6. V. Eucalyptus fœcunda, Schauer.

1.  Description  112 
2.  Synonyms  112 
Notes on the Synonyms  112 
3.  Range  115 
4.  Affinities  117 
5.  Explanation of plates  123 

  ― 112 ―


E. fœcunda, Schauer.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Fruticosa, lævis; foliis coriaceis, alternis, anguste lanceolatis, sensim in petiolum attenuatis; in acumen tenue contractis, viridibus, nitidis; umbellis axillaribus terminalibusque, 5-8-floris, subpaniculatis; pedunculo compresso, petiolum subæquante; pedicellis hypanthio continuis et subæqualibus; hypanthio (fructus) turbinato; operculo……(fructibus umbellatis 3½ lin. longis truncatis). In clivulis calcareis haud procul ab colonia Fremantle, Aug. M. 1839, fructifera.—Herb. Preiss. No. 231.

Frutex 5-pedalis, ramis virgatis. Folia cum petiolo 2½ poll. longa, 4-6-lin. lata, sicca tenuiter reticulata, imperforata. Capsula 3-rarius 4-locularis, vertice valvis subulatis paulloque ultra marginem hypanthii exsertis dehiscens.—E. radiata, Sieb. affinis (in Lehmann, Pl. Preiss, i, 130).

Aboriginal Name,—By the aborigines of the Murchison River it is known as “Ooragmandee.”


Notes on the Synonyms.

Var. loxophleba, J. G. Luehmann.

  • 1. E. loxophleba, Benth.
  • 2. E. amygdalina, Schauer non Labill.

1. E. loxophleba.

A tree from 10 to 30 feet high, with a rough ashy-grey fibrous bark (Oldfield), 40 to 45 feet, the bark separable in layers (Preiss). Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, narrow, and often 4 to 5 inches long, or the lower ones shorter and broader, all rather rigid with very oblique, rather distant and prominent veins, the intramarginal one distant from the edge. Peduncles axillary or lateral, terete or slightly flattened, each with a dense umbel of 6 to 12 flowers. Calyx tube obconical, 2 to 2½ or rarely nearly 3 lines long, tapering into a short pedicel. Operculum hemispherical or obtusely conical, shorter than the calyx tube. Stamens scarcely exceeding 2 lines, inflected in the bud, the filaments usually dark coloured in the dry specimens; anthers small, with parallel distinct cells. Fruit narrow-obovoid, truncate, straight or slightly contracted at the orifice, rarely above 3 lines long and 2 lines diameter, the rim narrow, the capsule deeply sunk.

E. amygdalina, Schau. in Pl. Preiss I, 130 (from the description given), not of Labill., E. fruticetorum, F. Muell. Fragm. ii, 57 (as to W. Australian specimens). W. Australia, Swan River and Darling Range, Collie; Drummond 2nd Coll. No. 82; York District, Preiss. n. 246 (and 248?); Murchison River and Champion Bay, “York Gum,” Oldfield. (B.Fl. iii, 252.)

  ― 113 ―

A figure is given by Mueller in Rep. Forest Resources, W.A., t. 5.

Never a very high tree, seldom exceeding 80 feet, not rarely of crooked growth; stem rarely above 4 feet in diameter. The bark is persistent and rough, and draws this species into the Rhytiphloiæ; inside it is red like that of the Morrel Eucalypt, E. longicornis. (Mueller, Forest Resources of W.A.).

Vernacular Name.—“York Gum,” as it is very abundant near the town of York, Western Australia.

Aboriginal Names.—Its most common aboriginal name is “Yandee.”

The “Yandee,” a tree of 40 to 45 feet, with a nearly black persistent furrowed bark consisting of strap-like pieces, from the Murchison River, Oldfield, appears to be otherwise precisely the same as E. loxophleba. (B.Fl. iii, 252.)

I have the name “Yatthae” as an aboriginal name for this species.

Timber.—The aborigines use the wood of this tree for making spears, on account of its hardness and elasticity. (Walcott.) Samples of this timber were sent to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition under the name “York Gum.” Mr. Allan Ransome reported as follows:—

This is a light pink wood, close-grained, hard, and heavy. The samples submitted being very small, only spokes could be made from them; for which purpose the wood seems eminently adapted.

The wood is regarded as the very best in Western Australia for naves and felloes, on account of its toughness; though not sufficiently fissile to be split into rails, it is for this very reason preferentially sought for many superior purposes by artisans.—(Mueller, Forest Resources of W.A.)

Oil.Eucalyptus loxophleba, Benth.,note is usually called York Gum. The oil has a highly unpleasant odour, and produces fits of coughing when inhaled. Sp. gr. 0·8828 at 15·5°; angle of rotation about + 5°. Upon distillation the following fractions were obtained:—168-171° 68 p.c.; 171-176° 14 p.c.; 176-182° 2 p.c.; 182-187° 8 p.c.; residue 8 p.c.

The oil contains phellandrene and cineol. The amount of the latter is estimated at 15-20 p.c., which allows of the conclusion that a considerable amount of aldehydes and ketones is present. Amyl alcohol, of which small quantities were found in the oil of E. globulus, and to which, no doubt, are partly due the irritating action of this oil, is not present. (Parry.)

loxophleba, Benth., var. fruticosa, Benth.

A shrub branching from the ground, the leaves rather broader, the peduncles more flattened. Murchison River, Oldfield; Salt River, Maxwell. (B.Fl. iii, 252.)

This supposed variety is figured from two specimens kindly furnished by the Director of the Royal Gardens at Kew. Plate 23.

I have three leaves, a fruit, a bud, and one flower containing a few stamens. It seems to me that the specimens are nearer to E. odorata, Behr, than to E. fœcunda, Schauer. The anthers appear to be nearer to those of E. odorata than to E. fœcunda. The fruit seems to be that of E. odorata. The leaves with the mucrones are precisely the same (as far as I can see) as young foliage of E. odorata; I have not seen any of the same shape belonging to E. fœcunda.

  ― 114 ―

E. fœcunda is, so far as we know at present, limited to Western Australia (the localities for E. loxophleba, var. fruticosa, are Western Australian), and E. odorata is not certainly known to extend to Western Australia. Allowance must be made for the paucity of the material at my disposal, but I submit my determination for consideration.

2. E. amygdalina, Schau.

Arborea; lævis, foliis firmis, alternis, anguste lanceolatis, in petiolum attenuatis, cuspidato acuminatus, pallidis, nitidis, areolis retis magnis lanceolatis; umbellis axillaribus, 5-8-floris; pedunculo subancipiti, petiolum aequante; pedicellis brevibus; hypanthio obconico-cyathiformi; operculo subconico-hemisphærico, obtuso, hypanthio multo breviori. Lab. Nov. Holl, pag. 14, tab. 154? In solo sublimoso arenoso districti York, Martio M. a 1840 cum alabastria adultis. Herb. Preiss. No. 246, et similibus in locis montis Mathilda distr. York, cum fructibus No. 248 (v. sp. orig. in Herb. Willd. n. 9,598?).

Arbor 45 pedes circiter alta, cortice per strata solubili ramulis gracilibus. Pedicelli in nostra longiores, fructus minores quam in planta Billardierana, quae ceterum omni nota congruere videtur, quantum quidem ex speciminibus satis mancis judicare licet (in Lehmann, Pl. Preiss, i, 130).

E. fœcunda and E. loxophleba.

But the real affinity of the species here under consideration (E. fœcunda) is with E. loxophleba; indeed it remains unascertained, whether that tree is or is not the arboreously-developed state of E. fœcunda, arisen in humid mountain regions and in a deeply pervious soil; it differs irrespective of its tall growth (to about 100 feet, with a stem diameter to 4 feet) in generally longer leaves with rather more distant, also often more prominent and less spreading veins, the intramarginal one not close to the edge of the leaf, in the oil-glands being to a large extent pellucid, and the anthers generally shorter; but these particular characters are subject to some variations, and unless it can be shown that E. fœcunda in its youngest state has not the roundish cordate leaves of E. loxophleba, we could not venture to keep the two specifically apart. Under these circumstances no distinct plate and description will be devoted to E. loxophleba in this work, but on the present occasion some references may aptly be given of that useful tree.—(Eucalyptographia under E. fœcunda.)

J. G. Luehmann (Proc. A.A.A.S. VII, 1898, Sydney Meeting, p. 529), states:

E. fœcunda. Leaves nearly straight, very shining. E. fœcunda (includes loxophleba as a variety).

I have on the strength of this specific statement attributed this variety to Luehmann. I quite agree with him. As compared with E. fœcunda, the var. loxophleba has longer leaves, rather more distant and often more prominent, and less spreading veins, the intramarginal vein is not close to the edge of the leaf. The most obvious character of the variety is its marked venation.

  ― 115 ―


Typical Form.

IT is confined to Western Australia so far as we know at present. Following are specific localities:—

Limestone Hills, near Fremantle, Preiss No. 231. (Type.)

“Inter Swan River et K. G. Sound.” Roe (Hügel). Herb. Vindob.

Drummond, 2nd Coll. No. 87 (Bentham). Figured at Plate 22. I have seen specimens in Herb. Kew, Herb. Cant, &c.

Yenert, Gilbert No. 263 (Bentham).

Shark Bay and Dirk Hartog's Island, Milne (Bentham).

Port Gregory, Murchison and South Hutt Rivers, Oldfield (Bentham).

“Murchison R., W.A., Oldfield, 782 B.”

“2nd Valley, near Yadthoo, Murchison R., W.A., Oldfield.”

Both specimens in Herb. Barbey-Boissier, and both labelled E. fœcunda by Bentham.

“Red Sandstone Hill, Minara, Murchison R., W.A. (Oldfield).” Herb. Syd. ex. Herb. Kew.

“3,295, frutex ¾-1 m. alt. Greenough River in fruticetis limoso-arenosis.” (L. Diels, 2/7/01.)

South Australia? “Specimens in young bud and in fruit from the S. coast, R. Brown, appear to belong to this species.” (B.Fl. iii, 253.) I cannot be certain as to the specimens referred to by Bentham. Perhaps they are those from “Bay iii,” referred to below.

Variety loxophleba.

This variety appears to be confined to Western Australia.

On the eastern tracts of the Darling Ranges a main constituent of the forests, extending only through a narrow strip of country eastward beyond them, spreading northward in a variety called by the natives “Yandee,” and according to Mr. J. Forrest, eastward as far as Kojenup, and thence southward to near King George's Sound.

  ― 116 ―

This tree occupies more particularly the eastern slopes of the Darling Range, not entering the western tracts where the Jarrah (E. marginata) forms the main forest. It is content with poor soil. (Mueller, Forest Resources of W.A.)

Following are specific localities, and notes on specimens:—

Drummond's No. 82.

“Tree, 25-30 feet; bark rough, fibrous. Hills near Okagee, Champion Bay. (Oldfield), W.A.” Specimen in Herb. Barbey-Boissier, labelled E. loxophleba, by Bentham.

“Shrub, 6-8 feet, branching from root; main branches oblique; bark, red. Limestone Hill, Lynton, Pt. Gregory, W.A.” (Copy of label in Oldfield's handwriting. This specimen has thick coriaceous leaves, and is figured at Plate 24. Bentham labelled it “E. loxophleba, Benth.”)

No. 509. “District Avon; in silvis valde apertis prope. E. Pritzel. Plantæ Australiæ occidentalis.” August, 1901.

“2,579. Arbor 20 m. alt. basi ramosa foliis atro-viridibus. Prope Newcastle una cum Acaciis silvas formans in solo limoso.” (L. Diels, W. Australia, 26th February, 1901.)

3,037. “Una cum Acaciis silvas formans in solo limoso pr. Minginew (Irwin River), Western Australia.” (L. Diels, 9th June, 1901.)

2,914. “Arb. 8-15 m., foliis sordide albidis, stylo rubro. Pr. York frequens. W. Australia.” (L. Diels, 24th May, 1901.)

“Northam, W.A., July, 1898. Stamens pale yellow.” (W. V. Fitzgerald.)

  ― 117 ―


1. E. incrassata, Labill.

……… “also in the collection of Baudin's Expedition. Different as the long and the short fruits appear, there are numerous intermediate forms, and the specimens do not otherwise differ.” (B.Fl. iii, 253.)

Doubtless Bentham referred to the following specimens, which I also have examined, in the Paris Museum and in other collections.

“Voyage du Capitaine Baudin, 1801, Nouv. Hollande. Iles Steriles.” In bud only: buds dark, small lanceolate coriaceous leaves, venation not prominent.

This series appears to me to show transit between E. fœcunda, Schauer, and E. incrassata, Labill. In fact the coarser specimens seem undoubtedly to approach E. incrassata. The rim of the fruit is reminiscent of E. incrassata; the buds of the smaller forms remind one a good deal of var. dumosa of that species; the anthers are also, though slenderer, similar to those of incrassata (as well as of E. fœcunda). In other respects, even to the blue-green of the foliage (particularly noticeable in some leaves) the affinity of these forms is with E. fœcunda.

The localities for the plants collected by Captain Baudin's Expedition that are available to me are labelled either “Iles Steriles,”note “Ile Decrès,” (Kangaroo Island) or simply “Côté Occidentale.” If by this is meant (in any instance) the west coast of Western Australia, I shall be glad of any information as to his collecting grounds.

Let us examine some further specimens.

“No. 3,226. Frut. 1-2 m. alt. White Peak, pr. Champion Bay, in limosis lapidosis.” (L. Diels, 28th June, 1901.)

These specimens are in bud and fruit only.

The Récherché Archipelago is between 120° and 125° east longitude (e.g., between King George's Sound and the Great Australian Bight). See Flinders' Charts, &c., “South Coast, sheet i” (to accompany his Voyage to Terra Australis).

There is a coast discovered by Capt Nicholas Baudin, 1802, in Flinders' Charts (South Coast, sheet iv), which is now included in South Australia, including The Coorong to the vicinity of Cape Buffon (approaching the South Australian-Victorian boundary).

So that the localities of Captain Baudin's plants are probably either from the south coast of Western Australia or from the South Australian coast.

  ― 118 ―

The buds and the peculiar bluish-green tint of the twigs remind one of Captain Baudin's specimens of E. fœcunda. The sub-conical fruits remind one irresistibly of some E. incrassata from Victoria (e.g., C. Walter, Lake Hindmarsh, Oct., 1899), in fact, I am unable to distinguish between them. I go so far as to say that Diels' specimens would have been named E. incrassata had they been found in Victoria, and Walter's specimens would probably (except, perhaps, because of the more pointed operculum) have been named fœcunda had they been found in Western Australia.

While, partly in view of Baudin's specimens, feeling that they belong to E. fœcunda, I label them as undoubtedly showing transit to E. incrassata.

A specimen collected by R. Brown, and bearing the only label in his handwriting “Bay iii”note (south coast of Australia, South to West Australia), is in bud only. It was collected 1802–5, and was distributed by the British Museum in 1876. I have figured it at Plate 19, fig. 5.

I do not remember to have seen anything precisely like it.

I look upon it as another of the forms between E. fœcunda and E. incrassata. I will content myself with pointing out that the “egg-in-egg-cup” arrangement of the buds, i.e., the swollen calyx, of larger diameter than the ovate operculum, remind one of E. salubris. The egg-in-egg-cup arrangement is less frequently seen in E. incrassata, but it is sometimes seen in that species. The fruits of E. salubris also remind one of those of Robert Brown's specimens of E. incrassata var. conglobata of “Bay ix.” Perhaps these few suggestions will help botanists to elucidate the “Bay iii” specimens, but I think further collecting on the South Australian and south coast of Western Australia is necessary.

It is sometimes not easy to define the boundary between E. fœcunda and the var. dumosa of E. incrassata. E. incrassata has usually broader leaves, and the timber is paler. The buds and fruits of E. fœcunda are not at all, or only very slightly, angular; those of var. dumosa usually show, even in the smoothest forms, a slight corrugation. The buds of E. fœcunda are usually more pointed, but this is not an absolute criterion. The fruits sometimes tend to those of E. piperita in shape. No form of E. incrassata attains large size, so far as is known, and E. fœcunda, in its typical form, is but a shrub.

I frequently cannot distinguish between the anthers of E. incrassata and E. fœcunda. Turning to the Flora Australiensis and Eucalyptographia for guidance we find:—

incrassata.—Anthers ovate-oblong with distinct parallel cells (B.Fl.). Anthers from roundish-oval to almost oblong, opening by ample longitudinal slits (Eucalyptographia).

  ― 119 ―

The peculiar quadrangular anthers figured in that work seem somewhat diagrammatic.

fœcunda.—Anthers ovate, with parallel distinct cells (B.Fl.) Anthers nearly ovate, opening by parallel slits (Eucalyptographia).

I cannot find the connective a double gland, as shown in that work.

loxophleba (considered a separate species in B.Fl.).—Anthers small, with parallel distinct cells (B.Fl.).

It is further stated that the filaments are usually dark-coloured in the dried specimens. I find this in fœcunda also.

If the above definitions be analysed it will be observed how little different the anthers of the two species are. When one comes to what I usually call “transit” forms, it becomes frequently perplexing to say to what species a certain anther belongs. As a rule, the anthers of E. fœcunda are smaller and paler than those of E. incrassata, but this character has its exception. I have, therefore, thought it best to submit a number of drawings of anthers of the two species, from illustrative specimens, and I think the anthers assist in strengthening the evidence afforded by other parts of the plants, which I advance to show that there is real affinity between E. incrassata and E. fœcunda, and that indeed they run into each other.

2. E. odorata, Behr.

E. fœcunda and E. odorata specifically resemble each other very closely, and frequently the leaves and fruits are difficult to separate. At page 114 I have expressed the opinion that E. loxophleba, Benth., var. fruticosa, Benth., is really E. odorata.

As a very general rule Bentham's description of the anthers (“very small with globular distinct cells”) holds good for E. odorata. At the same time I would like to emphasise the point that anthers vary like every other organ in Eucalyptus, that they vary in size and also in shape. I have never seen them quite of the shape of those figured by Mueller in Eucalytographia,note but certainly the openings do sometimes tend to depart from the circular form (pores) and tend to parallel openings.

The timbers of E. fœcunda and E. odorata resemble each other a good deal. But the two species are sharply separated by their juvenile foliage, that of E. fœcunda being broadish, as figured (Plate 24) that of E. odorata being narrow, oblong, and often with a mucrone.

3. E. fruticetorum, F.v.M., Fragm. ii, 57.

This is (as regards the Western Australian specimens) identical with E. loxophleba, Benth. (B.Fl. iii, 252.) I have shown (Part III, p. 80 of this work) that E. fruticetorum is a synonym of E. calycogona, Turcz.