07. Part VII

13. XII. Eucalyptus regnans, F.v.M.

Description  183 
Notes supplementary to the description  183 
Synonyms  184 
Notes on the Synonyms  184 
Range  187 
Affinities  188 

  ― 183 ―


E. regnans, F.v.M.

FOLLOWING is the original description of this species, as quoted by Mueller himself in his “Second Census of Australian Plants”:—

Euculyptus amygdalina, Labill.—“In our sheltered, springy (containing water-springs—J.H.M.) forest glens, attaining not rarely a height of over 400 feet, there forming a smooth stem and broad leaves, producing also seedlings of a foliage different to the ordinary state of Eucalyptus amygdalina as occurs in more open country. This species, or variety, which might be called Eucalyptus regnans, represents the loftiest tree in the British territory, and ranks next to the Sequoia Wellingtonia in size anywhere on the globe. The wood is fissile, well-adapted for shingles, rails, for house-building, for the keelson and planking of ships, and other purposes. Labillardière's name applies ill to any of the forms of this species. Seedlings raised on rather barren ground near Melbourne have shown the same amazing rapidity of growth as those of Euc. globulus, yet, like those of Euc. obliqua, they are not so easily satisfied with any soil.”—Report of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria (now Zoological and Acclimatisation Society); 7th report, 1870, p. 48.

The tree is later referred to:—

The very tall, whitish, straight columns of its stem (E. regnans) are developed in the valleys of mountain forests only; in lower regions the species dwindles down to a comparatively small tree [to which the more persistent layers of the outer bark give a very different appearance. In this state it passes as a peppermint-tree] among Victorian colonists, on account of the unusually large percentage of cajuput-like essential oil.—(Mueller, “Suggestions on the Maintenance, Creation and Enrichment of Forests.” Small 8vo., p. 31, 1878).

Attention is invited to the words placed by me in brackets, in connection with what is stated in regard to E. fastigata, infra, p. 186. Then, again, we have:—

In sheltered, springy forest glens, attaining exceptionally to a height of over 400 feet, there forming a smooth stem and broad leaves, producing also seedlings of a foliage different to the ordinary state of E. amygdalina, as occurs in more open country, which has small narrow leaves and a rough brownish bark. The former species, or variety, which might be called Eucalyptus regnans, represents probably the loftiest tree on the globe.—(Mueller, Select Extra-tropical Plants; N.S.W. Ed., 1881, p. 114).

In the Eucalyptographia, Mueller looked upon E. amygdalina as including E. regnans, and he does not appear to have formally described E. regnans before 1887–8. Following are his words:—

At last stupendously tall.

Bark.—Outside whitish and smooth, except at the stem base.

Leaves.—Of rather thin texture, from elongate to broad-lanceolar, much unilaterally curved, shining on both sides, their secondary venules slightly spreading; oil-dots extremely numerous and pellucid.

Umbels.—Mostly solitary.


Lid (Operculum).—Hemispherical.

Anthers.—Minute, renate.

Fruit.—Quite small, generally semiovate, its border depressed or nearly flat; valves enclosed.

Leaves.—Of young seedlings opposite, sessile, cordate-roundish, whitish from waxy bloom.

“Giant-Gumtree” and “Spurious Blackbutt.”—(Key to the System of Vict. Plants, i, 236.)

The species may be defined in the following words:—

A large tree, the largest indeed in Australia, though inferior in size to the “Redwood” (Sequoia sempervirens) and the “Big tree” (Sequoia Wellingtonia) of Western America (British Columbia and California). Trees about 300 feet high are known in Victoria, and huge in girth and straight in trunk they tower into the sky, affording little shade from their foliage because the scanty crown of leaves is so far removed from the earth. Some of the largest trees of New South Wales also belong to this species.

  ― 184 ―

Vernacular Names.—In its smoother-barked (Victorian) form it bears the name of “Mountain Ash,” and even “White Gum,” but it varies as to the amount of rough bark, and, indeed, its commonest name in Victoria is “Blackbutt.” In New South Wales it is most usually called “Blackbutt” also, though in one district the name “Cut-tail” is in use.

Bark.—It has more or less of a sub-fibrous, dark-coloured bark on the butt and trunk. On the giant trees of Victoria there is often very little of this bark, but on others, in the same State, this bark runs further up the trunk and becomes more or less ribbony. In the same State, but more commonly in New South Wales, the whole of the trunk and part of the branches become covered. The smooth portion is white and smooth, and thus it follows that the same species may be either a White Gum or a Blackbutt.

Timber.—A timber can scarcely be more fissile than that of the straightest growing and largest of these trees. All trees of this species, however, possess this property of fissility in a marked degree. It is pale-coloured, and is extensively used for saw-mill purposes.

Juvenile Leaves.—“The young seedlings of this Eucalypt are at first like those of the typical amygdalina (this is hardly correct; they are never so narrow.—J.H.M.) but with somewhat broader, lanceolar, opposed leaves. These are soon replaced by broadly lanceolar, scattered, unequal-sided, pointed leaves, very like those of E. obliqua. The saplings so much resemble those of this Eucalypt in other respects that at first sight they might be confused.” (A. W. Howitt, Eucalypts of Gippsland [Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., ii, 87.]) Their shape is brought out in Plate 33, fig. 2. The leaf is undulate, and the margin is irregularly toothed.

Mature Leaves.—Lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, shining on both sides, usually thin in texture (but sometimes quite coriaceous), veins slightly spreading, oil-dots extremely numerous. Indeed, a common method of recognising E. regnans is to hold up a leaf to the light and to notice the fine oil-dots which cover its surface, but this character should be used with caution as the leaves of some other species possess it.

Buds.—The operculum hemispherical to conical, the pointed character being more obvious in dried specimens.

Flowers.—The anthers reniform. While the umbels are mostly solitary, it is not unusual to find them in pairs, a character which is shared with some other species of the Renantheræ, e.g., E. Andrewsi, Maiden.

Fruits.—The shape and size are alike variable. The calyx nearly hemispherical, but more usually gradually continued into the stalk, so as to take on a conoid shape. The pedicels not long, but the common petiole often an inch long. The rim prominent, usually more or less domed, and the valves usually exsert. The valves were originally described as enclosed, but this is not commonly the case in perfectly ripe fruits.


  • 1. E. amygdalina, Labill. var. regnans, F.v.M.
  • 2. E. amygdalina, Labill. var. colossea, F.v.M.
  • 3. E. inophloia, F.v.M.
  • 4. E. fastigata, Deane and Maiden.

Notes on the Synonyms.

1. E. amygdalina, Labill. var. regnans, F.v.M. Mueller wavered a good deal as to the specific rank of E. regnans, as has been pointed out, and distributed much material under the name quoted.

  ― 185 ―

2. E. amygdalina, Labill. var. colossea, F.v.M. E. regnans, F.v.M., bears the above name in Herb. Melb., and at one time Mueller distributed it under that name, but not so freely as under the name var. regnans It is not to be confused with E. colossea, F.v.M., which is a synonym of E. diversicolor, F.v.M.

3. E. inophloia, F.v.M.

Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus inophloia or Mountain Ash) is so called from a fancied resemblance to the British timber of that name, and is employed by the coachmakers for bending into the form of shafts for light vehicles, for which it is well adapted. It has not hitherto received the attention it deserves, being ordinarily used for splitting into palings for fencing and other inferior applications; it is much like the White Gum, and may be used for similar purposes.—(Intercol. Exhib. of Australasia, Melbourne, 1866–7; Official Record, 1867, p. 216.)

In the Official Report of the Victorian Exhibition of 1861 we have the entry, “E. inophloia, Mountain Ash, specific gravity of wood 642.”

I cannot find a description of this species. The late Mr. J. G. Luehmann assured me that the “Mountain Ash” in question is E. regnans. I suggested it might have been E. obliqua, L'Hérit. var. alpina, Maiden.

4. E. fastigata, Deane et Maiden. Following is the original description:—

Introductory.—While dealing with the Stringybark group we draw attention to a tree which is very closely related to one of them, that is to all intents and purposes a Stringybark. We allude to the forest tree known as “Cut-tail” in the southern part of the Colony. It attains a height of 60–100 feet and more, and a diameter of at least 4 feet. Its affinities to other species will be dealt with under various headings, but we may point out that it strongly resembles E. obliqua in bark and wood, while the two species have very dissimilar buds and fruits. The only point of resemblance to E. amygdalina lies in the fruits, which are rather like those of our variety latifolia (E. dives, Schauer.—J.H.M.) figured in our former paper of this series.

We do not hesitate to say that “Cut-tail” cannot be included under any existing species, and therefore propose the name fastigata for it, in allusion to the shape of the operculum and leaves.

Vernacular Names.—Several names are more or less in use in different places. The one most in use, where also the tree is best developed, is “Cut-tail,” and inasmuch as this name is not applied to any other tree, so far as we are aware, we would suggest that all other English names be dropped as far as possible in favour of this. We have made many inquiries as to the meaning of the term “Cut-tail” but without success,note and can only suggest that it has reference to the rough bark on the branches, which, in comparison with E. obliqua, which it so much resembles in general appearance, it is cut-tailed or curtailed.

Other names that have been mentioned to us for this tree are “Blackbutt,” on the Nimbo Station, Braidwood-Cooma road, and, on the Tantawanglo Mountain, “Messmate”; “White-topped Messmate” and “Silver-top” at various places, and “Brown Barrel” at Queanbeyan.

Seedling or Sucker Leaves.—Ovate-lanceolate, early becoming oblique; scattered, in this respect very dissimilar to those of E. amygdalina, the leaves of which remain opposite until the tree has attained some size. The veining of the under side prominent. The twigs rusty tuberculate like E. amygdalina and some other species.

Leaves of Mature Trees.—Lanceolate, and when fully grown narrow lanceolate. Often more or less ovate-lanceolate, and always more or less attenuate. They are rather coriaceous, smooth, and rather shining. They possess no odour of peppermint.

Buds.—The chief characteristic is the shortly acuminate operculum, which is much accentuated in dried specimens. In E. obliqua the operculum is blunt, and the whole bud club-shaped, very different to those of the species now under review. The anthers are partly folded in the bud.

  ― 186 ―

Fruits.—The figure (Pl. lxi, not reproduced.—J.H.M.) will make the shape clear. They are pear-shaped, have a conical or domed rim, with the valves somewhat exserted. They are always three-celled as far as seen. Diameter of rim, 2½ to nearly 3 lines. Length from end of pedicel to rim, 2½ lines.

The fruit differs from that of E. obliqua in being more or less conical, while that of E. obliqua is subcylindrical. The latter species has no well-defined rim, and the valves are sunk, whereas in the tree now under consideration there is a prominent rim, while the valves are somewhat exserted. The fruits of E. obliqua are also larger than those of our species, and have shorter stalks. In the latter species, the peduncles are elongated over half an inch in fruit, and are distinctly pedicellate, about 1½ lines.

Bark.—It resembles closely that of E. obliqua, the principal difference between the two trees, in this respect, consisting in the fact that the tops and the branches of “Cut-tail” are smooth, while those of E. obliqua are the reverse.

Timber.—It has all the characteristics of the timber of E. obliqua, from which it is scarcely, or not at all, to be distinguished. At Montgomery's mill, on the Tantawanglo Mountain, near Cathcart, the two trees are considered of equal value, and the timbers of the two cut up and sold as one and the same.—(Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1896, p. 809.)

In my “Useful Native Plants of Australia” (1889) occurs the note:—

“Cut-tail” grows with a straight bole over 200 feet high, and with a diameter of 6 to 8 feet. Its wood is fissile in the highest degree, since it can be readily split almost to the thinness of paper. A sample of this timber from Haydon's Bog, near Delegate, cut in March, 1885, is in the Technological Museum. It is very straight in the grain (as might be expected), and very easy to work.

I have since examined other specimens, and find that, while the timber of some trees is not markedly fissile, E. fastigata may have timber as fissile as that of the Victorian tree.

Mr. Deane and I wrote (ib. 1899, p. 459):—

Our E. fastigata is a tree with a fibrous bark, not to be distinguished in this respect from E. obliqua, except in the smooth branchlets of the former. Mueller described his regnans as a smooth-barked tree; the fruit of our fastigata (from Mount Tantawanglo) is smaller than that of E. regnans, and there are other differences, of more or less value, which caused us to look upon our tree as new to science.

We have since studied the distribution of E. fastigata, and find that it is very widely diffused in New South Wales.

Contemplation of these specimens (for the most part collected by ourselves), and inspection of E. regnans as it grows in Victoria, incline us to the opinion that our E. fastigata may not be specifically different from E. regnans. Mueller's description of his species would require to be modified in the specially important matter (in the case of a Eucalypt) of the bark, while the size of the fruit, and other minor matters in which the published descriptions of E. regnans and E. fastigata do not agree, may not present insuperable obstacles to the fusion of the two species.

I have since continued to bear the Victorian and New South Wales trees under observation, and now state without hesitation that E. fastigata is but a form of E. regnans. I cannot even look upon it as a variety. Examination of Mueller's series of statements referring to the bark of E. regnans shows that he was alive to the fact that his species might be fibrous-barked. The smaller size of the fruit in fastigata is one not to be relied upon, as I find that those of normal regnans vary in size. Mueller, indeed, insists on the small fruits of his regnans, and I have fruits quite as small as I have ever seen in fastigata.

  ― 187 ―


It is found in Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales.


The late Mr. F. Abbott first drew attention to the fact that E. regnans grows in Tasmania, as the following passage in the “Eucalyptographia” (under E. amygdalina) bears witness:—

Huge stems, quite smooth and almost white …. passes as one of the White Gum-trees ..… according to Mr. F. Abbott it is this form which constitutes the “Swamp Gum-tree” in Tasmania, where already Sir William Denison placed early its huge dimensions on record.

Some specimens of “Swamp Gum” from Mr. Abbott are typical, or nearly typical, for E. amygdalina var. nitida.

But Mr. Abbott probably saw typical E. regnans in addition, and specimens collected by Mr. L. Rodway leave no room for doubt that the species occurs in Tasmania. Mr. Rodway says:—“Tree 70–80 feet; bark smooth, except at extreme base, where it is ribbony.” His specimens are of nearly typical regnans. Identical specimens were sent me by Mr. H. E. Day, from Mount Wellington, from about the 1,000 feet level.


It occurs over a wide area in South and Western Gippsland, chiefly on the Mesozoic Carbonaceous formations, together with E. obliqua and E. globulus, from the sea-level up to about 1,200 feet. It is also found in the mountains, as at Walhalla, 1,200 feet, and at Tucker Creek, Wentworth River, 2,500 feet.—(Howitt, Trans. Roy. Soc., Vict., 1890–1.)

Some of the type specimens of E. regnans came from the Dandenong, and were marked by Mueller, “D. Boyle, 420 feet.”


It occurs in most of the high mountainous districts of this State. Following are some localities represented in the National Herbarium, Sydney:—

Southern localities.—Tantawanglo Mountain, near Cathcart, Bombala district (H. Deane and J.H.M. type of E. fastigata); “Cut-tail,” Delegate River (W. Baüerlen); Monga, near Braidwood (No. 2,108, W. Baüerlen); Braidwood district (Reidsdale, Irish Corner Mountain), with E. obliqua and E. goniocalyx (H. Deane); “Blackbutt,” Queanbeyan (J. D. Francis); “Blackbutt,” “Brown Barrel,” “Messmate,” head of Queanbeyan River, Nimbo Station, Cooma district (H. Deane); “Brown Barrel,” Hoskinstown (S. Daniel); “Messmate,” back of Ulladulla (Allan); under Table Mountain west of Milton, Macquarie Pass, West Albion Pass, “Messmate,” bark rather stringy, going higher up than usual, generally to branches, with specially small fruits (R. H. Cambage); Mittagong (H. Deane).

  ― 188 ―

Western localities.—“Red Blackbutt,” timber with straight grain, reddish in colour, stem decidedly rough, and black from the ground. Sunny Corner (J. L. Boorman); “Blackbutt,” rough, soft bark, clean ribbony tips, a good timber, which is in demand for palings, leaves thick. Sunny Corner (No. 5, J. L. Boorman); “Blackbutt,” Burraga (R. H. Cambage); “Blackbutt,” 15 miles southerly from Oberon cross roads (R. H. Cambage); “Messmate,” Tarana (A. Murphy); Jenolan Caves, with rather thick foliage (W. F. Blakeley); Mount Wilson, Mount Irvine, &c., all have white tops (Jesse Gregson and J.H.M.); the giant tree at Mount Tomah is of this species; diameter at ground, 17 ft. 6 in.; 3 feet up, 16 feet 3 in.; height (estimated), 150 feet (J.H.M.); Hassan's Walls, Bowenfels (J.H.M.); at the foot of Govett's Leap, Blackheath (R. H. Cambage).

Northern locality.—Yarrowitch, New England (J.H.M.) These specimens absolutely match the type regnans, but the bark is rough. Most of the trees I observed are small, though a few are 3 feet in diameter. Some of the umbels have a double operculum. This New England record was made in 1898 (Proc. Aust. Ass. Adv. Science, vii, 539), and it remains to ascertain other northern localities, and to connect them with the western ones. The following specimen is probably one of such connecting localities: In general appearance resembles E. piperita, but seems of more sturdy and irregular growth; generally is branchy and hollow, and I should think of little value. On mountain tops, Upper Paterson and Allyn Rivers, &c. (A. Rudder, May, 1890). The fruits with valves not exsert, and leaves rather coriaceous.


1. With E. amygdalina, Labill.

This has been incidentally referred to. The seedlings and juvenile leaves (quite narrow in E. amygdalina) sharply separate the two species. The mature leaves also are usually broader. Turning to the fruits, those of E. amygdalina are usually hemispherical, and those of E. regnans conoid. It is hoped that Plates 29 and 33 will make the principal differences between the two species clear, but there is no doubt there are transit forms.

2. E. vitellina, Naudin, and E. vitrea, R. T. Baker.

See p. 189. Note also the specimens, Delegate River (W. Baüerlen) and Sunny Corner (No. 5, J. L. Boorman), placed under E. regnans.

14. XIII. Eucalyptus vitellina, Naudin, and Eucalyptus vitrea, R. T. Baker.

Description  189 

  ― 189 ―


E. vitellina, Naudin, and E. vitrea, R. T. Baker.

SEE pages 150 and 164 of Part VI, where I have pretty fully explained my views as to these two species, which I look upon as natural hybrids of E. amygdalina and E. coriacea. It is not possible to clearly describe the forms without figures, hence the figures in Plate 34 and Plate 35 (5) have been prepared, which have been described under “Explanation of Plates.”

Figures 3 and 3b (Pl. 34) have been described as E. vitrea, since they come nearest to that species of any described New South Wales form; at the same time, there is no question that the plant represented comes nearer to the French-grown hybrid E. vitellina.

It seems to me that E. vitrea runs into E. regnans also, and figures 2, 4 and 5, Plate 34, are quoted in support of that assertion. This is one reason why the drawings of E. vitrea have been placed in juxtaposition to those of E. regnans. If it were possible for my readers to compare the actual specimens, they would see that the similarities are even closer (e.g., texture of leaves) than those brought out in the figures, and that they tend to show that there is abundant justification for my formerly expressed view that E. vitrea is but a form of E. fastigata (and therefore of E. regnans). The leaves of E. vitrea vary a good deal in the straightness or spreading character of the venation—showing affinity to E. coriacea on the one hand and to E. amygdalina and E. regnans on the other.

The resemblance of E. vitrea to E. amygdalina, Labill. var. nitida, Benth., is worthy of notice.

Some localities of E. vitrea have already been given in Part VI; others have been given in the Explanation of Plates of the present Part. It also occurs at six miles on Hampton Road from Oberon (near Jenolan Caves).

15. XIV. Eucalyptus dives, Schauer.

Description  190 
Notes supplementary to the description  190 
Synonyms  191 
Range  191 
Affinities  192 

  ― 190 ―


E. dives, Schauer.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Schauer mss.—Glaucescens: ramis ramulisq. rigidulis teretib.; foll. firmis oppositis alternisve ovatis petiolatis v. subsessilib., basi obliquis acuminatis, summo acumine breviter recurvo, margine incrassatis venosis subperforatis; umbellis subcapitatis multifloris lateralib. axillaribq.; pedunculo semipollicari tereti.; pedicellis cupulam obconicam subaequantib. et continuo in eandem accrescentib.; operculo depresso subconvexo obtusissimo vix umbonato.—Folia 3–4 poll. longa, 1–2 poll. lata; cupula cum pedicello 3 lineas explens. In Nova Cambria australi interiori.—A. Cunn. Herb. no. 181/1822 (Walpers' Rep. ii, 926).

The type came from “Forest land north of Bathurst,” where Allan Cunningham was in 1822.

Subsequently Bentham described it in B.Fl. iii, 205, the fruit being unknown to him.

Mueller, in the “Eucalyptographia,” alludes to it under E. amygdalina, and I believe that he always held the view that it was not separable from that species. I doubt if he ever saw juvenile foliage; I have not seen any that I know passed through his hands.

The next account I find of it includes an account of the fruit:—

E. dives … occurs on the Blue Mountains, and the Mittagong Range. The … seed-vessel is globose-truncate, about two lines in diameter, four-celled, with a broad rim, and the capsule sunk, the valves scarcely protruding … the wood is not esteemed.—(Woolls' Fl ra of Australia, p. 241. See also his Plants of New South Wales).

The tree is abundant on the Mittagong-Berrima Road, which Dr. Woolls used to travel, and I have some specimens collected by the reverend gentleman.

For a long time there remained a doubt as to the identity of the species, partly because it was looked upon as a shrub (or a small tree of 10 or 12 feet, a statement repeated by Dr. Woolls), and, meantime, Mr. Deane and I redescribed it under the name of E. amygdalina var. latifolia. (See Synonyms.)

Shortly afterwards I visited the Melbourne Herbarium, and found one of Dr. Woolls' specimens from Mittagong labelled E. amygdalina var. dives by Mueller. These precisely matched the Woollsian specimens in my possession, and Mr. Deane and I published a note, announcing the rediscovery of E. dives, Schauer, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1899, 460.

  ― 191 ―

It may be described in the following words:—

A tree of medium size, but often flowering as a tall shrub.

Bark.—Rough, like a typical “Peppermint” with smooth limbs somewhat ribbony. (Mr. A Murphy, an experienced collector, says that, practically, he distinguishes this species from E. piperita by the yellowish upper limbs, those of piperita being white.)

Timber.—Pale-coloured, full of concentric gum (kino) veins. It would be difficult to get a sound log of any size, and it is an almost worthless timber.

Vernacular Names.—It is usually known as “Peppermint” throughout its range, and especially so in the Western districts. It is called “Blue Peppermint” at Rylstone; “Messmate” in the Southern districts generally.

Juvenile Leaves.—Comparatively broad (sometimes so broad as to be nearly orbicular); stemclasping, more or less cordate at the base, and in some cases quite acuminate. The shape is brought out in the figure. Both juvenile and mature leaves reek with oil.

Mature Leaves.—Broadly lanceolate, nearly symmetrical, usually rather thick. Venation spreading from the base. An important characteristic is the strongly marked venation. On drying, the principal veins stand out in relief against the vascular tissue. Often shining, a characteristic best brought out in fully mature leaves, but the foliage may be both dull and glaucous.

Up to 5 or 6 inches is a common length for the leaves, but they are barely 3 inches in some of the Bombala and Queanbeyan specimens; 4½ inches would appear to be an average length. Specimens up to nearly 2 inches in width are found in Mount Vincent specimens; 1½ inch is a common width; 1–1½ inch may be given as the average width.

Buds.—Operculum usually blunt, though not quite hemispherical. In dried specimens the operculum more pointed. Buds often glaucous.

Flowers.—A profuse flowering species, with dense umbels of eight to twelve, and even more flowers. Anthers reniform, the cells divergent and confluent at the apex.

Fruits.—Sometimes nearly hemispherical with a greater or less tendency to pear-shape. The rim often domed or arched. The tips of the valves occasionally a little exserted. The rims (mouths) usually red, a characteristic often attributed to hœmastoma, and the fruit itself often pale-coloured; may be very shiny or glaucous.


1. E. amygdalina, Labill. var. dives, F.v.M. (In Herb. Melb., as already alluded to.)

2. E. amygdalina, Labill. var. latifolia, Deane and Maiden, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., x, 609 (1895) with Plate lvii.


This species is confined to New South Wales and Victoria so far as is known at present.


It is only quite recently that it has been formally recorded from Victoria,note but some of the specimens, which were fragmentary, referred to in that paper, belong, in my opinion, to other species of the Renantheræ.

  ― 192 ―

The following specimens in the National Herbarium belong to E. dives:—Dargo and Wentworth River, Gippsland (A. W. Howitt), and by him called “Broad-leaved amygdalina”; Mt. St. Bernard, 3,500 feet (J.H.M.); Wandong Ranges (C. Walter); Grampians (C. Walter); “N.E. district of Victoria” (H. B. Williamson, No. 930).


It frequents much of the sterile rocky country of the colder parts of this State, both south and west, but its precise range remains to be determined. It has not been recorded from New England.

Southern localities.—Bombala and Cumberland Range (A. W. Howitt); near Delegate (J.H.M.); Jindabyne (J.H.M.); Yarrangobilly (W. Forsyth); “Messmate,” Granite Hill, Tumberumba (R. H. Cambage); Head of Tarcutta Creek, 8 miles from Tumberumba (Forest Ranger Mecham); “Messmate or Peppermint,” ridgy country about Tumut (W. U. Nowland); Cockatoo, near Germanton (W. Forsyth); Queanbeyan (J. D. Francis); Bungendore (W. S. Campbell, A. W. Howitt); Bell's Creek, near Braidwood (J. S. Allan); Fagan's Creek (W. Baeuerlen); Barber's Creek (J.H.M.); Wingello, Berrima and Mittagong (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman), where it is known as “Bastard Stringybark,” “Bastard Messmate,” or “Messmate.”

Western localities.—This tree seems to rarely occur on the sandstone, but as soon as the granite occurs, e.g., near Bowenfels, it makes its appearance plentifully. Mt. Victoria (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M., on Sandstone); Cox's River (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.); Jenolan Caves (W. F. Blakeley); Wallerawang (H. Deane and J.H.M.); Tarana (A. Murphy); Capertee (J. L. Boorman and J.H.M.); Sunny Corner (J. L. Boorman); Oberon, Burraga, Trunkey, Rockley (R. H. Cambage); Orange (A. W. Howitt, R. H. Cambage).

“Blue Peppermint,” Mt. Vincent, Mudgee district (R. T. Baker).


1. E. amygdalina, Labill.

The two species have affinities apparent both to the forester and to the botanist.

Speaking of E. dives, Mr. W. U. Nowland, the Staff-Surveyor at Tumut, says:—“It is known to me as either a ‘Messmate’ or ‘Peppermint,’ according to locality. Some bushmen call it by the former name, others by the latter, owing to it being very hard to distinguish it from another tree here (E. amygdalina), almost a fac-simile, excepting in the shape of the leaf.”

  ― 193 ―

If unaccompanied by sucker leaves, I doubt if E. dives can be sometimes distinguished from E. amygdalina. Mueller failed to distinguish the species, while admitting a certain amount of difference amounting to a variety.

Speaking generally, E. dives is more aromatic even than E. amygdalina. The odour is different, though difficult to describe. The foliage of the former species is usually broader and more glaucous than that of the latter. The fruit of E. dives is usually larger; nevertheless, all these characters have sometimes to be cautiously examined when herbarium specimens of mature foliage, buds, and fruits are alone available.

2. E. vitrea, R. T. Baker.

This tree, in bark, timber, and even fruits, resembles that of E. dives a good deal. The matter has been alluded to at page 165, Part VI.

16. XV. Eucalyptus Andrewsi, Maiden.

Description  194 
Notes supplementary to the description  195 
Synonyms  195 
Range  195 
Affinities  196 

  ― 194 ―


E. Andrewsi, Maiden.

This species was described in a papernote from which most of the particulars now given have been drawn.

A tall tree, on an average, say 80 feet in height, with a stem diameter of 2–3 feet. “On the Bulldog Hill, 3,000 feet (between the Timbarra and Clarence Rivers), it attains a diameter of at least 8 feet, and the height of large trees is most likely from 150 to 180 feet. Here it consorts with true Blackbutts (E. pilularis) and Forest Oaks (Casuarina torulosa) which even at times rise 100 feet, and 50 or 60 feet without a branch.”—(E. C. Andrews.)

Writing from Drake to Mr. Cambage, Mr. Andrews says:—“One tree we measured 20 feet in circumference, about 80 feet to 100 feet to first limb, and from 150 feet to 180 feet high (guess). Another, 23 feet in circumference, 170 feet high. (?) Another we measured 25 ft. 6 in. round butt (4 feet above ground). Blackbutt-top but about 150 feet high then. I suppose there were from 50 to 100 from 18 feet to 20 feet and 21 feet in circumference.”

Juvenile leaves.Rather large and soon becoming alternate, glaucous. The youngest foliage available to me is elliptical, and about 4 inches long by half the width, with petioles of ½-inch. “Seedlings have erect habit, with fairly large leaves; pale in colour.”—(R. H. Cambage.)

Mature leaves.Broadly lanceolate, sometimes falcate, but apparently usually symmetrical. Dull on both sides and even glaucous,note but ultimately glabrous and even shining; equally green on both sides, venation spreading from the base. Usually under 6 inches long and about 1 inch wide. Of a distinct peppermint odour.

Buds.—Clavate, the operculum sometimes slightly umbonate. A free flowerer, the anthers reniform.

Fruits.Nearly hemispherical, about ¼-inch in diameter; with a flat thick rim, tips of the valves flush with the mouth; peduncle thin; angular, ½–¾ inch long, pedicels about ?-inch in length. Fruits abundantly produced, usually six to nine in the head. The fruits remind one of those of E. hœmastoma var. micrantha.

Bark.—Has “Peppermint” bark on the trunk and large branches; only the ultimate branches smooth. Twigs red (claret-coloured), often glaucous, usually round, apparently rarely angular.

Timber.—Pale-coloured, comparatively light in weight, and very fissile, containing a few kino veins. So similar in appearance to that of E. piperita, Sm., that I am at present unable to indicate any difference. “Split for palings” (R. H. Cambage). “Timber like E. acmenoides, but not wavy like it; more like E. piperita timber” (A. Murphy). “Timber seemingly preferred to all others for fencing, building, etc.” (J. L. Boorman). [In this connection it may be pointed out that the value of a timber is comparative; the best timber of a district may be inferior to that of another district.]

Known locally as “Blackbutt,” less frequently as “Peppermint,” and “Messmate.” It is the “Blackbutt” of Mr. W. Christie's paper,note and his “Specimen No. 11” (p. 35) has been preserved. Known all over New England as “Blackbutt.” At Oban it is called “Bastard Stringybark,” and at Emmaville “Messmate” (E. C. Andrews).

  ― 195 ―

This species was first prominently brought under my notice by Mr. R. H. Cambage in October, 1903. That gentleman collected it, and made extensive notes concerning it. It is named in honour of Ernest Clayton Andrews, B.A., Geological Surveyor, Department of Mines, New South Wales, who has been giving attention to the flora of New England, particularly as regards the vegetation on various geological formations, and who has made special inquiries in regard to the tree that is called by his name.


E. Sieberiana, F.v.M. var. Oxleyensis, Deane and Maiden (Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1899, 794, where it is fully described).

The specimens referred to as E. Sieberiana, F.v.M. var. Oxleyensis, Deane and Maiden, loc. cit., for the most part belong, in my opinion, to E. Andrewsi. They have smaller fruits, usually more pyriform than the type, but in view of the fact that the fruits of typical E. Andrewsi vary more than ordinarily as ripening proceeds, it is premature to define varieties of E. Andrewsi at present.


Confined to the colder parts of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland, so far as is known at present.

Plentiful in many parts of New England, N.S.W. The species seems to attain its greatest size on the eastern slopes and New England. Plentiful on belts of porphyritic felsite (R. H. Cambage).

“Grows generally on granitic soils, but it frequently occurs on the junction of basaltic soils with those of poorer formation”—(W. Christie.)

North and east of Tingha (about 2,700 feet above sea-level), and on the roads to Inverell and Guyra (R. H. Cambage, J.H.M.); Howell (J. L. Boorman, J.H.M.); Wallangarra; Boonoo Boonoo; (J. L. Boorman). “Following are New England localities: Wilson's Downfall, Undercliffe, Great Dividing Range west of Bolivia and Deepwater. From the 10 to 25 mile pegs along the Glen Innes-Grafton Road. Along the Glen Innes-Glen Elgin track, Kingsgate, Oban, Tingha, Drake, Glen Innes to Inverell Road, &c., &c. Broadly it selects the high rocky table-lands of New England, especially the eastern edge (if rocky and poor soil like granite), and also the large mesas which extend easterly of the mesas proper, as, for example, that large block of high land 50 miles in length between the Rocky (Timbarra) and Clarence Rivers.”—(E. C. Andrews.)

  ― 196 ―

Mr. Andrews has found it at the head of the Manning River.

Stanthorpe, Queensland (A. Murphy). Mr. J. L. Boorman afterwards sent it from Stanthorpe under the names “Blackbutt,” “Messmate,” “Woolly Butt.”

The following specimens belong, in my opinion, to E. Andrewsi:—The “Peppermint” of Maiden's Dorrigo Report (Agric. Gaz., N.S.W., 1894, p. 612); summit of Mt. Seaview and adjacent mountains (Agric. Gaz., 1898, p. 585); Tenterfield District; “White Limb” of Glen Innes (Dist. Forester Stopford); “Peppermint,” Cobark, on high ground (A. Rudder); Upper Williams River (A. Rudder). “Moore's Reef on top of hill going to the Hole (Upper Barrington River). Tree in general appearance much like E. piperita. Height about 120 feet, diameter about 3 feet, with spreading and irregular smooth upper branches to size man's leg. Soil stony with blackish mould. 11/10/93.”—(A. Rudder).


1. This species in habit, bark, and timber comes close to E. piperita. Its juvenile leaves, buds, and fruits are, however, very different. The fruits are never constricted at the orifice.

2. It is also closely allied to E. dives, but it has not the characteristic stemclasping juvenile foliage of the latter, from which it differs in other respects, e.g., in the flat-topped and even sunk fruits, the slender pedicels with the more clavate slender buds and the more tapering bases of the fruit. Its foliage is also much less aromatic than that of E. dives.

3. E. regnans, F.v.M.

The Cobark and Upper Williams River specimens were referred by Deane and Maiden (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxvi, 123, 1901) to E. fastigata (pyriform series). Undoubtedly E. Andrewsi shows some affinity to E. regnans, F.v.M. (which includes E. fastigata).

4. E. Sieberiana, F.v.M.

The affinity of these two species is indicated by the fact that before E. Andrewsi was recognised as a distinct species it was looked upon as a variety of E. Sieberiana. The fruits are smaller and the bark more fibrous than those of the typical trees of E. Sieberiana.

5. E. hœmastoma, Sm.

Undoubtedly the fruits, particularly when red-rimmed, resemble those of E. hœmastoma a good deal. The mature foliage also is not dissimilar. E. hœmastoma is, however, a “White Gum,” with a totally different timber.

The fact is that specimens of E. Andrewsi have long been known, but they have, from time to time, been referred to other species, thus indicating affinities more or less strong.

17. XVI. Eucalyptus diversifolia, Bonpland.

Description  197 
Notes supplementary to the description  197 
Synonyms  199 
Notes on the Synonyms  199 
Range  201 
Affinities  203 
Explanation of plates  204 

  ― 197 ―


E. diversifolia, Bonpland.

FOLLOWING is the description taken from Bonpland's rare work:—

Eucalyptus diversifolia.—Eucalyptus: foliis glaucis, falcato-lanceolatis, apice mucronatis, ad basim aequaliter angustatis: umbellis axillaribus: operculo conico mutico: capsula turbinata, operculo cruciformi clausa.

Habitat in Nova Hollandia.

Arbre toujours vert, de vingt pieds (7 mètres) de hauteur; tronc droit, cylindrique, de quatre à cinq pouces (12 centimètres) de diamètre, recouvert d'une écorce grisâtre presque lisse.

Rameaux alternes, ouverts, un peu tortueux, cylindriques.

Feuilles alternes, glauques, persistantes, de forme et de longueur différentes, longues de deux à quatre pouces (15 à 16 centimètres) sur cinq à huit lignes (10 à 18 millimètres) de largeur; droites ou courbées en faucille, légèrement coriaces, ponctuées, comme charnues et rougeâtres sur les bords, aiguës à la base, terminées au sommet par une pointe molle plus ou moins alongée. Dans les jeunes pieds, les feuilles inférieures sont opposées, sessiles, ovales, lanceolées, ou oblongues.

Pétioles longs de six lignes (12 millimètres), rougeâtres, garnis de petits tubercules, sillonnés en-dedans, convexes en-dehors.

Fleurs d'un blanc pur, disposées en ombelle, et situées dans les aisselles des feuilles.

Pédicelle droit, beaucoup plus court que les feuilles, portant ordinairement six ou neuf fleurs presque sessiles.

Calica supère, demi-sphérique, persistant, fermé par une coiffe en forme de cône, qui tombe lors du développement des étamines.

Corolle: il n'y en a pas.

Etamines nombreuses, insérées au bord intérieur du calice: filets blanc, droits, plus longs que le calice: anthères biloculaires, ovales, fixées par le milieu: poussière jaune.

Pistil: ovaire infère: style droit plus court que les étamines: stigmate aigu.

Fruit: capsule turbinée, entièrement recouverte par le calice devenu très-épais: fermée, par un opercule en forme de croix, composé de quatre ou huit pièces fortement unies ensemble: divisée jusque vers son milieu en quatre valves, et intérieurement en quatre loges.

Graines nombreuses, très-dures, de formes différentes, attachées à un réceptacle commun placé au centre de la capsule.


Le genre Eucalyptus a été établi par l'Héritier, et le caractère générique donné par cet auteur a été adopté par tous les botanistes. L'examen que j'ai fait de l'Eucalyptus diversifolia, qui est la seule espèce que j'aie vue en fleur, me porte à croire que le caractère de ce genre doit être réformé. Il faut espérer que M. Robert Brown, qui a vu un grand nombre d'espèces vivantes, fera ce travail dans le second volume de son Flora Novae Hollandiae, que tous les botanistes attendent avec impatience.

Nous connoissons à peu près vingt-quatre espèces d'Eucalyptus, déscrites dans les divers auteurs; mais il en existe un bien plus grand nombre, soit dans nos jardins, soit dans nos herbiers. L'herbier seul du Muséum en possède plus de quinze espèces nouvelles.

L'Eucalyptus diversifolia est dû à l'expédition du capitaine Baudin, qui en a apporté les graines de la Nouvelle-Hollande. Il est curieux d'observer que les naturalistes qui composoient cette expédition n'ont pas apporté cette plante dans leurs herbiers, et que la majeure partie des espèces de ce genre que nous cultivons, sont nouvelles, et ne se trouvent même pas dans les herbiers.

Ce qui me porte à croire que le caractère générique des Eucalyptus doit être réformé, c'est que sur celui que je viens de décrire, la capsule est fermée par un opercule cruciforme, composé de quatre ou huit pièces étroitement soudées. Cet opercule tombe à l'epoque de la maturité des graines, et indique le temps précis de leur récolte. Il est probable que cette partie dont aucun botaniste n'a parlé, existe dans plusieurs autres espèces du même genre.

  ― 198 ―

Les feuilles dans les jeunes plantes de cet Eucalyptus, de même que dans plusieurs autres espèces du même genre qui se cultivent à Malmaison, sont opposées, et affectent une forme entièrement différente de celle des mêmes individus plus avancés dans leur végétation.

Les Eucalyptus offrent une nouvelle richesse au midi de l'Empire. M. Martin, savant estimable, directeur du jardin botanique de Toulon, a mis depuis plusieurs années, en pleine terre, un petit pied d'Eucalyptus qu'il avoit reçu de Malmaison. Cette plante, que j'ai vue dans l'été de 1813, avoit acquis plus de vingt pieds de hauteur, et étoit, pour la première fois, couverte de fruits bien nourris. Cette seule expérience prouve que les Eucalyptus peuvent croître avec l'olivier, les grenadiers, les citroniers, et d'autres arbres utiles de nos provinces méridionales.

L'Eucalyptus cultivé par M. Martin nous paroît être le même que l'Eucalyptus diversifolia. Les petites différences que j'observe entre l'échantillon de cette plante, que j'ai cueilli à Toulon, et les pieds que je cultive à Malmaison, semblent être produites par le changement de culture ou par le climate. (Descr. Pl. Jard. Malmaison, 35, 1813.) See also DC. Prod. iii, 220; “Mém sur les Eucalyptus introduits dans la région Méditerranéenne,” par C. Naudin (Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 63e3 Série Bot., t. xvi (No. 6), p. 413 (1883); “Description et emploi des Eucalyptus introduits en Europe, principalement en France et en Algérie.” C. Naudin. Antibes 1891, p. 50.

It is described by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 206), and I proceed to amplify his description:—

Usually a tall, Mallee-like shrub, with smooth, ribbony bark, but stated to occasionally attain tree size.

Leaves.—Oblong or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, mostly under 3 inches and often nearly straight, very thick and rigid, scarcely showing the oblique veins.

Peduncles.—Axillary or lateral, short, terete or angular, each bearing 3 to 8 rather large flowers on very short pedicels.

Calyx-tube.—Short and open, above 2 lines diameter.

Operculum.—Conical, sometimes quite rostrate.

Stamens.—At least 3 lines long; anthers reniform, with diverging confluent cells (see below).

Fruit.—The fruit displays great variation in size, shape, and sculpture. It is often warted. It is subcylindrical or conoid to nearly globular, from scarcely more than ¼-inch to ?-inch in diameter. The fruit sometimes, but not always, contracted at the orifice, the rim broad, usually convex (sometimes horizontal) and always prominent, the valves sunk or slightly protruding.

The prominence of the rim varies a good deal, that of Drummond's No 64 (Bentham's E. pachyloma) being quite domed. A specimen from Stirling Range, West Australia, has an even broader rim, even broader than the calyx, the fruit being markedly globular. The rim often has a well-marked groove, sometimes two.

It is again described (as E. santalifolia) and also figured by Mueller in “Eucalyptographia.” In this work he states that:—

The cardinal characteristic of E. santalifolia rests in the position of the stamens before their expansion; then through a simple turn the lower portion of the filaments remains decumbent, whereas the upper part becomes erect, but in no way the filaments are reduplicated. Such peculiar curvature of the stamens, while in bud, is not known to exist in any other species of Eucalyptus, although an approach to such a staminal æstivation is offered by E. Planchoniana. All other species, in which the stamens are not distinctly doubled back in their early state, namely E. gomphocephala, E. Oldfieldii, E. siderophloia, E. tereticornis, E. salmonophloia, as well as E. cornuta and its allies, have the filaments in bud either straight or turned differently to those of E. santalifolia.

The section of the bud at Fig. 2 of the illustration is somewhat diagrammatic, but it essentially represents the position of the stamens before expansion in fresh Victorian specimens, for example. I am not in a position, without further investigation, to say whether this arrangement of the unexpanded stamens is “the cardinal characteristic” of the species, which would involve examination of an enormous amount of material.

  ― 199 ―


  • 1. E. santalifolia, F.v.M.
  • 2. E. dumosa, Benth. non A. Cunn.
  • 3. E. cneorifolia, DC. (partim) (?).
  • 4. E. connata, Dum.-Cours.
  • 5. E. santalifolia, F.v.M., var. firma, Miq.
  • 6. E. firma, F.v.M. herb. ex Miq.
  • 7. E. cuspidata, Tausch.
  • 8. E. viminalis, Labill., var. diversifolia, Benth.
  • 9. E. pachyloma, Benth.

Notes on the Synonyms.

1. E. santalifolia, F.v.M.

Following is the original description:—

Fruticose; leaves alternate, coriaceous, glaucescent, opaque, oblong-lanceolate, hooked-acuminate, a little oblique, thinly veined, hardly dotted; umbels axillary and terminal, pedunculate, capitate; lid depressed-conical or hemispherical; tube of the calyx obconical, bell shaped, nearly three times longer than the lid; fruit not contracted at the top; valves of the capsule enclosed.

In the Mallee scrub on the Murray River, on St. Vincent's and Spencer's Gulfs.—(Trans. Vict. Inst., i, 35, 1855.)

Then comes Miquel's description of Mueller's specimens in the following year:—

21. Eucalyptus santalifolia, Ferd. Müll.: subarborescens, ramulis angulatis junioribus viridulis, foliis anguste lanceolatis acumine recurvo terminatis crasse coriaceis glaucis, venis erectopatulis numerosis fere obtectis, pedunculis axillaribus 3–5 floris, floribus sessilibus, calycis tubo ovoideo-obconico, operculo brevi hemisphaerico subapiculato, antheris subglobosis.

Januario et Febr. florens. Crescit trans rivum Salts-creek (Dr. Behr.). Marble-range, Port Lincoln.—(F. Müll.). Miq. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch., iv, 133, 1856.

2. E. dumosa, Benth. non. A. Cunn.

According to Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 230), Miquel's plant is E. dumosa, A. Cunn.: but Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) is not of that opinion.

Bentham further states:—

“The large fruited specimens, originally sent by F. Mueller and described by Miquel as E. santalifolia, belong to a distinct species of the Renantheræ, for which I have retained the name.”—(B.Fl. iii, 217, under E. cneorifolia.)

  ― 200 ―

I am not able to reconcile Bentham's two statements. Perhaps, as regards one of the plants referred to by him, he is referring to plants of the incrassata series (e.g., var. conglobata, see p. 100, Part IV) which grow in the same localities as E. diversifolia and, in the absence of fruits, are sometimes not very dissimilar to E. diversifolia. Under E. dumosa Bentham does not quote the particular specimens seen by Miquel, and Bentham's observations can only be cleared up by reference to his specimens.

3. E. eneorifolia, DC. (partim) (?)

(E. santalifolia, F.v.M., in Trans. Vict. Inst., 35, partly, according to Bentham, B.F1. iii, 217.) This requires to be cleared up. Alluded to under (2).

4. E. connata, Dum.—Cours (Bot. Cult. Ed.ii, vii, 280). See DC. Prod. iii, 220.

5. E. santalifolia, var. firma, Benth. non. Miq. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch., iv, 133, according to Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 206).

From Miquel's description, which follows, it will be seen that he did not name the variety, an authentic specimen of which I have not seen.

Following are Miquel's words:—

Forma venis magis distinctis subadscendentibus. E. firma, Herb. Müll., Nova Holl., austr.

Frutex fere arboreus E.strictae cognatus, teste cl. Müller in Herb. Behr. E. sessiliflorae nomine obvia. Folia 2½-vix 3 poll. longa, 3-4 lin. lata. Pedunculi 1-3 lin. longi. Capsula 4-locularis (Miq. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv, 133, 1856, under E. santalifolia, F.v.M.).

6. E. firma, F.v.M., herb. ex. Miq., as quoted under (5).

7. E. cuspidata, Tausch.

Herb. Bauer. Ferd. Bauer, in Herb. Vindob. is Euc. diversifolia, Bonpl., and was probably obtained from Kangaroo Island or mainland of South Australia.

8. E. uiminalis, Labill., var. diversifolia, Benth. (BFl. iii, 240).

Bentham says:—

E. viminalis varies very much in the size and number of flowers, and the shape of the operculum. In the original Tasmanian form, common also in Victoria, the peduncles are mostly 3-flowered, although occasionally many-flowered specimens occur. In the South Australian E. diversifolia the flowers are rather numerous in the umbel, and the fruit large.

I have seen Bentham's specimens, which are E. diversifolia, in immature fruit.

9. E. pachyloma, Benth.

A shrub of 5 feet (Maxwell).

Leaves.—Mostly lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acuminate, under 3 inches long, thick and rigid, the very oblique veins scarcely conspicuous, the intramarginal one at a distance from the edge.

Peduncles.—Axillary or lateral, short and thick, terete or slightly angular, each with two to four rather large flowers.

Calyx-tube.—Broadly turbinate or almost hemispherical, about 4 lines diameter, smooth and tapering into the very short, thick pedicel.

  ― 201 ―

Stamens.—Pa e-coloured, ½ inch long or more, slender and inflected in the bud; anthers ovate, with distinct parallel cells.


Fruit.—Sessile, depressed-globose, 7 to 8 lines diameter, with the very thick, broad, convex and raised rim of E. Oldfieldii, but without any depressed centre, the capsule not sunk, and the small valves protruding as in E. rostrata

W. Australia, Drummond, 4th, Coll. No. 64; sand plains, Kalgan River, Oldfield; valleys of the Stirling Range, Maxwell. (B.Fl. iii, 237.)

E. santalifolia, F.v.M., var. (?) Baxteri, Benth. (B.Fl. iii, 207). (E. Baxteri, R.Br., Herb.), is E. capitellata, Sm., and will be dealt with in the next Part.


Bonpland states that the seed of his species came from Captain Baudin's Expedition, “qui en a apporté les graines de la Nouvelle-Hollande.” Bentham says the seed came from Kangaroo Island. Besides this South Australian locality (it is also found on the mainland of South Australis), it also occurs in Western Australia, and recently I have recorded it from Victoria also.note It is both a coastal and a desert species; indeed, in South and Western Australia the desert flora comes to the coast. The type of E. santalifolia came from the Mallee scrub on the Murray River.

Mueller gives the following localities:—“ In sandy desert country, as also in scrubby valleys or on arid ridges near King George's Sound (Drummond); on the Williams River (Webb); near the Kalgan River (oldfield); at the base of the Stirling Ranges (F.v.M.); at Venus Bay (Clode); in various localities near Spencer's Gulf (Wilhelmi); in the civinity of Lake Albert (Irvine); on Kangaroo Island (Waterhouse) .… Prof. Ralph Tate noticed that E. santalifolia, together with .… E. cneorifolia, DC., constitutes the predominant scrubs of Kangaroo Island, that the bark is smooth and separates in long and thin shreds, that the species is found chiefly on ancient shell-beaches with fresh water below, and that it does not attain a height above 20 feet.”—(“Eucalyptographia,” under E. santalifolia.)


Following are some Kangaroo Island specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney:—

1. “Eucalyptus, South Coast, Bays 9, 10,” in R. Brown's handwriting. Coll. 1802-5. No. 4,743 of J. J. Bennett's distribution from the British Museum, 1876, labelled “E. obliqua (?).”

  ― 202 ―

2. No. 4,744 (of J. J. Bennett). Collected by R. Brown, 1802-5, “South Coast.”

Both specimens with not perfectly ripe fruit.

3. A specimen from Herb. Paris, the original of which, with contemporary handwriting, “Envoyé à M. Brown, N. Holl. Côté Occidentale,note Ile des Kanguroos.”

4. Waterhouse.

5. Tate.

Also from Guichen Bay (? collector), labelled E. viminalis, var. diversifolia, by Bentham.

“With a fruiting specimen, obtained from Guichen Bay, and to all appearance belonging to E. santalifolia, a note is given that there the tree rises to 60 feet, such tallness being probably of exceptional occurrence.”—(“Eucalyptographia,” under E. santalifolia.) Mueller does not give the name of the collector, and the size of the species is worthy of further investigation.

Port Lincoln (W. Gill).

A white Mallee, 90-Mile Desert, S.A. (R.H.Cambage), with sub-cylindrical flat-topped fruits, smaller than the Victorian ones. “A glaucous Mallee up to 12 feet high. Smooth gum bark with ribbons.” Same locality (R. H. Cambage). With smaller fruits than usual. Rim somewhat domed.


Cape Nelson, near Portland, “restricted to a small area. Flourishing on the old sand-dunes where they occur about one mile from the coast, and have sole possession of the area where they occur, though E. obliqua, E. amygdalina, and E. viminalis occur in places a little further inland, and also along the coast.”— (A.E. Kitson in litt.) These specimens have the largest fruits (? inch in diameter) I have seen in this species.


Drummond's No. 64; Stirling Range (Mueller); west from Yetemerup, N. side of Stirling Range (A. Morrison), with fruits not much larger than those of Mr. Cambage; King George's Sound (? Webb).

  ― 203 ―


1. E. capitellata, Sm., and E. macrorrhyncha, F.v.M.

In “Eucalyptographia” (under E. santalifolia) Mueller has drawn attention to the resemblance of the fruits of E. santalifolia (diversifolia) to the species named. The resemblance is there, more particularly between the fruits with the dome-shape and those of E. macrorrhyncha. Mueller also deals at greater length with the relations to E. capitellata. I propose to deal with these affinities when treating of E. capitellata and E. macrorrhyncha.

2. E. Planchoniana, F.v.M.

The buds and coarse fruits of this species somewhat resemble those of the large fruited (Victorian) form of E. diversifolia, but the valves of E. Planchoniana are more sunk, and the leaves usually thinner and larger.

3. E. coccifera, Hook., f.

The foliage and the immature fruits of the two species resemble each other somewhat.

4. E. stricta, Sieb.

Miquel, in drawing attention to the affinity of the form (var. ? firma, see p. 200) of E. santalifolia to E. stricta, indicates the affinity of the two species. Certainly the leaves are remarkably similar, but the buds of E. stricta are more clavate, and the fruits smaller and more constricted at the orifice.

5. E. obliqua, L'Hérit.

A. “S. A., Hills, near Guichen Bay, Marble Range and Venus Bay, F. Mueller,”—(Herb. F. Mueller and Herb. Sonder.) “This is now reduced by F. Mueller to a form of obliqua.”—(Bentham, B.Fl. iii, 206, under E. santalifolia.)

B. Specimens labelled “Eucalyptus fabrorum, Schldt., Port Lincoln scrub, legit Carl Wilhemi, exam. Dr. Ferd. Mueller,” in Herb. Vindob, are E. diversifolia, Bonpl.

Different specimens attributed to E. fabrorum, Schlecht., seen by me, are referable to E. obliqua, L'Hérit. (see p. 60, Part II), and also to E. pilularis, Sm., var. Muelleriana, Maiden (see p. 40, Part I), and, perhaps, even to the Victorian and South Australian form of E. capitellata, Sm. More field work requires to be done in South Australia and western Victoria to define the relations between E. diversifolia, Bonpl., and the other species named.

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Explanation of Plates.

Plate 33.

E. regnans, F.v.M.

Plate 33: EUCALYPTUS REGNANS, F.v.M. (which includes E fastigata, Deane and Maiden). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

  • 1. Leaves with flowers; 1a, leaf with fruits (1 and 1a from the same twig); 1b, buds; 1c, fruits of type, from the Dandenong, Victoria (D. Boyle). Note that the fruits on 1a are immature and resemble those of E. amygdalina a good deal.

NOTE.—It was for some time considered that E. regnans was confined to Victoria, and E. fastigata to New South Wales.

  • 2. Seedling of E. regnans, from Mirboo North, Victoria (A. W. Howitt). I have a seedling of the same size of E. fastigata from Tantawanglo Mountain, New South Wales (H. Deane and J.H.M.), which is a fac-simile of this. I cannot, indeed, tell them apart. 2a, juvenile leaf Mirboo North (A. W. Howitt).
  • 3. Leaves in intermediate stage of “Cut-tail,” E. fastigata, Tantawanglo Mountain (H. Deane and J.H.M.).
  • 4. Fruits, old and nearly flat-topped. Blacks' Spur, Victoria (H. Deane).
  • 5. Fruits, not domed. Walhalla, Vic. (A. W. Howitt). Note that these fruits, in everything but size, resemble those of E. numerosa, Maiden. The Walhalla fruits precisely match those of some specimens received from Tasmania (L. Rodway).
  • 6. Leaf; 6a, fruits (nearly flat-topped) of E. fastigata. Nimbo Station, New South Wales, No. 435 (H. Deane).
  • 7. Leaf of large size. Sunny Corner, New South Wales (J. L. Boorman).
  • 8. Unusually small fruits. West Albion Park, New South Wales (R. H. Cambage).
  • 9. Fruits. Mittagong, New South Wales (H. Deane).
  • 10. Leaf; 10a, fruits. Mt. Wellington, Tasmania (L. Rodway and H. E. Day).

[The twig with pear-shaped fruits, to the left of the plate of E. amygdalina (“Eucalyptographia”), represents E. regnans. The fruits are scarcely ripe.]

Plate 34.

Plate 34: EUCALYPTUS VITREA, R. T. Baker (1-2). 3, an aberrant form; 4-5, forms intermediate between E. vitrea, R. T. Baker, and E. regnans, F.v.M. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. vitrea, R. T. Baker.

  • 1. Pair of juvenile leaves; 1a, leaf in the intermediate stage; 1b, mature leaf; 1c, buds; 1d, fruits. Wingello, New South Wales (J. H. Maiden and J. L. Boorman). They are precisely similar to type specimens from Sutton Forest, a few miles away (R. T. Baker).
  • 2. Leaves and buds showing two umbels (this is common enough in E. regnans); 2a, fruits, from another tree at Wingello. This tree often grows on low-lying rather sour land, or on land liable to floods.
  • 3. Leaves; 3a, buds; 3b, fruits. Following is the Collector's note:—No. 452. “The bark of this tree resembles that of E. amygdalina, the branches being much whiter, while the leaves and capsules are much the same as those of E. fastigata.” Jenolan Caves (W. F. Blakeley).

The foliage is pale-coloured and shiny, and most of it is very narrow, thick, with venation faintly visible on one side of the leaf. The fruits are not perfectly ripe, and hence the rim exhibits a sunken appearance in some of the specimens. (Compare Pl. 35, fig. 5b.)

  • 4. Intermediate leaf; 4a, buds and mature leaf; 4b, fruits. Delegate River (W. Baeuerlen). Shows transit to E. regnans.
  • 5. Leaf; 5a, buds; 5b, fruits. Upper Yarra, Victoria (C. Walter). Another remarkable form intermediate between E. vitrea and E. regnans. In 4 and 5 we have the broad-leaved or regnans character. Some botanists, with reason, look upon this as a form of E. eugenioides, Sieb: and I will deal with this view in the next Part.

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Plate 35.

Plate 35: EUCALYPTUS DIVES, Schauer (1-4). E. VITELLINA, Naudin (5). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. dives, Schauer.

  • 1. Juvenile leaves. Cockatoo, near Germanton, New South Wales (W. Forsyth).
  • 2. Flowering twig; 2a, buds; 2b, fruits. “Messmate.” Head of Tarcutta Creek, 8 miles from Tumberumba, New South Wales (Forest Ranger Mecham).
  • 3. Fruits. Tarcutta (W. Forsyth).
  • 4. Fruits, showing slightly exserted valves. Queanbeyan (H. Deane).

E. vitellina, Naudin.

  • 5. Flowering twig; 5a, anthers; 5b, leaves and immature fruit; 5c, leaf. All of E. vitellina, Naudin. Jardin Nabonnand au Golfe Juan, Southern France.

Plate 36.

Plate 36: EUCALYPTUS ANDREWSI, Maiden (1-4); E. DIVERSIFOLIA, Bonpland (5-11). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. Andrewsi, Maiden.

  • 1. Pair of juvenile leaves. Tingha, New South Wales (R. H. Cambage).
  • 2. Large coarse leaf in the intermediate stage (i.e., between the juvenile and mature stages), Drake, New South Wales (E. C. Andrews).
  • 3. Buds; 3a, flowering specimen of the “Blackbutt” or “Peppermint” of New England (E. C. Andrews); 3b, anthers from the same specimen.
  • 4. Fruits. Tingha (R. H. Cambage).

E. diversifolia, Bonpland.

  • 5. Pair of juvenile leaves copied from Bessa's drawing in Bonpland's “Description des plantes rares à Malmaison,” t. 13 (copied by Miss M. Smith, Kew).
  • 6. Leaf; 6a, two clusters of buds; 6b, anthers; 6c, immature fruits; 6d, ripe fruits, from Portland Bay Victoria (Mr. Adams, through A. E. Kitson).
  • 7. Leaf; 7a and 7b, fruits, from Kangaroo Island, South Australia (R. Tate).
  • 8. and 8a, two pairs of juvenile leaves; 8b, twig with fruits; 8c, fruit, from Port Lincoln, South Australia (W. Gill).
  • 9. Twig with fruit; 9a, a second twig with fruit; 9b, a fruit; all of Drummond's Western Australian 4th Collection No. 64, the type of E. pachyloma, Benth.
  • 10. Leaf; 10a, pair of fruits; 10b, fruit of “E. pachyloma, Benth.,” from Stirling Range, Western Australia.
  • 11. Leaf and fruits from west of Yetemerup, north side of Stirling Range (A. Morrison).