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4. III. Eucalyptus calycogona, Turczaninow.

               
PAGE.  
1.  Description  77 
Notes supplementary to the description. 
2.  Synonyms (with descriptions)  79 
Notes on the Synonyms. 
3.  Range  83 
4.  Affinities  86 
5.  Explanation of plates.  90 




  ― 77 ―

Description.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

49. Eucalyptus calycogona (Drum. 5, n. 184), E. glabra; ramis teretibus; foliis alternis linearilanceolatis utrinque attenuatis acuminato-mucronatis: mucrone interdum uncinato, marginatis pellucidopunctatis; umbellis lateralibus 3–6 floris; pedunculis angulatis petiolo paulo brevioribus; cupulis obpyramidatis tetragonis, nigro-punctatis subsessilibus vel cum pedicello confluentibus, pedunculo longioribus; operculo conico laevi, cupula plus quam duplo breviore. E. foecundœ, Schauer, cujus operculum ignotum, stirps nostra affinis est, sed folia minora, pellucida et cupula angulis 4 acutis marginata. Filamenta alba. Capsula 4-locularis, cupula duplo brevior. Folia bipollicaria, 2½ lin. lata. (Turcz., Bull. Phys.–Math. Acad. Pétersb., 10, 1852, p. 338.)

The type is, as Turczaninow states, No. 184, of Drummond's 5th collection.

I have not seen this publication; I doubt if there is a copy in Australia, and I am indebted to Kew for the extract. It is probably that quoted in Scudder (Catalogue of Scientific Serials), “3707(b). St. Petersburg. Académie impériale des sciences. (Bulletin de la classe physico-mathématique. 1 vol., 1–17, 1842–59 (1843–59). 17 v. 4°.”

Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) quotes the reference as “Turczaninow in Mélanges biologiques tirés du Bulletin physico-mathématique de l” académie impériale des sciences de St. Petersbourg, tome i, 417.”

Scudder, under No. 3707, gives (g) “Mélanges biologiques tirés du bulletin physico-mathématique. Vol. 1–9, iv. 1849–75 (1853–76). 9 v. 8°.” So that, according to Mueller, the date of Turczaninow's species is 1849, three years earlier even than the date quoted by Kew.

Leaves.—In E. calycogona and its varieties the venation of the lower leaves is spreading; the top or young leaves, are more penniveined. This is a matter of considerable importance, and, speaking generally, it may be stated that the lower leaves of eucalypts are usually more characteristic than the terminal ones. When fragmentary, or small specimens are alone available for examination or figure, one requires to be very careful to interpret the venation in consequence. I have referred to the variation of venation in Eucalyptus at page 8, Part I.




  ― 78 ―

Oil.—“The oil of Eucalyptus gracilis, F.v.M., has the sp. gr. 0·909; [a]D = + 9·3” (W. P. Wilkinson). Baron von Mueller found that 1,000 lb. of fresh twigs of this plant (comprising, perhaps, 500 lb. of leaves) yielded 54½ oz. of essential oil. Probably var. gracilis was experimented upon in both these cases.

Messrs. Baker and Smith (“Research on the Eucalypts”) give the following in regard to the oil of this species. Probably the E. gracilis referred to by them is Eucalyptus calycogona, var. gracilis, but the authors add, “The species shows very little variation in specific characters wherever it occurs on this continent,” an expression of opinion which I will presently show is very unfortunate.

Specific gravity at 15° C., 0·9098; specific rotation [a]D = + 1·48°; saponification number, 6·17; solubility in alcohol, 1 vol. 80 %. Constituents found—pinene, eucalyptol, aromadendral.




  ― 79 ―

Synonyms.

  • (a) Var. celastroides, Maiden.
    • 1. E. celastroides, Turcz.
    • 2. E. fruticetorum, F.v.M.
  • (b) Var. gracilis, Maiden.
    • 3. E. gracilis, F.v.M.
    • 4. E. gracilis, F.v.M., var. breviflora, Benth.
    • 5. E. yilgarnensis, Diels.

Doubtful varieties:—

  • (c) E. gracilis, F.v.M., var. Thozetiana, F.v.M. (E. Thozetiana, F.v.M.)
  • (d) E. ochrophloia, F.v.M.

Notes on the Synonyms.

Variety celastroides.

1. E. calycogona, Turcz., and E. celastroides, Turcz., were omitted by Bentham from the Flora “Australiensis” by accident, together with seventy-five other species of Myrtaceæ described by Turczaninow. (Bull. Phys. Math. Acad. Sc. St. Pétersb., p. 321, 1852.)

Mueller (“Eucalyptographia,” also Fragm., viii, 184) simply gives E. calycogona, Turcz., and E. celastroides, Turcz., as synonyms of E. gracilis, F.v.M., but makes no reference in the text to them, the date of publication of Turczaninow's species being presumably unknown to him. (See p. 77.)

Following is the original description of E. celastroides, Turcz.:—

50. Eucalyptus celastroides (Drum. 5, n. 34). E. glabra; ramis teretibus superne subangulatis; foliis alternis lineari-lanceolatis utrinque attenuatis abrupte et breviter acuminatis subinaequilateris,


  ― 80 ―
marginatis, obscure trinerviis venosisque; umbellis axillaribus 3–6 floris; pedunculis angulatis petiolum subaequantibus, pedicellos triplo, cupulam paulo superantibus; cupula obconica 4-costata, operculum depresso-hemisphaericum muticum quadruplo excedente. Folia bipollicaria aut parum longiora, 3–3½ lin. lata, punctis aliis opacis, interdum nigricantibus, aliis paucioribus pellucidis conspersa, petiolus fere trilinealis. Filamenta alba. Cupula fructus parum aucta, prope orificium leviter constricta. Capsula inclusa, vertice plana 4-locularis. Ad descriptionem E. amygdalinœ, Labill., in multis accedit, sed nullam reticulationem in foliis video, folia breviora, operculum depressum nec subconicum, forsan etiam operculi forma prae caeteris dignoscitur. E. cneorifolia et E. stricta floribus sessilibus recedunt. E. pallens pedunculis compressis et foliis 5-pollicaribus, E. obtusiflora calycibus ecostatis. (Turcz., in Bull. Phys. Math. Acad. Pétersb., 10, 1852, p. 338.)

The type is, as Turczaninow states, No. 34 of Drummond's 5th collection.

There is a glaucous form with fruits slightly urceolate, slightly rimmed, and showing slight angularity. I think it is a well-marked variety of E. calycogona, Turcz., and therefore proposed the name of var. celastroides for it in Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1902, p. 222.

2. E. fruticetorum, F.v.M.

I do not think that the original description of E. fruticetorum, F.v.M., had been published in Australia until I transcribed it for the Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1902.

17. Eucalyptus fructicetorum, Ferd. Müll. MSS: frutex vel arbuscula, ramulis angulato-teretiusculis, foliis nitidulis lanceolatis vel lanceolato-linearibus acuminatis crasse coriaceis, tenuiter patule venulosis, pedunculis lateralibus et axillaribus 4–6 floris, floribus sessilibus, calycis tubo obconico anguloso ruguloso quam operculum hemisphaerico-conicum acutatum triplo longiore.

Frequens in deserto ad fl. Murray, fl. vere (F.M.).

Decempedalis. Petioli semipollicares. Folia 2½–3½ poll. longa, 3–6 lin lata. Pedunculi 2 lin. Alabastra operculata 2½ lin. longa.

Affinis E. strictae Sieb. foliis latioribus lanceolatis vulgo rectis et operculo magis conico differt. (Miq. in Nederl. Kruidk., Arch. IV, 131, 1856.)

I am aware of the confusion that has gathered around E. fruticetorum, but Mr. Wilkinson's specimens, named E. fruticetorum by Mueller himself, although gathered many years after the original type specimens were collected, answer the description very well. Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 252) states that the West Australian specimens referred to by Mueller in Fragm. ii, 57, are referred to E. loxophleba, Benth., (E. foecunda, Schauer). They are also stated to be the E. santalifolia, of Miq., (op. cit.) and Mueller in Trans. Vict. Inst. i, 35.

Examination of old herbarium specimens has shown me that confusion of material, such as that indicated by Bentham, is by no means rare.

E. fruticetorum, F.v.M., is glaucous, and is so very close to E. celastroides, Turcz., that I think its proper place is under E. calycogona, Turcz., var. celastroides, Maiden.

The E. gracilis, F.v.M., figured by Mueller in the Eucalyptographia is not typical E. calycogona, but in part a slightly angled form nearest to E. fruticetorum.




  ― 81 ―

Variety gracilis.

3. E. gracilis, F.v.M.

Fruticose; leaves coriaceous, alternate, shining, narrow-lanceolate, hooked-acuminate, a little oblique, thinly veined-dotted; umbels axillary and terminal pedunculate: flowers small, short-stalked; lid blunt, depressed-hemispherical; tube of the calyx obconical, bell-shaped, a little broader and three times longer than the lid; fruit nearly hemispherical; not contracted at the top; valves of the capsule almost enclosed.

In the desert on the Murray River, where it forms the mallee scrub, together with E. dumosa, santalifolia and other species (Trans. Vict. Inst. i, 35, 1855).

Miquel's description is in the following words:—

3. E. gracilis, Ferd. Mull., E. perforata, Behr. Herb. partim; arbuscula gracilis, ramulis teretibus apice angulatis lanceolato linearibus vulgo subfalcatis in acumen vel apiculum uncinatum excurrentibus glabris coriaceis crebro pellucido-punctatis, umbellis axillaribus et lateralibus 3-6 floris, calycis tubo turbinato operculum depresso-hemisphæricum apiculatum triplo excedente.

Ab E. amygdalina proxime affine differt foliis non venosis, ab E. ambigua operculo vix apiculato, petiolis longioribus, umbellis plerumque 5-floris ab E. cneorifolia floribus breviter pedicellatis (Müller).

Frutex vel saepe arbuscula gracilis 5–8 pedum altitudinis, partem magnam fruticetorum extensorum aliquot millaria a fl. Murray remotorum sistens, æstate florens, ramuli juniores rubri (F. Müller Herb. et observ. manuscript; Stuart Herb. Tasman. n. 3). Folia 2 poll. longa, 1½ lin. lata. Calycis tubus pallidis ½-2 lin. lata (Ned. Kruidk., Arch. IV. 1856).

C. Stuart's Tasmanian specimens No. 3 are E. amygdalina, Labill. I have seen them. Miquel's statement that E. gracilis, F.v.M., is near to E. amygdalina, Labill., applies with a good deal of force to Tasmanian specimens, the superficial resemblances of herbarium specimens being frequently very considerable.

The type of E. gracilis, F.v.M., is a South Australian specimen, and was collected by Dr. H. Behr. It was labelled by Mueller in Herb. Melb. as “Eucalyptus gracilis, Ferd. Muell., Murray Scrub., Dec., 1848, Behr, Nov. Holl. Austr., Dr. Ferd. Müller.”

It will be observed that neither in Mueller's nor Miquel's description is there any mention of an angular calyx which is so obvious a feature of the typical E. calycogona, Turcz.

It, however, passes by insensible gradations into the angular form.

4. E. gracilis, F.v.M., var. breviflora, Benth.

Calyx-tube scarcely angled, 1½ to nearly 2 lines long. Fruit about 2 lines only, but the deeply-sunk capsule and the stamens entirely as in the ordinary form,—Darling and Murray Desert, also F. Mueller's Spencer's Gulf specimens, which being in fruit only are somewhat doubtful (B. Fl. III, 211).

Bentham's specimens cannot be traced in Herb. Melb., but I am indebted to Kew for a fine drawing of the original specimens (Plate 12) and for fragments of the specimens which place its identity beyond doubt.

I am of opinion that E. gracilis, F.v.M., and E. gracilis F.v.M., var. breviflora, Benth., are so closely allied that it is impossible to separate them even as two varieties. I think that they should form one variety readily noted by its hemispherical operculum and almost entire absence of angularity in calyx or operculum. I proposed the name gracilis for this variety, i.e., E. calycogona, Turcz., var. gracilis, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1902, p. 223.




  ― 82 ―

5. Eucalyptus yilgarnensis, Diels.

“No. 332, Plantæ Australiæ occidentalis, v. (May), 1901, Yilgarn and Coolgardie Goldfields in silvis valde apertis, E. Pritzel,” is referable to the above variety.

Doubtful Varieties.

(c) E. gracilis, F.v.M., var. Thozetiana, F.v.M. (E. Thozetiana, F.v.M.)

In the “Eucalyptographia” (under E. gracilis) the following passage occurs:—

Either as a variety, or perhaps even as a species can be distinguished from E. gracilis, an Eucalyptus gathered by the lamented late Monsieur A. Thozet in his last botanical journey to Expedition Range.

This Eucalyptus, which should bear his name, can be distinguished by its longer leaves, narrow-ellipsoid flower-buds, smaller, more or less conspicuously angular calyces and also smaller and particularly narrower fruit, irrespective of the size of the tree, which rises to a height of 60 feet, according to Mr. E. Bowman and Mr. P. O'Shanesy, who noticed it near the Mackenzie and Comet River.”

All the localities mentioned are in Queensland.

I have examined specimens from—

  • (a) Expedition Range, Queensland. (M. Thozet, in Herb. Melb.) This is the specimen referred to in the preceding passage.
  • (b) “Eucalyptus from the Mackenzie River, Queensland. It sheds all the bark except that on the butt of the trunk.” (W. Woolls, who labelled it E. tesselaris.)
  • (c) and (d) Warrego and Flinders River, Queensland (F. M. Bailey). The fruits are small, narrow, and sub-cylindrical, but perhaps not perfectly ripe.

The buds are very narrow and pointed when young; as they become mature they become plumper, and somewhat resemble those of E. odorata. The leaves are coriaceous and with inconspicuous veins.

While these specimens probably belong to E. calycogona, in my opinion these Queensland trees appear to show transit to the narrow-leaved forms of E. odorata. Additional material, including ripe fruits, and further particulars as to habit, bark, timber, etc., are necessary before the position of this tree can be stated without doubt.

  • (d) For a second doubtful variety, further removed (if a variety) from E. calycogona than E. Thozetiana, see E. ochrophloia, F.v.M., below p. 86.




  ― 83 ―

Range.

Typical Form.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

THE original specimens came from “Swan River to Cape Riche,” Western Australia. I have examined co-types from many herbaria. [See Plate 9 (a).]

L. Diels, No. 766, Kent Facup Creek.

Coolgardie (L. C. Webster).

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

I have seen a specimen from the Murray Desert, and labelled E. gracilis, by Mueller.

VICTORIA.

“The Mallee Country” (a very angled, coarse form).

Lake Albacutya (also a very angled, coarse form. Both from C. Walter).

Swan Hill, Murray River (J. G. Luehmann). [See Plate 9 (b).]

Lake Hindmarsh (C. Walter).

The Wimmera (F. Reader). Very coarse form.

Kamerooka, “No. 1 Mallee” (A. W. Howitt). “Tall, up to 15 feet, bark smooth.” Broad, shiny, thick leaves, with angled buds and fruits. The coarsest form of the species I have seen. [See Plate 9 (c and d).]

“Kamerooka is near Bendigo, being on the fringe of the country where Mallee is found, not in large tracts, but in patches.” (A. W. H., in litt.)

Variety celastroides.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

It appears to be mainly confined to Western Australia. Following are some specimens in the National Herbarium of New South Wales:—Elder Exploring Expedition, camp 63, W.A., 27/9/91, and 40 miles N.W. of Fraser's Range (R. Helms, 4/11/91). These specimens were labelled E. fœcunda by Professor Tate. They have leaves rather broader than the Coolgardie specimens, see Plate 10 (b);




  ― 84 ―

“Goldfields” (Conservator of Forests, Perth).

Coolgardie (L. C. Webster), see Plate 10 (c).

VICTORIA.

Two specimens in Herb., Melb., collected by W. Percy Wilkinson, and obtained from (a), Mildura; (b), Lower Avoca scrub, Wedderburn, Victoria. They were labelled E. fruticetorum, F.v.M., by Mueller. See above, p. 80, and also Plate 11 (g and h).

Variety gracilis.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

“No. 2843, Arbor ca. 8m. alta, floribus minutis albis. Southern Cross in limoso-lapidosis, 19th May, 1901” (L. Diels). See Plate 12 (g, h, i).

“332, Eucalyptus yilgarnensis, Diels. Yilgarn and Coolgardie Goldfields; in silvis valde apertis, May, 1901.” (E. Pritzel.)

Coolgardie (Nos. 100 and 101, 1899; R. Helms). Sap-green leaves, very shiny; fruits small, pear-shaped, constricted at the mouth, but not ripe; operculum a little pointed. See Plate 12 (k, l).

Fifty miles west of Golden Valley, W.A. (E. Merrall, 1888; in Herb. Melb.)

The two last specimens show transit to E. odorata.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

Murray Scrub (Behr.), ante p. 81.

York Peninsula. (J. G. O. Tepper, 1880, No. 938.) “Middle-sized trees, 10–20 feet by 3–8 in., coast plain.” Herb. Melb., labelled E. gracilis by Mueller.

“White Mallee,” Flinder's Range, foot hills of Mt. Brown (Port Augusta); W. Gill, Conservator of Forests, with the note, “as figured in Brown's ‘Forest Flora of South Australia.’ ”

Ninety-mile Desert. “Clear bark, wood brown.” (R. H. Cambage, March, 1901.) The Ninety-mile Desert is the modern name for the Murray Desert, where the type of the variety was collected.

Specimens from South Australia [no locality] (W. Gill, 1896 and 1900) are very close to the Coolgardie specimens above referred to.




  ― 85 ―

VICTORIA.

Mildura (A. W. Howitt's No. 130). See Plate 9 (e).

The Wimmera (C. Walter). See Plate 12 (e,f).

Swan Hill (Dr. Griffiths).

NEW SOUTH WALES.

Gol Gol, near Wentworth (“No 3 Mallee,” A. W. Howitt). With slender, rather tapering fruits; the leaves and buds precisely those of Tepper's 938 (South Australia).

Mt. Hope Road to Euabalong, Condobolin district (August, 1899; R. H. Cambage). The Mallee referred to (see Plate 11, a, b) in Mr. Cambage's paper, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1901, p. 209.




  ― 86 ―

Affinities.

1. E. ochrophloia, F.v.M.

I have some doubts, as already stated, that E. ochrophloia may not be a variety of E. calycogona. Following is the original description:—

Arborea, ramulis parum angulatis, foliis sparsis falcato—v. oblongo-lanceolatis concoloribis utrinque nitentibus irregulariter poroso-punctatis, venis parum patentibus cum venulis auastomosantibus, peripherica a margine remota, umbellis axillaribus solitariis vel corymboso-confertis, pedicellis pedunculo haud dilatato longioribus sensim in tubum calycis obconicum longiusculum leniter quadrangularem transientibus, operculo conico acutato longitudinem tubi calycis vix semiæquante, staminibus exterioribus anantheris numerosis, antheris cordatis v. renatis saepe truncatis, stigmate crassitiem styli haud excedente, fructibus clavato-ovatis truncatis trirarius quadri-loculatis, margine orificii tenui ultra valvas alte protenso, seminibus sterilibus perbrevibus.

Ad ripas et in planitiebus secus fluveos Warrego et Paroo.

Arbor 50-pedalis v. humilior. Cortex laevis, dilute fuscescenti-flavidus quare arbor “Yellow Jacket” vocata (Giles, Bailey). Folia 4–6? longa, sæpe inter ? et 1? lata, parum inaequilatera, in petiolum vix longiusculum angustata; venæ haud crassæ, sed prominulæ; poræ copiosæ, difformes, nec in modum copioso oleigerarum regulariter rotundatæ, sed anguliter effluentes et magnitudine variantes, quo charactere sicut modificatione columnæ, placentigeræ species sæpe clare separabiles. Calycis tubus addito pedicello ad pollicem usque longus, passim brevior. Operculum fere 3'? altum. Stamina ante expansionem inflexa. Antherae utrinque rimula irregulari sæpe verticali dehiscentes. Stylus staminibus conspicue brevior. Fructus circiter semipollicares, vix ultra 3'? crassi, minus angulati; valvæ perbreves. Semina pleraque (saltem sterilia) vix ½'? metientia.

Haec nova species ab E. gracili removetur foliis majoribus prominule venosis minus, perspicue punctatis, pedicellis calycibusque longioribus, filamentis pallide flavidulis procerioribus, antheris majoribus distinctius rimigeris, operculo acutiore, fructibus bis terve majoribus sensim conice contis ab E. paniculata note divellitur foliis magis nitentibus, venis eorum crassioribus minus patentibus, peripherica parum a margine remota, calycibus longioribus, staminibus sterilibus valde numerosis, stigmate haud peltato, fructibus magis elongatis sensim in pedicellum contractis, nec non corticis coloratione et structura. (Fragm. XI, 36.)

Mueller himself observed the affinity of E. ochrophloia and E. calycogona (gracilis) in the following words:—

E. ochrophloia, F.v.M., is removed from E. gracilis on account of its larger leaves, with rather prominent veins and less conspicuous oil-dots, its larger flowers, more pointed lid, fruits of larger size, and more tapering into an elongated stalklet, also its outside yellowish bark, which gave rise to its odd vernacular appellation “Yellow Jacket,” by which it is known from the Darling and Lachlan Rivers to the Paroo and Warrego. (Eucalyptographia, under E. gracilis.)

Luehmann (Proc. Aust. Assocn. Adv. Science, Sydney Meeting, 1898, p. 528) also surmises that it may be a variety of E. gracilis.

I have specimens from River Darling (W. Woolls and others). Dr. Woolls looked upon it as E. incrassata. Also from Paroo River (E. Betche), both New South Wales localities.




  ― 87 ―

Its Queensland aboriginal name is “Yapunyah,” but its common name in western New South Wales and Queensland is “Yellow Jacket,” owing to the colour of its bark.

Its wood is of a brownish colour, hard, heavy, and close-grained, and it is said to attain a height of about 50 feet.

The leaves resemble in a marked manner those of the more coriaceous forms of E. calycogona, and particularly the Kameruka specimens. But the buds are less blunt and less angled than those of E. calycogona. The fruits of E. ochrophloia, while angled, are not so much so as those of E. calycogona; they are also more slender and tapering, with a rim at the top, though this last character is sometimes seen in E. calycogona, e.g., F. Reader's Wimmera, Victoria, specimens.

E. ochrophloia, as regards buds and fruits, might be looked upon as a coarse form of E. calycogona, var. (?) Thozetiana. The leaves of the latter are much more narrow than those of the former usually are. With narrow-leaved forms of E. ochrophloia (e.g.), some from Thargomindah, which show but little venation, the resemblance of such leaves to those of var. (?) Thozetiana is so great as to be worthy of note.

E. ochrophloia differs from incrassata in the leaves, which, although very thick and shiny as in the latter species, have more marked venation, the spreading veins and intramarginal vein (at some distance from the edge) being alike conspicuous.

I trust that more evidence will be forthcoming both as regards E. ochrophloia and E. calycogona, var. (?) Thozetiana. We want herbarium specimens from more localities than we have at present, and we require notes on, and specimens of, the bark and timber and other particulars, in order that a final judgment may be pronounced.

2. E. salmonophloia, F.v.M.—It is worthy of note that specimens in bud or with undeveloped fruits of this species may very pardonably be confused with E. calycogona, var. gracilis.

The notes concerning the following species, which are in italics, are taken from Mueller's “Eucalyptographia,” under E. gracilis, except No. 3, which is under E. fœcunda. Where gracilis is given E. calycogona var. gracilis should be read, and Mueller's references were doubtless given with that variety in mind. Typical E. calycogona could not be confused for a moment with any of the species named.




  ― 88 ―

3. F. fœcunda, Schauer.

E. fœcunda might from great external resemblance be confounded with E. gracilis, but the latter has the outer stamens sterile, the anthers roundish and opening by pores, and the fruits shorter as well as comparatively broader.

The fruits of E. fœcunda are larger than those of var. gracilis, and may be usually at once distinguished by the style which persists until the fruit is well advanced, and the prominence of the midrib. The calyx of var. gracilis is dotted. At the same time the superficial resemblance is undoubted. Turczaninow originally drew attention to it, and Tate labelled some specimens E. fœcunda.

4. E. fasciculosa, F.v.M.

E. paniculata, particularly in its variety fasciculosa, coincides also in many of its characteristics with E. gracilis, with which it is intermingled in the mallee scrub: but the leaves are larger, less shining, slightly paler beneath than above, not distinctly dotted, with several times less stomata above than beneath, and have the margin slightly recurved, as is customary in the species with heterogeneous and hypogenous stomata; the circumferential vein is rather nearer to the margin of the leaf, while the lateral veins are more spreading and prominent, the flowers are on the whole larger and mostly paniculated, the anthers truncated and open with terminal pores.

It is generally recognised now that E. faciculosa is a good species. Its fruits and flowers are much larger than those of E. calycogona, var. gracilis, while its comparative dullness of foliage at once renders the two plants little liable to be confused.

5. E. uncinata, Turcz.

E. uncinata, another of the mallee species, is best separated from E. gracilis by its often narrower leaves with more spreading veins, usually still more abbreviated stalklets, not at all angular calcyces, less inequality in the length of their tube and lid, not flexuous filaments but all fertile, anthers opening by terminal pores, proportionately longer style, upwards very narrow acutely pointed and partially emersed capsular valves and thicker rim of the fruit, which as a rule is smaller and more roundish.

E. uncinata may most conveniently be distinguished from E. calycogona, var. gracilis, by the reflexed filaments of the former. It is also more erect in its habit than the latter.

6. E. oleosa, F.v.M.

E. oleosa, recedes from E. gracilis in having the veins of the leaves rather more transverse, the marginal vein closer to the edge, the calyces never angular, the lid very seldom shorter than the tube of the calyx, the latter often more suddenly contracted into the stalklet, the stamens all fertile, the anthers opening rather by slits than pores, though amply so, the style longer, the fruit more contracted at the orifice with pointed and partly protruding valves, the latter forming a conical summit before expansion and the rim thicker; moreover the bark of E. oleosa remains persistent on aged stems and becomes finally rough.

E. oleosa has the anthers opening in slits; it has a far longer operculum and duller foliage than E. calycogona.




  ― 89 ―

7. E. incrassata, Labill., var. dumosa.

E. dumosa, in comparison with E. gracilis, can mainly be recognised by the absence or extreme shortness of the stalklets, the calyces not or less angular, the stamens all fertile, larger anthers opening by ample slits and mostly larger fruits. Nearly the same characteristics remove E. incrassata, but that species is, besides, larger in all its parts, its leaves are broader, the flower stalks very much flattened, the calyces often furrowed-streaked; both form the transit from the parallelantheræ to the micrantheræ.

If anthers be available, those of E. calycogona, which open in pores, cannot well be confused with those of any variety of E. incrassata.

Some of the smallest forms of the variety dumosa are not unlike specimens of E. calycogona, var. gracilis, but the more pointed operculum of the former serves at once to distinguish them.

8. E. bicolor, A. Cunn. (E. largiflorens, F.v.M.)

E. gracilis differs from E. largiflorens in shining leaves not of a greyish hue, more numerous and still finer veins and more perceptible oil-dots in the numerous sterile stamens, anthers opening laterally, less copiously paniculated, more angular calyx, the lid not rarely pointed, often somewhat larger fruit with not distinctly contracted summit, and also in not extensively persistent bark; but seemingly a variety of E. largiflorens from Northern Queensland exhibits also shining leaves of vivid green.

E. bicolor is a large tree with red timber and dull-coloured foliage. These characters are usually sufficient to distinguish them from the species under consideration.

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