5. IV. Eucalyptus incrassata, Labillardière.

1.  Description  93 
Notes supplementary to the description  93 
2.  Synonyms  96 
Notes on the Synonyms  97 
3.  Range  105 
4.  Affinities  109 
5.  Explanation of plates  121 

  ― 93 ―


E. incrassata, Labillardière.

FOLLOWING is the original description of the species:—

Eucalyptus operculo conico, calycis longitudine; umbellis ancipiti pedunculo axillaribus; foliis oblongis, crassiusculis, subacuminatis.

Sesquiorgyalis frutex, ramulis angulatis. Folio oblonga, acuminata, in petiolum subdecurrentia, crassiuscula, coriacea, nervulis exarata depressis, alterna. Flores pedicellis brevibus umbellati, ancipiti pedunculo longitudine petiolorum axillares. Calyx turbinatus, subangulatus, germini adnatus, ultra productus, subcampanulatus. Operculum coriacem, calycis latitudine. Stamina numerosa, summo calyci affixa; antheris subglobosis, bilocularibus, apici filamentorum pedicellatis. Germen calyce immersum. corticatum; stylus vix staminibus longior, subulatus infra dilatatus, tetragonus; stigma acutum. Capsula ovato-turbinata, corticata calyce ultra producto, dilatato, quadrilocularis, intus et apice quadrifariam dehiscens; seminibus numerosis, oblongis, angulatis, ferrugineis, affixis receptaculo subcrustaceo-fungoso, oblongo, ad singuli loculamenti angulum internum, axi fructûs adnato.

Habitat, in terrâ Van-Leuwin.

1. Calycis sectio longitudinalis, intacto pistillo.

Obs. Quantum differat, praesertim foliis, ab Eucalypto rostrato, Cavan., ic. 4, p. 23, tab. 342 (E. robusta, Sm. J.H.M. ), et ab Eucalypto marginatâ, Smith, Linn. Trans. 6 p. 302, omnibus patet. (Labillardière in Nov. Holl. Pl. ii, 12, t. 150.)

See also an abbreviated description in DC. Prod. iii, 217.

Vernacular names.—It is a “Mallee.” A mallee has a large massy stock or dwarf trunk, from which spring a large number of stems. These stems sometimes take on a circular arrangement. Mallee roots or stumps are an esteemed article of fuel wherever they can be obtained, and the following gives a good idea of their massiveness and toughness.

A well-established bull mallee is a problem to the ordinary grubbing contractor. The butt is a great flattened bulb of curly timber, sometimes 8 or 10 feet through. It is set firmly into the soil, and even if all the roots were cut off, the tree would stand in its place just the same, as the upper growth is very insignificant compared with the base. Chopping a mallee out is an obvious impossibility, and as the wood is full of moisture it would be an almost endless task to attempt burning it out. Dynamite and rack-a-rock have proved equally useless.

Before or rather behind the traction engine the difficulty disappears. For the rapid removal of timber from land there is nothing to equal it. The only preliminary trouble lies in obtaining rope and tackle sufficiently strong to enable the power of the engine to be exerted. The cable used for hauling out the mallee stumps, at Mildura, is a steel-wire rope having a breaking strain of 100 tons, and the shackles and anchoring gear are correspondingly stout. The first operation is to cut down all the trees, leaving the stumps about 2 or 3 feet high. The trunk and branches are chopped up for firewood, and the leaves and litter are raked up into heaps and burned. The traction engine, with an attendant gang of a dozen men, then comes on the scene. The front end of the engine is first moored up to a stump, and the hind wheels are chocked up with heavy billets of wood carried for the purpose. The main axle carries a revolving drum on which is wound the steel cable before referred to. The engine being securely fastened forward, the cable is unwound from the drum and is then carried back to a stump, and the running noose at the end is dropped over it. Then the drum is set in motion, and when the rope straightens the stump starts up out of its resting-place and hurries towards the engine. It must come. Sometimes it is necessary to try back and give a few tugs, but the stump has finally to come up. It facilitates the work to cut the surface roots and clear away the earth to the depth of a foot or so round the biggest ones, but with the small stumps this is not necessary. When the timber is light, the rope is carried round in a semicircle to a stout stump, and as it is straightened by the strain the intervening small fry are literally “rubbed out.” Belar and pine are easily cleared in this way, and the gang makes short work of a 10-acre block, unless the mallee is extraordinarily heavy. When all the stumps are uprooted, the adhering earth is knocked off, and they are readily burned. The holes are then filled and the firewood carted off, and the work of clearing is completed.

  ― 94 ―

(N. B. McKay, of Mildura, in Vict. Roy. Comm. Veg. Prod., 8th Annual Report, pp. 118–119, 1889.)

Var. dumosa is usually known as “White Mallee” because of the paleness of its smooth bark.

It was called “Weir Mallee” by Victorian aborigines, and “Bunurduk” by the aborigines of Lake Hindmarsh Station, Victoria.

Fruits.—The fruits vary in size, shape, constriction of orifice, smoothness (ribbed or not), shininess, prominence of rim, exsertion of valves (they are usually sunk).

Oil.—Baron von Mueller found that 1,000 lb. of fresh twigs of this tree (comprising, perhaps, 500 lb. of leaves) yielded 140 oz. of essential oil.

Lerp.—This mallee yields a kind of manna, called Lerp, or Larp, by the aborigines. It is probably formed on the leaves of other species.

This substance occurs on the leaves, and consists of white threads, clotted together by a syrup proceeding from the insect (Psylla eucalypti) which spins those threads. It contains, in round numbers—of water, fourteen parts; thread-like portion, thirty-three parts; sugar, fifty-three parts. The threads possess many of the characteristic properties of starch, from which, however, they are sharply distinguished by their form. When lerp is washed with water the sugar dissolves, and the threads swell slightly, but dissolve to a slight extent, so that the solution is coloured blue by iodine. The threads, freed from sugar by washing, consist of a substance called Lerp-amylum.

Lerp-amylum is very slightly soluble in cold water, not perceptibly more so in water at 100°, but entirely soluble to a thin, transparent liquid when heated to 135° in sealed tubes with thirty parts of water. This solution, on cooling, deposits the original substance in flocks, without forming a jelly at any time. The separation is almost complete.

If the material employed in this experiment were entirely free from sugar, the liquid left after the separation of the flocks will also be free from sugar. The flocks deposited from solution are insoluble in boiling water, therefore lerp-amylum suffers no chemical change on being heated to 150° with water. Heated in the air-bath to 190° while dry, it turns brown, and is afterwards merely reddened by solution of iodine; at the same time it becomes partly soluble in hot water, hence it appears that lerp-amylum undergoes a change similar to that which occurs when starch is converted into dextrin. By oxidation with nitric acid it yields oxalic acid, but no mucic acid; it is neutral to vegetable colours, and is not precipitated by lead acetate, and is, therefore, not to be confounded with the gums, &c.

It gave, by analysis, 43·7 and 43·07 carbon, 6·6 and 6·4 hydrogen, agreeing with the formula C6 H10 O5 (44·4 C. and 6·24 H.). Like starch, lerp-amylum rotates the plane of polarisation to the right, and on digestion with dilute sulphuric acid, &c., forms a crystallisable carbo-hydrate which agrees in its properties with dextrin. It is insoluble in ammonia cuprate, and is homogeneous.

  ― 95 ―

Though the behaviour of lerp-amylum to iodine and to water, and its insolubility in cupr-ammonia distinguish it from cellulose, it is to be borne in mind that there are forms or conditions of cellulose which are blued by iodine and dissolve in water. (Flückiger, in Watts' Dict., VII, 2nd Suppl., 733.)

See also a paper “On a new kind of manna from New South Wales,” by Th. Anderson (Journ. für Prakt. Chemie, xlvii, 499); Edin. New Philosoph. Journ., July, 1849, reprinted in Papers and Proc., R.S., V.D. Land, vol. i, 1851.

A modern analysis of Lerp is a desideratum.

The Lerp described by Dobson is now Spondilaspis eucalypti, Dobson. Mr. W. W. Froggatt informs me that he has described two more species, viz, S. granulata on E. robusta and S. mannifera on E. gracilis (calycogona) and E. dumosa. He is about to describe a fourth species.

Exudation.—For analyses of the kinos of two mallees belonging to this species, collected by the Elder Exploring Expedition, see Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. xvi, p. 7.

Timber.—This is not a timber tree, although its massive stock or “root” is a common article of fuel. Its stem or stems are too small to be used as timber. The sap-wood is white, and the remainder of the wood is brown, of one shade or another.

  ― 96 ―


  • (a) Typical form.
    • 1. E. dumosa, A. Cunn., var. scyphocalyx, F.v.M.
  • (b) Var. dumosa, F.v.M. (by implication, in Eucalyptographia under E. incrassata).
    • 2. E. dumosa, A. Cunn., with perhaps var. punctilulata, Benth., and var. rhodophloia, Benth.
    • 3. E. lamprocarpa, F.v.M.
    • 4. E. Muelleri, Miq.
    • 5. E. glomerata, Tausch.
  • (c) Var. conglobata, R.Br. (E. dumosa, A. Cunn., var. conglobata, R.Br., in B.Fl. iii, 230).
    • 6. E. conglobata, R.Br.
    • 7. E. anceps, R.Br.
    • 8. E. pachyphylla, F.v.M.
  • (d) Var. angulosa, Benth., B.Fl. iii, 231.
    • 9. E. angulosa, Schauer.
    • 10. E. cuspidata, Turcz.
    • 11. E. costata, R.Br.
    • 12. E. linopoda, R.Br.
    • 13. E. rugosa, R.Br. (E. incrassata, Labill., var. rugosa of some herbaria).
    • 14. E. sulcata, Tausch.
    • 15. E. pachyphylla, A. Cunn.
  • (e) Var. goniantha, var. nov.
    • 16. E. goniantha, Turcz.
  • (f) Var. grossa, var. nov.
    • 17. E. grossa, F.v.M.
    • 18. E. pachypoda, F.v.M.

  ― 97 ―

Notes on the Synonyms.

(a) Typical Form.

1. E. dumosa, A. Cunn., var. scyphocalyx, F.v.M.

(a) In B.Fl. iii, 230, we have :—

E. dumosa, A. Cunn., var. scyphocalyx, F. Muell. Leaves narrow; flowers large; operculum very obtuse, broader than the calyx; peduncles very short and thick. This approaches in some measure E. gomphocephala.

On Plate 13 a specimen of this form, named by Mueller himself many years ago, is figured. I do not think it is sufficiently removed from the type of E. incrassata to be even called a variety. It shows transit to var. dumosa, and is one of the intermediate forms. Mueller worked under great difficulties in the early days, and as late as 1860, when he wrote Fragm. ii, 59, I doubt if he had seen complete specimens of typical incrassata.

(b) Var. dumosa.

  • 2. E. dumosa, A. Cunn.
  • 3. E. lamprocarpa, F.v.M.
  • 4. E. Muelleri, Miq.
  • 5. E. glomerata, Tausch.

Mr. J. G. Luehmann, speaking of E. incrassata, saysnote :—

An extremely variable species. E. dumosa seems to pass into it by almost imperceptible degrees, although it can generally be distinguished by smaller flowers and fruits and less flattened peduncles.

I agree with him, and point out that the large fruited form of E. dumosa very closely approaches the typical form of E. incrassata. I am of opinion that much of the hesitancy of some writers to place E. dumosa with E. incrassata arises from the fact that they have not realised what is the type of the latter species. The var. angulosa is by many people looked upon as typical incrassata. The large drawings to the left in the Eucalyptographia plate of E. incrassata is really var. angulosa. The drawing in the centre of the plate is one of the intermediate forms between the type and var. angulosa. The left hand of the two small drawings to the right of the plate is the only specimen close to typical incrassata, while the fragment to the extreme right is var. dumosa. There is, in fact, an absolute series between E. incrassata and var. dumosa.

  ― 98 ―

2. E. dumosa, A. Cunn.

Following is an extract from Allan Cunningham's Journal, under date 23rd May, 1817:—

Eucalyptus dumosa.—Leaves alternate, ovate lanceolate, fruit rough. This plant forms the principal shrub in a tract of confined bushy scrub.

A little later, Oxley made the entry:—

June 10th, 1817.—Mr. Cunningham named those thick brushes of Eucalyptus that spread in every direction around us Eucalyptus dumosa, or the dwarf gum, as they never exceed 20 feet in height, and are generally from 12 to 15, spreading out into a bushy circle from their roots in such a manner that it is impossible to see farther than from one bush to another, and these are very often united by a species of vine (Cassytha), and the intermediate space covered with prickly wire-grass, rendering a passage through them equally painful and tedious. (Journals of two Expeditions, Oxley, 1820, p. 63.)

About this time, say between 23rd May and 10th June, Allan Cunningham was mainly between 33° and 34° S. lat. and 146° and 147° E. long., i.e., in the Wyalong-Booligal country.

In 1828 A. De Candolle described (Prod. iii, 220) E. cneorifolia, but unfortunately there are two species in the Prodromus Herbarium under this name. I am obliged to M. Casimir De Candolle for permission to examine the specimens. The following, which is figured at plate 16, is E. incrassata, var. dumosa.

Its original label reads—

Eucalyptus viminalis, Nouvelle Hollande, Côté Orientale, Musée de Paris, 1821.

An additional label bears the words—

34. E. cneorifolia, DC., altera species. (2) Species foliis oblongo-lanceolatis.

I think the following is the first formal description of E. dumosa, A. Cunn.:—

Fruticosa: ramulis rigidulis teretib.; foll. coriaceis firmis oblongis lanceolatisve, basi subobliqua in petiolum attenuatis, breviter acuminatis; utrinq. lævib. pallide virentib. subopacis imperforatis; umbellis axillarib. 3-5 floris; pedunculo tereti v. subangulato petiolum æquante; pedicellis angulatis cupula breviorib.; operculo coriaceo subdepresso-hemisphærico apiculato radiatim costato cupula cyathiformi vix costata nonnihil latiore vix longiore et cum ea nitido. Foliorum lamina 2–3 uncias longit., 6–9 lin. latit., petiolus 8 lin. long. metientes; alabastra adulta cum pedicello 5 lin. longa, operculo 2 lin. alto. In fructicetis Novæ Cambriæ australis interioris. A. Cunn., Herb., No. 206, 1817. Schauer in Walp. Rep. ii, 925.

Var. puncticulata, Benth.

Leaves copiously black-dotted, flowers small. W. Australia, from Gordon River, Oldfield, to Mount Barren Ranges, Maxwell. (B.Fl. iii, 230.)

Var. (?) rhodophloia, Benth.

Bark salmon-coloured, leaves black-dotted, flowers rather small, the operculum conical or almost acuminate. Capsule on a level with the rim of the fruit. Possibly a distinct species. W. Australia, Phillips Bluffs, near Eyre's Relief, Maxwell. (B.Fl. iii, 230.)

Both the above were described by Bentham as forms of E. dumosa. I have not seen them to my recollection. At Plate 21 I submit drawings indicating essential parts of these so-called varieties. It is not an uncommon circumstance for the leaves of E. incrassata to be black-dotted. See additional observations at p. 122.

  ― 99 ―

Backhouse's Blue Mountain specimens (Herb., Kew) referred by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 230) to E. dumosa, A. Cunn., are in plump bud and in early fruit, with a few stamens remaining on the specimens. The opercula are blunt, nearly hemispherical, and the calyces are somewhat angular by compression. They are referable to E. eugenioides, Sieb., and the materials available exhibit a remarkable superficial resemblance to some specimens of E. dumosa, A. Cunn.

A specimen collected by Backhouse on the Upper Hunter, N.S.W., No. 9 (Herb., Kew) has the buds so swollen by the punctures of an insect that the specimen presents an appearance so peculiar that it has been referred doubtfully to E. dumosa. It, however, belongs to E. hemiphloia, F.v.M., and this swelling of the calyx is not uncommon in the genus. It will be figured when E. stellulata is dealt with.

Speaking of synonyms of E. dumosa, Bentham says:—

E. santalifolia, Miq. l.c. 133 (except the var. firma), not of F. Muell. (B.Fl. iii, 230.)

With regard to the confusion of E. santalifolia, Miq. with E. dumosa, var., I will deal with the matter when treating of E. diversifolia, Bonpl.

Bentham makes the very pardonable statement (B.Fl. iii, 230) that E. fruticetorum, F.v.M., is partly referable to E. dumosa. I have shown that it belongs to E. calycogona, Turcz. See Part III of this work, p. 80.

Bark.—The blacks in South Australia powder the bark of the root of this, and, perhaps, other mallees, and eat it alone, or mixed with portions of other plants. They call it “Congoo” (Proc. R.S., S.A.).

Eyre in his overland journey from Adelaide to King George's Sound had this fare:—

At night we all made up our supper with the bark of the young roots of the green scrub. It appears to be extensively used for food by the natives in this district (Fowler Bay), judging from the remnants left at their encamping places. The bark is peeled off the young roots, put into hot ashes until nearly crisp, and then, the dust being shaken off, it is pounded between two stones and ready for use. Upon being chewed, a farinaceous powder is imbibed from between the fibres of the bark, by no means unpleasant in flavour, but rather sweet, and resembling the taste of malt; how far a person could live upon this diet alone I have no means of judging, but it certainly appeases the appetite, and is, I should suppose, nutritious. (Journ. of Exped. of Discovery, i, 371.)

He repeats his account somewhat at ii, 250, and adds,—

Several of the roots of other shrubs are also used for food, and some of them are mucilaginous and very palatable. At page 251 he speaks of the natives feeding on “the bark from the roots of many trees and shrubs.”

Oil.—Messrs. Baker and Smith (Research on the Eucalypts, p. 285) give the following particulars in regard to the oil of this variety. Specific gravity at 15° C., 0·9016 to 0·9151; specific rotation, [a] D = +2·44° to + 6·34°; saponification number, 2·93; solubility in alcohol, 1¾ vols., 70 per cent.; constituents found, eucalyptol, pinene, aromadrendral.

  ― 100 ―

Messrs. Gildemeister and Hoffmann (The Volatile Oils, Kremers' translation) have the note:—Eucalyptus dumosa note yields about 1 p.c., sp. gr. 0·884 to 0·915, a D = + 0° 6' to + 6° 30'. It contains large amounts of cineol.note

3. E. lamprocarpa, F.v.M.

14. Eucalyptus lamprocarpa, Ferd. Müll., ramulis rigidis nunc rubello-fuscis quadrangulis, foliis haud raro per paria subadproximatis e basi acutâ subaequali lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis attenuato-acuminatis crasse et rigide coriaceis, costâ utrinque distinctâ, venis erecto-patulis fere obtectis, pedunculis axillaribus et lateralibus compressis crassis 2-5 floris, floribus sessilibus, calycis tubo obconico striato nitido operculum breviconicum radiatum subacutum paullo superante.

In desertis Murray Scrub, Salt's Creek, Traveller's Rest (perhaps an inn “Traveller's Rest,” J.H.M.) Ponindi, Angas park, &c. Novae Holl. Austr. (F. Müller), Fl. autumno.

Fruticosa ad modum E. odoratae teste cl. Behr. Petioli circiter semipollicares antice leviter sulcat, transverse rugulosi. Folia 2½-3 poll. longa, 5-7 lin. lata. Pedunculi 1-1½ lin. longi. Calycis tubus 2 lin. aequans. Ab E. angulosa foliis minoribus minute glandulose perforatis differt. Miq. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. IV, 129 (1856).

I have examined a co-type (“Plantae Mullerianae—Murray Scrubs”)—in herb. Vindob. It is ordinary dumosa.

4. E. Muelleri, Miq.

15. Eucalyptus Mülleri, Miq. n. sp. ramulis teretiusculis superne angulatis, gracilibus, foliis anguste lanceolatis attenuato acuminatis, basi aequali acutis, aequilateris, crasse coriaceis, costâ utrinque distinctâ, venis erecto-patulis subobtectis, pedunculis axillaribus et lateralibus cylindraceis 3-6 floris, floribus sessilibus, calycis tubo obconico sulcato, operculo conico 10-costato sulcato paullo latiore.

Madam Pepper-weathnote ad fl. Murray (F. Müller).

E. lamprocarpae valde affinis, ramulis cylindraceis, operculo longiore et acutiore diversa. Petioli semipollicares. Folia 2–4 lin. long. [sic] 4–4½ lin, lata. Pedunculi 2–3 lin. longi. Alabastra cum operculo 3½ lin. longa. Antherae ellipsoideae. Ned. Kruidk. Arch. IV, 130 (1856).

I have examined the type. Like lamprocarpa it is sessile-flowered. Bentham places it under var. angulosa, but although it is smaller than var. angulosa, and rather larger than typical dumosa, I think it is better placed under dumosa.

5. E. glomerata, Tausch.

Coll. Ferd. Bauer, ex herb. Bauer in herb. Vindob. is var. dumosa.

(c) Var. conglobata.

  • 6. E. conglobata, R.Br.
  • 7. E. anceps, R.Br.
  • 8. E. pachyphylla, F.v.M.

6. E. conglobata, R.Br.

Peduncles shorter than broad. Flowers closely sessile, the calyx-tube shorter than broad, angular, and operculum conical, as in E. goniocalyx, but leaves of E. dumosa. Port Lincoln, Wilhelmi; S Coast, R. Brown (B.Fl. iii, 230, as var. conglobata, R.Br.).

  ― 101 ―

I have seen the specimens described by Bentham, and have, indeed, duplicates of them. Robert Brown's specimens bear the labels, in his handwriting, “Eucalyptus conglobata,” and the localities “Bays 9 and 10, South Coast,” 1802–5. “Island viii, South Coast,” 1802–5.

Wilhelmi's specimens are identical, and so are those from Mr. W. Gill, both from Port Lincoln, South Australia.

7. E. anceps, R.Br.

No. 4748. Kangaroo Island, South Australia, R. Brown, 1802–5, labelled by him E. anceps.

A specimen in Herb., Kew, has buds and fruits, and from the drawing (Plate 17), it is seen that the fruits are of the smaller fruited form (E. dumosa, A. Cunn.) or E. incrassata, Labill., but would have become (when ripe) larger than those of typical E. dumosa.

The fruiting specimen is detached from the specimen in bud. The specimen in bud is var. conglobata. The specimen in fruit (3b), is nearest var. dumosa. As the specimens are separate I prefer to say no more.

The affinity of this variety to other species will be dealt with below.

8. E. pachyphylla, F.v.M.

E. pachyphylla, Ferd. Mueller, Port Lincoln proper, legit Carl Wilhelmi,” communicated to the Vienna herbarium, probably by Mueller himself, is var. conglobata.

The name above may be a slip of the pen for pachyphylla, A. Cunn., the foliage of which it resembles. See also No. 15 (E. pachyphylla, A. Cunn.), p. 103.

(d) Var. angulosa, Benth.

  • 9. E. angulosa, Schauer.
  • 10. E. cuspidata, Turcz.
  • 11. E. costata, R.Br.
  • 12. E. linopoda, R.Br.
  • 13. E. rugosa, R.Br. (E. incrassata, var. rugosa).
  • 14. E. sulcata, Tausch.
  • 15. E. pachyphylla, A. Cunn.

9. E. angulosa, Schau.

Ramulis angulatis; foll. firmis rigidis lanceolatis v. oblongo-lanceolatis in petiolum contractis, a basi sensim in acumen attenuatis v. breviter acuminatis, utrinq. lævissimus nitidisq. imperforatis; capitulis axillarib. sub-5-floris; pedunculo valido compresso brevi; alabastris adultis obovatis, jugis subdecem elevatis inæqualib. costatis nitidis; operculo coriaceo hemisphærico obtuso v. subacuto, cupula obconica paullo latiori et breviori. Lamina foliorum 3-4½ poll. longa, 9-12 lin. lata, petiolus 6-9 lin. longus; alabastra cum pedicello crasso continuo adulta 5 lin. circiter longa; operculo 3 lin. fere æquante. Species valde insignis, cum E. dumosa ex affinitate E. gomphocephalœ, DC. In Nova Hollandia (Walp. Repert. ii, 925 (1843).)

  ― 102 ―

I have seen the type, which is similar to E. costata, Behr.

Specimens I have also examined are labelled “E. angulosa, Schauer, Murray R., F. Mueller,” “E. angulosa, Schauer, S.W. Bay, W.A. (Oldfield)” (Herb. Barbey-Boissier).

10. E. cuspidata, Turcz.

Eucalyptus cuspidata. Caule ramisque teretibus, cortice fusca laevi obtectis, ramulis subquadrangulis; alternis petiolatis ovato-lanceolatisve basi foliis contractis, apice in cuspidem abrupte attenuatis, opacis, marginatis; pedunculis compressis cuneatis petiolo duplo brevioribus bi-rarius uni-trifloris; pedicellis subtetragonis pedunculis cupulisque brevioribus; alabastro grosse costato rugoso; cupula turbinato-obconica operculum conicum acutum duplo fere excedente; staminibus exsertis (rufescentibus). Pedicelli cupulis duplo breviores, alabastra majuscula 8 lin. longa. Drum. 4, n. 75?. (Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 22, 1849, pt. 2, p. 22.)

The type is therefore No. 75 of Drummond's 4th Collection.

11. E. costata, R.Br.

The plant is thus described by Mueller:—

Shrubby, leaves alternate, rigid, coriaceous, shining, ovate or narrow-lanceolate, uncinate-acuminate, thinly veined, with scanty pellucid dots; umbels axillary, on a valid compressed peduncle; flowers large with a short and thick pedicel; lid from a hemispherical base contracted into a narrow cone, with radiating ribs; tube of the calyx campanulate, slightly constricted in the middle; generally twelve-ribbed, a little longer than the lid; fruits large, nearly bell-shaped, with scarcely contracted orifice; valves of the capsule inclosed; seeds blackish without streaks.

In the Mallee scrub, from the Murray River to Spencer's Gulf.

The nearest alliance of this species appears to be with E. cuspidata. (Trans. Vic. Inst., 1855, 33.)

The following year it was again described in the following words:—

27. Eucalyptus costata, Behr. et Müll. Mss., Fruticosa, ramulis angulatis, foliis lanceolatis apice longiter attenuatis, basi inaequali in petiolum angustatis, coriaceis nitidis, tenere venosis, pedunculis axillaribus angulato-compressis petiolum subaequantibus 3-6-floris, pedicellis angulosis, calycis tubo conoideo-cyathimorpha costato, apice ampliato viridi, operculo fusco-nitente depresso hemisphaerico rostro brevissimo obtusiusculo acuto quam tubus duplo breviore.

Locis arenosis Sand-Scrub dictis prope Angastown (Behr).

Frutex 15 pedalis. Folia usque 4 poll. longa, 1 lata. Calycis tubus circiter ¾ pollices longus, 4 lin. in diam. operculum 2 lin. aequans. E. angulosae Shauer [sic] in Walp. Repert. ii, 925, affinis, operculi formâ autem diversa. (Miq. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. IV, 136, 1856.)

I have seen a specimen labelled by Brown himself, as follows:—

E. costata, South Coast, Memory Cove and Bay 10, No. 58.

It will be observed that Brown's name was adopted by Mueller or Behr and Mueller, and following old precedent (e.g., that of E. melliodora and E. dumosa, named by Cunningham, but described by Schauer), the authority for the name is that of R. Brown.

E. costata, Behr and Müller, Boston Point.note (Herb. Barbey-Boissier. Label in Miquel's handwriting; “Plantæ Müllerianæ.”)

  ― 103 ―

These specimens were probably collected by Wilhelmi; I have seen specimens collected by him at this place, also from localities “coast opposite Tumby Island” and “Galway.”

E. costata, Behr et Müller, Marble Ranges, Nov. Holl. Austr. Frutex 10-12'. Leg. Dr. Ferd. Müller, Herbar. W. Sonder.” Herb. Cant. ex Herb. Lindl.

12. E. linopoda, R.Br.

From Memory Cove. Collected by Robert Brown.

13. E. rugosa, R.Br.

Collected by R. Brown at “Bay iii, 1802.”

14. E. sulcata, Tausch.

Coll. Ferd. Bauer in herb. Bauer, ex herb. Vindob. is E. incrassata, Labill.

15. E. pachyphylla, A. Cunn. non. F.v.M.

Eucalyptus pachyphyllus, Cunningh.note MSS. “Grand arbrisseau croissant par les bateaux. Le passage de Roi George (Cunningham).” No. 40, D'Urville. Evidently a specimen presented by Allan Cunningham. In flower and early fruit. It is E. incrassata, var. angulosa.

(e) Var. goniantha, var. nov.

16. E. goniantha, Turczaninow.

Eucalyptus goniantha ramis teretibus; foliis lanceolatis utrinque attenuatis viridibus opacis impunctatis; umbellis axillaribus 6–8 floris in paniculas collectis; pedunculis deflexis camplanatis; pedicellis, cupulis operculisque angulatis rugosis; pedicellis clavatis operculisque conicis obtusis cupulam duplo excedentibus, latitudine æqualibus. Nova Hollandia, Drum., n. 71. (Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xx [1847], pt. 1, p. 163.)

Discussing the affinity of E. goniantha and E. incrassata, Mueller says:—

E. goniantha comes still nearer (than E. oleosa) to E. incrassata, but the leaves are somewhat more distinctly sickle-shaped, not so shining nor of such even smoothness, but slightly reticulated on their surfaces, the tube of the calyx is comparatively still more deeply furrowed, the attenuated upper portion of the lid broader and more blunt, while the anthers seem invariably heartshaped-globular, so far as this plant, of which we have as yet no ripe fruit, is known. (Eucalyptographia under E. incrassata.)

I am not aware that fruits of this form have been described; I have not seen them. But this form (from buds and flowers) is apparently so closely allied to var. angulosa (and particularly to certain Victorian specimens, that I scarcely hesitate to describe it as a new variety of E. incrassata. The operculum is bluntish and the ribs of the buds are very pronounced.

  ― 104 ―

(f) Var. grossa, var. nov.

  • 17. E. grossa, F.v.M.
  • 18. E. pachypoda, F.v.M.

17. E. grossa, F.v.M.

F. Muell. Herb. A stunted shrub (Maxwell); leaves from ovate and obtuse to lanceolate and acute, very thick and shining, under 3 inches long, the veins oblique, rarely conspicuous, the intramarginal one at a distance from the edge; peduncles axillary or lateral, often recurved, thick, and much flattened, with usually three large sessile flowers; calyx-tube turbinate, prominently ribbed, 4 to 5 lines long; operculum oblong, very obtuse, thin and smooth as in the Cornutæ, as long as or rather shorter, perhaps sometimes longer than the calyx-tube; stamens half an inch long, inflected in the bud; anthers ovate-oblong, with parallel distinct cells; ovary short, convex in the centre; fruit not seen. W. Australia, Phillip's River and its tributaries. Maxwell.

I feel uncertain as to the affinities of this species, the smooth cylindrical obtuse operculum is like that of the Cornutæ, but the stamens are much inflected in the bud, and the flowers are otherwise quite those of the larger forms of E. incrassata. (B.Fl. iii, 232.)

18. E. pachypoda, F.v.M.

Fruticosa, divaricata, glabra, ramulis, validis mox teretiusculis apice sensim acuminatis crassocoriaceis concoloribus nitidus copiose et pellucide angulari-porosis, venis primariis lateralibus leniter patentibus cum venulis anastomosantibus, vena peripherica a margine tenuiter cartilagineo modice distante, pedunculis crassis solitariis vix latitudine propria longioribus 4–8 floris pedicellis nullis, calycis supra medium circumscissi tubo semiovato-cylindrico vix angulato operculo semiovato coriaceo-chartaceo filamentis flavidis praefloratione infractis omnibus fertilibus, antherarum oblongo-ovalium loculis parallelis longitudinaliter dehiscentibus, fructibus truncato-ovatis, margine orificii tenui, valvis 4 inclusis deltoideis, seminibus fertilibus parvis apteris. (Mueller, in Fragm. vii, 41.)

Mueller gives a reference to B.Fl. iii, 233, where Bentham says:—

In a specimen sent by F. Mueller from a tree grown in the Melbourne Botanic Garden from W. Australian seeds, and named by him E. pachypoda; the leaves are acute, as in Maxwell's specimen, but the peduncle is very thick and scarcely flattened, bearing more than three flowers, with ovoid calyces. The tree had not yet fruited, but it will probably not prove specifically distinct from E. Preissiana.

Mueller says:—

E. grossa (from which E. pachypoda, F.v.M., Fragmenta Phytographiæ Australiæ vii, 41, anno 1869, is only separable as a variety) can best be distinguished from E. incrassata by its not distinctly compressed though stout umbel stalks, by the slightly angular but not furrowed tube of the calyx, by the semiellipsoid even lid, by the filaments inflexed near or towards the summit only, and by its not angular fruit with no narrow apex of the valves. (Eucalyptographia under E. incrassata.)

I do not think that E. grossa is specifically different from E. incrassata. Compared with the type it is a coarser form, and the buds and fruits have fewer corrugations. The operculum is less conical, the whole bud being nearly oval in shape. The fruits are more nearly cylindrical than those of the type, and the rim is more marked.

  ― 105 ―


IT extends along the coast of Western Australia and South Australia from near Shark Bay (the extreme northern range is as yet unknown) to near the Victorian border.

In dry inland localities it is found in Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, and western and south-western New South Wales.


Labillardière's type is from “Terra Van Leuwin,” probably from the vicinity of King George's Sound.

No. 65 (3rd) Drummond, with sub-cylindrical fruits, shiny and not much corrugated.

Between Albany and William Rivers; Webb. (These specimens are very near to R. Brown's No. 4748, and to Drummond's 65/1845.)

“2990. Eucalyptus incrassata, Lab., Arbor parva, 2–3 m. alt., trunco gracili. Stirling Range in fruticetis lapidosis collium.” L. Diels, 30th May, 1901.

Var. scyphocalyx, F.v.M., Eyre's Relief Camp. Mueller's label is “Eucalyptus dumosa, A.C., var. scyphocalyx.”

The above are all near the type, and are figured on Plate 13.

Sand plains N. from the Stirling Range, 10 feet. A small fruited form near var. dumosa. See Plate 16.

“Shrub, 6–8 feet. Bark, red. Limestone Hill, Lynton, Pt. Gregory, W.A.” (Oldfield), Herb. Barbey-Boissier. A small fruited form, E. dumosa.

Elder Exploring Expedition Camp 49, Victoria Desert. R. Helms, 12/9/91. Blunt operculum, smallish fruit. The above are nearest to var. dumosa.

Coolgardie, R. Helms, June, 1899. Large sub-conical fruits, opercula blunt.

Near Coolgardie, E. Lidgey, Nov., 1900. Very similar to the preceding, but with smaller buds and fruits.

The above are connecting forms approaching var. angulosa.

  ― 106 ―

Specimen collected by R. Brown (1802–5), South Coast. Coarse foliage, and approaching the blunt operculum form (E. rugosa).

No. 75. Drummond. Coarse foliage, broad foot-stalk, corrugated calyx, and conical operculum. See Plate 14.

5448. 5th Nov., 1901. “Frutex ¾–2 m. alt. foliis glaucis. Gregaria in planitiebus limoso-arenosis subsalsis. Circa 50 km. N. of Esperance” (L. Diels). In bud only.

3465. 19th July, 1901. Frut. 2–3 m. alt., ramis adscententibus. In humosis arenosis prope Cape Riche, una cum aliis Eucalyptis” (L. Diels). Large, ribbed fruit with broad foot-stalk. Very close to No. 75, Drummond.

S.W. Bay, W.A., Oldfield, in Herb. Barbey-Boissier, labelled “E. angulosa, Schauer.”

“S.W. Bay, Australia” (Oldfield) Herb. Barbey-Boissier. A coarse form in flower only. Reminds one of E. tetragona, but the anthers different.

Eucalyptus pachyphyllus, Cunningh. MSS., King George's Sound (D'Urville).” Doubtless a specimen collected by Allan Cunningham, and presented by him to the French Expedition. From Herb. Mus. Paris. No. 40. In flower and early fruit only. Foliage coarse and thick, with thick marginal veins; twigs angular. Not E. pachyphylla, F.v.M., which is E. diversifolia, Bonpl.

The above belong to var. angulosa.

I have var. grossa from W. Australia. Bentham gives the locality “Phillip River and its tributaries (Maxwell).” I know no other.


Sandy ridges, near Murray Bridge, W. Gill, 3/6/03. Fruit rather larger than typical var. dumosa, flattened foot-stalk and nearly sessile.

Gawler River (Dr. Behr), labelled dumosa by Mueller.

Gosse's Range, Central Aust. (Revd. Messrs. Schwartz and Schulze), with small fruits.

The above are near var. dumosa.

I have received some Red Mallee from Mr. W. Gill, from Redhill, Hundred of Redhill, S.A., 30th November, 1901. Also from Halbury Station, between Gladstone and Balaklava, 50 miles south of Redhill. The valves are slightly exerted and it is indubitably var. dumosa, with even smaller fruits than the type. It seems to show some resemblance to E. uncinata, and I may further refer to it when dealing with that species.

  ― 107 ―

Then we have var. conglobata, specimens of which have been collected at or near Port Lincoln by Wilhelmi and Gill. Probably the “Bays 9 and 10 and Island viii,” of Robert Brown's labels are in the vicinity.

Eucalyptus costata, Behr and Mueller, “Boston Point” (Port Lincoln). Described by Miquel in his Plantæ Müllerianæ (Ned. Kruidk. Arch IV, 1856). Leaves very thick and highly polished and the fruits very ribbed.

Ninety-mile Desert, Murray Desert, Tintinarra (W. Gill and R. H. Cambage). Varies a good deal in shape of fruit. Sometimes it tends to hemispherical, in others to sub-cylindrical and to be urceolate. Length of pedicel varies; sometimes it is nearly sessile.

The above are referable to var. angulosa.

Emu Flat, Ninety-mile Desert, W. Gill, 4/01.

Smallish conical fruits, with valves slightly exserted; blunt opercula, which are markedly ribbed and the buds show a marked constriction between operculum and calyx. This specimen connects with var. dumosa, also with the conical fruited and blunt operculum forms.

179. Eucalyptus incrassata, Labill., DC., Pr. iii, 217, No. 7. Differt a specimine auctoris; foliis fere crassioribus, in altera tantum pagina venas primarias nervumque marginalem conspectui praebentibus (in icone nimis fortiter et perspicue delineabantur), longius et fere subulato acuminatis, umbella paullo longius pedunculata. Attamen eandem habeo speciem, cujus calyptram in specimine unico non vidimus.

Auf kalkig-sandigem Boden (Sandplaine) bei Bethanien, Strauchartig, die Blätter voll von ätherischem oele. (Schlecht. in Linnæa, vol. 20, p. 658.)

I have not seen this specimen.


Lake Hindmarsh (Bosisto) typical var. dumosa.

Lake Bogan, River Murray (A. W. Howitt).

The Wimmera, also Murray River (Mueller).

A coarse form of var. dumosa, intermediate between it and the type.

Dimboola (F. Reader). Fruits a little smaller than the preceding, a little ribbed, and the valves slighly protruding. Another intermediate form.

Lake Hindmarsh, C. Walter, Oct. 1899. Sub-conical fruits and intermediate in character between var. dumosa and the type.

All the above are, perhaps, nearest to var. dumosa.

  ― 108 ―

Dimboola (F. Reader). Fruits tending to hemispherical and sessile or nearly so. Of medium size. Very similar to those from South Australia. (Murray Bridge, W. Gill, 6/03.)

Wimmera. F. Mueller.

Euston to Swan Hill (A. W. Howitt).

Lake Hindmarsh (C. Walter). Fruits of medium size. Similar to Ninety-mile Desert (S.A.) specimens.

Dimboola (St. Eloy D'Alton, F. Reader, and H. B. Williamson). Operculum more or less rostrate, buds and fruits ribbed and rather large and show much constriction in drying unless fruits are quite ripe.

Typical var. angulosa.

Nhill; St. Eloy D'Alton, with fruits less ribbed and with purple bases to the filaments. Rim well defined, reminding one of E. leucoxylon and melliodora.

All the above are referable to var. angulosa.


I have no record of typical var. angulosa, the large-fruited form of incrassata, being found in this State, all the forms being referable to var. dumosa.

I have already pointed out that A. Cunn.'s E. dumosa came from what is now the Wyalong–Booligal mallee country. Much of it is in the county of Bland. The mallee country (it is by no means all var. dumosa) probably covers 15,000 or 20,000 acres.

Wyalong (H. Deane, W. S. Campbell). A type locality, see Plate 16.

The latter wrote:—“Light-coloured stems, rather narrow leaves, and light-coloured bark.” The mallee trees are up to, say, 20 feet in height, with a stem diameter of, say, 6 inches.

Balranald (G. S. M. Grant).

Red Mallee, Barham, Murray River (Asst. Forester Chanter).

Gol Gol. (A. W. Howitt.) Sub-conical fruits with slightly exserted valves.

Coolabah, J. L. Boorman, June, 1901. “Mallee. Small stunted trees, growing on high ridges, stems thin, leaves large. Stems slightly ribbony at the base.”

Darling River (Burke and Wills Expedition).

Messrs. R. H. Cambage and J. L. Boorman have collected it this side of the Darling (Cobar District). The former says it is known as White Mallee, because it has white smooth bark to the ground, and that it is usually found growing with E. oleosa, these two forming mallee scrubs.

  ― 109 ―


1. E. torquata, J. G. Luehmann (Vict. Nat., xiii, p. 147, 1897).

Luehmann says:—“It seems to have the greatest affinity to E. incrassata, especially as regards the anthers.”

Mr. Luehmann, at the time of describing his species, had not seen the fruits. A figure is given at Plate 13, and they may be described as follows:—About half an inch long, with a width of half as much; nearly cylindrical. The outside of the fruit has corrugations, but tapering from half-way up the fruit the corrugations gradually enlarge in size to the base of the fruit, forming about nine wing-like processes. These wings then sharply taper into the elongated pedicels forming incipient wings on the pedicels, a very rare occurrence in any Eucalypt. The rim of the fruit is well defined, sloping to the mouth, which is very slightly constricted. The slender valves are free, but the tops appear never to rise flush with the mouth.

Mr. L. C. Webster, who states that he originally found E. torquata, has furnished me with the following particulars in regards to its occurrence in the Coolgardie district of Western Australia:—

I have traced this eucalypt growing in a belt over 25 miles long by about a quarter of a mile wide. The belt runs almost east and west (a few points south of east), and outside of this belt I have only been able to discover a few isolated trees.

The country through which they run is composed of diorite, with traces of ironstone occurring here and there through the diorite.

The trees for the most part follow the course of a ridge of low hills, and grow more plentiful on these hills than where they cross the plains. The trees grow from 20 to 30 feet high; the trunks usually range from 4 to 10 feet from the ground to the branches; the rough bark goes from the ground to the branches, then the branches are smooth; very free flowerer; blooms first week in September to end of December. [See illustration, p. 120.]

2. E. corrugata, Luehmann (Vict. Nat. xiii, p. 168, 1897).

Mr. Luehmann says:—

This species is evidently allied to E. incrassata, but none of the forms of that species have such high ridges nor the same hemispheric shape of the calyx and operculum.

It is evidently closely allied to the var. goniantha of E. incrassata and to the form with hemispheric operculum, figured at Plate 15, fig. 6a. I have not seen the species.

3. E. fœcunda, Schauer.

E. incrassata shows close affinity to this species, but their relation will require a more detailed explanation than is convenient at this place. The matter will be gone into at some length when E. fœcunda is dealt with. (See p. 117.)

  ― 110 ―

4. E. erythronema, Turcz.

There is a form of this species which I have termed var. Roei.

1. (E. Roei, Beck, in Herb. Vindob), “inter Swan River and King George's Sound.” Roe (Hügel), (Herb. Vindob).

2. No. 5,831. “W. Australia inter Norseman et Esperance Bay in fruticetis apertis in lapidosis limosis.” (L. Diels, 2nd Nov., 1901.)

It has fruits which might readily be confused with those of the typical form of E. incrassata, and this note is inserted as a caution.

5. E. falcata, Turcz.

The affinity of E. incrassata with this species will be dealt with when treating of E. decurva, a species to which the former is closely related.

6. E. oleosa, F.v.M.

The foliage of the species is that of E. dumosa, but it is well distinguished by the longer pedicels, the shape of the calyx, the thinner operculum, and the shape of the fruit. (B.Fl. iii, 249.)

Mueller also drew attention to the possibility of confusion between the two species:—

Among the species constituting the mallee scrub on an extensive scale, only E. oleosa belongs also to the Parallelantheræ, from which E. incrassata can be distinguished by its often broad and flat flower stalks, furrowed or streaked and mostly larger shining calyces, with a lid more depressed towards the base, generally more elongated anthers, as also shorter and therefore less exserted fruit-valves.—(Eucalyptographia under E. incrassata.)

I do not think the two species are very likely to be confused. I do not know a large-fruited form of E. oleosa, so that the similarity rests between E. oleosa and E. incrassata, var. dumosa. As a rule, the longish operculum of E. oleosa is quite sufficient to distinguish the forms, and the cohesion of the valves common in E. oleosa is rarely, if ever, seen in var. dumosa. To put observers on their guard, it will probably be quite sufficient to publish this note that it is possible to confuse them.

7. E. uncinata, Turcz.

E. uncinata, Turcz., var. rostrata, Benth. (B.Fl. iii, 216), Drummond's No. 186 of the 5th Collection, shows affinity in anthers and some other respects to E. incrassata. I will deal with this specimen when I come to E. uncinata.

8. E. concolor, Schauer.

Is related to E. incrassata through the var. conglobata of the latter, but since drawings of the former species will make the matter quite clear, I will postpone my explanation until dealing with E. concolor.

  ― 111 ―

9. E. Kitsoni, J. G. Luehmann.

In the globular head of fruits and in the shape and sculpture of individual fruits this species shows undoubted resemblance to E. incrassata, var. conglobata.

10. E. Planchoniana, F.v.M.

E. Planchoniana approaches in some of its characteristics E. incrassata, but irrespective of its not belonging to the desert country, it is a comparatively tall tree, the leaves are longer, not so shining, have more spreading, more distant, and more prominent veins, and their stomata only on the lower page; the tube of the calyx is less turgid, the lid more gradually attenuated upwards; the anthers are never elongated to an oblong form; the outer stamens are not bent downwards while in bud, but are somewhat flexuous; the valves of the fruit are not narrowly attenuated at their apex, and the fertile seeds are more angular.—(Eucalyptographia, under E. incrassata.)

Mueller is alluding to the coarse-fruited form (var. angulosa) of E. incrassata. Undoubtedly the buds, fruits, and flattened foot-stalks present considerable similarity to each other. The anthers are of course different and the leaves of E. Planchoniana are longer and more falcate, usually thinner and of quite a different colour. E. Planchoniana is a small timber tree with pale timber.

11. E. cosmophylla, F.v.M.

To this smooth-fruited variety approaches very closely E. cosmophylla, from the stringy-bark tree forests of the mountains of St. Vincent Gulf, which species shows, however, more pointed, generally broader, and less shining leaves, with more visible veins, the flowers less in number and on a shorter common stalk, and rather an increase in the number of fruit-valves.—(Eucalyptographia, under E. incrassata.)

I do not call to mind a smooth-fruited form of E. incrassata with fruits as large as those of cosmophylla; still there is a certain amount of superficial resemblance between the foliage and early fruit of E. cosmophylla and that of the large-fruited form of E. incrassata.

12. E. gomphocephala, DC.

Speaking of E. dumosa, var. scyphocalyx, Bentham remarks, “This approaches in some measure E. gomphocephala.” (B.Fl. iii, 230.)

The swollen operculum and the more open-mouthed fruit of E. gomphocephala are sufficient to separate the two species; at the same time, in foliage, flowers, &c., there is a likeness between the two plants which is obvious.