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  ― 138 ―

Range.

THIS tree is confined to Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. In Tasmania it is common, except the extreme south and south-west (Rodway). I have examined the following classical Tasmanian specimens:—

  • (a) Gunn's No. 684, 1,105 (Plenty Bridge); 1,107 (Glen Leith); 1,108 (Glen Leith, also road foot of Grass-tree Hill); 1,109 (Marlborough); 1,111, “Weeping Gum,” Formosa. These are typical E. coriacea and are E. piperita, var. pauciflora, DC., Prod. iii, 213, as pointed out by Hooker in Fl. Tas. i, 136.
  • (b) Col. Paterson ex. Herb. Lambert in Herb. Cant.

VICTORIA.

As regards Victoria, Mueller gives the south, north-east, and east. Speaking of Gippsland, Howitt says:—

This Eucalypt is extremely constant in character, whether found in small isolated colonies in the littoral tracts, as at Providence Ponds and Morwell, or forming forests over large areas in the Gippsland Alps up to an elevation of 5,000 feet, as on the Wonnongatta Plains, at Omeo, Woolgulmerang and Delegate. It appears to be essentially an alpine species, yet able to maintain itself, to some extent, in localities but little elevated above sea-level.

Following are some Victorian localities represented in the National Herbarium, Sydney:—

Mount Hotham, Victorian Alps (J.H.M., var. alpina). Buffalo Mountains (Mr. West, comm., C. Walter), “Cabbage Gum,” Caledonia River; Upper Broken River, Wando Dale, Hotspur (A. W. Howitt). Hills near Mansfield, Strathbogie (H. B. Williamson); Camel's Hump, Mount Macedon (C. Walter).

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

J. E. Brown figures it in his Forest Flora under the name “The South-eastern White Gum:”—

In this State the species is as yet only known to exist in the south-eastern district, and there merely in patches within a short distance of the sea-coast. The localities are—Dismal Swamp (Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods) and Benara Estate (Beale).

The late Professor Tate records it from the volcanic area of the south-east corner of the Province, or the Mount Gambier district. Both in Victoria and South Australia it is recorded from the coast, a habitat I believe to be quite unknown in New South Wales.




  ― 139 ―

NEW SOUTH WALES.

It occurs usually at fairly high elevations, preferring undulating grassy country in the ranges and high table-lands, from south to north of the State. As already indicated, it ascends to the greatest elevation of any tree in the State. It consequently forms the limit of arboreal vegetation—the “tree-line”—which, on Mount Kosciusko, is about 6,500 feet. Following are some southern localities:— Mount Kosciusko has already been dealt with in referring to var. alpina. In the Delegate district the bark is scribbled like E. hœmastoma, and the young leaves are sometimes larger and thinner than those of the type. This scribbling of the bark is observed in other localities also. Again, in the same district we have a small fruited form, the fruits being hardly larger than those of E. stellulata. Leaves thinner and dull looking. It may be that these trees show the effects of hybridisation.

Then again, in the Cooma district (Cooma-Braidwood Road), we have leaves straight, or nearly so, about 4½ inches long, seldom falcate, fruit more nearly sessile; sometimes glaucous, and apparently connecting with variety alpina. The bark is smooth, grey, and striped, and marked with scribbles.

“Cattle Gum,” because eaten by stock. Gungahleen Estate (Gungarlin is an older spelling), Goldsbrough, Mort, & Co., Sydney. Yarrangobilly Caves, and Adaminaby to Cooma (E. Betche). Tumut (J. H. Maiden and J. L. Boorman); top of Dividing Range, Nimbo River, Cooma district (H. Deane). This is a small-leaved form, showing transit to variety alpina. Jingera Mountains, Michelago (W. Baeuerlen); “White Sally,” Queanbeyan (H. Deane); Rob Roy (H. Deane).

On the Monaro, where it is known as “White Gum,” “Cabbage Gum,” “Big Leaf,” it is looked upon as the best firewood and best to stand in the ground for wire fences. There is not much timber in the Monaro of good quality; at the same time testimony to its value is not universal.

I have specimens from the top of Mount Tabletop, Kiandra district (E. Betche). The fruits are of unusual form, being nearly hemispherical and compressed, after the fashion of E. capitellata, Sm. A tendency for fruits to take on a similar character is shown in specimens from other elevated localities in southern New South Wales.

In the Braidwood district of New South Wales this tree goes by the name of “Cabbage Gum,” on account of the softness of its timber; and reports from that district are consistent in stating, “Very durable underground, though of no use above it.” It there attains a diameter of 5 feet and a height of 80 feet, extending from the lowest level up to the highest elevation (5,000 feet). Jembaicumbene, Araluen to Braidwood (J.H.M.); Gidley, Bungendore (W. Forster Rutledge); No. 370, S. H. Mossman, from Twofold Bay, herb. Cant. ex herb. Lemann (probably from near Tarago). Barber's Creek (H. J. Rumsey); “Snappy Gum,” Paddy's River and Wingello,—“used for posts and rails in the district” (J. L. Boorman).




  ― 140 ―

At Berrima (on the banks of the Wingecarribee, opposite the Rectory) is a Ribbony Gum, with rough black bark up to the first fork. The rough bark is much like that of E. viminalis. The habit of the tree is more erect as to foliage than that of the normal coriacea close by. The timber is white and full of gum veins, like coriacea. The fruits are more hemispherical than the rest of the trees in the neighbourhood. The species is, however, very close to E. coriacea; and in all my travels I have not previously seen an E. coriacea a real Ribbony Gum as this is. E. coriacea is a species that does not present much evidence of variation as a rule, and I am inclined to think that this particular tree may present evidence of hybridisation, perhaps with E. amygdalina. It may be conspecific with Mr. Baker's E. vitrea.

Following are some western localities:—“Snappy Gum,” Jenolan Caves.— Bark smooth and mottled; there are two or three tints of slate colour with white streaks (W. F. Blakely). “Cabbage Gum,” Capertee.—Large trees plentiful all through the low lands of the district. Tendency to be pipy. Ribbony at base and clean for the most part throughout. Timber soft, useless (J. L. Boorman.) Tarana.—A large white shining gum tree, considered in the locality a great lasting timber in the ground (A. Murphy). “Large-leaved White Gum,” Sidmouth Valley. —Cattle and horses are fond of the leaves (W. Woolls). Sidmouth Valley was formerly called Lowe's Swamp, and is described in Wells' Gazetteer, 1848, as “a broad and very difficult morass, in the county of Westmoreland, 102 miles from Sydney.” The Sidmouth Valley Creek, a small southern tributary of the Fish River, runs through it. Millthorpe.—“White Gum,” thin bark, stands well in ground (R. H. Cambage). Top of Canoblas, about 4,500 feet above sea-level (R. H. Cambage); this is var. alpina. Canoblas, near Orange (Elliott Bros., Sydney).—Transit between the normal and alpine form. Kerr's Creek, near Orange.—“Cabbage or White Gum,” found in broken, sour, pipe-clay country. Timber soft, inferior, does not stand the ground well; used for rails (Forest Ranger Martin). Peak Hill (J. M. Curran).

As regards the north, it is found all over New England, as far north as Tenterfield. I expect it will be recorded from elevated localities between Orange and New England. In New England we find about Walcha (J. F. Campbell and J.H.M.) the ordinary and the alpine form. It is called “Weeping Gum” at Salisbury, Uralla (H. Deane), and “Glassy Gum,” Guyra (H. Deane). It has not been recorded from Queensland, but I should not be surprised if it were to be found in the ranges about Stanthorpe.

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