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Eucalyptus coriacea, A. Cunn.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Schauer MSS.—Ramulis elongatis pendulis teretib. nitidis; foll. firmis rigidisq. lanceolatis oblongisve breviter petiolatis acuminatis, apiculo subfiliformi saepe deflexo, nervosis imperforatis viridib., untrinq. lucidis; capitulis axillarib. 5–8—floris; pedunculo petiolum aequante subtereti; cupula (fructus) turbinata truncata; operculo …,? capsula 3–4 loculari. Planta insignis valida; foliis 4–6 poll. longis, 1–2 poll. latis; fructib. 4 lin. altit. totidemq. diametro metientibus nitidis. In Novae Cambriæ australis interioris planitiebus.—A. Cunn. Herb., no. 35–1824.—(Schauer in Walp. Rep. ii, 925.)

It is fully described by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 201), and also by Mueller, in the Eucalyptographia; by the latter under the name E. pauciflora, Sieb. I have adopted the name given in the Flora Australiensis. Sieber's name, E. pauciflora, has doubtful priority, and it is especially inappropriate (no Eucalypt flowering more freely than this), while Cunningham's name is remarkably appropriate.

Vernacular Names.—One of the “White or Cabbage Gums,” but not to be confused with E. hæmastoma, var. micrantha, which goes by the same names. Its usual name with us is “White Gum,” though it is very frequently called “Cabbage Gum” also. In New England apparently not known as “White or Cabbage Gum,” but “White Ash,” in contradistinction to E. stellulata (Black Ash). The species goes under the name of “Weeping Gum” in Tasmania, owing to its scrambling habit; the name is also in use at Uralla, N.S.W. At Glen Innes it is locally known as “Tumble-down Gum,” also by reason of its aspect. “Glassy Gum” is a name in use at Guyra, on account of the vitreous appearance of the bark. “White Sally” is a name in use at Queanbeyan. On the Monaro I have known it to be called “Bigleaf,” for obvious reasons. Sometimes it is called “Cattle Gum,” because cattle feed on its leaves when grass is scarce. The names “Flooded Gum” and “Peppermint,” under which this species is known in Victoria (B.Fl.) would not appear to be in use in this State, and may, perhaps, have arisen through a misapprehension.

Suckers or Seedling Leaves.—Broader than the mature leaves; more or less ovate. Near Yarrowitch (New England) I noticed the leaves of some seedlings which were 2 or 3 feet high. The foliage was very coarse, being both large and thick. Following are actual measurements of individual leaves:—7½ × 3½ inches, 8½ × 3¼ inches, 6¼ × 3½ inches. Large leaves such as these were not scarce. They are a little oblique, acuminate, nearly ovate, occasionally nearly circular, and then pass through all gradations up to ovate lanceolate.—(Proc. Aust. Ass. for Adv. of Science, vii, 538.)

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Mature Leaves.—Coriaceous, yet often succulent, and hence eaten by stock. They are comparatively large, 6 inches being a common length, while 5 inches is, perhaps, under the average. The width is usually about 1½ inch. They are usually shiny, but in the coldest districts often glaucous. The venation is as stated under stellulata, and in this respect not only shows affinity with that species, but also with regnans and allied species. Besides cattle, opossums have a predilection for the young foliage of this tree, so that they often kill trees of this species.

Mr. F. B. Guthrie (Agric. Gazette, Oct., 1899) has analysed the leaves, with the view to ascertain their value for feeding stock, and following is his analysis:—

Water.  Ash.  Fibre.  Ether Extract (Oil, &c.).  Albumenoids.  Carbohydrates.  Nutrient Value.  Albumenoid ratio.  Tannin (Oak Bark). 
“Cattle Gum” …  36·76  2·90  8·57  6·02  8·75  37·00  59  1:5¾  1·5 

As regards the oil obtained from the leaves, I have three authenticated analyses before me. No. 1 is from Messrs. Baker and Smith's “Research on the Eucalypts,” and Nos. 2 and 3 are by W. B. Wilkinson.note

Sp. gravity at 15° C.  Sp. rotation, [a] D   Saponification number.  Solubility in Alcohol.  Constituents found. 
1. 0·8947  -32·8  4·62  1 vol. 80%  Phellandrene, peppermint ketone, eucalyptol, sesquiterpene. 
2. ·8943  +16·7  ………  ………  No phellandrene. 
3. ·9200  +6·0  ………  ………  Do. 

Mr. Wilkinson also gives columns “Refractive index” and “Specific refractive energy.”

It is remarkable how these analyses vary. My view is that we require hundreds of analyses of the oils of each species, taken under circumstances as different as possible, before we shall be able to make accurate generalisations in regard to them. These should be made in all the States, just as the material for botanical diagnosis is obtained over areas as wide as possible.

Timber.—Pale coloured, full of gum-veins; warps a good deal. Some notes on the timber will be found under “Range.”