09. Part IX

25. XXIV. Eucalyptus alpina, Lindley.

Description  259 
Notes supplementary to the description  259 
Range  260 
Affinities  260 

  ― 259 ―


XXIV. Eucalyptus alpina, Lindl.

LINDLEY'S original description says:—

Ramulis brevibus rigidis angulatis, foliis alternis petiolatis ovato-oblongis viscosis basi obliquis, umbellis axillaribus paucifloris petiolis brevioribus, operculo hemisphærico verrucoso inæquali tubo calycis turbinato verrucoso breviore. (Mitchell's “Three Expeditions,” ii, 175.)

Mitchell himself simply says:—

Near the highest parts of the plateau I found a new species of Eucalyptus, with short, broad, viscid leaves and rough-warted branches.

It is described by Bentham, B.Fl. iii, 225, and by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia,” where it is also figured.

Notes supplementary to the description.

Leaves usually broader and thicker than those of E. capitellata, Sm., though the latter is sometimes very similar to E. alpina in this respect.

Buds.—The buds are as rugose as possible. While in most specimens the rugosity is irregular, in others it is more or less disposed in parallel ridges. Rugosity of the buds is also seen in E. capitellata (see p. 217, Part VIII of this work). Thus we have it in a marked manner in specimens from the Grampians, Victoria, 2,000 feet (H. B. Williamson). Specimens from this locality, cultivated in South Africa, lose much of their rugosity. Specimens showing less rugosity are Darlimurla, South Gippsland (H. Deane); and also tops of the Blue Mountains, N.S.W., and other high elevations.

Anthers.—Let us examine some anthers:—(1) Eucalyptus capitellata, Sm. (typical), from Kogarah, Sydney: anther cells divergent, rather broader than long, opening in slits. (2) E. capitellata, Sm., from Grampians, 2,000 feet, Victoria (H. B. Williamson, Jan., 1901): anther cells divergent, hardly broader than long, opening in slits. (3) E. alpina, Lindl., from Grampians, Victoria (C. Walter, Dec., 1887): anther cells parallel, decidedly longer than broad, opening in parallel slits.

The structure of the anthers is the same in the three specimens, i.e., two cells opening in longitudinal slits, and attached to the filament near the top. In No. 3 the cells are long and parallel; in No. 2 they are shorter and more spreading; and in No. 1 still more spreading. We have, indeed, a continuous series. I have tried to accentuate the differences between the anthers of E. capitellata and E. alpina, but feel that they run into each other.

Fruit (of alpina) very variable, both as regards size, shape, and sculpture. Those figured in the “Eucalyptographia” may be taken as one pattern. Then I have specimens from Mount Abrupt (H. B. Williamson), almost 1 inch in diameter! valves 7, the calyx hardly rugose, the rim broadish and truncate (horizontal). A second specimen from Mount Zero (D'Alton) has the fruits ? inch in diameter, valves 5, the calyx very warted, the rim domed, and the valves as exserted as possible. A third specimen exhibits minor differences.

I have seen two of Lindley's type-specimens of E. alpina:—

  • (a) “No. 243. Summit of Mt. William, Major Mitchell's Expedition, 1836,” with the addition in Lindley's handwriting “Eucalyptus alpina, m” [mihi]. In bud only. Herb. Cant. ex herb. Lindley.
  • (b) “No. 243 of Major Mitchell's Expedition, Eucalyptus alpina. Interior of New South Wales.” [Victoria had not then been separated.—J.H.M.] In fruit only. Herb. Cant. ex herb. Lemann.

  ― 260 ―

These specimens have rugose buds, but comparatively small, nearly smooth fruits. They are very close to the specimens of E. capitellata already referred to as Grampians (H. B. Williamson).

Although the specimens from the top of Mount William are intended to be the type, the specimens distributed have included some specimens of plants that cannot be separated from E. capitellata, Sm.

(The above notes are mainly those I published in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1904, pp. 766–8.)


CONFINED to the highest parts of the Grampians (Victoria). Its range is wider than that stated in the “Eucalyptographia.” Mr. H. B. Williamson, of Penshurst, Victoria, obligingly gave me the following statement:—

“Mt. Abrupt is the most southern peak of the Grampians and Mt. Zero the most northern, the former being nearly 20 miles south of Mt. William and the latter about the same distance north. Victoria Range is a parallel range west of the Serra Range, in which Mt. Abrupt is. The plant probably occurs on peaks between those three peaks, so its range could be stated ‘on peaks along the whole of the Mt. William and Serra Ranges, 40 miles.’ ”


BENTHAM (“Flora Australiensis”) places E. alpina between E. globulus and E. cosmophylla. Mueller (“Census”) places it between E. Preissiana and E. globulus and near E. cosmophylla.

The determination of affinities of species of Eucalyptus is, however, very complex, and can only be ascertained by judicial consideration of a number of factors, e.g., shape of juvenile leaves, shape and venation of the mature leaves, principal constituents of oil, anthers, fruit, bark, timber, kino, habit, &c., and not one or two of them solely. But I think I have shown that the relations of E. alpina, Lindl., and E. capitellata, Sm., are very close; and doubtless additional evidence will be forthcoming as to juvenile foliage, oil, timber, &c. My observations as to the transition forms of anthers may cause botanists to give more attention to this aspect of variation.

Both E. alpina and E. capitellata are Stringybarks. I am strongly inclined to make alpina a variety of capitellata, but keep them distinct as a matter of convenience for the present.

Since the above was written the following statement has appeared:—

On the top of Mt. William a few trees of Eucalyptus alpina were in flower. The local residents take this stunted Eucalypt to be the dwarfed form of the Stringybark, E. capitellata, so common on all the lower parts of the ranges. It is said to exist in many other places as well, on the Redman, which can be seen over the valley, rising to nearly the same height as Mt. William, and as far south as Mt. Abrupt, near Dunkeld. (A. G. Campbell in “The Plants of the Grampians,” in Vict. Naturalist, July, 1907.)

26. XXV. Eucalyptus microcorys, F. v. Mueller.

Description  261 
Notes supplementary to the description  261 
Range  261 
Affinities  262 

  ― 261 ―


XXV. E. microcorys, F.v.M.

THIS species was originally described in Latin in Mueller's Fragmenta, ii, 50 (1860). It is well described in Bentham's Flora Australiensis, iii, 212. It was subsequently described and figured in Mueller's “Eucalyptographia.”

Notes supplementary to the description.

Vernacular names.—The name of Tallow-wood is universal in New South Wales because of the greasy texture of the wood, which leads to its selection for ball-room flooring, for example. In Queensland, however, it also goes by the names of Turpentine and Peppermint, owing to the oil in its leaves; these names are applied to other trees in New South Wales.

Size.—This is a very large tree, one of the bulkiest of Australian trees. Trees 10 feet in diameter at 3 feet from the ground are not rare in the Manning River district, N.S.W.

Seedlings.—Cotyledon leaves purplish underneath.

Juvenile foliage.—Pale underneath and thin. As growth proceeds, the paleness disappears. With this exception this species is one in which the juvenile foliage does not very markedly differ from that of the mature foliage.

Timber.—One of the best known of New South Wales timbers; considered to be the most valuable after Ironbark. Being so valuable from an economic point of view, it will be dealt with at length in an early Part of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”

Bark.—Sub-fibrous, of loose and even woolly texture. In colour it is of a sort of brick or rusty red, and is persistent even to the smallest branches. It is often of a corrugated appearance, particularly in old trees.


IT is confined to eastern New South Wales and Queensland, being found more or less plentifully over an extensive area, usually on good soil.

The most southerly locality known to me is Cooranbong, between. Newcastle and Gosford, New South Wales; its northern limit in Queensland is unknown to me. It goes at least as far as Cleveland Bay in lat. 19° S.

Westerly in New South Wales I have it from the Styx River, Armidale district (A. W. Howitt), and Acacia Creek, Macpherson Range (W. Dunn); its range is worthy of further investigation.

  ― 262 ―


1. With E. acmenioides, Schauer.

This species appears to stand by itself amongst the Renantheræ to a greater extent than any other members of that group. In other words, it is one of the best defined of the group. The species closest to it appears to be E. acmenioides, Schauer. The anthers of the two species appear to be identical, and the bark and timber have much in common. The kino of E. microcorys is sharply different from it. The oils of the two species are, however, placed by Smithnote in different sections.

2. With E. pilularis, Sm.

This is indicated in the unusual character of marked pale underside of the juvenile foliage.

27. XXVI. Eucalyptus acmenioides, Schauer.

Description  263 
Notes supplementary to the description  263 
Synonyms  263 
Range  265 

  ― 263 ―


XXVI. E. acmenioides, Schauer.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arborea: ramulis rigidulis teretib.; foll. chartaceis oblongo-lanceolatis, basi valde obliqua in petiolum attenuatis longe acuminatis cuspidatis, margine revolutis, supra nitidis, punctis creberrimis perforatis; pedunculis multifloris ancipitib. petiolum aequantib., infimis axillarib., cæteris in paniculam terminalem dispositis; pedicellis acutangulis cupula duplo longiorib.; operculo coriaceo conico acuminato cupula exangulata paullo breviori.—Foliorum lamina 3–4 uncias longa, 9–12 lin. lata, petiolus semipollicaris, operculum sesquilineam altum.—Affinis E. persicifoliœ, Lodd. quae colonis. “Black-butted Gum” audit.—In sylvis Novæ Cambriæ australis.—A. Cunn. Walp. Rep. (Supplementum primum), ii, 924 (1843).

It is not described in the Flora Australiensis, since Bentham doubtfully made it a variety (? var. acmenioides) of E. pilularis, Sm. It is figured and described in Mueller's Eucalyptographia.

Notes supplementary to the description.

Vernacular names.—“White Mahogany,” but often erroneously called “Stringybark,” because of the similarity in appearance of this species (particularly when young) to Stringybark.

Bark.—Fibrous, not unlike Stringybark in smallish trees; but more like Tallow-wood bark (E. microcorys) in large trees. The branches are covered as well as the trunk. I would draw attention to the rarity of kino in this species.

I do not doubt that a good deal of country reported to be Stringybark is really White Mahogany of one form or another. Both trees like the same situations—well drained, sterile hills and mountain sides.

Timber.—Pale-coloured, dense, and of high specific gravity.

Juvenile leaves.—The first leaves are opposite and not oblique, but symmetrical, broadly ovate, lanceolate and with pale underside. As the plant grows older they become alternate and are acuminate.

Mature leaves.—In the mature leaves there is a tendency to crenulate margins, and some show a considerable resemblance in outline to that of a peach. The leaves are less oblique than in most Eucalypts, and the veins, unlike most Renantherœ, are parallel, making a considerable angle with the midrib, and are thus very distinct from those of E. eugenioides. The axes are angular; leaves pale underneath. The pale colour of the underside of the leaf is accentuated in drying, particularly if it has been collected damp, the upper surface often drying quite dark.

Fruit.—It is not altogether unlike that of E. eugenioides, but is flat at the top, with a thin rim in the normal form.


  • 1. E. triantha, Link. (not absolutely settled, in my mind, but very probable).
  • 2. E. carnea, R. T. Baker. E. umbra, R. T. Baker, certainly requires further investigation. The matter is gone into below.

  ― 264 ―

1. E. triantha, Link. Following is the original description:—

222. E. triantha. Fol. oblongis basi inaequalibus subattenuatis acuminatis subfalcatis, pedunculis axillaribus trifloris, floribus sessilibus.

Hab. in Australia. Glaberrima uti reliquae. Fol. petiolo 5–6? longo. lamina 3 longa 10? lata non punctata, subtus nervis parallelis omnibus ante marginem connexis. Ped 6? longi. Operculum ? (Link. in Enumeratio plantarum horti rejii botanici Berolensis, ii, 30, 1822).

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 200) rejects the name triantha on the ground that the plant is too imperfectly described.

Mueller (Eucalyptographia) rejects the name triantha on the ground that it is unsuitable, the three-flowered form being an exception. Such a reason is not valid. However, in his Second Census, he suppresses acmenioides and adopts the name triantha.

I have only seen that fragment of the type of E. triantha which I have figured in Plate 42. As I am not absolutely certain of the identity of E. acmenioides and E. triantha, I prefer not to adopt E. triantha at present. The name is 21 years older than E. acmenioides, and I shall not hesitate to restore E. triantha if, in my opinion, additional evidence warrants it.

In communicating to me a portion of the type of E. triantha, the Director of the Royal Botanic Garden of Berlin informed me that no specific locality was given by the collector.

2. E. carnea, R. T. Baker.

Described in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxxi, 303 (1906).

The abstract of the description furnished by the author is as follows:—

E. carnea is a typical forest Stringybark, with a pinkish or flesh-coloured, hard, durable timber. The mature fruits differ very little in shape and size from those of E. acmenioides, Schau., but otherwise these two species can be differentiated by their leaves, timber, and oil. This latter constituent is of some chemical and industrial importance, as it contains, besides a dextro-rotatory pinene and eucalyptol, an acetic acid ester. Only a small quantity of free acetic acid was found in the crude oil, but the ester split off acid on distilling the oil under atmospheric pressure. Systematically the species should be placed with the Stringybarks, and in sequence with E. nigra, R.T.B., and E. acmenioides, Sch.”

The author points out that he had previously confused it with E. umbra (q.v.). Mr. Baker's description is accompanied by a plate, and figure 8, Plate 42 of the present work depicts the plant.

Mr. Baker only records it from the Richmond River, N.S.W., and draws attention to the pink colour of the timber, which is stated to be of diagnostic value.

It seems to me that this tree cannot be separated from E. acmenioides.

Both E. carnea and E. acmenioides have pale underside leaves, much more evident in the case of the latter. Both lose it more or less with very old leaves.

As to the dimensions of the juvenile foliage, I have Mr. Baker's type before me, and A. Murphy's “White Mahogany, from the low flat country, Woy Woy” (the tree

  ― 265 ―
that we always look upon as typical for E. acmenioides), has juvenile leaves which are a facsimile of them. Both have pink veins. The fruits of E. carnea are identical with those of E. acmenioides obtained from many localities.

The ideas that I formerly held that broad juvenile leaves, coarse thick foliage, and broad-rimmed fruits specially separate E. umbra from E. acmenioides have weakened with additional investigation, and I incline to the opinion that E. carnea is one of the transit forms, and that it is even very doubtful whether E. umbra can be defined as a species distinct from E. acmenioides.

Some of the specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney, on which these views are based, will be found recapitulated under E. acmenioides at page 267.

Holding these views, I propose the name variety carnea of E. acmenioides for E. carnea.


As will be observed, the type came from “New South Wales forests.”

It is confined to eastern New South Wales and Queensland. Its southernmost locality known to me is the Port Jackson district; its most northern is Rockhampton, Queensland, occurring in coastal districts and table-lands. Westerly I have it from Drake, near Tenterfield, but its range is worthy of further investigation.

I think it will be a matter of practical convenience, in view of the uncertain limitations of E. acmenioides, E. carnea, and E. umbra, to give notes on certain specimens, beginning with the most southerly ones, and working northerly in geographical order.

The salient points of E. acmenioides may be borne in mind as follows:—

Leaves thin, with crenulate margins, paler on the underside.

Opercula of plump buds hemispherical and pointed.

Fruit small, say 2·5 cm. in diameter, tending to be spherical, or truncate-spherical, sometimes very slightly urceolate, thin rim, with rather long, filiform pedicels not gradually broadening into the base of the fruit.


Port Jackson District.—Brush Farm, Ryde; in plump bud and flower (T. S. Burnell); style persistent, Ryde (H. Deane); Field of Mars Common (H. Deane); leaves a little thicker and coarser, Baulkham Hills (W. Wools); also Parramatta (H. Deane).

Port Jackson to Hunter River.—Kincumber (W. R. Stacy); fruits nearly hemi-spherical, juvenile foliage like E. carnea; “From the low flat country,” Woy Woy (A. Murphy).

Hunter to Manning Rivers.—Moy's Flat, also Myall Lake (A. Rudder); Gloucester Buckets (J.H.M.).

  ― 266 ―

Manning to Tweed Rivers.—Port Macquarie (G. R. Brown, No. 508); “Peppermint,” very small pilular fruits, Macleay River (W. MacDonald); Mount Sea View, Upper Hastings River, the fruits small, hemispherical, rim a little broad (J.H.M.); in gullies and on ridgy inclines, Woolgoolga (E. H. F. Swain); fruit small, Drake (E. C. Andrews); Murwillumbah (R. A. Campbell).

Mr. E. C. Andrews says that it is widely distributed on the eastern slopes of New England.

Most of the above collectors call the tree “White Mahogany.” Both Mr. Swain and Mr. Campbell call it “Messmate,” as well as “White Mahogany.”


I very carefully examined this tree in the Brisbane district, where it is plentiful, and also collected many specimens. The juvenile foliage is stem clasping, and varies a good deal in width. Fruits small and dainty, nearly spherical.

“Stringybark,” Waterworks, Brisbane (J. L. Boorman).

“Prope Brisbane River” (Amalia Dietrich, 1863–5). This specimen, from the Godeffroy Museum, Hamburg, was examined by Bentham, and bears the label in his handwriting, “Eucalyptus marginata, Sm.” It was presented to me by the Vienna Herbarium.

“Gum-tree of the Brisbane” (Leichhardt). “E. crebrœ aff.” (Bentham's note). Placed by Bentham with E. crebra (B.Fl. iii, 221). A fragment was communicated to me from the Melbourne Herbarium, and a much larger specimen entrusted to me by Kew for examination. The leaves are remarkably narrow, very dark-coloured on the upper surface, the margin a little recurved, the fruits remarkably small, nearly spherical, and the tips of the valves faintly exserted.

It was quite reasonable to refer this twig to E. crebra, for the leaves are of the shape and size so common in the species, but the venation is different, and E. crebra leaves have no pale underside. The venation is also a little different, and the fruits, while resembling those of E. crebra, are not the same.

It is well known that the leaves of Eucalypts become smaller as the top of the tree is reached, and the narrowness of the leaves, which has caused so much difficulty, is, in my opinion, explained in this way.

“Stringybark,” Rockhampton (A. Murphy). Pale underside, but not so much marked as in many southern specimens. Thin-rimmed fruits, becoming slightly urceolate.

Var. carnea, var. nov.

The carnea form, i.e., the thick-leaved form of E. acmenioides, appears to exist over about the same geographical range as E. acmenioides. In Mr. Baker's original description, the Lower Richmond River, N.S.W., was alone quoted.

  ― 267 ―

The following specimens are more or less referable to this variety:—

Broken Bay to Hunter River.—A dense mass of fruits, foliage coarse and thick. Fruits thin-rimmed, and varying from fig. 1c, plate 42, to nearly hemispherical, and a broader brim, Wyong (J. L. Boorman). Specimens exactly similar, except that the fruits are not borne in such profusion. Juvenile foliage very thin, Tuggerah (J. L. Boorman). These two specimens have the fruits of E. acmenioides and the leaves of E. umbra or carnea.

“Messmate,” figured at fig. 6, plate 42. I have accentuated the points in this specimen, but am satisfied it is not really dissimilar to the Wyong and Tuggerah specimens. Awaba (J. L. Boorman). Specimens from Waratah, Newcastle (Jesse Gregson) are similar.

Wyee (A. Murphy), rim of fruit very narrow, yet closer to the umbra type.

Hunter to Manning Rivers.—The following specimens are of interest in that they were collected by the late Forester Augustus Rudder, with whom I had many conversations and much correspondence with the view of finding out if we could really make another species out of the trees called “White Mahogany,” and included by the Rev. Dr. Woolls and Baron von Mueller, amongst others, under E. acmenioides.

  • (a) Seven miles from Raymond Terrace, on the Booral Road; alluvial, 19/2/93. Thick foliage, fruits more pear-shaped than usual, thin rim. I call this thick-leaved acmenioides, but I cannot separate it from carnea.
  • (b) Broad foliage, buds much resembling fig. 4a, plate 42, fruits like fig. 1c. Near Dungog, ordinary forest clayey subsoil; shale, 6/9/91. Thick-leaved acmenioides inseparable from carnea, in my view.
  • (c) Very broad, coarse foliage. Small fruits, somewhat like fig. 1c, plate 42; thought by Mr. Rudder to be E. piperita. Near Cooloongoolook; clay soil, 24/7/91. Same as (b) in my opinion.

The following specimens from the same district were collected by myself:—

  • (d) Stroud. Fruits much like (a), not so ripe, and scarcely so pear-shaped. This specimen has the fruits (some of them) a little broadish, and shows that carnea and umbra run into each other. I name it the same as (a).
  • (e) Tinonee. Fruits pear-shaped like (a), but smaller. Fruits of acmenioides, thick foliage of carnea or umbra as one chooses to say.

Hastings to Richmond Rivers.—No. 129, “White Mahogany.” Forester G. R. Brown, Port Macquarie. In flower only, style persistent. Thick, rather coarse foliage, buds and leaves a good deal like fig. 4a, plate 42. I call it thick-leaved acmenioides.

Port Macquarie to Kempsey (J.H.M.).—Foliage thick, fruits of normal acmenioides. Inseparable from carnea.

Now we come to two type-specimens of E. carnea, viz.:—Woodburn, Richmond River (W. Baeuerlen) and Wardell, Lismore (W. Baeuerlen).

  ― 268 ―

Some of the fruits of the Woodburn specimen have the rim broadening a little, like the Stroud specimens. The Wardell specimens have all of them thin rims, but thin-rimmed fruits of this kind are with broader-rimmed fruits on the same tree and on the same twig. I call both of these specimens thick-leaved acmenioides.


Nerang (F. M. Bailey). Typical acmenioides fruits, thick leaves like carnea.

Ithaca Creek (F. M. Bailey). Rim just a little broadish and tips of valves faintly exserted, but fruits not quite ripe. Leaves thickish. This specimen seems to be from a windfall; perhaps that accounts for the absence of the pale underside of the leaves. It is very close to typical acmenioides.

“Yellow Stringybark: good for fencing, palings, &c.” Maryborough (W. H. Williams). Thick leaves, fruit with thin rims and very slightly urceolate. I call this thick-leaved acmenioides.

Black Downs Table-land, 100 miles west of Rockhampton, at an elevation of 2,400 feet (P. MacMahon, No. 8). Thick leaves, pear-shaped fruits; is perhaps thick-leaved acmenioides.

“Stringybark tree of Rockingham Bay” (J. Dallachy, ex herb. Melb.). Leaves thickish, not paler on the underside (perhaps because of the age of the specimen—40 years). Fruits thin-rimmed, more urceolate, and with the valves more exsert than in any specimen of E. acmenioides I have ever seen. That this is really identical with Murphy's Rockhampton specimens I do not think that anyone who has compared them will doubt, but I must keep them apart, because these particular specimens have thickish leaves, and I cannot detect the pale underside.

28. XXVII. Eucalyptus umbra, R. T. Baker.

Description  269 
Notes supplementary to the description  269 
Is it a variety of E. acmenioides 269 
Range  271 
Affinities  271 

  ― 269 ―


XXVII. E. umbra, R. T. Baker.

THE original description will be found in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, 687 (1900). This is modified to some extent by the describer, op. cit. xxxi, p. 304 (under E. carnea).

See figures 10–12, Plate 41, of the present work.

Notes supplementary to the description.

In the original description of this species (p. 687) Mr. Baker described the sucker leaves (juvenile leaves) as “thin.” Op. cit. xxix, 758, in endeavouring to accentuate the differences between E. acmenioides and E. umbra, I corrected this, stating that they were thick. I have since got them both thick and thin, and no doubt thinness is the proper character, thickness being induced by climatic exposure.

E. umbra is a species which Mueller and other botanists considered to be a coarse form of E. acmenioides. Mr. Deane and I (Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W. xxiii, 789) explained that view. E. umbra is (b) the “stout and coarse” form. Op. cit. xxix, 758 (1904) I have tried to accentuate the differences between E. acmenioides and E. umbra in the following words:—

“These species may be at once separated if sucker-leaves be available. Those of E. acmenioides are thin and Eugenia Smithii- (Acmena-) like, while those of E. umbra are thick, broad, and coarse, much thicker and coarser than those of E. acmenioides. They are indeed as thick and coarse as those of E. capitellata ever are. The statement in the original description of E. umbra, that the sucker-leaves are ‘thin,’ must be modified.”

And again (p. 759)—

“Usually the flat-rimmed fruit is accompanied by thick foliage, indicating umbra. But sometimes this coarse foliage accompanies thin-rimmed fruits which one has hitherto assigned to E. acmenioides without hesitation. Such, for example, is the ‘Messmate’ of Awaba, which grows on foot-hills, moist places, not swamps. These specimens certainly show a transit between E. umbra and E. acmenioides, and in the present state of our knowledge I doubt if we can always separate the two species in the absence of juvenile foliage.”

I have since tried to work out the differences in bark and timber, but have failed so far to obtain characters which I can rely upon.

For Mr. Baker's observations on this point, see op. cit. xxv, 688. He states that it is “altogether a much inferior timber to E. acmenioides.” We want further information on this point.

Some observers consider the differences between E. acmenioides and E. umbra a matter of soil. Mr. Andrew Murphy, seed-collector, who has collected Eucalyptus seed for me by the hundredweight, wrote me, “I am not clear about the ‘thick rim White Mahogany.’ It seems to me that ordinary White Mahogany takes that form when near the sea-coast on mountain-tops.”

  ― 270 ―

The salient points of E. umbra may be borne in mind as follows:—

Leaves thickish, with margins not so crenulate as in E. acmenioides, or absent. Not usually paler on the underside, except in juvenile foliage.

[In my view, thinness of foliage and paleness of the underside of the leaves are characters developed in comparatively sheltered localities. Mr. Baker (op. cit. xxv, 688) quotes Mr. Baeuerlen as stating that E. acmenioides penetrates only into the rich scrub, while E. umbra is found in the poorer forest country. I have dealt with the differences of habitat of the two forms in xxix, 758.]

Buds more angular than those of E. acmenioides.

Fruit, five lines in diameter, when mature (R. T. Baker), more hemispherical than spherical, rim broadish, sometimes very broad, and often domed. The pedicels usually coarser than those of E. acmenioides, and the plant altogether coarser.

Mr. Baker calls his E. umbra “Stringybark,” and that is a name very widely applied to E. acmenioides. Both are called “White Mahogany.”

The differences between Mr. Baker's species umbra and carnea and acmenioides, Schauer, are thus indicated by Mr. Baker (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxxi, 305).

E. carnea. “The abnormal leaves (a term newly coined by Mr. Baker in lieu of 'juvenile foliage), venation, and texture differ in shape from those of E. umbra.

“Fruits can scarcely on a first inspection, if at all, be distinguished from E. acmenioides. …. Valves and inner rim (of E. acmenioides) always deeper sunk than in E. carnea. The leaves of these two trees, though having much the same venation, are decidedly different, especially in their texture, shape, and colour. Those of E. acmenioides are thin, whilst those of E. carnea are thick, and the abnormal leaves of each are quite different, and sharply divide the species.”

My specimens show that there is transition in thickness of leaves between E. acmenioides and E. carnea, while the shapes of the “abnormal” leaves of the two species are not as sharply different as was at one time believed to be the case.

Mr. Baker places E. carnea next to E. nigra (“its nearest congener is E. nigra in a ligneous classification, otherwise it differs from it in the shape of its fruits, leaves, and oil-contents”), and also says, “In a systematic series it might be placed between E. acmenioides and E. nigra.” He adds that in E. carnea the timber is tinged with pink.

I have done my best to accentuate the differences between E. acmenioides and E. umbra, and some differences that I thought to be very important have since been shown to be less definite. I have endeavoured to retain the name E. umbra, but I think that it is very probable that further investigation may show that it is really a climatic and soil form of E. acmenioides, a view universally held until Mr. Baker described umbra in 1900.

  ― 271 ―


NEITHER E. umbra nor E. acmenioides has been found south of the Port Jackson district so far. In Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, 687, Mr. Cambage is quoted as having found E. umbra at Milton. That gentleman informs me that the Milton tree is the species afterwards named E. Consideniana by me.

I have no typical umbra further north than Wyee (and even that is doubtful), so that this form may be looked upon as a very local one, simply occurring between Port Jackson and the Hunter. Mr. Baker (proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, 687) quotes Wardell, Dundoon (Dunoon), and Tumbulgum; Peat's Ferry, Cowan Creek, Eastwood, and Military Road (Sydney); Tinonee, Gosford, and Milton. Op. cit. xxxi, 304, the Wardell and Dunoon specimens have been referred to E. carnea by Mr. Baker, and in view of my notes on specimens, perhaps some other reputed umbra specimens should be transferred to carnea, so that the range of both forms requires revision.


Port Jackson District.—The type comes from Spit Road, Mosman's, Sydney. It is common about Middle Harbour. A specimen from south side of Spit, Middle Harbour (J. H. Camfield, July, 1897), has juvenile foliage indistinguishable by me from that of E. acmenioides.

Broken Bay District.—(Broken Bay is the mouth of the Hawkesbury, and is an estuary between Port Jackson and the Hunter River).

Near Peat's Ferry (H. Deane). The fruits and leaves are typical for umbra, but the buds equally those of typical acmenioides.

Newport (R. H. Cambage). Some of the juvenile leaves very broad, but all rather thin, and paler on the underside. Mr. Cambage and I found it fruiting as a dense scrub of 3–4 feet high on the summit of First Point, Kincumber.

“Stringybark. A large tree, bark not furrowed, outside very fibrous.” Woy Woy (A. Murphy, 8/98); “White Mahogany, mountain variety.” Woy Woy (A. Murphy, 9/04); Gosford (John Martin).


As I am uncertain as to the specific differences of E. acmenioides and E. umbra, it will be convenient to deal with their affinities under one head.

1. With E. pilularis, Sm.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 208) doubtfully made this a variety (? var. acmenioides) of E. pilularis, stating that it sometimes seems to pass into the typical E. pilularis.

  ― 272 ―
Mueller (Eucalyptographia) rightly restored the specific rank of the White Mahogany, although previously (under E. pilularis) he had expressed some doubt as to whether E. acmenioides and E. pilularis are really distinct. But the fruits, the bark, and the character of the timber separate the species very readily. Mueller states that the small capsules figured on the left hand of the E. pilularis plate in the “Eucalyptographia” are E. acmenioides. It may be so, but the figure is poor.

A form from Parramatta has fruits which might very readily be casually taken for E. pilularis. They differ from those of normal E. pilularis in being smaller, the rim not defined, and the valves approaching the orifice.

The affinity is also indicated in the tendency to the thickening of the rim in E. pilularis and in the frequent coarseness of its foliage, particularly noticeable in maritime situations. This more particularly applies to E. umbra.

E. pilularis and E. acmenioides have juvenile foliage with pale under-surface.

The affinity of the two species was observed by Schauer in describing E. acmenioides, when he compared it with E. persicifolia, Lodd., (a synonym of E. pilularis, Sm.).

2. With E. microcorys, F.v.M.

Timber and foliage a good deal resemble those of E. microcorys. This more particularly refers to the typical form of E. acmenioides, which appears to be the form closest, of all Eucalypts, to E. microcorys.

3. With E. piperita, Sm.

In the thin, pale-underside juvenile leaves; in the mature leaves it resembles those of var. carnea, while both piperita and acmenioides have a tendency (greater in the former species) to urceolate fruits. The rim of the fruit is thin in both species.

4. With E. eugenioides, Sieb.

I have already expressed the view that Mr. Baker's E. nigra is a form of E. eugenioides. I still think it is closer to that form than to E. acmenioides, although it is evident that the true Stringybarks, the Blackbutt (E. pilularis), and the White Mahogany (E. acmenioides) are closely related. Mr. Baker considers his carnea to be closest to his nigra. For an account of E. nigra, see Part VIII of this work, page 222.

5. With E. Bosistoana, F.v.M.

Fruiting twigs of E. umbra may not unreasonably be mistaken for E. Bosistoana, F.v.M. The valves of the latter are more numerous than is the case with E. acmenioides; the valves of E. Bosistoana also are usually a little exserted. E. Bosistoana belongs to the Box Group, so that the two trees could not readily be confused in the forest.

6. With E. melliodora, A. Cunn.

I have seen a form, with brown shining fruits, which present a good deal of resemblance in outline to some fruits of E. melliodora. This is worthy of notice, though the two species are otherwise very dissimilar.

29. XXVIII. Eucalyptus virgata, Sieber.

The name Eucalyptus rigida   273 
E. virgata, Sieb., and E. stricta, Sieb.  275 
Description  275 
The varieties considered  276 
The confusion between E. stricta, Sieb., and E. eneorifolia, DC.  279 
Range  281 
Affinities  284 

  ― 273 ―

XXVIII. E. virgata, Sieb.

In Sprengel's Cur. Post., 195 (1827).

I DESIRE to bring the following names under review:—

E. rigida, Hoffmannsegg (Verz. Pfl. Nachtr. ii, 114, 1826).

E. virgata Sieb. (in Sprengel's Cur. Post., 195, 1827).

E. stricta, Sieb. (in Sprengel's Cur. Post., 195, 1827).

E. ambigua, DC. (Prod. iii, 219, 1828).

E. obtusiflora, DC. (Prod. iii, 220, 1828).

E. fraxinoides, Deane and Maiden (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1898).

All these plants form a series with narrownote suckers. Compare E. Luehmanniana.

I will bring forward evidence to establish the following nomenclature:—

E. virgata, Sieb.

  • 1. Var. obtusiflora, Maiden.
    • Syn. (a) E. obtusiflora, DC.
    • (b) E. rigida, R.Br.
    • (c) E. rigida, Sieb. (E. rigida, Hoffmg., is indeterminable).
    • (d) E. piperita, Sm., var. pauciflora, DC., in Prod. iii, 219.
  • 2. Var. stricta, Maiden.
    • Syn. (a) E. stricta, Sieb.
    • (b) E. ambigua, DC.
  • 3. Var. fraxinoides, Maiden.
    • Syn. E. fraxinoides, Deane and Maiden.
  • 4. Var. triflora, Maiden.

The name Eucalyptus rigida.

E. rigida was the name originally given by Robert Brown (in 1800–5) to specimens gathered by him on the South Head road (part of Sydney). I have seen these specimens in the British Museum, and in other herbaria.

Then Hoffmannsegg published a plant under the name E. rigida in the year 1826, in the following words:—

(432) Eucalyptus rigida. E. caule ramisque teretibus, foliis rigidis duris, infimis sessilibus oppositis ovatis subcordatis obtusis, superioribus sensim petiolatis sparsis lanceolatis acutis subapiculatis. …

Hab. in Austral.

  ― 274 ―

Folia supra modum inflexibilia, valde polymorpha. Nam praeter basale quoddam, monstrositate forte, breve, transverse ovatum, in pedunculum angustatum, infirma S 2' 4? lg., V 1' lt., sequentia 3' g., 1' lt., ideoque oblonga, superiora, in caule 2' 6? lg., 8? lt., in ramo inferius oblongo-lanceolatum, superius oblongo-ovatum obtusum, etc. (Verz. Pfl. Nachtr., ii, 114.)

The description in DC. Prod. iii, 221, is:—

Foliis rigidis duris, infimis sessilibus oppositis ovatis subcordatis obtusis, superioribus petiolatis, sparsis lanceolatis acutis subapiculatis, caule ramisque teretibus. In Novâ-Hollandiâ. Flores fructusque ign. An eadem ac E. diversifolia.

Mueller (“Eucalyptographia” under E. pulverulenta) says:—“E. rigida of Count Hoffmannsegg's Verzeichniss der Pflanzen-Kulturen, 114 (1826), is probably referable to E. pulverulenta.” This is but a surmise, and there are no specimens in the Melbourne Herbarium to back up such an opinion. The word “rigidis” does not specially apply to E. pulverulenta, while the words “sessilibus oppositis ovatis subcordatis obtusis” apply to that and other species with more or less correctness.

There are specimens in Herb. Vindob. bearing the following label:—“Eucalyptus rigida, Hoffmannsegg, Nov. Holl. Ferd. Bauer, Hb. Bauer,” which are identical with Brown's South Head road plant, which again is identical with Sieber's No. 473 (E. rigida, Sieb.) = E. obtusiflora, DC.

E. rigida, Sieb., Pl. Exs. (Sieber's No. 473), from Port Jackson, is E. obtusiflora, DC., according to Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 205). I have specimens of the type, and concur.

“To E. stricta belongs furthermore E. rigida of Sieber's collections No. 473, although united by Bentham with E. obtusiflora, but the latter, according to leaves from the original specimen kept at Geneva and forwarded to me by M. Alphonse de Candolle, proves it completely distinct from E. rigida.” (Mueller, in Eucalyptographia under E. stellulata.)

I have already stated that I have specimens of Sieber's No. 473 (with the original labels still adherent), which is the plant referred to by De Candolle in the Prodromus, and it is a common Sydney plant known to every Sydney botanist.

Sieber's No. 473 (E. rigida, Sieb.) is the plant we have recognised for many years as E. obtusiflora, DC., and I venture to say that the drawing in Mém. Myrt., Pl. 10 (E. obtusiflora, DC.), is a good drawing.

Mueller also labelled stricta var. angustifolia, E. rigida. This is E. apiculata, Baker and Smith, and is a different plant. I think, therefore, Brown's name must be dropped. To what extent he circulated it in herbaria I do not know.

Hoffmannsegg's name must be abandoned because of its uncertainty, while Sieber's name rigida can only claim the date 1828, the year of publication of DC. Prod. iii.

  ― 275 ―

E. virgata, Sieb., and E. stricta, Sieb.

THE original description of E. virgata, Sieb. (in Sprengel's Cur. Post., 195, 1827), is as follows:—

E. operculo conico pedunculis 3-floris incrassatis compressis rugosis erectiusculis foliis lanceolatis acuminatis coriaceis subvenosis glabris.

This was expanded by De Candolle (Prod. iii, 217) into the following words:—

Operculo conico cupulæ longitudine, pedunculis axillaribus lateralibus petiolo vix longioribus pedicellisque ancipitibus, foliis oblongo-linearibus utrinque acuminatus crassiusculis coriaceis subaveniis. Folii petiolus 4 lin. longus, lamina 4–6 poll. longa 6–9 lin. lata. Umbellæ 5–6-floræ. Margo folii crassiusculus.

E. virgata is redescribed by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 202). .…

Chiefly from Oldfield's, Woolls's, and F. Mueller's specimens. Sieber's appear to be the same, but they are only in young bud, and, therefore, uncertain. It differs from both E. coriacea and E. obliqua in the outer stamens bearing only abortive anthers, and in that respect approaches E. hœmastoma, from which it differs as well in foliage and in fruit, as in these imperfect stamens being much fewer and rarely, if ever, quite without anthers.

The E. virgata of B.Fl. iii, 202, confuses E. virgata, Sieb., with the “Mountain Ash,” afterwards defined as E. Sieberiana, F.v.M. Mueller, in the “Eucalyptographia” perpetuated a similar mistake, in a reverse direction, at the time he defined the common “Mountain Ash” with rugged bark as a new species, E. Sieberiana (it is certainly a good species), but confusing it with E. virgata, Sieb. Typical E. virgata, Sieb., is usually a tall shrub, as its name denotes, while E. Sieberiana, F.v.M., is usually a forest tree.

Previously, however (in 1880), the species was regarded by Mueller, in the same work (Eucalyptographia), as a synonym of E. Sieberiana (Decade 2).

E. virgata was in 1884 considered by Mueller (Decade 10, Eucalyptographia) as a form of E. stricta.

E. virgata as a specific name was ignored by Mueller until the publication of the 2nd Census in 1889.

Then we have Luehmann's view:—

E. virgata.—Although I believe that Mueller was correct in including this as a variety in E. stricta, yet I have kept it apart as the appearance of the extreme forms is so very different. (Trans. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1898, p. 529.)

In the Eucalyptographia (Decade 10) under E. stricta, Mueller includes E. virgata and E. Luehmanniana, but not E. obtusiflora.

At one time Mueller used to label specimens of our common obtusifloraE. obtusiflora, Benth. non DC.; E. stricta, Sieb. var.”

Mueller, Luehmann, and I all agree that E. virgata and E. stricta are conspecific. If anyone will examine my large series of specimens, and also contemplate the plants in the field, I fail to see how he can keep them under two species names. It becomes a matter for consideration as to whether virgata or stricta is the older one.

  ― 276 ―

In Sieber's Cur. Post. they are described on the same page, and virgata is put before stricta only for the reason that, in a former portion of his work, virgata, in his opinion, comes “post No. 11” (capitellata, Sm.), and stricta comes “post No. 14” (pulverulenta, Ker.).

But, because on the same page, virgata is described in the paragraph immediately preceding stricta, virgata is technically the older name,note and, if one of these two is to go, stricta must be suppressed. So that if I prove that E. virgata and E. stricta are conspecific, the latter name must give way to the former.

The description of E. virgata, as given at page 85, Part XXV, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” may be repeated here:—

An erect shrub or small tree, smooth, or with a little ribbony bark, and pale-coloured wood.

Juvenile leaves.—Glaucous, lanceolate or narrow-elliptical.

Mature leaves.—Slightly falcate, lanceolate, tapering to a fine point, 3 to 6 inches (commonly 4 inches) long, with a twisted petiole of half an inch. Texture thick, very coriaceous, equally green and shining on both sides, the midrib and primary veins often strongly marked. Intramarginal vein not far removed from the edge.

Buds.—Angular, operculum pointed, calyx gradually tapering into a flattened peduncle.

Flowers.—Usually six to ten in the head, the former being a common number. Anthers reniform.

Fruits note.—Sub-cylindrical, about 3/8 inch in diameter, and about 5/8 inch in length, to the commencement of the short petiole. Rim broadish, flat-topped, or slightly sunk.

1. Var. obtusiflora, Maiden (E. obtusiflora, DC.).

E. obtusiflora, DC., was first described in Prod. iii, 220, in the following words:—

Operculo hemisphærico obtusissimo cupulâ obovatâ breviore, pedunculis subangulatis axillaribus petioli longitudine, floribus 4–5 capitatis foliis lanceolatis mucronatis basi aequaliter attenuatis coriaceo-crassiusculis. In Novâ Hollandiâ ad oram orientalem. Priori valdè affinis et forsan varietas. Differt floribus majoribus, calyce potius obovata quàm turbinato, operculo obtusiore, foliis latioribus. Mucro folii ut in priore crassiusculus deciduus.

Although A. P. De Candolle, in that work, does not specifically mention the number of Sieber's Pl. Exs. referred to, his posthumous work (Mémoire sur la Famille des Myrtacées, Genève, 1842) gives a figure of the plant, which places its identity beyond question.

An original specimen of Sieber's No. 473, in Herb. Barbey Boissier, bears the MS. label:—“Eucalyptus piperita, Sm., De la nouvelle Hollande, M. Sieber, 1825.”

A second specimen in the same herbarium (without an original label) bears the label:—“No. 472, Eucalyptus stricta, Sieber, N. Holl.”

  ― 277 ―

These specimens are identical, have blunt buds, and in every respect are E. obtusiflora, DC.

I have described variety obtusiflora at page 85, Part xxv, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” in the following words:—

An erect shrub or small tree, smooth, or with a little ribbony bark, and pale-coloured wood.

Juvenile leaves.—Broadly lanceolate, somewhat similar in shape to the adult leaves, only larger. Approximate dimensions—4 to 6 inches long by 1¼ inch broad.

Mature leaves.—Rigid, very coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, slightly oblique, leaves sometimes blunt, sometimes hooked; rarely 1 inch wide (usually ¾) and up to 4 inches or a little more long. The venation marked.note Colour of leaf pale or yellowish-green, often glossy, and the margin often reddish. The intra-marginal vein some distance from the margin. The transverse veins starting out at a fairly uniform angle to the midrib. As Bentham puts it (B.Fl. iii, 189): “Leaf veins not close, often very oblique, but all inserted along the midrib.”

Buds clavate and umbonate, even-pointed.note Some specimens from Botany and National Park have the operculum hemispherical, apparently without sign of umbo. This form frequently shows the double operculum.

Flowers.—The peduncles somewhat angular; calyx-tube short and broad (Bentham), but this is not a constant character.

Fruits.—4- to 5-celled, flat-topped, wrinkled, brown and shiny, like E. Luehmanniana, but smaller. Some specimens from Loftus have slightly urceolate 4-celled fruits, which have thin rims, and are depressed.note

2. Var. stricta, Maiden (E. stricta, Sieb.).

The original description of E. stricta, Sieb. (in Sprengel's Cur. Post., 195, 1827), is as follows:—

E. operculo submutico pedunculis lateralibus 2-floris foliis linearibus acutis coriaceis glabris subpunctatis.

See also De Candolle's figure in Mém. Myrt. t. 8 (“the anthers incorrect,” Bentham). The type is Sieber's Pl. Exs. No. 472, and it is more fully described in DC. Prod. iii, 218.

I have described this variety at page 86, Part xxv, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” in the following words:—

This is the Scrubby Gum of the Blue Mountains, a dwarf gum, very abundant on the higher parts of the Blue Mountains and other elevated parts of the State, where it often forms an almost impenetrable scrub. On the bleakest parts of our ranges, up to between 4,000 and 5,000 feet, this dwarf gum luxuriates. It is often looked upon as mallee, but it is not one of the true mallee species of the drier parts of this and other States, which have thickened root stocks. It is strict (erect) in its habit; hence the specific name.

It is too small for timber. Height from 6 to 15 feet, with bark falling off in strips, leaving smooth stems and timber pale-coloured.

Juvenile leaves.—Lanceolate, erect, equally green (bright or sap-green) on both sides. The oil-dots on the juvenile foliage are well marked. The young twigs are reddish, with tubercles of a darker colour.

  ― 278 ―

Mature leaves.—Rigid, very coriaceous, varying from narrow-linear to ovate-lanceolate. Usually hooked at the apex. Often glossy.

Buds.—Operculum very short, nearly hemispherical, surmounted by a point (umbonate), often red in fresh specimens. Much shorter than the calyx-tube. Bentham speaks of the buds as ovoid. This is hardly true as a general rule. They are clavate, and often yellowish, especially the operculum.note

Flowers.—The stamens are folded in the bud, and the anthers are all fertile and renantherous. The peduncles flattened or angular. Each with 4 to 8 (Bentham), or 5 or 6 (De Candolle), shortly pedicellate small flowers. Calyx-tube not 2 lines in diameter, tapering.

Fruits.—Globose-truncate, smooth, often glossy, up to 5 lines broad and 6 deep, but varying in size, contracted at the orifice, i.e., slightly urceolate, the rim narrow or thin, the capsule sunk, and the valves not protruding. Usually the valves are very much sunk, but occasionally (e.g., at Wentworth Falls) the tips of the valves are flush with the top of the capsule.

The capsule is usually sunk in Blue Mountains specimens, the edge of the capsule (rim) being thin and gradually sloping into the orifice.

In this variety we have:—

  • 1. The Mallee form.
  • 2. The arboreal form. Distinct looking enough, in extreme forms, but they run into one another, and certainly cannot be separated in herbarium specimens.

The arboreal form, besides its size, has broader leaves, and is larger generally.

At page 159, Part VI, of this work, I refer to “a fourth cultivated specimen” (of E. ambigua, DC.), there doubtfully attributed to E. stricta, Sieb. It is remarkably like the arboreal form of E. stricta just referred to, and depicted at fig. 17, Plate 43.

3. Var. fraxinoides, Maiden (Syn. E. fraxinoides, Deane and Maiden).

See page 87, Part xxv, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”

A tall tree.

Bark.—Smooth-barked, the outer layer falling off in ribbons; the bark blotched, reminding one somewhat of a Spotted Gum (E. maculata) as regards its blotches, and E. viminalis (Ribbon Gum) as regards the stripping of the outer bark.

Timber.—Pale-coloured, light in weight and colour, fissile.

Juvenile leaves.—Only seen in the alternate stage, varying from bluntly lanceolate to almost linear-lanceolate; slightly falcate; twigs very glaucous.

Buds.—Ovoid when young; as growth proceeds the operculum more or less pointed at the top, and thus assuming a somewhat conical shape; up to seven or eight in the umbel.

Flowers.—Peduncles flattened; stamens inflexed in bud; the anthers reniform.

Fruit.—Shining, nearly globular; usually 7/16 inch in diameter, or a little less; urceolate in young fruit, the neck being almost lost in the mature fruit. The rim sharp. The valves usually five, and very depressed.

Range.—On high mountain ranges of the extreme southern part of New South Wales (Tantawanglo Mountain, near Cathcart).

The affinity of this variety is closest with var. stricta. It differs from the latter in being a large tree, in the shape of the fruits, and in the venation of the leaves.

  ― 279 ―

The fruits are sometimes not very dissimilar in shape to those of E. maculata and the small form of E. corymbosa, but the White Ash has no real affinity with either species, as it belongs to a different group entirely.

4. Var. triflora, Maiden.

I have described this variety at page 87, Part xxv, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”

It was originally referred to by Mr. Deane and myself under E. stricta, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1900, page 108. We received it from Mr. R. H. Cambage from top of Pigeon House Mountain (2,360 feet), near Milton. It is a small tree, a “White Ash.”

Mr. Cambage's note is—“Bark dark, rough at base, then tones off; lower part only a little rough. Not even as rugged as E. pilularis.”

Fruits nearly sessile, and in threes, hence the name proposed for this variety. Fruits nearly hemispherical, with a slight tendency to be urceolate.

The fruits of the arboreal form of stricta from Blackheath are also sessile, and are akin to this form. It would be desirable to ascertain, over large areas of country, to what extent the arboreal form of var. stricta has sessile fruits in threes.

Speaking generally, the coastal forms of E. virgata are the typical one and its variety obtusiflora, while the mountain forms are those of var. stricta (dwarf or arboreal).

At first sight E. virgata, Sieb., with its broad, flat horizontal fruit rim, E. obtusiflora, DC., with its blunt operculum, and E. stricta, DC., with its sunk fruit rim and somewhat urceolate-shaped fruit, are distinct enough in appearance, but when one examines a large series it is evident that we have no constant character to separate them.

Some specimens, e.g., from the Southern Mountain ranges and South Coast, will not fall under any of the above typical forms. I find myself at different times arranging specimens from the same district, and possibly from the same tree, under the three species or varieties referred to, with good reason in each case.

Specimens from Sugarloaf Mountain, near Braidwood, for example, would certainly be placed under var. stricta if they stood alone, but the fruits in the broadish rim of some of them show transit to E. virgata (typical).

From many other localities instances of the unstable character of the forms of this protean species could be cited.

The confusion between E. stricta, Sieb., and E. cneorifolia, DC.

I have carefully examined many flowering specimens of E. virgata, and its varieties obtusiflora and stricta, and all have reniform anthers. The anther of E. stricta, as figured in the “Eucalyptographia” (E. stricta plate, No. 5), is also reniform, and is doubtless correct.

  ― 280 ―

But Bentham's description (B.Fl. iii, 217) of the stamens of E. stricta, Sieb., is:—

Stamens not above 2 lines long, inflected in the bud; anthers very small and globular, with distinct parallel cells, opening at first in round pores, which extend into oblong slits.

Such anthers, partly as Bentham describes (i.e., parallel cells), are figured in Pl. 8, Mém. Myrt., DC., but Bentham says, “Anthers incorrect.”

Luehmann says:—“The typical stricta of Sieber. Well described in ‘Eucalyptographia’ with reniform anthers. Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 217) apparently had a mixture of two species before him, describing the fruit of E. stricta, but the anthers of another species.”—(Proc. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1898, p. 528.)

I feel satisfied that all that is wrong in Plate 8 is the two enlarged anthers, and that the remainder of the plate may be accepted as true to its label—“Eucalyptus stricta, Sieb.”

I repeat (having seen Sieber's type of E. stricta) that both Bentham's description of the anthers as globular and De Candolle's figure of them as parallel-celled, are wrong, and that Sieber's plant belongs to the Renantheræ.

Speaking of the synonymy of E. oleosa, F.v.M., Mueller says:—

E. cneorifolia, DC. Prod. iii, 220, and B.Fl. iii, 217, ‘so far as the plant with rough calyx (see De Candolle's plate 9.—J.H.M.) and kidney-shaped anthers from the mountains of New South Wales (E. stricta, Sieb.—J.H.M.) united with it by De Candolle, and of which he gave a figure in his Mémoire sur la famille des Myrtacées pl. 9,’ is concerned” (Eucalyptographia, under E. oleosa).

He carries out the same view when he labels a Blue Mountain specimen:—“E. stricta, Sieb.: E. cneorifolia, DC., Mem. et partim prod.” (perhaps referring to the fruits). He puts a similar label on an E. apiculata specimen.

Mueller's view, and I had it from his own mouth and from that of Luehmann, may be also expressed in this way:—

The E. stricta, Benth., non Sieb. = E. cneorifolia, DC. (as depicted in Plate 9), which cneorifolia perhaps = oleosa. Such a plant is not found on the Blue Mountains of New South Wales.

Mueller's view is the result of pushing the figures of parallel anthers in De Candolle's Plate 8 (E. stricta, Sieb.) to their logical conclusion, and also contemplating the rather poor figure 9 (of E. cneorifolia, where the fruits more closely resemble stricta than cneorifolia). I do not think it is necessary to take E. oleosa into consideration, and trust that the identity of E. stricta, Sieb., is perfectly clear.

I shall refer to the unfortunate confusion of E. stricta and E. cneorifolia again when I come to the latter species, since through the kindness of M. Casimir De Candolle I am in a position to speak with authority as to the plants confused under E. cneorifolia, DC.

  ― 281 ―


A TYPICAL form. Sieber's No. 467, Fl. Nov. Holl. Sieber's specimen came from Port Jackson or Blue Mountains, according to Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 202). Specimen received from Berlin Herbarium.

Following are notes on three trees from the Spit, Middle Harbour, Port Jackson. They were all gathered within a few yards of each other, are all the same, and all similar to the type.

  • (a) 15 feet high. Angular twigs, pale-coloured foliage, the leaves falcate and hooked, 2 to 3½ inches, or rarely 4 inches, long. Pointed yellowish operculum. Fruits 5-celled, over ½ inch long, by about 5/16 across, and pale-coloured. They have a long, broad, common peduncle, and the calyx is elongated and continuous with the pedicel.
  • (b) Operculum pointed. Fruits 5-celled, flat-topped or a little domed, and barely half an inch long. The common peduncle elongated, and much flattened upward.
  • (c) Operculum pointed. Fruits half an inch long, flat-topped, but sunk, angled, in addition to a certain amount of longitudinal folding, the result of shrivelling, common to both var. obtusiflora and E. Luehmanniana. Leaves very shiny, thick, and with strongly-marked venation.

Bulli (W. Kirton), from Baron von Mueller.

All the above are from Port Jackson and a few miles to the south, likewise on the coast, and all are quite typical. It is, however, admixed with the blunt operculum form throughout its entire range.

Then compare the following specimens from localities further south:—

  • (1) Jervis Bay.—Leaves with strongly-marked veins; in this respect, and as regards size, precisely like var. obtusiflora. Operculum between that of E. virgata and var. obtusiflora. Fruit with thin rim, well sunk, and closely resembling that of E. stricta. (N.B.—Buds of var. stricta usually closely resemble those of var. obtusiflora.)
  • (2) Conjola, near Milton.—Strongly resembling the preceding, but the buds more nearly resembling those of var. obtusiflora; and as regards the fruits, some of them with a broader brim, showing characters of both E. virgata and var. stricta.

1. Var. obtusiflora (Sieber's No. 473, Fl. Nov. Holl.).

In its typical form confined to the coast, and apparently at no great distance from Port Jackson. It seems unnecessary to repeat a number of localities.

  ― 282 ―

Following is a connecting link with var. stricta:

A small tree from Middle Harbour, Sydney, about 9 feet high, with a white-grey smooth bark, the old bark leaving the tree in long, dark-coloured shreds. Buds clavate, and with double operculum. Fruits about 3/8 inch long, of the shape of those of var. stricta, but with a thicker rim, and less sunk, 4-celled. The leaves linear-lanceolate, 5 inches by ½ inch.

Var. obtusiflora is so similar to var. stricta that some botanists habitually label it E. stricta, looking upon it as the coastal form of that species (or variety).

2. Var. stricta (Sieber's No. 472, Fl. Nov. Holl.).

Occurs in the Blue Mountains, and the Braidwood and Moruya districts and intermediate localities. It cannot be stated that the true E. stricta is found in the Port Jackson district, as recorded by Bentham.

Very abundant on the Blue Mountain Range; it seems superfluous to give a list of localities. Mr. Cambage and I gave the following note on walking over the Blue Mountains:—

“Our first specimen was observed just past Faulconbridge Station, and was 9 inches in diameter, with a height of 20 feet. It is worthy of remark that the young leaves contain caoutchouc. In favourable localities this species, usually a shrubby plant, grows taller, with fewer flowers and coarser foliage. The coarseness of the species appears to be a matter of good soil and shelter.”—(Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1905, p. 196.)

Following is an aberrant specimen:—“Mountain Ash,” Molong (W. S. Campbell). The fruits are more hemispherical and smaller than those of var. stricta usually are, but it seems to be an extreme form of that species. Molong is the most westerly locality yet recorded for it. Its fruits are not very dissimilar to those of the Pigeon House Mountain specimens (var. triflora), while its leaves are broad, like those of some of the aberrant forms from the south. Specimens such as these show a tendency towards E. Sieberiana.

All the above are western localities. Going south we have Sugar Loaf Mountain, Braidwood (W. Baeuerlen); top of Table Mountain, west of Milton, 4–7 feet high (R. H. Cambage); top of mountain (1,700 feet) near West Dapto (R. H. Cambage).

Let us now deal with the arboreal form of var. stricta (we cannot call it a variety).

See the Faulconbridge specimen already alluded to. Common in good soil and sheltered situations in the Blue Mountains generally.

Going south, we have “Trees up to 40 feet high. Scaly bark at base, whitish and smooth on upper part of trunk. Suckers up to 2 inches broad.”note West Albion Park, near Macquarie Pass (R. H. Cambage). Trunk 2 feet in diameter, growing just under edge of cliff (i.e., where there is accumulation of better soil, and some shelter), Bong Bong Pass, West Dapto (R. H. Cambage). In addition to the fairly large trees of this form in the Blue Mountains, I have observed them in the vicinity of the Fitzroy Falls, near Moss Vale, and in other places.

  ― 283 ―

Following is a tree at Blackheath, N.S.W., which may be studied in this connection. It is about 25 feet in height and is 16 inches in diameter at 2 feet from the ground. It is very fully described as “A” in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1905, p. 199, by Mr. Cambage and myself, and we look upon it as a hybrid, of which E. stricta or var. stricta is a parent.

Another reputed stricta hybrid is designated as “C” by Mr. Cambage and myself in the paper just quoted. It is smaller than “A.” A form closely allied to this has been collected by Mr. H. Deane at the Wolgan (table-land), near Clarence Siding, Blue Mountains. For the present we must content ourselves with collecting and making further observations, as it does not appear desirable, at all events at present, to name these aberrant forms.

But we have not finished with the anomalous forms of var. stricta.

Mr. Henry Deane has collected a plant from the summit of the Barren Mountain, on the range dividing the Bellinger and Clarence waters, 45 miles from the coast, and 4,500 feet above the level of the sea. This locality is very interesting for a variety of E. virgata. If flowering twigs were alone examined it would be called var. stricta, but the fruits are different. They are smaller, less urceolate, and with thicker rims, and in shape intermediate between var. stricta and E. virgata.

The leaves are entire, but if they be held up to the light, it will be observed that the soft tissue of which they are composed is serrulate; the cuticle does not follow the minute indentations, but forms an entire margin. The same thing is noted, in a lesser degree, in normal var. stricta, and also in E. apiculata.

The plant closest to it, in my opinion, is that designated as “B” by Mr. Cambage and myself, in the paper already cited. It is fully described there, and comes from Blackheath, a locality we have specially examined for anomalous forms of var. stricta.

3. Var. fraxinoides.

I only know of the type locality, Tantawanglo Mountain, Monaro, where it was collected by Mr. H. Deane and myself.

4. Var. triflora.

I only know of the type locality, Pigeon House Mountain, South Coast, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage).

We want specimens of these two varieties collected from various localities.

  ― 284 ―


1. With E. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.

This will be brought out in the present Part.

2. With E. apiculata, R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith.

The relations between these two species are of the closest character. E. apiculata may be briefly described as a narrow-leaved form of E. virgata, var. stricta.

3. With E. Sieberiana, F.v.M.

The confusion which has existed between these two species (typical virgata and Sieberiana) has already been referred to under page 275. There is no doubt that herbarium specimens of the two species may sometimes be confused. As a rule, however, if fruits be available, the smaller and narrower fruits of E. Sieberiana are a ready guide. The affinity will be dealt with more fully when E. Sieberiana is reached.

4. With E. hœmastoma, Sm.

Where E. virgata (typical form) is intermixed, as in the Port Jackson district, with E. hœmastoma of about the same height (dwarf scrubby trees or saplings), the resemblance between them is not inconsiderable, and should be kept in view.

30. XXIX. Eucalyptus apiculata, Baker and Smith.

Description  285 
History of the species  285 
Synonyms  286 
Affinity  286 

  ― 285 ―


XXIX. E. apiculata, R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith.

DESCRIBED in “Research on the Eucalypts,” p. 198 (1902). Referred to, by name, without botanical description, in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xxxv, 122 (1901). Following is the description:—

A shrub 6 to 8 feet high.

Leaves narrow, lanceolate, with a pronounced recurved point, erect, thinly coriaceous, shining, 4 inches to 5 inches long, petiole about 2 lines long.

Venation quite hidden beneath the cuticle, which, when removed, shows the lateral veins to be oblique and spreading, and identical in disposition with those of E. dives, Schau., and others of the “Peppermint” group of Eucalypts.

Peduncles axillary, about 5 lines long, terete or slightly flattened, with five to seven flowers in the umbel.

Calyx hemispherical.

Operculum hemispherical, shortly acuminate, 3 lines in diameter.

Ovary flat-topped.

Stamens all fertile; anthers parallel, opening with longitudinal slits, connective projecting very prominently above the anthers.

Fruits might be described as hemispherical or pilular, but contracted at the rim, which is either countersunk or flat, 3 to 4 lines in diameter.

Habitat.—Berrima (J. J. Fletcher et R.T.B.); Mittagong (J. J. Hook), New South Wales.

Remarks.—This tree, both in the field and in herbarium material, has so much the facies of E. stricta, Sieb., that it was considered by us at first, and without any hesitation, as identical with that species. The differences, however, in the constituents of their respective oils—differences such as could not be due to soil or climate, as both Eucalypts occur on the Hawkesbury Sandstone formation, and at the same altitude—caused us to make a further search for morphological characters, such as the oil constituents seemed to indicate. The presence of the peppermint constituent in this species also led us to look for a venation similar to that of E. dives, Schau., and others containing this particular property, and such was found when the cuticle of the leaf was removed. By a similar treatment, the leaf of E. stricta was found to have a venation corresponding to E. Bridgesiana, R.T.B., and others of the best eucalyptol-yielding eucalypts. It is, therefore, upon the presence of these characters and oil constituents that the two species, E. stricta, Sieb., and E. apiculata, are separated (op. cit. p. 198).

The history of this species is, so far as I know it, as follows:—

(1) On a label, in the collector's handwriting, we have:—“6 ft. densely covered with white blossom; many stemmed. High ridges above Berrima River, December” (L. Atkinson). This is Miss Louisa Atkinson, the well-known authoress, afterwards Mrs. Calvert. Mueller distributed Mrs. Calvert's specimens with the label “Eucalyptus rigida, Sieber (E. stricta, Sieb., var. angustifolia).” This was in the sixties.

(2) Another specimen, bearing in Rev. Dr. Woolls' handwriting the label “E. stricta, a scrubby species growing near Berrima, &c.,” was endorsed by Mueller: “Renanthereæ! E. cneorifolia, DC. Mém and partim Prodr.” This is, of course, an allusion to the confusion between E. stricta and E. cneorifolia, with which I have dealt at page 280, Mueller being at the time under the impression (following Bentham) that the anthers of E. stricta were not reniform.

  ― 286 ―

(3) Another specimen, which came through Dr. Woolls' hands, was labelled by him: “This specimen came from the (Berrima) coal-mine property, about 4 miles from Berrima” (J. Atkinson). “He calls it ‘Boree.’”

(4) Besides the label already quoted (E. cneorifolia), I have seen specimens from Berrima labelled as follows by Mueller:—“Eucalyptus rigida, Sieber (E. stricta, Sieb. var. angustifolia).” I have already shown that Sieber's E. rigida = E. obtusiflora, DC.

(5) It was placed by Mueller under E. stricta (“Eucalyptographia”), and it is the narrow-leaved twig figured at the right-hand of the plate depicting that species. In the text he refers to it as “linear,” and as collected at “Berrima (Mrs. Calvert) …. Leaves sometimes reduced to a width of 2 or 3 lines.”

(6) It was subsequently described by Mr. Deane and myself as E. stricta, var. rigida, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxii, 710 (1897), with a figure (fig. 18 of Plate xxxi).

(7) Then Messrs. Baker and Smith described it in 1902 as E. apiculata, as shown.

Looking at the analyses of the few specimens of oils of apiculata and the virgata series quoted by these gentlemen, I am not satisfied that E. apiculata can be granted specific rank on account of its oil, but think that the evidence of the juvenile foliage warrants the recognition of E. apiculata as distinct. I have never been fortunate enough to find the juvenile foliage in the opposite stage on the occasion of my visits to the habitat of the plant, but think that the early leaves as shown at 3b, Plate 44, are sufficiently different from those of E. virgata, var. stricta, to justify the species.


  • 1. E. microphylla, A. Cunn. (partim).
  • 2. E. Cunninghamii, G. Don (partim).
  • 3. E. Cunninghamii, Sweet. See page 130, Part V, of this work. The E. stellulata, var. angustifolia, there referred to, was subsequently described as E. Moorei, Maiden and Cambage.
  • 4. E. stricta, Sieb., var. rigida, Deane and Maiden, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxii, 710 (1897).


It is very closely related to E. virgata, Sieb., var. stricta, Maiden.

31. XXX. Eucalyptus Luehmanniana, F. v. Mueller.

Description  287 
Notes supplementary to the description  287 
Synonyms  288 
Range  290 
Affinities  290 

  ― 287 ―


XXX. E. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.

FRAGM. XI, 38 (Fasciculus Lxxxix, Nov., 1878). This is in Latin. It may be redescribed in the following words:—

A straggling, tall shrub or small tree, rarely exceeding a height of 15 to 20 feet, or a stem-diameter of 3 inches. The stem smooth and the timber pale-coloured.

This species is glaucous, even nearly white. At the same time it imperceptibly passes into a non-glaucous form. The branchlets are angular, and the species is coarse,—peduncles, fruits, leaves, &c., being alike large.

Juvenile leaves.—Coarse, up to 7 inches long by 4 inches wide. The resemblance to those of E. hœmastoma is striking.

Mature leaves.—Distinctly falcate, up to 8 inches by 1½ inches. Coriaceous; edges thickened; marginal vein usually at a little distance from the edge.

Peduncles.—Very much flattened. I have specimens which spread out upwards, so much that they are ½ inch wide at the place of attachment of the inflorescence. Top of peduncle quite broad and fleshy, in which the pedicels are articulate.

Buds.—Angular, pointed.

Calyx-tube.—The calyx often tapers into a widely expanded lobe, which is articulate on a broad-topped common peduncle; usually seven flowers in a head.

Operculum.—Double operculum or large calyptra-like bracts enveloping the whole head of flower-buds, and only thrown off when the individual flower-buds are nearly ready to throw off their own opercula.

Fruit.—Often pale brownish and glossy, 5-celled, corrugated—partly due to drying; the rim slightly projecting.

Notes supplementary to the description.

Specimens from the north of Port Jackson (between this estuary and the Hawkesbury River) appear to differ from the type only in the following particulars:—

  • (1) They are glabrous.
  • (2) The calyx-tube is more elongated, and the stalk of the fruit thinner.

The most obvious difference is the almost entire absence of glaucousness; no other difference is obvious or constant.

Plants from the Spit (Middle Harbour, Sydney) have the buds quite pointed, and long, with non-glaucous leaves. This is a form which would be separated from E. virgata with greater or less reluctance, according to the elasticity of view held in regard to the definition of that species.

  ― 288 ―


  • 1. E. stricta, Sieb., var. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.
  • 2. E. virgata, Sieb., var. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.
  • 3. E. rigida, Sieb., var. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.

var. altior, Deane and Maiden.

  • 4. E. oreades, R. T. Baker.
  • 5. E. virgata, Sieb., var. altior, Deane and Maiden.

1. E. stricta, Sieb., var. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.

The species name Luehmanniana was suppressed by the author in his Census (1st Edition, 1882), but not before he had included it under E. stricta (Eucalyptographia). He is not as clear as he might be on the subject, but he speaks of E. virgata as “a form” … (of E. stricta), and a little further on of “The variety Luehmanniana …” (of virgata, and consequently of stricta). In the 2nd Edition (1889) of the Census it appears (by reference) under E. virgata, Sieb., which species itself had been suppressed in the 1st Edition of the work.

2. E. virgata, Sieb., var. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.

Mueller distributed a good deal of this plant under the above name. He refers to it in “Eucalyptographia” (under E. stricta) in the following words:—“But the real E. virgata does undergo a development in another direction, enlarging to that startling state, which was distinguished as E. Luehmanniana …”

3. E. rigida, Sieb., var. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.

(in “Eucalyptographia” under E. Planchoniana).

Var. altior, Deane and Maiden.

Following is the original description of the variety:—

A tree which may be described as a form of E. Luehmanniana, with fruits and all other parts comparatively small. The following notes will render the resemblances and differences clear:—

Immature foliage, inflorescence and fruits, also twigs, all glaucous.

General remarks.—A tree of 60 or 70 feet, with a trunk diameter up to 2 feet. It will be observed that the tree is far larger than that of E. Luehmanniana, a circumstance which we record in the name altior.

Bark.—Smooth, with some bark near the butt, falling off in ribbons. A “White Gum.”


Seedling leaves.—Young seedlings remind one of those of E. Sieberiana a good deal. They are medium lanceolate, bluish-green, equally green on both sides. Decussate at first, after two or three pairs they lose their horizontal character. At length they are more or less undulate and pendulous (Maiden and Cambage, Proc. Linn. Scc. N.S.W., 1905, 196).

  ― 289 ―

Mature leaves.—Very similar to those of E. Luehmanniana, with, perhaps, the following differences:—The leaves are thinner, the petioles less flat, and there is a greater tendency in the lower leaves for the veins to proceed right from the base of the leaf. Rarely longer than 4½ inches or broader than 1 inch.

Peduncles.—Very much flattened, in proportion to the size of the fruits, perhaps as much so as is the case in the normal species.

Calyx-tube.—Similar to the normal species, though less angular. Usually seven flowers in a head.

Operculum.—Proportionately smaller, also less pointed. Pale-coloured operculum like some of the slightly-pointed operculum coast-forms of obtusiflora.

Fruits.—Flat-topped; when not fully ripe quite glaucous, with the exception of the rim which is red, contrasting strongly with the remainder of the fruit, which is smoother than that of the normal species. Pale brown and shining when fully ripe; from nearly hemispherical to subconical, the edge of the rim sharp, and 5-celled.

Dimensions.—Greatest length and greatest breadth of fruit about 7/16 inch. Width of rim in mature fruit, 1/8 inch.

Range.—In the taluses of the sandstone cliffs about Mount Wilson. (Deane and Maiden in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1897.)

Notes supplementary to the description.

It is not only found at Mount Wilson, but at Mount Victoria and other elevated parts of the Blue Mountains. It is a typical ribbony gum, the ribbons being 8 or 10 feet long and even more, broad and tough. We think it very probable the species has been sometimes noted as E. viminalis, judging from its appearance as a ribbony gum, but it is a handsomer and more erect species than E. viminalis. It is a tall tree, very straight, 60–100 feet high, and even more. It has absolutely clean, shiny stems except at the butt, say for 8 or 10 feet, where it is more or less fibrous. At Mount Wilson it is associated with E. goniocalyx, and at Mount Victoria with the same species to a less extent. It has reddish twigs, and slightly glaucous leaves rich in oil. …

The Blue Mountains tree is known and cut commercially as “Mountain Ash.” This is, of course, the ordinary name of E. Sieberiana, F.v.M. The timbers of the two trees are not dissimilar, neither are the immature fruits (Deane and Maiden, loc. cit.). At Mount Irvine it is known as “Yellow Gum.”

The large calyptra-like bracts on the umbels of buds, so obvious in the normal form, are very marked in the variety also. Both type and variety have specially fragrant leaves.


  • 4. E. oreades, R. T. Baker, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxiv, 596 (1899). Figured with unripe fruits.
  • 5. E. virgata, Sieb., var. altior, Deane and Maiden. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1901, 124.)

  ― 290 ―


THE typical form is restricted, so far as is known at present, to the neighbourhood of Port Jackson and of the National Park (a few miles to the south). The most northerly locality known to me is Berowra (R. H. Cambage).

Variety altior.

Found in the valleys or on the taluses of the hills of the Blue Mountain Range, from Springwood higher. Also at Mount Warning, near the Queensland border, at an altitude of over 3,000 feet (W. Forsyth). A tree there of 30–40 feet. So far, I do not know any connecting localities; these should be looked for.


COMPARED with E. virgata and its forms, E. Luehmanniana has broad juvenile foliage. This has enabled me to submit a scheme for the separation of the two species. At the same time the two species are closely related and have more than one point of close approach, if not of actual contact. E. virgata (the typical form), for example, is very close to E. Luehmanniana, and the synonymy of the two species shows how different botanists have been impressed with the closeness of the relations between them. Nevertheless, in my view, there is a distinct line of cleavage between them.

1. With E. virgata, Sieb., var. fraxinoides, Maiden.

This tree resembles var. fraxinoides somewhat in general appearance (except as regards the occasional blotchiness of its bark), in timber, buds, and inflorescence, but the fruits are very different.

2. With E. Sieberiana, F.v.M.

This variety has a good deal of affinity with E. Sieberiana. This is shown in the seedlings, and, to a less extent, in the fruits and timber. The bark (hard and dark in the case of E. Sieberiana) would prevent the two trees, when of any size, from being confused with each other.

3. With E. obliqua, L'Hér.

These two trees have a good deal in common. The bark of E. obliqua is, however, fibrous, and its fruits different in shape.

32. XXXI. Eucalyptus Planchoniana, F. v. Mueller.

Description  291 
Affinity  291 
Explanation of plates  291 

  ― 291 ―


XXXI. E. Planchoniana, F.v.M.

Fragm. xi, 43 (November, 1878). It is described in English in the “Eucalyptographia,” where there is a figure. In my view this drawing can be improved, and so I caused a drawing to be made for Part xxiv of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.” That Part contains some of my notes on the species, and I have but little to add.

The affinity of E. Planchoniana to E. virgata is unquestionable. It might even be looked upon by some botanists as a very large-fruited form of that species. I do not see any difference in the timbers of the two species. At the same time I do not propose to suppress E. Planchoniana. As a young tree, the marked purplish cast of its foliage gives it an ornamental appearance.

Explanation of Plates (41–44).

Plate 41.

Plate 41: EUCALYPTUS ALPINA, Lindl. (1-5). E. MICROCORYS, F.v.M. (6-9). E. UMBRA, R. T. Baker (10-12). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. alpina, Lindl.

  • 1a. Twig with buds; 1b, twig with fruits; 1c, single fruit of type specimens, viz., No. 243 of Major Mitchell's Expedition, 1836, “Summit of Mount William,” Grampians. Note how much smaller and less tuberculate the fruits are than in most specimens attributed to E. alpina.
  • 2a. Flowers (past maturity); 2b, front and back view of anther (I cannot see any difference between the anthers of E. alpina and E. capitellata); 2c, fruits (note their tuberculate character). All from the Grampians, Victoria. (C. Walter.)
  • 3. A single oblique leaf from the Grampians.
  • 4a. Buds; 4b, fruits, from Mount Zero, Grampians. (St. Eloy D'Alton.)
  • 5a. Leaf; 5b, fruit (note its large size and smoothness). Mount Abrupt. (H. B. Williamson.)

E. microcorys, F.v.M.

  • 6. Juvenile leaves, still in the opposite stage. Armidale, N.S.W. (A. W. Howitt.)
  • 7. Broadish leaf, in the intermediate stage. Mullumbimby, N.S.W. (W. Baeuerlen.)
  • 8a, 8b. Mature leaves; 8c, fruits. Grafton to Coff's Harbour, N.S.W. (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman.)
  • 9a. Buds; 9b, front, and 9c, back view of anther. Woolgoolga, N.S.W. (E. H. F. Swain.)
  • [Tab. xxxiv, 3a (bis) of Vol. I of Gaertner's “De fructibus et seminibus plantarum” may be E. microcorys.]

E. umbra, R. T. Baker.

  • 10. Sucker leaf, one of two strictly opposite and sessile. Newport, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage.)
  • 11a. Mature leaf; 11b, buds; 11c, fruits of type. Spit Road, Mosman's Bay, Sydney. (R. T. Baker.)
  • 12. Fruits, very small, from Peat's Ferry. (H. Deane.) From the same tree are fruits of the normal size.

  ― 292 ―

Plate 42.

Plate 42: EUCALYPTUS ACMENIOIDES, Schauer (and allies). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. acmenioides, Schauer.

  • 1a and 1b. Juvenile leaves, still in the opposite stage; 1c, fruits, from Brisbane, Queensland. (J.H.M.)
  • 2. Fruits from Kincumber, N.S.W.; larger than the preceding. (W. R. Stacey.)
  • 3a. Leaf; 3b, ripe buds, just losing opercula, of the type specimen of E. triantha, Link., from the Botanical Museum, Berlin (per favour of Dr. L. Diels).
  • 4a. Twig with buds (note the sinuate margin of the leaf, which is characteristic of the species); 4b, front and back view of anther; 4c, fruits (larger than Nos. 1 and 2). Booral district, N.S.W. (A. Rudder.)
  • 5a. Leaf (rather broad); 5b, fruits; from Rockhampton, central coastal Queensland. (A. Murphy.)
  • 6a. Very thick leaf, with wavy margin; 6b, buds; 6c, fruits of a White Mahogany from Awaba (between Gosford and Newcastle), N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.) I look upon this as showing transit between E. umbra and E. acmenioides.
  • 7a and 7b. Juvenile leaves, still in the opposite stage; 7c, mature leaf, with wavy margin; 7d, very young buds; 7e, fruits, from a “White Mahogany” tree, Woy Woy, N.S.W. (A. Murphy.) I cannot resist the inference that this tree is intermediate in character between E. umbra and E. acmenioides. Both 6 and 7 are coarser than E. acmenioides, and the leaves and fruit approach those of E. umbra.
  • 8a. Juvenile leaves; 8b, fruits of a tree from Woodburn, Richmond River, N.S.W. (W. Baeuerlen), which Mr. R. T. Baker has, since the drawing was made, described as a new species, under the name of E. carnea. I look upon it as an intermediate form between E. umbra and E. acmenioides.

Plate 43.

Plate 43: EUCALYPTUS VIRGATA, Sieb., AND ITS FORMS. (typica, 1-2; var. obtusiflora, 3-11; var. strcta, 12-17). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. virgata, Sieb.

  • 1. Twig, with buds, drawn from Sieber's type of E. virgata (No. 467, Fl. Novæ Holl.). Leaves very thick, and scarcely showing venation.
  • 2a. Juvenile leaves, just past the opposite stage; 2b, mature leaf; 2c, buds; 2d, fruits. North side of the Spit, Middle Harbour, Port Jackson. (J. H. Camfield.) The specimens match the type very closely; I have some that quite match it.

var. obtusiflora.

  • 3. Portion of drawing of type of E. obtusiflora, DC. (Pl. 10 Mém. Fam. Myrt. t. 10, par A. P. De Candolle.)
  • 4a. Leaf; 4b, front and back view of anther; 4c, buds; all drawn from a type specimen of Sieber's No. 473, the number figured by De Candolle in the drawing just quoted. This form is specially abundant near South Head, Port Jackson.
  • 5. Perfectly ripe fruits of E. obtusiflora, DC., from Vaucluse to Bondi, Sydney. (J.H.M.) Note the broad, flat rims.
  • 6. Fruits. La Perouse Road, Botany. (J. H. Camfield.) Typical obtusiflora. Fruits rather hemispherical and with sunk rims. Other fruits from this area precisely match (5).
  • 7. Juvenile leaf, still in opposite stage. National Park. (J. H. Camfield.) N.B.—I cannot say in what way these leaves differ from those of the arboreal form of Blackheath, N.S.W. (See fig. 17a, Plate 43.)
  • 8a. Juvenile leaves, in opposite stage; 8b, buds; 8c, two views of a fruit, showing warty protuberances; 8d, fruit showing a tendency to be urceolate. North side of Suspension Bridge, Middle Harbour, Port Jackson. (J. H. Camfield.) N.B.—All these specimens from the same shrub! This is a coastal locality, and yet the juvenile leaves and fruits (8d) would be at once named stricta if found on the Blue Mountains.

  •   ― 293 ―
  • 9. Fruits. National Park, near Sydney. (J. H. Camfield.) These fruits are from a coastal locality, and the shrubs are named obtusiflora without hesitation, but the fruits are strikingly reminiscent of stricta.
  • 10. Fruits. Jervis Bay. (J.H.M.) These fruits are not quite ripe, and are shrivelled. Buds pointed (like virgata); thin rims to fruits. They certainly connect virgata and obtusiflora.
  • 11a. Buds; 11b, fruits; 11c, fruit. Conjola, near Milton (almost the most southerly recorded locality for N.S.W.) (W. Heron.) These specimens were all taken from the same shrub! The pointed buds show transit to virgata; the fruits (11b) are nearly typical obtusiflora (5), yet they are slightly urceolate, like stricta. The fruits (11c) show, like (6), that we can have thin rims in obtusiflora.

var. stricta.

  • 12. Portion of drawing of E. stricta, Sieb., taken from Pl. 8 of Mém. Fam. Myrt. par A. P. De Candolle.
  • 13a. Twig bearing buds; 13b, fruits; drawing from a specimen of Sieber's type of E. stricta (No. 472).
  • 14. Fruits. Lawson, Blue Mountains, N.S.W. (J. H. Camfield.) These are the fruits which are as small as or even smaller than the type. (See 13b.)
  • 15. Fruits. Jenolan Caves, N.S.W. (W. F. Blakely.) These are drawn to show that the fruits of E. stricta may be much larger than those of the type.

Arboreal forms of var. stricta.

  • 16a. Leaf; 16b, fruits. “Mountain Ash,” Molong, N.S.W. (W. S. Campbell.) This appears to be an arboreal form allied to E. stricta, with larger leaves and more hemispherical fruits.
  • 17a. Juvenile leaves (note how broad they are); 17b, juvenile leaves (note how narrow they are, but from the same plant as 17a); 17c, buds; 17d, fruits. All from the same clump of trees at Blackheath, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.) These trees are of considerable size, and are in good soil and in a sheltered situation. We traced all stages, from the scrubby growths on poor soil and exposed situations to the larger growths with better soil, &c. The inflorescence is sessile, but the pedicel varies in various forms.

Plate 44.

Plate 44: E. LUEHMANNIANA, F.v.M. (5-7.) Nos. 1-5 are forms allied to E. virgata, var. stricita). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

var. fraxinoides.

  • 1a. Leaf; 1b, buds; 1c, fruits; 1d, fruits. All from the type of E. fraxinoides, Deane and Maiden, and collected by the describers at Tantawanglo Mountain, N.S.W. 1d shows unmistakable affinity to var. stricta.

var. triflora.

  • 2a. Leaf; 2b, fruits. A “White Ash,” top of Pigeon House Mountain, South Coast, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage.) A remarkable and interesting form of this variable species. (See p. 279.) The fruits are nearly spherical, and in threes. The common peduncle of the three fruits has been shown too prominently in the drawing.

E. apiculata, Baker and Smith.

  • 3a. Juvenile leaves; 3b, leaves in the intermediate and mature stage; 3c, anther, front and back; 3d, fruits. Near Berrima Coal-mine, N.S.W. (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman.)

E. virgata, Sieb., var. stricta, Maiden (arboreal form).

  • 4a. Leaf; 4b, buds; 4c, fruits. Faulconbridge, Blue Mountains, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.)
  • 5a. Leaf; 5b, buds; 5c, fruits. West Albion Park, near Macquarie Pass, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage.)
  • Nos. 4 and 5 are trees. They are arboreal forms of var. stricta. They resemble each other, and especially No. 17, Plate 43.
  • Var. stricta, although usually a shrub, becomes a medium-sized tree when the conditions are favourable.

  ― 294 ―

E. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.

  • 6a. Juvenile leaves; 6b, portion of stalk enlarged, showing glands; 6c and 6d, leaves in the intermediate stage; 6e, mature leaf; 6f, broad peduncle and bract (double operculum) covering buds; 6g, broad peduncle and young buds; 6h, a stage more developed than 6g; 6k and 6l, fruits. All of E. Luehmanniana, National Park, Sydney, pratically a type locality, except 6h, 6k, which are from the Spit, Middle Harbour, Sydney.

var. altior, Deane and Maiden.

As to the leaves, I cannot ascertain in what way they differ from those of the normal form. Speaking generally, perhaps the coarse intermediate foliage is more common in the normal form (perhaps more obvious because it is dwarf) than in the variety. But neither in the juvenile foliage nor in the mature foliage could any difference be seen, and so the expense of separate drawings was not undertaken.

  • 7a, 7b. Fruits from Mount Wilson (J.H.M.); 7c, bract; 7d, buds, Blackheath (J.H.M.); 7e, broadening petiole and bract, Mount Warning (W. Forsyth); 7f, fruits from type of E. oreades, R. T. Baker, Adelina Falls, Lawson (R. T. Baker). The fruit is immature and rim much sunk. 7g, fruits, Mount Wilson (J.H.M.) The fruits are still immature, but riper than 7f.