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Leichardtia.

CHAR. GEN.—Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla urceolata; tubo intus imberbi; fauce annulo integerrimo incrassata. Corona staminea 5-phylla, foliolis antheris oppositis, iisque brevioribus, indivisis. Antherœ membrana (brevi) terminatæ. Massœ Pollinis erectæ basi affixæ. Stigma vix divisum.

Suffrutex volubilis; foliis linearibus, fascicularibus, extraalaribus; folliculis ventricosis ovato-oblongis.

15. LEICHHARDTIA australis.

Doubah Mitchell, trop. Austr. p. 85.

LOC. “Common on the Murray and in the interior.” D. Sturt.

DESC. Suffrutex pubescens, subcinereus; ramis striatisnec omnino teretibus. Folia sesquipollicaria, linearia, acuta. Fasciculi multiflori. Calycis foliola obtusa, pube tenui cinerascentia. Corolla glabra; tubo absque squamulis denticulisve, ventricoso; limbovix longitudine tubi, laciniis conniventibus sinistrorsum imbricatis. Coronæ foliola e basi dilatata adnata linearia, indivisa. Massæ Pollinis (Pollinia) lineares.

OBS. Doubah was originally found by Sir T. Mitchell, but with fruit only, in one of his journeys, and also in his last expedition; and, according to him, the natives eat the seed-vessel entire, preferring it roasted. Captain Sturt, on the other hand, observes, that the natives of the districts where he found it, eat only the pulpy seed-vessel, rejecting the seeds.




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16. JASMINUM lineare. Br. prodr. 1. p. 521.

Jasminum Mitchellii. Lindl. in Mitch. trop. Austr. p. 365.

OBS. In Captain Sturt's collection there are perfect specimens of this plant, on which a few remarks may be here introduced, chiefly referring to its very general existence in the sterile regions of the interior of Southern Australia, and even extending to the north-west eoast.

The species was established on specimens which I collected in 1802, in the sterile exposed tract at the head of Spencer's Gulf. With these I have compared and found identical Mr. A. Cunningham's specimens gathered in the vicinity of the Lachlan, in 1817; Captain Sturt's, in his earlier expeditions, from the Darling; those of Sir Thomas Mitchell, in his different journeys; and specimens collected in one of the islands of Dampier's Archipelago. In this great extent of range, it exactly agrees with a still more remarkable plant, and one much less likely to belong to a desert country, namely, Clianthus Dampieri.

I have considered Jasminum Mitchellii as hardly a variety of J. lineare, the character of this supposed species depending on its smooth leaves, and its axillary nearly sessile corymbi or fasciculi, which are much shorter than their subtending leaves; but even in the specimen contained in the collection presented to the British Museum by Sir Thomas Mitchell, the young branches, as well as the pedunculus and pedicelli, are covered with similar pubesceuce, and in the same degree as that of J. lineare; the specimens from Dampier's Archipelago have leaves equally smooth, but have the inflorescence of J. lineare; and I have specimens of J. lineare in which, with the usual pubescence of that species, the inflorescence is that of Mitchellii. Among Sir Thos. Mitchell's collection at the


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Museum, there is a Jasminum not noticed by Professor Lindley, which, though very nearly related to J. lineare, and possibly a variety only, may be distinguished by the following character.

Jasminum (micranthum) cinereo-pubescens, foliis ternatis; foliolis lanceato-linearibus, pedunculis axillaribus 1-3 floris, corollæ laciniis obtusis dimidio tubi brevioribus.

17. GOODENIA (cycloptera) ramosissima pubescens, foliis radicalibus serrato-incisis; caulinis lanceolato-ellipticis obsoletè serratis in petiolum attenuatis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris folia subæquantibus, seminibus orbiculatis membrana angusta cinctis.

LOC. Indicatio nulla stationis in Herb. D. Sturt.

18. SCÆVOLA (depauperata), erecta ramosissima, ramis alternis; ultimis oppositis divaricatis, foliis minimis sublinearibus: ramorum alternis ramulorum oppositis, pedunculis e dichotomiis ramulorum solitariis unifloris.

LOC. “In salt ground, in lat. 26° S.” D. Sturt.

DESC. Herbacea, vix suffruticosa, adulta glabriuscula, erecta, ramosissima. Rami ramulique angulati; ultimi oppositi, indivisi, divaricati, apice diphylli, foliis minimis et rudimento minuto floris abortivi. Folia sessilia, linearia, acuta, brevissima, ramos subtendentia alterna, ramulos ultimos brachiatos opposita. Pedunculi e dichotomiis ramulorum ultimorum penultimorumque solitarii, uniflori, ebracteati. Calyx: limbo supero quinquepartito; laciniis lineari-lanceatis, æqualibus, pubescentibus. Corolla: tubo hinc ad basin usque fisso; limbo unilabiato, 5-partito; laciniis lanceolatis, æqualibus, marginibus angustis induplicatis, extus uti tubus pubescentibus, intus glabris trinerviis, nervo medio venoso. Stamina: filamenta distincta, anguste linearia, glabra, axi incrassata; antheræ liberæ, lineares, imberbes, basi affixæ, loculis longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. Ovarium biloculare? loculis monospermis, ovulis erectis. Stylus cylindraceus, glaber. Stigmatis indusium margine ciliatum et


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extus pilis copiosis longis strictis acutis albis tectum v. cinctum.

19. EREMOPHILA (Cunninghamii) arborescens, foliis alternis linearibus mucronulo recurvo, sepalis fructûs unguiculatis eglandulosis, corolla extus glabra.

Eremophila? arborescens, Cunningh. MSS. 1817.

Eremodendron Cunninghami, De Cand. prodr. xi. p. 713.

Delessert ic. select. vol. v. p. 43. tab. 100. (ubi error in num. ovulorum.)

LOC. “In the sandy brushes of the low western interior, not beyond lat. 29° S.” D. Sturt.

OBS. The genus Eremophila was founded on very unsatisfactory materials, namely, on two species, E. oppositifolia and alternifolia, which I found growing in the same sandy desert at the head of Spencer's Gulf in 1802, the only combining character being the scariose calyx, which I inferred must have been enlarged after flowering. This, however, proves not to be the case in E. alternifolia, which Mrs. Grey has found in flower towards the head of St. Vincent's Gulf: and from analogy with other species since discovered, it probably takes place only in a slight degree in E. oppositifolia, whose expanded flowers have not yet been seen.

In 1817, Mr. Cunningham, in Oxley's first expedition, discovered a third and very remarkable species in flower and unripe fruit, which he referred, with a doubt, to Eremophila, and which M. Alphonse De Candolle has recently separated, but as it seems to me on very insufficient grounds, with the generic name of Eremodendron, established entirely on Mr. Cunningham's specimens. A fourth species has lately been described by Mr. Bentham, in Sir Thos. Mitchell's narrative of his Journey into


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Tropical Australia; and some account of a fifth is given in the following article.

These five species may be arranged in four sections, distinguished by the following characters:

a. Folia opposita; sepala unguiculata. Eremophila oppositifolia. Br. prodr. 1. p. 518.

ß. Folia alterna; sepala unguiculata, eglandulosa; antheræ exsertæ.

E. Cunninghamii.

?. Folia alterna; sepala brevè unguiculata, eglandulosa; stamina inclusa.

Eremophila Mitchelli. Benth. in Mitch. trop. Austr. p. 31. Eremophila Sturtii.

d. Folia alterna glanduloso-tuberculata, sepala cuneato-obovata, sessilia, glandulosa.

E. alternifolia. Br. prodr. i. p. 518.

This last species might be separated from Eremophila; it is not however referable to Stenochilus, with some of whose species it nearly agrees in corolla, but from all of which it differs in its glandular scariose calyx.

20. EREMOPHILA (Sturtii), pubescens, foliis angustè linearibus apiculo recurvo, corollis extus pubescentibus limbo intus barbato, staminibus inclusis.

LOC. “On the Darling; flowers purplish, sweet-scented.” D. Sturt.

DESC. Frutex orgyalis (D. Sturt.). Calyx 5-partitus, æqualis; sepalis obovato-oblongis, basi angustioribus sed in unguem vix attenuatis, membranaceis, uninerviis, venosis. Corolla bilabiata, tubo amplo recto, labiis obtusis, extus pubescens, intus hinc (inferius) barbata. Labium superius tripartitum; lobo medio bifido (e duobus conflato); laciniis omnibus obtusis; inferius obcordatum bilobum lobis rotundatis, densius barbatum. Stamina quatuor didynama, omnino inclusa. Filamenta glabra. Antheræ reniformes, loculis apice confluentibus. Ovarium densè lanatum. Stylus glaber. Stigma indivisum, apice styli vix crassius.




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OBS. Species proxima E. Mitchelli Benth. in Mitch. Trop. Austr. p. 31.

21. STENOCHILUS longifolius. Br. prodr. i. p. 517. Stenochilus pubiflorus. Benth. in Mitch. trop. Aust. p. 273. Stenochilus salicinus. Benth. in Mitch. trop. Austr. p. 251.

LOC. Nulla stationis indicatio.

22. STENOCHILUS maculatus, Ker in Bot. Regist. tab. 647. Cunningh. MSS. 1847.

ß Stenochilus curvipes. Benth. in Mitch. trop. Austr. p. 221. Varietas S. maculati, sepalorum acumine paulo breviore.

OBS. M. Alphonse De Candolle, in Prodr. xi. p. 715. refers S. ochroleucus of Cunningh. MSS. 1817, as a variety to S. maculatus; it is however very distinct, having a short erect peduncule like that of S. glaber, to which it is much more nearly related, differing chiefly in its being slightly pubescent.

23. GREVILLEA (EUGREVILLEA) Sturtii, foliis indivisis (nonnullis rarò bifidis) augustè linearibus elongatis uninerviis: marginibus arctè revolutis, racemis oblongis cylindraceisve: rachi pedicellis perianthiisque inexpansis glutinoso-pubescentibus, ovario sessili, stylo glabro.

LOC. “On sand-hills in lat. 27° S.” D. Sturt.

DESC. Arbor 15-pedalis (Sturt.) Rami teretes, pube arcte adpressa persistenti incani. Folia 6-10-pollices longa, vix tres lineas lata, subter pubescentia incana, super tandem glabrata. Thyrsus terminalis, 2-4 uncialis, rachi pedicellisque pube erecta nec appressa secretione glutinosa intermista. Flores aurantiaci.

OBS. In the collection presented to the British Museum by Sir Thomas Mitchell, of the plants of his last expedition, there is a very perfect specimen, in flower, of Grevillea Sturtii.

The following observations respecting the Grevilleæ of the same collection may not be without interest.




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Grevillea Mitchellii, Hooker, in Mitch. Trop. Austr. p. 265, proves to be Gr. Chrysodendron, prodr. fl. Nov. Holl. p. 379, the specific name of which was not derived from the colour of the under surface of the leaves, which is, indeed, nearly white, but from the numerous orange-coloured racemes, rendering this tree conspicuous at a great distance.

Grevillea longistyla and G. juncea of the same narrative, both belong to that section of the genus which I have named Plagiopoda.

A single specimen, in most respects resembling Gr. longistyla, of which possibly it may be a variety, but which at least deserves notice, has all its leaves pinnatifid, instead of being undivided. It may be distinguished by the following character:—Grevillea (Plagiopoda) neglecta, foliis pinnatifidis subtus niveis; laciniis linearibus, stylis glabris.

A single specimen also exists of Grevillea (or Hakea) lorea, prodr. flor. Nov. Holl. p. 380, but without fructification.

24. GREVILLEA (CYCLOPTERA?) lineata, foliis indivisis lineari-ens formibus enerviis subter striis decem paucioribus elevatis uniformibus interstitia bis-terve latitudine superantibus, cicatrice insertionis latiore quam longa utrinque obtusa, racemis terminalibus alternis, pistillis semuncia brevioribus stigmate conico.

LOC. “It takes the place of the gum-tree (Eucalyptus) in the creeks about lat. 29° 30' S.” D. Sturt.

OBS. It is difficult to distinguish this species, which, according to Captain Sturt, forms a tree about 20 feet in height, from Grevillea striata. I have endeavoured to do so in the above specific difference, contrasted with which the leaves of G. striata have always more than 10 striæ,


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which are hardly twice the breadth of the pubescent interstices, and the cicatrices of whose leaves are longer than broad, and more or less acute, both above and below. This is a source of character which in the supplement to the Prodr. Floræ Novæ Hollandiæ, I have employed in a few cases both in Grevillea and Hakea, but which I believe to be important, as it not only expresses a difference of form, but also in general of vascular arrangement.

25. PTILOTUS (latifolius) capitulis globosis, bracteis propriis calycem superantibus, foliis ovatis petiolatis.

LOC. “In lat. 26° S.”—D. Sturt.

DESC. Herba diffusa, ramosa, incana. Folia alterna, petiolata, latèovata, integerrima. Capitula ramos terminantia, solitaria vel duo approximata. Bracteæ laterales scariosæ, sessiles, latè ovatæ, enerviæ. Perianthium; foliolis subæqualibus, lana implexa alba basi tectis, ante expansionem ungue nervoso tunc brevissimo, post anthesin laminam scariosam enervem fere æquante. Stamina 5 antherifera; filamenta basi in cyathulum edentulum connata. Antheræ biloculares, loculis utrinque distinctis medio solum conjunctis. Ovarium monospermum, glabrum. Stylus filiformis, glaber. Stigma capitatum, parvum. Utriculus evalvis, ruptilis.

OBS. I was at first inclined to consider this plant as a genus distinct from Ptilotus, more, however, from the remarkable difference in habit than from any important distinction in the flower, for its character would have chiefly consisted in the great size of its lateral bracheæ, and in the form of its antheræ.

In a small collection formed during the voyage of Captains Wickham and Stokes, there is a plant very nearly related to, and perhaps not specifically distinct from Ptilotus latifolius, but having narrower leaves. It was found on one of the islands of Dampier's Archipelago.




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26. NEURACHNE (paradoxa) glaberrima, culmo dichotomo, foliis rameis abbreviatis, fasciculis paucifloris, glumis perianthiisque imberbibus valvula exteriore cujusve floris septemnervia.

LOC. Nulla indicatio loci v. stationis, in Herbario. D. Sturt.

DESC. Gramen junceum, facie potius Cyperaceæ cujusdam. Folia radicalia in specimine unico viso defuere; ramos subtendentia abbreviata, vagina aperta ipsum folium superante; floralia subspathiformia sed foliacea nec membranacea. Fasciculi pauciflori: spiculæ cum pedunculo brevissimo articulatæ et solubiles, et subtensæ bractea nervosa carinata ejusdem circiter longitudinis. Gluma bivalvis biflora, nervosa, acuta, mutica; valvulæ subæquales septemnerviæ; exterioris nervis tribus axin occupantibus sed distinctis reliquis per paria a marginibus et axilibus subæquidistantibus; interioris nervis æquidistantibus, externis margine approximatis. Perianthium inferius (exterius), bivalvis, neuter; valvula exterior septemnervis, exteriori glumæ similis textura forma et longitudine; valvula interior (superior) angustior pauloque brevior, dinervis, nervis alatis marginibus veris latis induplicatis. Perianthium superius hermaphroditum, paulo brevius, pergamineo-membranaceum, nervis dilutè viridibus; valvula exterior quinquenervis, acuta, concava; interior ejusdem fere longitudinis, dinervis. Stamina 3, filamentis linearibus. Ovarium oblongum, imberbe. Styli duo. Stigmata plumosa, pallida?

OBS. Neurachne paradoxa, founded on a single specimen, imperfect in its leaves and stem, but sufficiently complete in its parts of fructification, differs materially in habit from the original species, N. alopeuroides, as well as from N. Mitchelliana of Nees, while these two species differ widely from each other in several important points of structure.




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In undertaking to give some account of the more remarkable plants of Captain Sturt's collection, it was my intention to have entered in some detail into the general character of the vegetation of the interior of Australia, south of the Tropic.

I am now obliged to relinquish my original intention, so far as relates to detail, but shall still offer a few general remarks on the subject.

These remarks will probably be better understood, if I refer, in the first place, to some observations published in 1814, in the Botanical Appendix to Captain Flinders's Voyage.

From the knowledge I then had of New Holland, or Australian vegetation, I stated that its chief peculiarities existed in the greatest degree in a parallel, included between 33° and 35° S. lat. which I therefore called the principal parallel, but that these peculiarities or characteristic tribes, were found chiefly at its western and eastern extremities, being remarkably diminished in that intermediate portion, included between 133° and 138°, E. long. These observations related entirely to the shores of Australia, its interior, being at that period altogether unknown; and the species of Australian plants, with which I was then acquainted, did not exceed 4200. Since that time great additions have been made to the number, chiefly by Mr. Allan Cunningham, in his various journeys from Port Jackson, and on the shores of the North and North-west coasts during the voyages of Captain King whom he accompanied; by Messrs. William Baxter, James Drummond, and M. Preiss, at the western extremity of the principal parallel, and by Mr. Ronald Gunn in Van Diemen's Land. It is probable that I may be considered as underrating these additions, when I venture to state them as only between two and three thousand; and that


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the whole number of Australian plants at present known, does not exceed, but rather falls short of 7000 species.

These additions, whatever their amount may be, confirm my original statement respecting the distribution of the characteristic tribes of the New Holland Flora; some additional breadth might perhaps be given to the principal parallel, and the extent of the peculiar families may now be stated as much greater at or near its western, than at its eastern extremity.

With the vegetation of the extra-tropical interior of Australia, we are now in some degree acquainted, chiefly from the collections formed by the late Mr. Allan Cunningham, and Charles Fraser, in Oxley's two expeditions from Port Jackson into the western interior, in 1817 and 1818; from Captain Sturt's early expeditions, in which the rivers Darling, Murrumbidgee, and Murray, were discovered; from those of Sir Thomas Mitchell, who never failed to form extensive collections of plants of the regions he visited; and lastly, from Captain Sturt's present collection.

The whole number of plants collected in these various expeditions, may be estimated at about 700 or 750 species; and the general character of the vegetation, especially of the extensive sterile regions, very nearly resembles that of the heads of the two great inlets of the south coast, particularly that of Spencer's Gulf; the same or a still greater diminution of the characteristic tribes of the general Australian Flora being observable. Of these characteristic tribes, hardly any considerable proportion is found, except of Eucalyptus, and even that genus seems to be much reduced in the number of species; of the leafless Acaciæ, which appear to exist in nearly their usual proportion; and of Callitris and Casuarina. The extensive families of Epacrideæ, Stylideæ, Restiaceæ, and the tribe


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of Decandrous Papilionaceæ, hardly exist, and the still more characteristic and extensive family of Proteaceæ is reduced to a few species of Grevillea, Hakea, and Persoonia.

Nor are there any extensive families peculiar to these regions; the only characteristic tribes being that small section of aphyllous, or nearly aphyllous Cassiæ, which I have particularly adverted to in my account of some of the species belonging to Captain Sturt's collection; and several genera of Myoporinæ, particularly Eremophila and Stenochilus. Both these tribes appear to be confined to the interior, or to the two great gulfs of the South coast, which may be termed the outlets or direct continuation of the southern interior; several of the species observed at the head of Spencer's Gulf, also existing in nearly the same meridian, several degrees to the northward. It is not a little remarkable that nearly the same general character of vegetation appears to exist in the sterile islands of Dampier's Archipelago, on the North-west coast, where even some of the species which probably exist through the whole of the southern interior are found; of these the most striking instances are, Clianthus Dampieri, and Jasminum lineare, and to establish this extensive range of these two species was my object in entering so minutely into their history in the preceding account.

A still greater reduction of the peculiarities of New Holland vegetation, takes place in the islands of the South coast.

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