather at 10 A.M. performed divine Service. Samual Pickett and Wm Francis were forgiven by the Commandant, but ordered to wear light Irons untill the Governor in Chiefs orders should be received respecting them. 1 Man Lame 
Monday  16th  East  Very good Landing  Moderate Breezes & very serene pleasant Weather on getting up the Ground two of Flour Cask from under the Surgeons house found a Great Quantity of Water had lodged during the yrs rains On Opening the Cask found the Flour in them very much damaged, As Many of the Casks were like dough, Cannot ascertain the Quantity lost till the whole 36 Casks which were in Ground Store are opened People Employed Felling Trees Sawyers Sawing 2 Carpenters Variously—2 Men Lame. 
Tuesday  17th  Do  Not the least Surf.  Do Wr Employed Airing & Cleaning the damaged Flour 2. Men Lame. 
Wednesday  18th  Do  Do  Do Wr 12 Men at Task Work, in Clearing away Ground, Sawyers at Task Work also 4 Men bringing in flax plant &c for building a house for the Corporal. at Daylight sent the Coble without the Reef to fish at noon she returned with 40 fish issued them 4 lb of fish for ½ a lb. of Pork— 1 Man Lame— 
Thursday  19th  NE  Do  Do Wr & very hazey with some drizling Rain, People all employed as before. 2 Men Lame. 
Friday  20th  Variable  A very heavy Surf  Little wind & very Sultry close foggy weather People all employed as before at task Work— 
Saturday  21st  East  Do  Do Wr People Empd Working for themselves In the afternoon the Marines & Militia fired 15 Rounds of Powder 
Sunday  22nd  East  Very Bad Landing.  Moderate Breezes & dark Cloudy Wr with a few Showers of light rain, at 10 A.M. performed Divine Service 1 Man Lame— 
Monday  23rd  NE  Surf decreasing—  Do Wr with Rain as before 12 Men employed at Task Work Carpenters building a house for the Serjeant of Marines 12 feet by eight. Sawyers at Task Work, & the rest of the people bringing in Flax plant for thatching & Poles for paling— 
Tuesday  24th  North  Scarce any Surf.  Moderate Breezes & dark Cloudy Wr with almost constant light rain. People all employed as before. 
Wednesday  25th  NE East  Do Increasing after Noon.  First part Light Winds & dark Cloudy Weather with Constant Torrants of very heavy Rain. after noon, had very heavy Gales of Wind with Rain as before, Sent the Coble out to fish at noon she returned with 40 fish Issued them 3lb of fish for ½lb of Pork—People all employed as before—No work today— 
Thursday  26th  ESE untill 11 AM then South at eight PM SSW.  The Surf rose to a very great height & broke most tremendously. The Sea between the Island's ran Mountains high, very often hiding Nepeans Island entirely—  At Midnight very heavy Gales of wind & torrents of rain, the Wind at ESE & increasing in violence at 4 A.M. several pines of 180f in length & [*] yds in girth were blown up by the roots, one of which fell on the Pigs Stye & killed a Sow with a litter of Pigs belonging to the Commandant from 4 A.M. till Noon the Wind increased to a dreadfull hurricane, with deluges of Rain Pigs & livestock, Trees of the largest kinds were blowing down every instant tearing up their Roots & Rocks with them, leaving, beds of 10 feet deep & the longest & largest Roots I ever saw, some of these very large trees were thrown by the violence of the Wind at some distance from where they grew, those pines which were strong enough to resist the force of the Wind bent their tops very near the Ground, Nothing but horror & desolation presented itself on every side which can only be equalled or conceived but by those who have seen the dreadfull effects of a Hurricane in the West Indies, what added more to the Horror of the Scene was a very large live oak tree being blown on the Granary, which dashed it to pieces & stove a Number of the Casks of Flour, but by the General Activity of every Person, the Flour Indian Corn & Stores, were in a Short time Collected & removed to the Commandants house with the loss of about half a Cask of Flour, & some small Stores. At Noon the Gale blew with the utmost Fury & violence sweeping, Woods of trees up by the Roots & carrying some of them to a considerable distance, at one oclock there were as many Trees fell round the Settlement as would have employed 50 Men a fortnight to fall, The Swamps & Vale were quite overflowed by 11 oclock & had every appearance of a large navigable river It was a fortunate Circumstance that on the discovery of the Plot a great number of Pine & live oak Trees were falled round the Houses, to open the Ground, had not this been done all ye houses would have been destroyed & a Number of lives must have been lost, but only one man received a Contusion on his Hip by a branch of a Pine falling on him The Gardens, at this Settlement were quite destroyed the Cabbages Turnips & other Plants were torn up by the Roots & those few which withstood the hurricane appeared as if they had been burnt—The Sugar cane growing here is much damaged altho' Supported by a Stick & screened by a high Fence. at 3 oclock the Wind having veered to South it moderated & Continued Moderating untill the next day—Ab't 4 oclock P.M. The Gardner with 2 Convicts & one Convict Woman came in from the plantation in Arthurs Vale having had several narrow escapes, by the Fall of trees & the great depth of Water in many places, Their Houses which were built & framed with Strong logs were all Blown down. The devastation done in the Vale is beyond belief nor can the dreadfull effects of the Hurricane there be described, whole Woods being blown up by the Roots & many Trees blownnote on the 3 Acres of Cleared Ground, The violence & Direction of the Wind is marked by all the Trees on the hills on the Right hand side of the Vale being blown down & very little damage being done on the left hand side several Clumps of very large trees which were left Standing on the flat part of the Vale were torn up by the roots & an acre of Indian Corn which would have been fit to gather in 3 Weeks, & was in a very promising state was all laid flatt & overflowed some feet by the Water, every Thing growing in the Garden is almost quite destroyed. There is no appearance on any part of the Island of a Gale of Wind of this Kind having ever happned before, It may be said that the Vale & the Spot where the Settlement is made, was a direction for the Wind, But the great damage & the number of Trees blown up by the Roots in places which were not cleared at all sufficiently proves that Hurricanes of this Kind are not frequent. 
Friday  27th  SW  A Very heavy Surf.  Fresh Gales with passing Showers of Rain, Every Person in the Settlement employed earthing up the Indian Corn blowed down Yesterday, & about some other necessary work—killed a Young boar belonging to ye Crown which was bruised by the Falling of a pine on the pig stye Yesterday, servednote out to the Officers & a part of the people in Lieu of Salt Pork—The Swamp is entirely overflowed— 
Saturday  28th  Do  A great Surf but decreasing.  Do Wr & Cloudy. People all employed as Yesterday. The Swamp continues overflowed 

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