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20. XIX. Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha, F. v. Mueller.

       
Description  225 
Synonyms  226 
Range  227 
Affinities  230 




  ― 225 ―

Description.

E. macrorrhyncha, F.v.M.

MUELLER (Census, &c.) quotes “First General Report of the Government Botanist of Victoria, 1853,” as the authority for this name. It is there spelt as I have given it. The species was not, however, described until Vol. iii of the “Flora Australiensis” (1866). See B.Fl. iii, 207, and Mueller's “Eucalyptographia.”

This, in its typical form, is a very easily recognised species. The buds are, when fully developed, large, rhomboidal in longitudinal section, with pointed operculum, and the pedicels are long, so that the flowers and fruits form loose heads.

Vernacular Names.—It is usually known as “Stringybark” merely, but by comparison with E. eugenioides as “Red Stringybark.” According to Howitt, it is known as “Mountain Stringybark” in Gippsland, a name to which in this State the other Stringybarks have also some claim. It is the common Stringybark of the north-eastern districts of Victoria, and appears to be quite absent from the coast districts of New South Wales.

Juvenile Foliage (figured in the Eucalyptographia).—The leaves may be described as follows:—Elliptical, margins undulate and irregularly toothed. Small tufts of hairs along the margin. The twigs, midribs and veins, and even the soft tissue more or less besprinkled with stellate hairs, the twigs abundantly so.

Mature Leaves.—Usually 4 to 6 inches long and 1 to 1¼ inches wide. Rather coriaceous, equally green on both sides. Venation spreading, prominent, particularly the midrib. Intra-marginal vein at some distance from the edge. Twigs and leaf-stalks angular.

Buds.—These are strongly pedicellate, and the edge of the calyx tube forms a prominent ring, while the operculum is often curved; acuminate and often lengthened out into a point. In the matter of shape one cannot help likening them to those of E. rostrata, which, however, are small in comparison.

The buds are usually more or less angular, and in the typical form are very angular. In extreme forms the angularity disappears.

Fruits.—These vary somewhat in shape and size, but, owing to the long pedicels, the prominent edge to the rim, and the domed top, they can usually be recognised.

They vary as to amount of doming, so that eventually, in some specimens, the rim is obliterated. Valves well exsert.

The diameter of typical fruits is not much more than ? inch at its greatest (rim) width.

A particularly large-fruited form has been collected by Mr. R. T. Baker in the Rylstone district, where trees with fruits of ordinary size are also found. Large fruits (not so large as the Rylstone ones) are also found with the ordinary ones at Howell (J.H.M.).

Timber.—This seems in every respect to resemble that of E. capitellata. It is the common Gold-fields Stringybark, and its timber is brown.




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Synonyms.

  • 1. Var. (?) brachycorys, Benth.
  • 2. E. scyphoidea, Naudin.

Notes on the Synonyms.

Var. (?) brachycorys, Benth.

Operculum short and obtuse. Fruit of E. macrorrhyncha. Expanded flowers not seen, and therefore affinities uncertain. New England, N.S.W., Stringybark, C. Stuart—B.Fl. iii, 207.

The variety brachycorys, mentioned by Bentham, seems transferable to E. capitellata, unless, indeed, it should prove distinct from both, when as a species it could be kept apart under the above designation.—(Mueller, Eucalyptographia, under E. macrorrhyncha.)

The variety brachycorys, doubtfully referred by Bentham to E. macrorrhyncha from New England (near Timbarra) at elevations about 2,000 feet, may possibly be a form of E. capitellata, with which it shares the blunt lid, though the calyces are attenuated into distinct and slender stalklets; but the bark of this tree, though stringy, is said to be separating in patches, and, curiously enough, the tree is locally called Spotted Gum tree.note The fruits are rather more depressed. Expanded flowers remained unknown.—(Eucalyptographia, under E. capitellata.)

I have seen Stuart's specimens, and they have thick leaves, with well-marked venation. Buds rounded, shining. Fruits sharply rimmed and grooved. Fig. 14, pl. 39, makes this form clear.

I cannot agree that it is a variety, and Bentham was himself doubtful on that point. It is an unstable form and it touches the normal form and adjacent species in various ways. It is especially common in the Northern Districts.

The sharpness of the rim, which seems to be the most pronounced character, appears to be accidental, and to be less accentuated as ripening of the fruit proceeds. It is seen in specimens from widely different localities, e.g., Cootamundra to Grenfell (A. Osborne); Borenore (H. Deane); Canoblas, Orange (A. W. Howitt); Capertee and Sunny Corner (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman); Emmaville (E. C. Andrews).

2. E. scyphoidea, Naudin.

I do not know where it was described.

Copy of a label, in Herb. Mus. Paris, in M. Naudin's handwriting:—

Eucalyptus scyphoidea, Ndn. Species nova. Trouvé dans le jardin Nabonnand au Golfe Juan. Arbre unique dans le pays. Villa Thuret, 1899. Ch. Ndn.”—(Maiden, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1903.)

It is a form of E. macrorrhyncha, commonest in the Northern Districts, which, with var. (?) brachycorys, is simply indistinguishable from the normal species. It has buds nearly normal, while the fruit tends to the spherical shape that is common in many specimens of this species, as will be readily seen from examination of the figures.




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Range.

E. macrorrhyncha is found in Victoria (where the type came from), South Australia, New South Wales, and southern Queensland.

VICTORIA.

As regards its range in Gippsland, Mr. A. W. Howitt states, “It commences at Glen Maggie, on the dry Silurian ridges, extends all along the stony ranges flanking the valley, and reaches an altitude of about 3,000 feet on the track leading up from the Wellington to the Snowy Plains.”

Mueller gives its range “On comparatively sterile ridges and ranges, chiefly of the Silurian formation, widely and often gregariously distributed through much of the wooded country of Victoria, for instance towards the Upper Yarra and in the Dandenong Ranges; thence to the mountains of Gippsland easterly, to the Mitta Mitta and Hume River northerly, the Avoca and the Pyrenees westerly, and towards Cape Otway southerly in our colony.”—(Eucalyptographia, under E. macrorrhyncha.)

Following are aberrant forms. Small, glaucous, pointed buds like those of E. eugenioides. Oil-glands of leaves prominent. Fruits typical macrorrhyncha. Buchan, North Gippsland (A. W. Howitt).

A closely-allied form from Stawell (A. W. Howitt) has the buds glabrous and even shining. The fruits are less typical than those of the preceding specimen, being closer to capitellata.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

In South Australia E. macrorrhyncha is confined to the Adelaide district, according to the late Prof. Tate.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

In this State it is found along the Dividing Range and Table Land from south to north. It goes down the western slopes, and on the spurs of the main range, and on the isolated ranges some distance into the interior. The most westerly localities actually recorded are the Harvey and Warrumbungle Ranges.

Southern Localities.—Quiedong, near Bombala (W. Baeuerlen); Bombala to Delegate (J.H.M.); Tantawanglo Mountain, Cathcart, Montgomery's Mill (H. Deane); Gungahleen (Goldbrough, Mort, & Co.), with thick, short leaves and strongly marked venation; Tumut (W. W. Froggatt); Gundagai (H. Deane); Barber's Creek (H. J. Rumsey), with swollen, insect-punctured buds as already figured in E. stellulata. Bowral to Wombeyan Caves, 1 mile east (J.H.M. and R. H. Cambage) with narrowish, lanceolate suckers, not quite at the youngest stage.




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Fruits with very sharp rim; little doming, or a concavity rather than a convexity, Cootamundra to Grenfell (Dist. Forester Arthur Osborne); Weddin, near Young, normal (J.H.M.)

Borenore, near Forbes (H. Deane) with fruits similar to those from Cootamundra, &c., and which resemble those of var. (?) brachycorys.

Western Localities.—Hassan's Walls, Bowenfels (J.H.M.); Capertee and Sunny Corner, with remarkably angular rim to fruits (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman). These specimens, as far as leaves and fruits are concerned, are close to var. (?) brachycorys, but the buds are those of the New England form.

Rylstone (R. T. Baker); Mudgee (W. Woolls). Fruits rather smaller than the type.

A coarse grandiflora form with the fruits ? inch in diameter, the rim very prominent and urceolate in shape, was collected by R. T. Baker at Mt. Vincent, also at Rylstone. (Fig. 19, pl. 39.)

Perth, found only in the Ranges around Apsley; small stunted trees used for props in the mines adjacent (J. L. Boorman).

“Red Stringybark,” buds swollen like those of E. stellulata, Canoblas, Orange; ditto (A. W. Howitt), with rim of fruit as sharp as seen in var. (?) brachycorys, Ophir, Orange (R. H. Cambage); Wellington (A. Murphy).

Near top of Mt. Bulaway, Warrumbungle Ranges, at 3,000 feet (W. Forsyth). The angularity of the rim in these fruits is nearly obliterated, and the pedicels are very short. The opercula are pointed, but far less sharp than those of normal macrorrhyncha usually are. That this tree is a strong connecting link between E. capitellata and E. macrorrhyncha is unquestionable. A form with normal fruits is also found in the Warrumbungle Ranges (W. Forsyth).

Minore, near Dubbo, perhaps the most westerly locality in this herbarium (J. L. Boorman). Buds less angular than the type.

Harvey Range, near Dubbo (J. L. Boorman). Small crooked trees of 15–20 feet. Leaves very thick and shiny, and with veins well marked. In some trees the fruits hemispherical and much resembling those of var. (?) brachycorys. In others, the fruits hardly to be distinguished from those of E. tereticornis, Sm.

The Meadows, Dubbo district; used for fencing-posts and charcoal (Assistant Forester A. R. Samuels). The buds remarkably like those of E. rostrata, so much so, that a word of caution is necessary. This is not an unusual thing in Western forms, but the anthers and the venation of the leaves are very different.

Northern Localities.—But it is as we travel north, farthest away from the home of the type, that the aberrant forms become most plentiful. The doming of the rim is usually a very good guide in this species, but sometimes this character is not well defined, and the rim must then be interpreted with caution.




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On New England the tendency of the leaves is to become smaller and more coriaceous, and the buds to become less to more angularnote than the type, the operculum shorter and the fruit more pear-shaped. The rim is not sharp, and the domed portion is narrow. At the same time there are considerable differences in the shapes and sizes of the fruits in these northern forms as the figures will show. Following are some specimens in the National Herbarium:—

Tingha, on granite, fruits nearly spherical, more or less glaucous, buds approaching normal (No. 962, R. H. Cambage).

Tingha, juvenile foliage narrower or more lanceolate than the type, but not invariably so. Stellate hairs, marginal characters as before. Intermediate foliage very broad and coarse (like the Stanthorpe, Q., specimen figured at fig. 18, pl. 39). Buds compressed (J. L. Boorman). Mr. Boorman and I have collected fruits at Tingha in heads, with valves as exsert as it is possible for them to be.

At Howell, near Tingha, Mr. Boorman and I collected a grandiflora form of this species, also specimens similar to the Tingha ones, and also fruits inclining to be pear-shaped, as referred to elsewhere when discussing this species.

Mount Seaview (J.H.M.). Bluff River, near Tenterfield; also Glen Innes (H. Deane) are obviously similar to var. brachycorys, but the rim is less rounded.

A second Bluff River specimen (H. Deane) is more glaucous and angular in all its parts, with larger fruits. I cannot distinguish it from Boorman's Tingha specimens, except, perhaps, in the more pronounced grooving of the rim.

Tent Hill, west of Deepwater (E. C. Andrews). In fruit only, which is depressed, tending to be hemispherical and the rim not sharp.

Emmaville. Buds very compressed (J. L. Boorman). From same locality (E. C. Andrews), but with shiny, scarcely angular buds, and angular, flat, broadrimmed fruits like var. (?) brachycorys. This angular rim appears to be less marked in fully ripe fruits. Stanthorpe, Queensland (F. M. Bailey).

The following specimens show some affinity to Muelleriana, and may be reported upon separately as a matter of convenience.

  • (a) Nundle, Liverpool Range (J. L. Boorman). Fruits pear-shaped, white-dotted, buds not angular, opercula conical. (See fig. 11, pl. 38.)
  • (b) Allied to the above, but buds and fruits smaller and paler, and the angular rim of the latter almost absent. Attunga, 12 miles N.W. of Tamworth, growing on hill of serpentine formation (R. H. Cambage). (See fig. 12, pl. 38.)
  • (c) “Red Stringybark,” Walcha District (A. R. Crawford), with fruits inclining to pear-shape. (See fig. 10, pl. 38.)



  •   ― 230 ―
  • (d) Hartley's Mill, Glen Innes (H. Deane). This is a very interesting specimen, of which leaves and fruits (not quite ripe) are alone available. It was referred doubtfully to E. eugenioides by Deane and Maiden, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1896, 805. (See fig. 13, pl. 38.)

It is, I think, a transit form between E. macrorrhyncha and E. Muelleriana. It can be looked upon as an extreme form of the pear-shaped fruited macrorrhyncha specimens just referred to. The figure will explain it, and I will only add that I have not noticed the grooving of the rim, which is clear in this form, other than in E. macrorrhyncha.

  • (e) Warialda (J. L. Boorman), and the trees also examined by me. Apparently rare in the district. Occurs on the Inverell-road, near the dry creek with a bridge, under 2 miles from the township. The timber is warm brown. The suckers (some of them) nearly as narrow, perhaps quite as narrow, as ever seen in E. eugenioides. (See fig. 21, pl. 39.)

The fruits are quite small, and there is almost an entire absence of angularity of the rim. Occasionally angularity is observed. This form is obviously similar to (d), and it is an extreme form of E. macrorrhyncha.

Affinities.

1. E. capitellata, Sm.

In specific botanical affinity E. macrorrhyncha stands nearest to E. capitellata; leaves and fruits of both are the same; but the flowers of the latter are always sessile, or nearly so, and thus crowded into heads as the species-name signifies, besides being usually smaller; the lid of E. capitellata is hemispheric, without any prominent point, and shorter in proportion to the tube, the latter being also more angular, and downward less attenuated.—(Eucalyptographia, Mueller, under E. macrorrhyncha.)

That E. capitellata and E. macrorrhyncha possess points of resemblance is apparent to the most superficial observer. A comparison of the two may be roughly tabulated as follows:—E. capitellata—Operculum obtuse. Flowers and fruits sessile, or nearly so. Fruit expanded below the rim.

E. macrorrhyncha.—Operculum acuminate, or conical. Flowers and fruits strongly pedicellate; calyx border prominent.

But these characters are not absolute, and only belong to the types, considerable variation occurring in some specimens.

I cannot separate E. capitellata and E. macrorrhyncha on juvenile leaves, and agree with Mueller's dictum, “leaves and fruits of both are the same”; their limits are simply indefinable.




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2. E. Muelleriana, Howitt.

I have already spoken strongly as to the affinity of these two species. Contemplation of figures 10–13, plate 38, will illustrate the transit between them. This transit appears to be most marked in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland specimens. The colours of the timbers of the two species do not help one much in these transit forms. The colour of the timbers referred to is a warm brown, while that of E. macrorrhyncha in its typical form is rather darker, while that of E. Muelleriana is paler.

But as one gets away from the type localities of species, the colour of the timber varies within limits. Indeed timbers, like other products of plants, cannot always be placed in one species without a qualifying statement that it would be legitimate to look upon them as forms of another. I regret, as a systematist, to have to say this, but it is a necessary corollary of the grand law of variation amongst plants, often evident, but more frequently not so evident to the limited experience and knowledge of man.

3. E. diversifolia, Bonpl.

E. santalifolia, F.v.M. (E. diversifolia, Bonpl., J.H.M.), from the limestone ridges of Guichen Bay, and thence westward to Venus Bay beyond Spencer's Gulf, differs in smaller and less oblique leaves, with more concealed veins, and anthers rather cordate than kidney-shaped, but the fruits are again the same, unless the valves are smaller. Possibly it may prove a variety; it flowers already in a shrubby state. I have not seen the lid of its calyx.—(Eucalyptographia, Mueller, under E. macrorrhyncha.)

The affinity is, however, not very close, as references to the figures and text in Part VII will show.

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