06. Part VI

10. IX. Eucalyptus amygdalina, Labill

  ― 149 ―


E. amygdalina, Labill.

THE following description is based upon Bentham (B.Fl., iii, 202), but by no means literally follows the classical work referred to:—

A tree, usually small or moderate-sized, but sometimes attaining a considerable height; the bark fibrous and persistent—not so fibrous as that of a “Stringybark,” and of looser texture than that of a “Box,” —of the character usually known in Australia as “Peppermint,” since it was originally observed on trees at Port Jackson whose foliage emitted a peppermint odour when crushed. The fibrous bark occurs only on the trunk, or, at most, on the largest branches. The branches are usually quite smooth or ribbony.

Juvenile Foliage.—Opposite, narrow-lanceolate. Probably all forms have the twigs more or less rusty glandular; sometimes the leaves are in threes. (See Fig. 3, pl. 29.) The variation in width of the transit forms will be alluded to at p. 163. The under side is often purple.

Mature Foliage.—From linear to broadly lanceolate, straight or falcate, mostly acuminate, and 2 to 4 in. long; when narrow rather thin, when broad thicker, the veins few and oblique, but often inconspicuous, the intramarginal one at a distance from the edge, or rarely near to it. This species varies in the size, shape, and texture of the leaves. The usual shape in New South Wales is lanceolate, or even broadly lanceolate, but the typical form is linear-lanceolate, or even linear, comparatively thick, and the veins very oblique at the base, not prominent. Sometimes the foliage is quite dense, in other cases it is sparse. The various forms have leaves which have a pleasing, yet strong (sometimes very strong), odour of peppermint, to which circumstance they owe their commonest vernacular name. The aroma is least evident in var. nitida.

Buds clavate, often glandular and rough.

Calyx-tube turbinate, about 2 lines diameter, tapering into a pedicel often as long as itself.

Operculum hemispherical, shorter than the calyx-tube; very obtuse, or slightly umbonate.

Peduncles axillary or lateral, terete or nearly so, with 4 to 8, and even more, flowers.

Flowers.—Stamens under 2 lines long, inflected in the bud, all perfect; anthers small, with diverging, more or less confluent cells. Ovary flat-topped.

Fruit.—Subglobose-truncate, usually under 3 lines diameter, but larger in some varieties; slightly contracted at the orifice, the rim flat or slightly concave and rather broad; the capsule not at all, or only slightly, sunk, the valves flat or slightly protruding.

Following is a general description of them as far as New South Wales is concerned:—They are of a pilular shape, though with some tendency to pear-shape. They are wide at the mouth and almost hemispherical, the rim thin and also thickish and well-defined. As compared with New South Wales forms the Tasmanian specimens have often more domed fruits, and the rim thicker and more conspicuous.

Bentham's “sub-globose truncate” applies to some of the forms. The tips of the valves are sometimes slightly exserted.

Timber.—Pale-coloured (nearly white) when newly cut, but drying to a pale brown. Often liable to gum-veins, which tend to form thin concentric rings. Of inferior durability and strength as a very general rule, but there are some apparently well-authenticated instances of the comparative durability of this timber for posts and shingles, and other purposes which will be duly noted.

Habitat.—Tasmania is the home of the type, but it is very abundant in Victoria and New South Wales, occurring in the colder districts of the last-named States.

  ― 150 ―

Following is the original description of the species:—

Eucalyptus operculo hemisphærico, mutico; capitulis lateralibus terminalibusque, solitariis; foliis lineari-lanceolatis.

Arbor mediocris altitudine, ramulis subteretibus. Folia lineari-lanceolata, utrinque acuta, subpetiolata, alterna, plurima acuminata, palmaria et amplius, juniora glauca. Flores vix pedicellati, capitulorum pedunculo communi subtereti. Stylus vix calycem superans; stigmate obtuso. Capsula subglobosa, inclusa, quadrilocularis. Alias ut supra.

Habitat.—In capite Van Diemen.

Obs.—Haec est fortasse Metrosideros salicifolia, cujus figuram descriptionemque fructus tantummodo invenies in Gaertn., Sem. 1, p. 171, tab. 34, fig. A.—(Labill., Nov. Holl., Pl. ii, 14, t. 154.)

The original specimen described by Labillardière therefore came from Tasmania (see Fig. 1, pl. 29). The following is Don's translation of the species description as given in DC. Prod. iii, 219:—

Lid hemispherical, nearly mutic, shorter than the cup; peduncles axillary and lateral, nearly terete, length of the petioles; umbels 6–8 flowered, nearly capitate; leaves linear lanceolate, attenuated at the base, and acuminately mucronate at the apex. Leaves 3 inches long and 3 lines broad; some unequal at the base, and some equal. Petioles and peduncles, 3 lines long. Fruit globose, size of a grain of pepper.

The following particulars in regard to the oil of this species, and of allied forms, are quoted from Messrs. Baker and Smith's Research on the Eucalypts:

Species.  Whence collected for oil.  Specific Gravity at 150° C.  Specific Rotation [a] D   Saponification Number.  Solubility in Alcohol.  Constituents found. 
amygdalina …  Moss Vale and Monga, N.S.W.  0·9012 to 0·905  -11·37° to -13·53°  3·76  1¼ vol. 70% to 2 vols. 70%  Eucalyptol, pinene, phellandrene, peppermint ketone, eudesmol, methyl, ethyl, isobutyl, and amyl alcohols. 
radiata (non radiata Sieb., but var. numerosa, sp. or var. nov.).note   Wingello and Monga, N.S.W.  0·8695 to 0·8747  -74·48° to -89·4°  2·8 to 4·37  Insoluble  Phellandrene, pinene, eucalyptol, peppermint ketone. 
vitrea, a suggested hybrid, amygdalina × coriacea.note   Crookwell, N.S.W.  0·886  -33·92°  5·4  1 vol. 80%  Phellandrene, eucalyptol, peppermint ketone. 

  ― 151 ―


THIS is not a specially variable species, but it went early into cultivation in Europe, and for many years was abundantly despatched thereto. Many of the names were given to immature specimens, growing in pots; it is consequently one of the species richest in synonyms, and I do not suppose for a moment that I have ascertained the whole of them.

  • 1. E. salicifolia, Cav. (Metrosideros salicifolia, Soland.)
  • 2. E. angustifolia, R.Br.
  • 3. E. tuberculata, Parm.
  • 4. E. radiata, Sieber.
  • 5. E. purpurascens, Link., var. petiolata, DC.
  • 6. E. globularis,
  • 7. E. glandulosa, Desf.
  • 8. E. Lindleyana, DC.
  • 9. E. longifolia, Lindl.
  • 10. E. gracilis, Miq.
  • 11. E. tenuiramis, Miq.

Var. numerosa, var. nov. (vel. E. numerosa, sp. nov.).

  • 12. E. amygdalina, Labill., var. radiata, Benth. (partim).
  • 13. E. calyculata, Link.
  • 14. E. diversifolia, Otto.
  • 15. E. elata, Dehnh.
  • 16. E. elata, Giordano.
  • 17. E. translucens, A. Cunn.
  • 18. E. Andreana, Naudin.

Var. nitida, Benth.

  • 19. E. nitida, Hook., f.
  • 20. E. radiata, Hook., f. (non. Sieb.), var. 5.
  • 21. E. ambigua, DC. (?)

  ― 152 ―

Notes on the Synonyms.

  • 1.E. salicifolia, Cav. Ic. iv, 24 (Metrosideros salicifolia, Solander), probably “Metrosideros salicifolia” a and b, Soland., MSS.

a. Calyx subglobosus (a) truncatus, edentulus. Semina parva; (b) angulata, ferruginea.… Embryo.…(Gaertner, De Fructibus, I. 172, with tab. xxxiv.)

Fig. 3 (a) of this plate consists of two fruits, which may be E. amygdalina, Labill. (See also Labillardière's original description); 3 (b) consists of seeds. According to specimens in Herb. Vindob., labelled “Eucalyptus amygdalina, Labill., Metrosideros salicifolia, Gaertn., Ins. van Diemen, Herb. Bauer, Ferd. Bauer,” the above is E. amygdalina, a view in which I concur. The specimens are in leaf and fruit.

A plant in early bud from Tasmania, labelled “Eucalyptus salicifolia,” in Fraser's handwriting, is in Herb. Oxon., and cannot be distinguished from No. 25, Gunn. It is E. amygdalina.

2. E. angustifolia, R.Br., No. 4,800 b. E. angustifolia, R.Br., MSS., Derwent (Tasmania), from Herb. Brit. Mus.

3. E. tuberculata, Parm. DC. Prod. (No. 43) iii, 221. The Prodromus specimen is labelled “Jard. de Berlin, Mr. Otto, 1826,” and consists of juvenile foliage.

4. E. radiata, Sieber.

Sieb. plant exs. nov. holl. n. 425) operculo hemisphaerico mucronata capsulâ breviore, pedunculis axillaribus et lateralibus subangulatis petiolo subbrevioribus, floribus 15–20 umbellatis breviter pedicellatis, foliis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis, venis tenuissimis in nervum margini parallelum confluentibus. In Novâ-Hollandiâ. Fructus globosi 3 lin. diam. Petioli 4 lin. longi. Folia 4 poll. longa, 6–7 lin. lata (DC. Prod. iii, 218). De Candolle figured the Prodromus specimen in DC. Mém. Myrt., t. 7.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 203), quoting the Prodromus and Mém. Myrt., names this plant E. amydalina, Labill., var. radiata. He, however, quotes Sieber's number as 475. A specimen of Sieber's No. 475 I received from the Botanical Museum, Berlin (labelled E. pauciflora, Sieb., by the way) is E. radiata, Sieb., and probably De Candolle's quotation of 425 is a mere slip of the pen.

I have also an original specimen of Sieber's Fl. mixta, No 604 [there are, of course, two series, “plant exs.” (plantœ exoticœ) and Fl. mixta], which is obviously similar to De Candolle's drawing of E. radiata, Sieb., Mém Myrt t. 7. I am, therefore, in a position to speak with authority as to the identification of E. radiata, Sieb. Under E. viminalis, Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 240) refers Sieber's

  ― 153 ―
Fl. mixta, 604, to E. viminalis; there has been some confusion of numbers here which I do not pretend to be able to unravel, and which is of no particular consequence.

E. radiata, Sieb., appears to be nothing more or less than a form of E. amygdalina very common in New South Wales, and I see nothing distinctive enough to warrant its being called a variety. The typical amygdalina from Tasmania, with its linear-lanceolate, often thickish, leaves, with hemispherical opercula and hemispherical, usually broad-rimmed, fruit, doubtless appeared to Sieber to be sufficiently different from the New South Wales form. Sieber's type probably came from the higher parts of the Blue Mountains (I have matched it completely from Wentworth Falls to Mount Victoria). It is also common in some northern localities. The specimens distributed by Sieber have fruits not dead ripe; when they are quite ripe the tips of the valves are slightly exserted.

Much confusion has gathered round E. radiata, Sieb.

Hooker (Fl. Tas.) attributed four forms to E. radiata which I will, later on, show to belong partly to E. Risdoni, Hook., f., var. elata, Benth., and partly to E. amygdalina, Labill.

Then Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 203) described a var. radiata of E. amygdalina which is a combination of (a) E. radiata, Sieb., of (b) Hooker's Tasmanian supposed forms of radiata, and of (c) the “White Gum” of Bent's Basin and the Nepean River, N.S.W. (Woolls). The “White Gum” of Bent's Basin I will presently deal with under the name numerosa, var. or sp. nov.

5. E. purpurascens, Link.

230. E. purpurascens. Fol. amplexicaulibus lanceolatis longe acutatis subtus glaucis. Hab. in Australia. Rami purpurascentes. Folia 4' longa, 10? lata juniora subtus saltem nervis purpurascentia.— (Link's Enumeratio, p. 31.)

E. purpurascens (Link, Enum. 2, p. 31), foliis oppositis amplexicaulibus lanceolatis longe acutis subtus glaucis. In Nova Hollandiâ. Rami et nervi foliorum purpurascentes. Folia 4 poll. longa 10 lin. lata. Forsan varietates 2 sequentes sunt tantum ejusdem formæ ut in E. glauca diversissimæ. Flores ign.

Var. petiolata, foliis breviter petiolatis lineari lanceolatis acuminatis.—(DC. Prod. iii, 221.)

I have seen the original specimen in the Prodromus herbarium. It bears the label “E. purpurascens, Link, Enum., Jard. de Berlin, M. Otto, 1826,” and again, “E. purpurascens, Link, var. petiolata, DC. (DC. Prodr., n. 42).” It is in juvenile foliage only, but I have no doubt that it is referable to E. amygdalina. E. purpurascens, var. petiolaris, DC. is E. corymbosa, Sm.

A specimen of E. purpurascens, Link, in Herb. Vindob. is in the opposite-leaved stage, and is probably E. amygdalina, Labill. The under side of the young foliage of this species is often purple.

  ― 154 ―

The following, referred to E. purpurascens, Link, is doubtful:—

(766.) Eucalyptus purpurascens. E. textu Link, Enum. definita, q. l., at bene convenit. Folia horizontalia cordata (quod jure semper basi tantum intelligitur; v. Fl. Port.) semiamplexicaulia tantum (ad Link, Enum.), at cum opposita sint, junctim sane amplexicaulia (quod tamen utrumque non plane idem arbitror), subrepanda, margine nervis que supra quoque purpurascentia; subtus sane glauca, et mihi albide, purpurascentique admisto. Margo tenuiter subrevolutus.—(Hoffmg. Verz. Pfl. Nachtr. 3, p. 36.)

6. E. globularis, Hort., Ex. DC. Prod. iii, 219, under E. amygdalina.

E. globularis, hortul. (?). Folia 3 poll. longa, 3 lin. lata, alia basi æqualia alia hinc inæqualia. Pet. et ped. 3 lin. longi. Fructus globosus grani Piperis magn.

7. E. glandulosa, Desf.

Ramis tuberculosis; ramulis filiformibus; foliis oppositis, connatis, lanceolatis, acuminatis. Folia glaberrima, uncias 3–5 longa, lineas 4 lata, in acumen longum attenuata. An E. tuberculata, DC., Prodr. (?.) (Desf., in Cat. Pl. Hort. Par. Ed. 3, 1829, p. 408.)

See also:—

Ramis tuberculosis, ramulis filiformibus, fol. oppositis connatis, lanceolatis, acuminatis. Folia 4–5 uncias longa, 4 lin. lata. E. tuberculata (?) DC. Crescit … (?). (Walp. Repert. ii, 926.) There are specimens in Herb. Barbey-Boissier bearing the label “Eucalyptus glandulosa, Desf., Culta.”

8. E. Lindleyana, DC.

Operculo hemisphærico submutico, pedunculis teretiusculis flores 3–5 umbellatas gerentibus, foliis lineari-lanceolatis, aliis petiolatis basi cuneatis subæqualibus aliis sessilibus basi obtusis. In Australasia (?). E. longifolia, Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 947. Phrasis ex icone, sed descriptio nulla edita ob fruticem in hortis mox post anthesin mortuum.—(DC. Prod. iii, 219.)

According to Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 202) this is referable to E. amygdalina, Labill.

An old specimen in the Vienna Herbarium (Collection Reichenbach, fil.), labelled with an old label, “Eucalyptus Lindleyana, DC. Prod. 3, 219. E. longifolia, Lindl. c.” is E. amygdalina, var. numerosa.

9. E. longifolia, Lindl., in Bot. Reg., t. 947. The brief description is:—

E. longifolia; operculo hemisphærico submutico, foliis lineari-lanceolatis basi cuneatis subinæqualibus, umbellis paucifloris pedunculatis axillaribus.

Bentham refers it to E. amygdalina. I have seen it, and concur.

10. E. gracilis, Miq. non F.v.M.

Specimen No. 3 (from Tasmania, C. Stuart) attributed to the above species by Miq. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv.

11. E. tenuiramis, Miq.

11. Eucalyptus tenuiramis, Miq. n. sp.: ramulis tenuibus gracilibus teretiusculis, foliis e basi attenuata subæquali lanceolatis vulgo subfalcatis, apiculo recto vel curvulo terminalis, subcoriaceis, punctatis, venis tenuibus adscendentibus tenere reticulatis utrinque cum costa subdistinctis, pedunculis 6-10 floris, floribus subsessilibus, calycis tubo obovato-conico striulato pruinoso, filamentis rubellis et flavis (in sicco) antheris didymis.

  ― 155 ―

Van Diemen's Land (Stuart, n. 11, p. 16).

Ramuli fusculi. Petioli tenues subsemipollicares. Folia 3–5, vulgo 4½ poll. longa, 4–7 lin. lata, nunc glauco-pruinosa. Pedunculi subsemipollicares. Alabastra clavata. Calycis tubus fere 3 lin. longus.

(P. 129.) Species venis adscendentibus (p. 129) a plurimus diagnoscenda. Anne cum E. uncinata, Turcz. Bull. Mosc. xxii, part ii, p. 23, comparanda (?).—(Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv, 128, 1856.)

E. tenuiramis, Miq., is described in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv, 128 (1856) from Tasmanian specimens (“Stuart No. 11, p. 16,” sic). I have examined the type specimen (“unicum in Miquel's handwriting”) in Herb., Melb. E. tenuiramis, Miq., “Van Diemen's Land, C. Stuart.” It has broadish leaves with thickened margins, is in flower, without buds or fruit. I cannot see any difference between this specimen and R. Gunn's No. 1,112 (see Fl. Tas.).

E. ligustrina, DC., surmised by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 203) as probably amygdalina, is, in my opinion, a form of E. eugenoides, Sieb. It will be dealt with in due course.

Variety numerosa, var. nov.

(vel. E. numerosa, sp. nov.)

In allusion to the very large number of flowers in the umbel.

12. E. amygdalina, Labill., var. radiata, Benth.

In the Catalogue of Indigenous Woods of the southern districts of New South Wales, prepared by the late Sir William Macarthur for the Paris Exhibition, 1855, we have, under No. 109:—

Eucalyptus radiata, (?) “Kayer-ro,” “River Gum of Camden.” A small, quick-growing species, very elegant when in blossom; is found only on the immediate sandy banks of rivers; the wood of no value; the inner bark used for tying grafts, and other similar common purposes. Height, 30 to 50 feet; diameter, 12 to 18 inches.

The name was supplied by Kew, and it will be observed that it was doubtfully referred to E. radiata.

In the Flora Australiensis, as I have already pointed out, Bentham included it with some other trees under his variety radiata of amygdalina.

It is the tree included by Mueller under E. amygdalina in “Eucalyptographia,” where, quoting Howitt, he speaks of the “Wang-gnara” of Gippsland. Subsequently Howitt refers to the treenote in some detail.

It was figured and described by Deane and Maiden,note as var radiata, Benth.

The Rev. Dr. Woolls, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., v. 448, and on other occasions, protested against E. radiata, Sieb. (as he understood the species) being merged in E. amygdalina, Labill. It will, however, remain an open question with some botanists as to whether this form is looked upon as a variety or as an independent species. It certainly is closely related to E. amygdalina, and different authors hold different views as to the amount of variation necessary to constitute a species. So that, as far as aboriginal and vernacular names are concerned, it is the “Kayer-ro” of Sir William Macarthur, the “White Gum” of Bent's Basin and the Nepean (Woolls. See B.Fl. iii, 203), and the “Wang-gnara” of Mr. Howitt. It goes under the names of “River White Gum,” “Ribbon Gum,” and also “Narrowleaved Peppermint.” Its favourite habitat is on the sides of gullies, or on the steep banks of rivers, often some distance from the bed of the river or creek, but usually on a well-drained slope leading to a watercourse. It sometimes occurs on flats. It is often seen as a graceful sapling, but may attain the dignity of a large tree. In this State I have it up to 3 feet in diameter and more, with a height of 150 feet. It has rather sparse, drooping foliage, which gives it, at times, something of a willow-like aspect.

  ― 156 ―

Bark.—It is nearly a White Gum when very young, but afterwards the bark of the upper part falls off in thin, long ribbons (hence the name “Ribbon Gum”), and the lower part of the trunk becomes covered, to a varying height, with fibrous bark of the character known to many as Peppermint bark. In its most marked form the bark at the butt is more rugged than that of amygdalina usually is. Sir William Macarthur spoke of the fibrous bark, and subsequently Mr. Howitt pointed out that the aborigines of Gippsland similarly used the bark for tying and lashing, hence their name for the tree “Wang-gnara,” which signifies “bark-string.”

Seedling or sucker leaves.—The young stems have a rusty, glandular appearance, and the leaves are very narrow. I do not note any difference between them and the leaves of the normal species.

Mature leaves.—Thin; though usually narrow, up to 14 lines broad, often from four to 7 inches long. Although the leaves of this form are very thin, specimens from Bateman's Bay to Wagonga are especially thin. These specimens also have unusually narrow leaves.

Fruits.—Large numbers (commonly twenty or more; Mueller counted as many as forty-three in the umbel. See “Eucalyptographia” under amygdalina. I have often counted them with forty (but I have not figured an umbel with so large a number for clearness sake) in an umbel, borne on rather long, often filiform pedicels. They have a very regular, umbellate appearance. Mostly pale-coloured when dry. Very uniform in size, 2 to 2½ lines (barely) in diameter, and pilular, or nearly pear-shaped. Sometimes they tend to close at the orifice. The rim varies in width. In some specimens it is comparatively broad, well-defined, and reddish.

Timber.—It is a white, fissile timber, rather tough when freshly cut, but afterwards of inferior strength. It is easily worked, but is not durable on exposure.


13. E. calyculata, Herb. Link. (where described ?).

A specimen in Herb. Berol. examined by me in that collection in 1900.

14. E. diversifolia, Otto (Hort. Berol.). A specimen in flower in Herb. Vindob.

  ― 157 ―

15. E. elata, Dehnh.

Specimen from “Hort. Neapel” (Herb. Vindob.) from Dehnhardt. “A giant of 100 feet high and 8 feet in circumference near the root” (Hort. Camaldul., Dehnhardt).

16. E. elata, Giordano.

A specimen in Herb. Barbey-Boissier bears the following label:—“Eucalyptus elata, mihi, in Cat. H. (hort.), Camuldensis, Giordano.” A specimen labelled E. elata in herb. A. Braun, in herb., Berlin. There is a similar specimen in herb., Monac. (Munich), labelled “Aff: Eucal. radiata, Sieb. Eucalyptus elata, exsicc. Dr. Krumer, hort. Monac, 23rd Jan., 1849.”

17. E. translucens, A. Cunn., MSS.

Specimens examined by me:—“River bank, County Argyle,” Herb., Kew. (There is a similar specimen in Herb., Oxon., labelled “Eucalyptus translucens, Argyle”); also, Cowpasture River, 36/1824 April, Herb., Kew. I have examined specimens similarly labelled in other herbaria.

18. E. Andreana, Naudin,note Revue horticole (1890), p. 346.

C'est probablement une des espèces auxquelles on a donné le nom d'E. amygdalina, mais il ne m'est pas possible de l'identifier à aucune d'entre elles. Elle existe dans plusieurs jardins de la région, notamment dans ceux de M. H. de Vilmorin et de M. Edouard André, au Golfe—Juan, qui en a été l'introducteur en France.

Cet Eucalyptus est vaguement biforme, en ce sens que les premières feuilles, à l'état juvénile, quoique opposées, ne sont pas tout à fait sessiles et qu'elles ressemblent à celles de l'âge adulte, étant comme elles longuement lancéolées. Ces dernières, un peu molles pour un Eucalyptus, sont souvent rapprochées deux par deux, un peu aiguës à la base, davantage au sommet, droites ou un peu arquées en faux, vertes, pendantes, longues en moyenne de 10 centimètres, sur une largeur de 1 à 1½.

L'inflorescence rappelle celle de l'E. amygdalina, étant, comme dans de dernier, composée d'ombelles axillaires un peu capituliformes et pluriflores, où le nombre des fleurs peut aller de 15 à 25, peut-être quelquefois plus. Leur bouton est claviforme, atténué en pédicelle et terminé par un petit opercule hémisphérique, plus court que le tube du calyce, obtus ou terminé par un court mamelon. Le fruit, à peu près de la grosseur d' une graine de chènevis, est pyriforme-tronqué, et sa capsule, 3–4 loculaire et incluse, n'arrive pas tout à fait au bord du tube calycinal ou réceptacle.

L'E. Andreana est un arbre élégant, surtout à l'époque de sa floraison, quand ses longs rameaux, grêles et pendants, ressemblent à autant de guirlandes de fleurs blanches. Nous ne le connaissons encore que par des exemplaires de 8 à 10 mètres, qui deviendront sans doute beaucoup plus grands avec les années.

Dans la planche de l'Eucalyptographia du baron Ferd. von Müller (fascicule V, No. 1), qui est censée représenter l'E. amygdalina, une partie des figures pourrait, à la rigueur, convenir à l'E. Andreana, mais celle qui en représente la forme juvénile ne me paraît pouvoir s'appliquer qu'à l'E. viminalis, ou à quelque autre espèce biforme à feuilles sessiles comme dans ce dernier.

  ― 158 ―

Variety nitida, Benth.

19. E. nitida, Hook, f.:—

Arbor mediocris, ramulis pendulis, foliis anguste lanceolatis longe acuminatis coriaceis nitidis vernicosis nervis divergentibus, pedunculis validis multifloris, floribus brevibus subsessilibus, calyce breviter clavato v. obconico, operculo brevi lato, capsulis sessilibus parvis subglobosis ore contracto v. subdilatato, marginibus crassis planis angustive. (Tab. xxix.) (Gunn, 808.)

Hab.—Hobarton, Circular Head, Currie's River, east of Georgetown; A. Cunningham, Gunn.

I have great doubts as to the distinctness of this species, which I have at one time been inclined to refer to E amygdalina, and at others to E. radiata (Risdoni, var. elata, in part, J. H. M.), but from both of which it differs in very small sessile fruit, and very shining, coriaceous leaves. Gunn says that at the Currie's River it forms a bush only, 5 feet high; and that at Circular Head it grows 10–20 feet high, and appears more of a shrub than a tree. It approaches E. stellulata, Sieber, in many points, but wants the three parallel nerves of that plant, and the large operculum.—(Hook., f., Fl. Tas., 1, 137, with plate.)

20. E. radiata, Hook., f. (non Sieb.), var. 5. Fl. Tas., i, 137.

5. Foliis angustis elongatis, capsulis parvis obconicis. Arbor elata, ad E. nitidam tendens.—

(Hook. f., loc. cit.).

A label by Hooker is “A large dense tree near the sea at Port Arthur,” which also is a locality for his E. nitidus. The two are, in fact, identical.

Messrs. Baker and Smith (Research on the Eucalypts, p. 169), say—

It is now shown that its (E. amygdalina) leaves, timber, bark, fruits, chemical constituents, &c., differentiate it clearly and distinctly from.…E. nitida, Hook., f.,

but no evidence is furnished in support of this statement.

When reducing E. nitida to a variety of E. amygdalina, Bentham has a note:

Leaves broader and more rigid. Peduncles and pedicels shorter. Flowers rather longer.… (E. nitida, Hook. f.). In the dried specimens this variety appears to pass into the variety elata of E. Risdoni.—(B.Fl. iii, 203.)

Rodway (The Tasmanian Flora, p. 56), defines var. nitida as—

Differing from small-statured individuals only in the leaves being broader and more rigid, running absolutely into the type.

There is no doubt that the species passes imperceptibly into var. nitida, which has thicker, broader leaves, broad, domed, red rim, fruits in heads; but all these points are variable. It is, indeed, not a strong variety; it is especially close to the shiny and coriaceous amygdalina so common near the coast in many parts of Tasmania.

21. E. ambigua, DC.:—

E. ambigua, operculo hemisphærico mucronulato cupulâ breviore, pedunculis axillaribus compressis petioli longitudine, umbellis 8–9 floris capitatis, foliis lanceolatis subcoriaceis basi æqualiter attenuatis apice acuminato-mucronulatis. In Novâ Hollandiâ. Labillardière. Affinis E. ligustrinæ et amygdalinæ. Fructus subglobosus duplò major. Pet. et pedunc., 2–3 lin. longi. Folia 2–3 poll. longa 6–12 lin. lata rigidula venis lateralibus vix perspicuis.—(DC. Prod. iii, 219.)

  ― 159 ―

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 203), thinks that—

E. ambigua, DC. Prod. iii, 219, from the diagnosis taken from Labillardière's specimen, may perhaps be identical with E. amygdalina, Labill. var. nitida.

There is no specimen at Kew. Mueller says it—

May be a West Australian species, the somewhat leathery leaves, the compressed flower stalks, and the almost globular fruit not really pointing to E. amygdalina.—(Eucalyptographia, under E. amygdalina.)

A specimen from the Prodromus herbarium, lent me by M. Casimir De Candolle, bears the following label:—

E. ambigua, DC. Eucalyptus obliqua? (Manu Labillardieri).

Nouv. Hollande, Labillardière (Manu DC. ei). Misit, 1808.

I think it is probably E. amygdalina, tending to var. nitida, as suggested by Bentham.

I have seen a specimen from Herb. Paris: “26. Eucalyptus ambigua, DC. Prod. iii, 219, ex Nova Hollandia. Specimen Billardieri comm. cl. Webb, Anno, 1840.” This is E. amygdalina, var. nitida. I have also seen E. ambigua, Dehnhardt. Specimens in flower and early fruit from Dehnhardt, Hort. Camaldul. in Herb. Vindob. are Euc. amygdalina, var. numerosa. On the label Dehnhardt says the species resembles E. elata (amygdalina, var. numerosa), but is satisfied that they are different, and addressing (? Director of the Gardens at Vienna) adds, “Your superior botanical knowledge will probably solve this puzzle.”

I have seen a fourth cultivated specimen. It is ex. Herb. Lindley in Herb. Cant., and is labelled, “Eucalyptus ambigua,” in Lindley's handwriting. It is in flower and early bud, and seems to be E. stricta, Sieb., the venation perhaps a little accentuated under cultivation. Leaves thick, lanceolate, veins very pronounced, opercula pointed, pedicels flattened, anthers reniform.

I think it may be accepted that E. ambigua, DC., is allied to E. amygdalina, Labill., var. nitida. It may, however, be E. stricta, Sieb.: another of the Renantheræ. Better material may be in existence.

Bentham's var. (?) hypericifolia (B.Fl. iii, 203), of amygdalina is, in my opinion, referable to E. Risdoni, var. elata.

  ― 160 ―


Tasmania is, of course, the home of the type. Labillardière figured his plant, and this should be borne in mind. The species is also found in Victoria, New South Wales, and in south-eastern South Australia.


Gunn's No. 25 come from Point Effingham, “near Launceston, Distillery Creek, small tree.” Specimens bearing the same number are also from New Norfolk. Two forms are under that name, one near var. nitida, and the other the ordinary thin-leaved amygdalina. We have here additional evidence of the impossibility of keeping the type and var. nitida apart. (See Fig. 2, plate 29.)

I have seen specimens also from Col. Paterson ex. Herb. Lambert in Herb. Cant.; also some collected by Dr. John Lhotsky. “No. 94, Voyage de l'Astrolabe et de la Zélée (M. le Guillou, 1841),” is E. amygdalina.

Much of the common Hobart amygdalina (e.g., Sandy Bay and Mount Wellington), has coriaceous leaves; so, indeed, have R. Brown's specimens of E. angustifolia from the Derwent. I have also collected it on the east coast. It is, indeed, found more or less all over Tasmania.


Mueller (Eucalyptographia) defines its range in Victoria as “from the southern and whole eastern humid districts, extending to the base of the Alps.” Howitt states that it ascends to about 4,500 feet. Mr. Howitt has given much attention to the species, particularly in Gippsland, and following are two of his specimens; others will be referred to later:—(a) Lilydale, with very small fruits, A. W. Howitt; (b) Sand-hills, near Stradbroke; rim very marked; the coastal form, inclining to be coriaceous; narrow leaves; near var. nitida. From a correspondent of Mr. Henry Deane I have received it as “Peppermint,” from Darlimurla, South Gippsland. It has small fruits, and its leaves are very broad. This tree certainly shows affinity to E. regnans.


The late Prof. Tate says that a shrubby form is found in the Mount Gambier district. I have not seen it.


In this State it extends from the Victorian to the Queensland border (Tenterfield), and I have no doubt that it will be found in Queensland, probably in the Stanthorpe district. Westerly it extends to the Jenolan Caves and the Capertee Valley. As a rule, it is found in the colder and more mountainous parts of the State.

  ― 161 ―

Southern Districts.—It occurs in the mountains from the Victorian border to the Braidwood district. Other specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney, include:—“Peppermint,” Braidwood (H. Deane); “Narrow-leaved Peppermint,” near Goulburn, (H. Deane); Hilltop (J.H.M.). The following show affinity to var, numerosa:—Little River, Braidwood, and Araluen to Braidwood (J. S. Allan and J.H.M.); “White-topped Mountain Ash, inferior to Black-topped Mountain Ash,” Kangaloon (J. L. Bruce).

Western Localities.—Blackheath, Mount Victoria, and the higher parts of the Blue Mountains generally. Walking over the Blue Mountains with Mr. R. H. Cambage, the first tree of this species we noticed is at the top of the big hill, Lawson to Wentworth Falls. Valves slightly exsert when fruits thoroughly ripe (J.H.M.). Capertee Valley (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman). The most westerly locality known to me is Mullion Creek, Orange (R. H. Cambage). See also var. nitida, p. 162.

Northern Localities.—The “Willow” of Wilson's Downfall is a form with smaller fruits.

“Messmate.” Very abundant. Coming from the Bellinger River, first seen about Tyringham, and then at least as far as Wollomombi. Found on the very summit of the Round Mountain. At Bald Hills station, Mr. Walter Beauchamp showed me posts of this timber which had been down from ten to fifteen years, and which were still sound. This timber lasts even longer in damp ground. This is worthy of note, as E. amygdalina is not usually considered durable for the purpose stated.—(J. H. M., Agric. Gazette, N.S.W., 1894, p. 611.)

Yarrowitch to Tia, New England (J.H.M.); Moona Plains, Walcha, valves slightly exsert (A. R. Crawford). The northern specimens, as a rule, are closer to Sieber's E. radiata than to typical E. amygdalina.

Variety or species numerosa.—It appears to be confined to Victoria and New South Wales.


Boggy Creek and Tambo River, Gippsland, called “Wang-gnara” (A. W. Howitt); Darlimurla, S. Gippsland (correspondent of H. Deane). “Flourishes on poor flats; stunted in appearance.”


Found from south to north of this State. Some specific localities are given, for definiteness. Tantawanglo Mountain, (W. Baeuerlen); Eden (J.H.M.); Wyndham (A. W. Howitt); Deua River, Moruya (J.H.M.); Ryan's Creek, Monga (W. Baeuerlen); “Blackbutt,” Narrabarba (J. S. Allan). “Easily worked, but worthless. Sometimes substituted for ‘Mountain Gum’ (E. goniocalyx) in the Braidwood district” (J. S. Allan); Runnymede, Nelligen (W. Baeuerlen); Currawang Creek (W. Baeuerlen; J.H.M.); Shoalhaven River, Badgery's Crossing to Nowra (W. Forsyth and A. A. Hamilton); Kangaroo Valley (J. L. Bruce); Marulan, Barber's Creek, and Wingello (H. J. Rumsey, W. Forsyth, J. L. Boorman, J.H.M.); 3 miles from Marulan; about 4 feet in diameter; called “White Top” or “Ribbon Gum”

  ― 162 ―
(A. Murphy); Nattai River, Burragorang (R. H. Cambage); Exeter (F. Jensen); Mittagong (J. L. Boorman and J.H.M.); Hilltop (J.H.M.); County of Camden (Macarthur); Mount Kembla (R. H. Cambage).

The above are all southerly localities. Westerly localities are the Nepean River (Woolls and others), and the most westerly point known to me is Mount Tomah (Jesse Gregson).

Northerly it appears to be rare. Mr. Baker (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., XXVII, 540, 1902) quotes Mr. Barwick as having found it at Putty, south of Singleton. He calls it E. radiata.

Var. nitida.—I have a specimen of Gunn's No. 808 (the only one mentioned by Hooker as typical). It is labelled “Circular Head, road to Forest, 10th December, 1836, and 21st January, 1837.” Some specimens were labelled by Gunn “808 (?),” although it is evident that they are typical, from the localities quoted by Hooker himself.

808 (?). Eucalyptus radiata (“radiata, var. 5,” in Hook. f.'s handwriting). “I think this is the same as my original No. 808. At Currie's River it formed low bushes, about 5 feet high, but occasionally a few feet higher. It grew in the poor, sandy land near the sea.”

Another label of Gunn's reads—

Currie's River, east of George-Town, 24/10/43.

(b) The label of another specimen reads—

808 (?), from Currie's River, east of George-Town: a small tree, 5 feet high; on sandy land, 24/10/43.

The following specimen is identical with that from Currie's River:—

Granite Hills, Cape Barren Island, low, shrubby tree.—(J. Milligan.)

1078 Gunn. “Risdon, river side, 10/10/40” (Hobart, of course) precisely matches the type, except that the leaves are narrower, which is of no importance, as the leaves vary if taken from the top of the tree or from the lower branches. I may observe that the form figured by Hooker (Fl. Tas., Pl. xxix) as E. nitida, varies a little from that of the specimens of Gunn's No. 808 that I have seen, but that is nothing to be surprised at. (a) “E. amygdalina, Swamp Gum, Tasmania, F. Abbott, 1878,” in herb. Melb. in fruit only, and (b) “E. hœmastoma, Deal Island, Bass' Straits, Exped. of Field. Nat. Club of Victoria, 1890,” in fruit only. Both have coriaceous rather rigid leaves, and appear to be practically identical. They were originally labelled by Mueller as stated, and are in my opinion both very close to var. nitida. They are a little more pedicellate than the type.

Typical amygdalina has sometimes coriaceous leaves, but the shape is linearlanceolate, and the fruit more hemispherical than that of var. nitida. At the same time (e.g., at Deloraine, Tasmania), I have collected from the same tree some leaves which strictly match those of typical amygdalina, and some which would be typical for var. nitida. The fruits, however, belong to the normal species.

  ― 163 ―


“Peppermint,” Hesket, near Mount Macedon, 2,000 feet (J. M. Griffiths), is identical with the “Swamp Gum” (Abbott), and Deal Island specimens. It is worthy of remark that this is from an inland locality.


In 1901 (Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., p. 125), Mr. Deane and I described, under the name of E. hœmastoma, Sm. var. montana, a shrubby plant, only two or three feet high, from Mount Victoria, collected by myself. The bark of so small a shrub was no guide, and the blood-red rims decided us to place it with E. hœmastoma, a pardonable error, as it obviously strongly resembles that species.

Since then, however, I have obtained typical E. amygdalina, var. nitida, and I find that these specimens closely resemble Gunn's No. 808, e.g., Currie's River, Tasmania. The pale brown fruits, with the dark red-brown rims, arrest attention. The only point in which I can distinguish the Mount Victoria specimens from those of Currie's River consists in the more obvious oil-glands of those from Mount Victoria, but this may be in a measure owing to the age (over 60 years) of the Tasmanian specimens. The similarity of the specimens is remarkable, when it is borne in mind that the Tasmanian specimens are mostly from the sea-coast, while Mount Victoria is an inland mountain locality. In a papernote I have given very definite evidence of the absolute similarity of many Tasmanian and New South Wales plant forms, and this is an additional example.

I have specimens from the Jenolan Caves (W. F. Blakeley) which are the nearest approach I have yet seen in New South Wales to Hooker's figure of E. nitida, which, as already pointed out, varies somewhat from Gunn's 808. From the south, e.g. Wingello (J. L. Boorman, Nov., 1899), I have specimens with fruits smaller than those of var. nitida, and with filiform pedicels like those of (although shorter than) var. numerosa. Also, from the south I have from Monga, near Moruya, on the coast (W. Baeuerlen, July, 1898), a remarkable form which resembles that of var. nitida a good deal. Some of its leaves are, however, exceptionally broad, and their shape and venation reminiscent of E. stellulata. Fruits with valves slightly exserted and more pedicellate than the type.

From Mount Wilson (Jesse Gregson and J.H.M.) I have obtained specimens with coarser fruits than those from Wingello, and more pedicellate. They come nearest to var. nitida.

Thus we have additional evidence of the evident impossibility of drawing a hard-and-fast line between the species and its varieties.

  ― 164 ―


1. With E. Dives, Schauer (this will be referred to under E. dives).

2. With two trees which I look upon as hybrids of E. amygdalina and E. coriacea (pauciflora), I therefore write them E. vitellina × Naudin, and E. vitrea × R. T. Baker.

Naudin was of opinion that E. vitellina is a hybrid. I have seen specimens, and they are remarkably like some specimens referred to E. vitrea. It would be a remarkable coincidence if the types of the two species were identical in every respect, for we must remember that the parent species are both variable, and their progeny may further vary according to the preponderating influence of a variable parent.

Euc. vitellina, Naudin, 2nd Mem. p. 65 (1891).

Arbre biforme, à tronc blanchâtre et lisse après la chûte de la vieille écorce, bien caractérisé par la gracilité de ses rameaux florifères, généralement pendants, et par l'étroitesse de son feuillage, d'une verdure vive, sans glaucescence. Je n'en connais jusqu'ici qu'un seul exemplaire vivant, dans de jardin de M. Nabonnand, au Golfe-Juan. C'est un jeune arbre de 8 à 9 mètres de hauteur (en 1889).

A l'état juvénile, qui ne paraît pas être le longue durée, les feuilles sont opposées, sessiles, linéaires, aiguës, raides et luisantes, longues de 3 à 5 centimètres, sur une largeur de 2 à 3 millimètres. A l'état adulte, elles sont alternes, pétiolées, étroitement lancéolées, presque linéaires, longues de 8 à 12 centimètres, sur 4 à 5 millimètres de largeur. Les nervures secondaires, quoique obliques, sont rapprochées de la nervure médiane et dirigées dans le sens longitudinal du limbe, de manière à rappeler d'assez près la nervation des feuilles de l'E. pauciflora.

Les ombelles, axillaires et pédonculées, contiennent communément de 9 à 13 fleurs, courtement pédicellées, dont les boutons claviformes et criblés de glandes oléifères portent un opercule déprimé, presque plat, surmonté d'un court mamelon. Le fruit, de la grosseur d'un pois, est pyriforme-tronqué, et ses bords dépassent quelque peu la capsule, le plus souvent quadriloculaire, qui y est incluse et dont les valves redressées à la maturité n'arrivent pas au niveau du pourtour de la capsule calycinale.

L'E. vitellina a des analogies, d'une part avec l'E. pauciflora, d'autre part avec l'E. amygdalina. On pourrait presque le considérer comme intermédiaire entre ces deux espèces.

The specimen of E. vitellina in my possession is nearest to “E. Vitrea, Jenolan Caves, N.S.W., July, 1900 (W. F. Blakeley),” but with the leaves less thick in texture.

Eucalyptus vitrea. R. T. Baker, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1900, p. 303. “White Top Messmate.”

A tall tree, with a roughish bark, similar to E. amygdalina, Labill., the extremities of the branches being smooth.

Sucker leaves alternate or opposite, with a short petiole or sessile, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, lateral veins diverging from below the middle of the midrib, prominent on both sides, intramarginal vein removed from the edge, not shining; under 6 inches long, 1½ inches broad. Mature leaves narrow lanceolate, about 6 inches long, and 6 to 9 lines wide, petiole short; shining on both sides, a dull green when

  ― 165 ―
fresh, but drying a light slate colour; lateral veins few and almost parallel to the midrib, two generally commencing at the base of the midrib and running the whole length of the leaf almost parallel to the midrib. Oil-glands very numerous.

Peduncles axillary, short, 2–3 lines, bearing generally from 5–8 flowers. Buds from 2½ to 4 lines long, operculum hemispherical, shortly acuminate. Ovary flat-topped. Anthers kidney-shaped, connective prominent.

Fruit hemispherical, about 3 lines in diameter; rim thick, red, slightly convex, shining; pedicel about 1 line long.

Timber.—A hard, close-grained timber, full of shakes and gum-veins, and apparently of little economic value. It possesses none of the good qualities of E. amygdalina, Labill., which is fissile, soft, and easily worked. The venation of the leaves resembles that of E. amygdalina and E. coriacea, but more particularly the latter species. The immature fruits are difficult to distinguish from those of E. amygdalina, whilst the mature ones bear a strong likeness to those of E. coriacea. The bark is almost identical with that of E. amygdalina, but the timber is quite distinct, resembling more closely that of E. dives, from which species, however, it differs in the shape and venation of both sucker and mature leaves, fruits, and constituents of the oil.

From E coriacea it differs in the nature of its timber, bark, oil, and leaves. Summarised, this species has—(a) a bark similar to that of E. amygdalina; (b) timber similar to that of E. dives; (c) leaves and venation similar to those of E. coriacea; (d) fruits approaching in form to those of E. amygdalina; and (e) sucker leaves differing from those of any species above enumerated. It is most closely allied to E. coriacea and E. dives, but yet distinct from both (op. cit).

I had this form under observation for some years before Mr. Baker described it, and its puzzling affinities to more than one species attracted my attention as, indeed, they did that of Mr. Baker.

In Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1901, p. 123, Mr. Deane and I wrote of it:—

E. fastigata, Deane and Maiden.—E. vitrea, Baker, is, in our opinion, a form of the above species. The type of E. fastigata as figured (these proceedings, 1896, p. 809), has smaller fruits and the valves somewhat exserted, but the size of the fruits and the amount (or absence) of exsertion varies a good deal. We have specimens from the type locality of E. fastigata which precisely match E. vitrea.

Since the above was written, both Mr. Deane and I are of opinion that E. fastigata is simply a rough-barked form of E. regnans, so that the above remarks may be considered to apply to E. regnans. I am of opinion that the buds and fruits of the specimen of “Cut-tail” strongly resemble those of E. vitrea, while the leaves are those of E. regnans.

Specimens of typical regnans from the Blacks' Spur, Victoria (H. Deane, Jan., 1900), locally known there as “Mountain Ash” and “Blackbutt,” have fruits which are absolutely identical with those of vitrea.

Other specimens of regnans have fruits not domed and approaching those of vitrea.—Source of Teapot Creek, Gippsland (A. W. Howitt). Similar as regards fruits, but foliage dull.—Boggy Creek, Gippsland (A. W. Howitt). I can quote other specimens from Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales to illustrate this point.

E. vitrea is undoubtedly allied to E. dives, Schauer, as regards fruits, and to some extent as regards the leaves. The leaves of E. vitrea are usually shiny,

  ― 166 ―
whereas those of E. dives are usually dull, but those of the latter are sometimes quite as shiny as those of the former. Indeed, the Peppermint-trees of the Renantheræ present many points of contract.

At Berrima (on the banks of the Wingecaribee, opposite the Rectory) is a Ribbony Gum with rough black bark up to the first fork. The rough bark is just like that of E. viminalis.

The habit of the tree is more erect as to foliage than that of normal coriacea close by. The timber is white, and is full of gum-veins like coriacea. The fruits are more hemispherical than the rest of the trees in the neighbourhood. In all my travels I have not previously seen an E. coriacea a real ribbony gum as this is. E. coriacea is a species that does not present much evidence of variation as a rule, but I am inclined to think that this particular tree presents evidence of hybridisation. The other parent is probably E. amygdalina. It is remarkably like E. vitrea.

A specimen obtained from Wingello (A. Murphy, April, 1899), a locality where abundance of typical vitrea may be found, has smaller fruits, broader leaves than the type, more spreading veins, and the oil-dots are less prominent. The leaves also are less hooked at the tips, a marked coriacea character abundantly evident in the Berrima specimen. The Wingello specimen has, in my opinion, more of the amygdalina character than has the Berrima specimen. The Wingello specimen has an undoubtedly strong resemblance to E. dives,—e.g., Wallerawang, Tarana, and other places.

A specimen from Delegate River, N.S.W. (W. Baeuerlen) is very interesting. It was collected 13th April, 1889, and the collector's note was “E. pauciflora and E. stellulata hybrid.” I afterwards placed the specimen under E. dives; but I think its proper place is with vitrea, although it is not typical. It shows the parentage of both amygdalina and coriacea. The fruits are smaller than those of typical vitrea. Some of the leaves are broad (5½ × 2¼ inches) and strongly reminiscent of E. coriacea.

“Hills near Mansfield, Victoria (Strathbogie)” (H. B. Williamson, No. 938). “From a tree of 30 or 40 feet, stem 1 foot in diameter; bole of the tree covered with persistent bark; upper stem and branches smooth; bark like large saplings of E. dives.”

In sending the specimens (in 1900), Mr. Williamson makes the following observations, which are very interesting in connection with my view of the origin of E. vitrea:—

It is very scarce, and is always interspersed with No. 939 (E. coriacea, A. Cunn.—J.H.M.), and E. amygdalina. The flowers are very scanty, contemporary with those of No. 939, now a mass of bloom. E. amygdalina now only shows occasional blooms.

The specimens are nearest to E. vitellina or E. vitrea, though with rather thinner leaves than the type. It must be borne in mind that variation also takes place in individuals extended over a large area.

  ― 167 ―

I have similar specimens (in fruit only) from a Stringybark forest 15 miles north-west of Mount Gambier, South Australia.

I have tested all the following points as regards E. vitrea,—viz., its sucker foliage (medium lanceolate, dull, even glaucous); mature foliage (thickish, shining, straight-veined, veins prominent, tips hooked); buds (operculum pointed, pale brown, shiny); fruits (pale brown, rim well-defined and reddish-brown, shape and size); bark (hard scaly, sub-fibrous, and smooth branches); timber and oil; and its characters are possessed in about equal proportions by E. coriacea and E. amygdalina.

I think I have produced sufficient evidence (and more will be forthcoming as soon as field botanists inquire with an open mind into the hybridisation question) to show that my suggestion as to the hybrid character of E. vitrea is a very reasonable one. That hybridisation occurs in the genus, and that there is much evidence of it, I consider to be absolutely proved.

Some illustrations of E. vitrea will be given in the next Part, which deals (inter alia) with E. regnans.

3. With E. regnans, F.v.M. This will be more conveniently gone into when E. regnans is reached.

  ― 168 ―

11. X. Eucalyptus linearis, Dehnhardt


E. linearis, Dehnhardt.

THE following description has been drawn up by me:—

A slender, umbrageous, somewhat scrambling small tree of 20–30 feet, usually with an absolutely smooth bark, hence called a “White Gum,” sometimes, however, slightly scaly at the butt.

It may be described as slender and graceful in all its parts.

Juvenile Foliage.—Linear.

Mature Foliage.—Linear to linear-lanceolate, say 3–4 inches long and 1–2 lines broad. Symmetrical, gradually tapering at the base into a petiole of say half an inch, and gradually at the apex into a point. Texture rather thick, consequently the main vein only, the midrib, can be readily seen.

Buds.—Umbels singly in the axils of the leaves, the common peduncle of about half an inch, the calyces tapering into short pedicels. Clavate in shape, and the operculum slightly pointed.


Fruit.—Usually from 5 to 10 in the umbel, the individual fruits almost sessile. Small, somewhat pear-shaped, slightly contracted at the orifice, rim well-defined and sloping inwards (sunk), valves well insert. Valves 3 or 4 in the specimens seen.

Timber.—White, and moderately fissile.

Habitat.—This tree was originally described from trees raised from seed near Naples, Italy (hortus Camuldensis), but it is believed that the seed was originally obtained from trees growing on Mount Wellington, Hobart, Tasmania. It is not abundant, and is put to no special industrial employment.

Following is the original description by Dehnhardt:—

E. ramosissima. Ramulis viminalibus teretibusque lævibus; foliis alternis linearibus subfalcatis subcrenulatis rugosiusculis in petiolo decurrentibus apice uncinatis; cortici laevi punctato. Ramulis debilibus paniculatis. Folia uncias 3–4 longa, lineam 1 lata.

Species haec differt ab illis quae descriptae sunt in Catalogo Horti Parisiensis: phrases quibus utilitur cl. Desfontaines ejus Catalogi Auctor hic transcribo.—(Catalogus plantarum horti Camuldensis, Ed. ii, 1832, p, 20.)

Walpers gives the following:—

E. linearis, Dehnhardt, Rivista Napolitana, 1, 3, p. 173.—Operculo conico glandulifero; umbellis lateralib. 5–8 floris parvulis albidis; ramulis viminalib. teretibq. lævibq.; foll. alternis linearib. angustissimis subfalcatis rugosiusculis subcrenulatis, in petiolum decurrentib., apice uncinatis, cortice laevi punctato.— Crescit in Nova Hollandia (Rep. Bot. Syst. ii., 154).

I received for study, from the Imperial Natural History Museum of Vienna, a type specimen of Dehnhardt's species, which is, however, in bud only. The orginal label in Dehnhardt's writing is in German, of which the following is a translation:—“I pray you read my description in the Catalogue. The tree is 40

  ― 169 ―
feet high, with a slender stem, and flowers the second time.” The reference to the “Catalogue” is doubtless to the “Catalogus plantarum horti Camaldulensis,” which contains the description of the species. The work in question was published at Naples, and the Hortus Camuldulensisnote was a garden near that city. The first edition was published in 1829, and the second in 1832, and should be noted in case any claims for priority arise.

Dehnhardt's plant is, without doubt, a cultivated one, and bearing in mind the marked way in which seedling Eucalyptus plants differ from their parents, it is not likely to be absolutely identical with the Mount Wellington plant to which it has been referred. The idea becomes stronger with me that E. linearis, Dehnh., may prove to be a perfectly smooth-barked form of E. amygdalina, with unusually thin, linear leaves. If so, this form of E. amygdalina might be named var. linearis.note


E. pulchella, Desf.

My researches in European herbaria in regard to this genus has brought to light another named species which seems to be con-specific with E. linearis. It is E. pulchella, Desfontaines.

The original work not being in any Australian library, I obtained a copy of the description from Kew. It is as follows:—

Eucalyptus pulchella, Desf. Ramulis filiformibus, foliis alternis, lineari-subulatis; floribus axillaribus, umbellatis, operculo convexo, mucrone obtuso, brevissimo. Ramuli filiformes, paniculati. Folia uncias 2 longa, lineam 1 lata, utrinque acuta. Petioli breves. Flores in umbellulas axillares dispositi. Pedunculus communis folio multoties brevior, 10–12 florus.—(Cat. Hort. Paris. Ed. 3, 408, 1829).

Dehnhardt contracts this description into:—

Eucalyptus pulchella. Ramulis filiformibus; foliis alternis lineari-subulatis. Ramulis filiformibus paniculatis. Folia uncias 2 longa, lineam 1 late.—(Dehnh. Cat. Pl. Hort. Camald. Ed. 2, p. 20.)

Walpers' description, published in 1845, is also adapted from the original, and is as follows:—

Ramulis filiformib. foll. alternis lineari-subulatis, florib. axillarib. umbellatis; operculo convexo, mucrone obtuso brevissimo.—Crescit——?”—(Repert iii., 927.)

Bentham perhaps saw the species, but he pronounces it to be “very doubtful.”

  ― 170 ―

I have recently received some specimens from the Vienna Herbarium labelled “E. pulchella, Hort. Kew.” They are in bud, and appear to be identical with E. linearis, Dehnh. Undoubtedly the name pulchella was well bestowed, for the specimens have long, narrow, linear leaves, which are very graceful.note

I think my determination will be found to be correct, but in view of the paucity of the material and of the amount of doubt surrounding E. linearis, I hesitate to suppress E. linearis until further information is available.

1,079 Gunn, referred to E. amygdalina by Hooker, is a very narrow-leaved form, which in some herbaria bears the label “E. linearis, Cunn., environs of Hobart Town; is one of Lhotsky's amygdalina vars.”

I cannot find that Cunningham ever published a species of that name; the plant appears to be, however, identical with what goes under the name of E. linearis, Dehnh. A Kew label has “E. linearis, Hobart Town, 85/1819, A. Cunn.”

Another specimen of Gunn's 1,079 is labelled “Peppermint Gum,” and Backhouse calls it the “Mountain Peppermint,” of Oyster Bay.

I have received cultivated specimens of what is either E. linearis, or a very narrow-leaved form of E. amygdalina, from California, under the name of E. amygdalina, var. angustifolia, Link, a variety name I am unable to trace. There is, however, in Link's Enumeratio ii, 30—

No. 227 E. angustifolia, Desfont. Par. Fol. subsessilia 2 ft. 6 in. lga., 2 in lata acutata attenuata, which may be E. lineuris, Dehnh.

Specimens labelled “E. angustifolia, Desf., in herb. Berol (1900) are E. viminalis, Labill. I observe that Don (Gen. Syst. ii, 819) refers E. angustifolia, Desf. Link, to E. saligna.”

I may mention that E. angustifolia, Desf., has also been quoted as E. angustifolia., Spreng., et Candolle and E. angustifolia, Link, Enum. ex Spreng.note There is, of course, an E. angustifolia, R.Br., which is E. amygdalina.

Then we have—

E. amygdalina, Labill., Nov. Holl., ii, p. 14. Tab. 154, DC. Prodr., l.c. 219, n. 25. In Tasmaniæ sylvis, locis arenosis, Buffalo Range, N. H. Austr. (sic)—(Stuart, No. 18, Müller.) Arbor 50–60 ped., peppermint-gum tree incolarum, vere florens, foliis usque 4 poll. longis ½ latis.

ß. foliis angustioribus ibidem (Stuart Herb., No. 8)—(Miq. Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv, 124.)

Thus Miquel noticed the very narrow leaves (? of linearis, Dehnh.), but I do not know of a narrow-leaved form of amygdalina (or linearis), from Buffalo Range, Victorian Alps.

  ― 171 ―

Rodway, in his Tasmanian Flora, p. 56, puts E. linearis, Dehnh., as a separate species and states:—

A small to medium-sized tree, bark smooth and white, or sometimes scaly on the lower portion of the stem. Leaves similar to those of E. amygdalina, only still narrower and the fruits smaller, slightly constricted, and the capsules usually slightly sunk. Very common, and although presenting a different appearance, hardly morphologically distinct from E. amygdalina.

To summarise, E. linearis, Dehnh., is a smooth-barked tree, and, in my opinion, in spite of the fact that there are connecting links between it and E. amygdalina, it will be convenient to retain it as a species, at all events for the present. We must look to Tasmanian botanists for a full investigation of it with reference to other forms. Mr. Rodway tells me it is not uncommon in Tasmania.

I must admit that I cannot always determine the species on herbarium material alone, and specimens collected by me from a White Gum, on Mount Wellington, have by no means narrow leaves. The bark is stripy; the leaves are strict, and inclined to be succulent. My own note, made in the field, is that they seem to have an odour of oil of geranium when crushed.note For a number of years a White Gum, referred to E. linearis grew (under cultivation) in the Government Domain, Melbourne, but it has recently died.


E. linearis is confined to Tasmania.


The closest affinity of E. linearis is, as has been abundantly indicated, to E. amygdalina.

  ― 172 ―

12. XI. Eucalyptus Risdoni, Hook., f.


E. Risdoni, Hook., f.

THE following description has been based upon Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 203) though differing from it:—

A glaucous foliaged and beautiful tree of 20–30 feet, the variety elata attaining a height of 50 feet and more. The bark smooth (hence known as a “Gum”), ashy grey, scaling in irregular patches, the branches more or less pendulous. The timber pale-coloured and rather fissile, but too small and inferior in quality to be of economic importance.

Juvenile Foliage.—Markedly cordate and connate.

Mature Foliage.—The juvenile foliage frequently persists and sometimes all, even on the flowering branches, remains opposite, ovate-cordate and more or less connate, or sometimes those of the latter shoots alternate, broadly lanceolate and falcate, rather thick with oblique veins, moderately conspicuous, the intramarginal one at a distance from the edge. In the variety elata the cordate and connate foliage is absent or rare, except in the juvenile stage.

Buds.—Obovoid-clavate. Peduncles axillary or lateral, terete or angular, bearing each an umbel of 4 to 8 or even more. Calyx-tube very open, attaining 3 lines diameter. Operculum hemispherical, obtuse, shorter than the calyx-tube.

Flowers.—Larger than those of E. amygdalina. Stamens nearly 3 lines long, inflected in the bud, all perfect; anthers with divergent confluent cells (i.e. Renantherous). Ovary flat-topped.

Fruit.—Subglobose-truncate, attaining 4 lines diameter, slightly contracted at the orifice, the rim rather sharp, sloping inwards (sunk), the valves flat or slightly protruding.

Habitat.—In its typical form it is confined to the Hobart district, but the variety elata has a wider range, though confined to Tasmania.

Following is the original description:—

Foliis oppositis ovato-cordatis acuminatis sessilibus v. basi lata connatis junioribus ramulis alabastrisque pulvereo-glaucescentibus, pedicellis axillaribus 6-10-floris, alabastris breviter clavatis, operculo depresso hemispherico umbone nullo, capsula breviter pedicellata obconica rotundata, ore paulo contracto margine plano latiusculo valvis inclusis.

Hab. Risdon, on the Derwent; Gunn. v. v.n. Arbor 20-pedalis, e basi ramosus, aspectu glauscescente, ramis patentibus divaricatis, ramulis gracilibus, cortice lævi. Folia 1½-2 uncialia, rigida, acuminata, latiora quam longa, obtusa cum mucrone. Pedunculi ½-¾ unciales. Alabastra ¼-? unc. long. Capsulæ ? unc. longa, extus læves v. paulo rugosæ nitidæ.—(Hooker's Lond. Journ. Bot. vi, 477 (1847); Fl. Tas. i, 133 t. 24.)

Leaves.—Oil.—Messrs. Schimmel & Co., of Leipsic, report:—

Under the name of Eucalyptus Risdoni a pleasant and mild-smelling eucalyptus oil was introduced in 1874 in London. Sp. gr. 0.915–0.916;2 a 2D = -4° 49'. It contained cineol and phellandrene.note

  ― 173 ―

Messrs. Baker and Smith (Research on the Eucalypts) give the following particulars of an oil from the same species:—

Whence collected for Oil.  Specific Gravity at 15° C.  Specific Rotation, [A]D.   Saponification Number.  Solubility in Alcohol.  Constituents found. 
Tasmania (specific locality not given).  0·9145  -0·33  27·09  1¼ vols. 70%.  Eucalyptol, phellandrene, pinene, peppermint ketone. 


  • 1. E. hypericifolia, R.Br., also of Dum.-Cours.
  • 2. E. amygdalina, Labill., var. hypericifolia, Benth.
  • 3. E. perfoliata, Dumont, and of others.
  • 4. E. connata, Dum.-Cours., also of Schauer. var. elata, Benth.
  • 5. E. radiata, Hook., f. (non Sieb.), partim.

Notes on the Synonyms.

1. E. hypericifolia, R. Br.

This species is in Index Kewensis referred to as “ex Benth., B.Fl. iii, 203.”

The reference is as follows:—

2. E. amygdalina, var. (?) hypericiolia, Benth.

Leaves of the fruiting branches all opposite, oblong-lanceolate, rounded or cordate at the base, and sessile or nearly so. Risdon Cove. R. Brown.

E. hypericifolia, R. Br. Herb.—The specimens are larger and good, but in fruit only. To this form may belong also some of the garden plants described from the foliage under the same name.—(B.Fl. iii, 203.)

In a letter to me Mr. Rodway speaks thus of var. hypericifolia:—

Fruit rather smaller than in var. nitida. These, with E. Risdoni and E. Risdoni, var. elata, form a quite uninterrupted series.

In his Tasmanian Flora he says:—

E. amygdalina, var. hypericifolia. Leaves rather broad, opposite and sessile. Fruit rather large, often pear-shaped. A very unstable form, approaching forms of E. Risdoni.

I cannot separate any specimens I have seen from E. Risdoni, or its var. elata.

  ― 174 ―

3. E. perfoliata, Dum.-Cours., described as follows, from leaf specimens only, is “very doubtful.”—(B.Fl. iii, 200.)

It may be convenient to draw attention to Dumont's imperfect descriptions at this place, especially as he says his plant is the E. hypericifolia of English gardens. With the aid of Kew I have been successful in obtaining Dumont's original description, which is instructive, as showing how Eucalypts were described in the early days. I have not been able to see the type:—

Eucalyptus hypericifolia, Dum.-Cours., Bot. Cult, ed. 2, vii, p. 279. E. à feuilles de millepertuis, E. hypericifolia, Hort. angl. Cette espèce ne me semble former qu'un arbrisseau. Ses rameaux sont très menus et n'ont guère, surtout vers leur sommet, que la grosseur d'un fil. Feuilles opposées, lancéolées, oblongues, pointues, très-entières, glabres, d'un beau vert en-dessus, un peu glauques en-dessous, de 4 centimètres de longueur, et de 4 à 5 millimètres de largeur. Lieu id [La Nouvelle-Hollande]. Toujours vert.

E. hypericifolia, Link, according to a specimen in the Prodromus herbarium is E. cneorifolia.

E. perfoliata, R.Br. (B.Fl. iii, 253), is a Northern Territory shrub. There is, however, E. perfoliata, R.Br. in Herb. Kew, which is E. Risdoni, Hook. f., E. perfoliata, Tausch, in the Vienna herbarium, ex Herb. Ferd. Bauer, is also E. Risdoni. The name perfoliata was loosely employed in regard to Eucalypts by the early botanists. (See Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1901, 550.)

4. E. connata, Dum.-Cours.

E. à feuilles connées, E. connata, Hort. angl. Tige droite, grisâtre, d'un rouge brun, ainsi que les rameaux dans leur jeunesse, cylindriques et glabres. Feuilles connées, presque perfoliées, ovales à leur base, oblongues, pointues, légèrement ondulées à leurs bords, très-entières, glabres, relevées en-dessous d'une nervure rouge et saillante, très-ponctuées de points transparens, longues d'un décimètre environ (4 pouces), larges de 16 à 17 millimètres (7 à 8 lignes). Lieu id [La Nouvelle-Hollande]. Toujours vert.—(Bot. Cult., ed. 2, vii, 280.)

Very doubtful (Benth.); E. diversifolia, Bonpl. (DC. Prod. iii, 220), with a query. E. connata, J. Schauer, from Tasmania, in Herb. Vienna, is E. Risdoni. If this species was described it would perhaps take priority of Hooker's name.

Var. elata, Benth.

A beautiful tree of the largest size, the bark of the trunk grey and deciduous, that of the extremities of the branches purplish-red or reddish-brown (Gunn). Leaves broadly lanceolate-falcate, 2 to 4 in. long rather thick, sometimes almost as in E. obliqua. Flowers of E. Risdoni. Fruit pear-shaped, 4 lines diameter, with a broad convex rim—Lake St. Clair (Gunn). This variety in the dried specimens appears to connect E. amygdalina with E. obliqua, but without doubt belongs to E. Risdoni, as observed by Oldfield, although the dried specimens were included by J. D. Hooker among the varieties of E. radiata, Sieb., now united to E. amygdalina.—(B.Fl. iii, 203.)

See my notes on Gum-topped Stringybark, p. 177.

Var. elata is a drooping broad-leaved glaucous form, with broadish sucker eaves, common (Mr. Rodway states) in mudstone country in Tasmania, and one of the intervening forms between E. amygdalina and E. Risdoni. Has large domed fruits and coriaceous leaves, which are often glaucous along the edges, giving them an unusual hoar-frost appearance.

  ― 175 ―

Lanceolate leaves are common on the tops of branches of E. Risdoni, it being not an uncommon occurrence to find the sessile, almost cordate, leaves and the lanceolate leaves on the same branch. This was first drawn attention to by Bentham (B. Fl. iii, 203). Fig. 1, plate 32, shows three kinds of leaves taken by me from the same tree, including leaves typical of E. Risdoni and its var. elata. Mr. Deane and I made a similar observation in regard to E. pulverulenta, leaves of the two shapes being found on the same twig. (See Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1900, p. 110.)

5. E. radiata, Hook., f., non Sieb., var. 1–4 partim (Fl. Tas., i, 137).

Hooker's observations form an excellent example of the difficulties (especially great in the case of the older workers) in dealing with plants of the amygdalina group. In making up sets for distribution, the so-called varieties were not absolutely identical, being, in some cases, taken from different trees.

None of the specimens are the true E. radiata, Sieb., which I have not yet seen from Tasmania. Hooker (loc. cit.) attempted to define, and distributed, five varieties of E. radiata, Sieb., from Tasmania. Var. 5 is var. nitida of amygdalina, as I have already shown. I will show that vars. 1–4 are for the most part E. Risdoni, var. elata. Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 203) said, “one of the varieties is E. Risdoni, var. elata.” The whole of Hooker's types of these forms have recently been placed at my disposal in quantity, so that I am able to speak with a tone of certainty I previously could not adopt. Hooker was doubtful himself of these forms. He said (loc. cit.):—

A very common plant; as above characterised, it may perhaps include several species, and, amongst others, varieties of amygdalina. The forms I have enumerated are not all of them varieties in the correct sense of the term, but only states of one or more varieties, and, in some cases, of one individual, but it is quite impossible to unravel them. A small or lofty tree, with a straight trunk, sometimes with a smooth and sometimes a flaking or almost stringy bark. Branches more or less weeping. Leaves usually shining, rather small, seldom 3 inches long, with one midrib, and very inconspicuous lateral veins, or none; narrow, sometimes very much so, though not so narrow as E. amygdalina usually has them. Flowers and capsules always pedicelled; the latter turbinate or obconic, rather large.

Following is Hooker's definition of E. radiata:—

Arbor mediocris, ramulis gracilibus sæpe pendulis, foliis anguste ellipticis lanceolatisve mediocribus vix nitidis 1-nerviis rectis falcatisve, pedunculis subelongatis multifloris, floribus pedicellatis, calyce obconico v. clavato, operculo brevi, capsula pedicellata. Variat insigniter:—

1. Foliis lineari-elongatis, fructibus latioribus quam longis subturbinatis, ore dilatato plano. Ad E. amygdalinam tendens (Gunn: 1,073, 1,077, 1,102).

1,073 is from “river-side, Risdon,” and is E. amygdalina, Labill., aff. var. nitida, Benth.

1,077 is from “top of Grass-tree Hill,” and is E. Risdoni, var. elata.

  ― 176 ―

1,102 is from “above Sassafras Valley, Hobart, 15 feet high, yellow bark, young leaves powdery, Novr.,” and is E. Risdoni, var. elata.

2. Foliis elongatis lanceolatis, capsulis turbinatis longioribus quam latis, ore contracto (Gunn, 1,112).

No. 1,112 is “from Risdon, also from Grass-tree Hill, near Hobart.” It is a broad-leaved form of E. amygdalina, tending to var. nitida. It is near Gunn's 1,073 (see var. 1), though with broader leaves for the most part, and also precisely matches E. tenuiramis, Miq. At the same time I have seen a specimen of var. 2, which is E. Risdoni, var. elata.

3. Foliis ovato-lanceolatis elliptico-lanceolatisve, capsulis majusculis turbinatis—Arbor elata ad E. giganteam tendens. River Derwent at Cluny, Mount Wellington, elev. 2,500 feet; Lake Echo, elev. 3,000 feet.

The specimens I have seen are in bud or early fruit. They are near var. 1, but more glaucous. Var. 3 belongs to that series connecting E. amygdalina, Labill., var. alpina, and E. Risdoni, var. elata, and different eucalyptologists would, from the material available, put them in one or the other, or both.

4. Foliis majoribus lanceolatis nitidis capsulis ut in forma 3.—Arbor mediocris ad. E. coriaceam tendens (Gunn: 1,100, 1,110).

No. 1,110 is from “foot of Mount Wellington,” also “Hobart, Degraves.” No. 1,100 is from “Grass-tree Hill, near Hobart.” Both these are E. Risdoni, var. elata. For a second plant (E. obliqua, var. alpina) distributed under 1,100, see p. 178.


E. Risdoni and its variety are confined to Tasmania. I have examined the following types:—

(a) R. Gunn's No. 1,278, from Herb., Kew.

Small tree, growing in clusters on the side of a hill near Risdon, 10–20 ft. high, branched from the base (Oct. 1840, R. Gunn).

(b) 1,072, R. Gunn, Risdon, Hobart, 10/10/40.

Mr. T. Stephens says that he has never seen E. Risdoni grow on anything except on mudstone. Mr. Rodway says, “common on dry hills, Bellerive, Risdon, Muddy Plains, valley of South Esk,” &c.

The variety elata has far more extended range than that of the normal species; it is common on Mount Wellington, Hobart, and other specific localities have been incidentally referred to.

  ― 177 ―


1. With E. coccifera, Hook., f.

The variety elata is very close to E. coccifera. It is often very difficult to separate them on herbarium specimens alone if ripe buds are not available, those of E. coccifera being more or less corrugated.

2. With E. amygdalina, Labill.

The affinity of E. amygdalina to E. Risdoni is undoubtedly close, the relationship being closest through the var. elata of the latter. E. Risdoni has broad sucker leaves, and on this character alone I would retain it as a species separate from E. amygdalina.

The bark of E. Risdoni is smooth; that of E. amygdalina is always fibrousnote on the butt; this is an important character.

In these days the determinations of Eucalypts by the older botanists are carefully criticised, in view of the extensive field knowledge of the genus we now possess, and which is becoming increasingly accurate, but the following remarks by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 203) seem to be quite accurate:—

F. Mueller also unites E. Risdoni altogether with E. amygdalina. J. D. Hooker and Oldfield, both of them from observations made on the spot, have assured me that the two are quite distinct, in habit as well as in the bark. The sessile opposite leaves occupy frequently the flowering branches of E. Risdoni, and are only on the saplings and adventitious flowerless branches of E. amygdalina; they are, moreover, broad, frequently connate, and usually glaucous or nearly white in the former; always, as far as known, narrowovate or oblong-lanceolate in E. amygdalina. When the leaves are alternate, they appear to be broader in E. Risdoni than in E. amygdalina, the pedicels thicker and more angular, the flowers and fruits larger— differences, however, of degree only, to which our dried specimens do not admit of our fixing any precise limits, and in that state it is sometimes scarcely possible to decide to which species they should be referred.

3. With E. obliqua, L'Hérit.

I propose to inquire into the position of a “Gum-top Stringybark”note called also, at least in New South Wales, “Mountain Ash.”

The following botanical names for it are synonyms:—

  • 1. Eucalyptus obliqua, L'Hérit., var. alpina. Maiden (Proc. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, Vol. ix, 369, foot-note.)
  • 2. E. gigantea, Hook., f., Fl. Tas. as regards Plate xxviii; also, as regards part of the text.
  • 3. E. radiata, Hook., f., Fl. Tas. i, 137 (non. Sieb.), var. 4 (partim).
  • 4. E. delegatensis, R. T. Baker, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1900, p. 305.

  ― 178 ―

The receipt of a large number of Gunn's specimens used by Hooker in the preparation of Fl. Tas. has enabled me to clear up some hitherto doubtful points.

E. gigantea, Hook., fil., Lond. Journ. Bot., vi, 479, is “Stringybark colonorum.”

E. gigantea is in Fl. Tas. i, 136, described in practically the same words, and it is called “Stringy-bark Gum.” The specimens quoted are Gunn's 1,095, 1,104, 1,106, 1,965, 1,966.

In Part II, p. 59 of this work, under E. obliqua, I have quoted Hook., f.'s remarks about Gunn's 1,095, from Lake St. Clair. The specimens labelled “1,095,” which have been seen by me are, however, nearly typical obliqua from Lake St. Clair. It will be observed that Hook., f. looked upon these specimens as a variety of his E. gigantea.

Hooker says:—“In some varieties the young branches have a fine glaucous bloom upon them ……, Lake St. Clair.” While Gunn's 1,095 from that locality is non-glaucous, some of Gunn's 1,100 collected by Hooker himself, from Marlborough (on the Upper Derwent, near Lake St. Clair), and which are E. radiata, Hook., f. (non Sieb.), No. 4 (partim), are glaucous, and are doubtless the specimens he had in his mind.

The loose branch of fruits of E. giganteus figured at Fig. 4, Plate 7, of Part II of this work were depicted from the same Kew herbarium sheet that contained the foliage specimens indicated, and are E. obliqua, var. alpina.

Gunn's 1,104 came from Black River, Circular Head, and is typical E. obliqua.

Gunn's 1,106 came from Sassafras Valley, and is typical E. obliqua.

Gunn's 1,965 and 1,966 came from Arthur's Lakes, and are my variety alpina of E. obliqua. In other words, they are E. radiata, Hook., f., No. 4 (partim). They are doubtless the originals of the drawing of Plate xxviii, of Hooker's Fl. Tas.

Of these four synonyms, therefore, E. gigantea, Hook., f., really belongs to E. obliqua, in spite of Hook., f., including two trees under that name in Fl. Tas.

E. radiata, Hook., f., is founded on error, and the name should now be dropped.

It is a question whether the “Stringybark Gum” or “Mountain Ash” is a variety or a distinct species. Hooker, most Tasmanians whom I have consulted, and I look upon it as a form of E. obliqua; Mr. Baker considers it to be a distinct species (delegatensis). I am well acquainted with the tree in the field, have a very large series of specimens, and I have an open mind on the subject. It is, perhaps, a hybrid of E. obliqua and E. coriacea. The affinity of this form to E. Risdoni, Hook., f., var. elata, Benth., is undoubtedly close, and Hooker's confusion of specimens is readily accounted for. Indeed, at one time I held the view that

  ― 179 ―
E. Risdoni, its var. elata, and my E. obliqua, var. alpina (delegatensis), formed one grand trimorphic species. The strong, sweet odour of the trees of E. Risdoni, var. elata, in the forest very closely resembles that of E. obliqua, var. alpina. Some Gum-top Stringybarks are undoubtedly near typical E. obliqua. This form (alpina) of obliqua is found in alpine situations in Tasmania, Victoria, and southern New South Wales. Following are some of the localities represented in the National Herbarium, Sydney:—


“Gum-topped Stringybark,” Lake Sorell (T. Stephens); Mount Wellington (Gunn), Nos. 1,965, 1,966, Arthur's Lakes; (Gunn), No. 1,100 (partim), Marlborough (in Gunn's Herbarium, but collected by J. D. Hooker); “Gum-top Stringybark,” East Mount Field; Guildford Junction (R. H. Cambage); Parattah and Russell Falls River (T. Stephens).


Great Divide, western side; Dargo High Plains; Snowy Plains; Twelve-mile Creek (A. W. Howitt); “Messmate,” Mount Mueller, near Mount Baw Baw (James Melvin); Mount St. Bernard (J.H.M.).


Delegate Mountain and Snowy Mountains (W. Baeuerlen); Eucumbene, near Kiandra, Yarrangobilly Caves (A. W. Howitt); Laurel Hill, Tumberumba (R. H. Cambage); Mount Kosciusko (J.H.M.).

Explanation of Plates.

Plate 29.

Plate 29: EUCALYPTUS AMYGDALINA, Labill. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

  • 1a. Twig bearing buds; 1b, bud, just opening; 1c, flowers; 1d, fruits, all fac-similes of Labillardière's original drawing of E. amygdalina in Pl. Nov., Holl., t. 154. [N.B.—The fruit is not perfectly ripe.] 1e, anthers from flowers from Bellerive, Hobart, absolutely similar to those of the type.
  • 2a. Twig, with buds and flowers, 2b, fruits; of Gunn's No. 25. (See Hooker's Fl. Tas.) It is absolutely identical with Labillardière's specimen. Gunn's No. 25 came from New Norfolk, but the form is common in Tasmania.
  • 3. Juvenile foliage of E. amygdalina, from Hobart (L. Rodway). Note that the young stem is glandular, and that the leaves are sometimes in threes.
  • 4a. Juvenile leaves; 4b, buds and mature leaves; 4c, fruits, from Blackheath, Blue Mountains, New South Wales, which absolutely match type specimens of E. radiata, Sieb. (See p. 153.)
  • 5a. Juvenile leaves; 5b, buds; 5c, fruits, of a common New England form of E. amygdalina. Very close to, if not identical with, E. radiata, Sieb. (See page 161.) Juvenile leaves broadish. (See No. 9.)
  • 6a. Buds, with leaf; 6b, fruits, of typical E. radiata, Sieb., drawn from Fl. Mixta, No. 604. The fruits are not perfectly ripe. The drawing (Mém. Myrt.), No. 2, pl. 30, shows the fruits of E. radiata more pear-shaped than I have ever seen them, and nearer the shape of those of var. radiata.
  • 7a. Juvenile foliage; 7b, mature leaf; 7c, fruits, from Wingello, New South Wales (J. L. Boorman). A form intermediate between var. numerosa and var. nitida. (See p. 163.)
  • 8a. Juvenile leaves; 8b, fruits, from Munendel Hill, Victoria (A. W. Howitt). E. amygdalina, with broadening juvenile leaves.
  • 9. Juvenile leaves, Walhalla, Victoria (A. W. Howitt). E. amygdalina, with still broader juvenile leaves.

  ― 180 ―

Plate 30.

Plate 30: E. AMYGDALINA, Labill., var. numerosa, var. nov. (1), and allies. E. LINEARIS, Dehnh. (5). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaves; 1b, mature leaves; 1c, heads of buds; 1d, anthers; 1e, fruits of E. amygdalina, Labill., var. numerosa, Maiden, from Hilltop, near Mittagong, New South Wales. (See p. 155.)
  • 2. Facsimile of part of drawing of DC., Mém. Myrt., t. 7. The original is a specimen of E. radiata, Sieb., quoted in the Prodomus as Pl. Exs., No. 425. Another specimen (Fl. Mixta, No. 604) is figured as No. 6 on Plate 29.
  • 3a. Leaf and 3b, fruits of E. amygdalina, with leaves broader than the type, and very small fruits. Lilydale, Victoria (A. W. Howitt).
  • 4a. Leaf and 4b, fruits of a form of E. amygdalina, with small fruits, and especially broad leaves. Darlimurla, Victoria (H. Deane). This form undoubtedly shows affinity to var. numerosa.

E. linearis, Dehnh.

  • 5a. Twig of typical E. linearis, Dehnh. (Hort. Camald., in Herb. Vindob.); 5b, fruits from a cultivated tree (now dead) growing in the Domain, Melbourne.

Plate 31.

Plate 31: E. AMYGDALINA, Labill., var. nitida, Benth. (and allies). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

  • 1a. Twig in flower; 1b and 1c, heads of fruit, all of “808 (?) Gunn, Currie's River.” [N.B.—The note of interrogation is in Gunn's handwriting, and is thus quoted by Hooker in Fl., Tas.] These specimens are typical for E. nitida, Hook., f.; and for Bentham's var. nitida. See p. 162).
  • 2. Drawn from a specimen in W. H. Archer's herbarium, labelled “E. radiata, Hooker,” var. 5. (See p. 162.) In this specimen the operculum is more conical than in typical nitida.
  • 3a. Leaf; 3b, buds; 3c, fruits; 3d, anthers; of Gunn's 1,078, from “Risdon, river-side;” very near typical nitida.
  • 4a. Leaf, with buds and flowers; 4b, fruits, of var. nitida, from Mount Victoria, New South Wales. (J.H.M.) (See p. 163.)
  • 5a. Juvenile leaves; 5b, mature leaf; 5c, fruits, of a tree from Jenolan Caves, New South Wales (W. F. Blakeley); nearest to var. nitida. (See p. 163.)
  • 6a. Leaves; 6b, buds; 6c, fruits of a form from Monga, near Moruya (W. Baeuerlen); near var. nitida, but reminiscent of E. stellulata, Sieb. (See p. 163.)

Plate 32.

Plate 32: E. RISDONI, Hook., f. (1): E. RISDONI, Hook., f. var. elata.. Benth. (2); E. OBLIQUA, Labill., var. alpina, Maiden (3), for many years confused with (2). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

  • 1a. Twig of typical E. Risdoni, from Beltana, Hobart (quite close to Risdon Cove); 1b, front and back view of anthers; 1c, fruits; 1d and 1e, leaves taken from the same tree from which 1a was taken! It will be observed that 1d and 1e differ in no way from ordinary leaves of E. Risdoni, var. elata. (See p. 175.)
  • 2a. Twig, bearing flowers; 2b, twig, bearing fruits; 2c, pair of fruits, of E. Risdoni, Hook. f., var. elata, Benth.; 1,110, Gunn (partim). (See pp. 176, 178.)
  • 3a, 3b, 3c, leaves; 3d, flowers; 3e, 3f, 3g, fruits of E. obliqua, L'Hérit, var. alpina, Maiden (E. delegatensis, R. T. Baker), the “Gum-top Stringybark,” 1,110, Gunn (partim). The fact that specimens of two Eucalypts, very similar in appearance, have been distributed as 1,100, Gunn, and an account of the confusion which has arisen in consequence, is related for the first time at p. 178.