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10. Part X

33. XXXII. Eucalyptus piperita, Smith.

           
PAGE
Description  299 
Notes supplementary to the description  300 
Synonym  301 
Range  301 
Affinities  303 




  ― 299 ―

Description.

XXXII. Eucalyptus piperita, Sm.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

E. piperita, operculo hemisphærico mucronulato, umbellis lateralibus subpaniculatis solitariisve; pedunculis compressis, ramulis angulatis.

Lid hemispherical, with a little point. Umbels lateral, somewhat paniculated, or solitary; flower stalks compressed; young branches angular.—Syn. E. piperita, White's Voy. p. 226, figure of the leaves only.

A fine essential oil, much like that of Peppermint, is obtained from this species, and every part of the dried plant exhales the same odour when rubbed. We are now convinced this is distinct from the following (E. obliqua), having compared the flowers of both. At the same time we have observed the minute white spots on the leaves (White's Voy., 228) in E. piperita, as well as in the other.—(“Zoology and Botany of New Holland,” by G. Shaw and J.E. Smith, 1793, Vol. i, p. 42.)

Some confusion which has gathered around this species and E. capitellata described by Smith at the same time, is explained at p. 211, part VIII, of this work.

Smith again described the plant in Trans. Linn. Soc., iii, 286 (1797).

I have examined the following early specimens, and they are all E. piperita:—

  • (a) “Eucalyptus, Governor Phillip, New South Wales, ex herb. Lambert.” Herb. Cant. ex herb. Lemann.
  • (b) “Eucalyptus piperita, N. Holland, Dr. Smith, ex herb. Lambert.” Herb. Cant. ex herb. Lemann. Apparently a co-type.
  • (c) No. 4,725 of Robert Brown's specimens (1802–5) distributed by the late Mr. J. J. Bennett.
  • (d) “Eucalyptus closely allied to E. paniculata, Sm., Port Jackson, A.C.” Herb. Cant. ex herb. Lindl. Label in Allan Cunningham's handwriting.

Then we have—

“221. E. piperita, Smith. W., sp. (Willdenow's) 2.978. Hab. in Australia, Fol. 3' lg. 1' lt. parum acutata basi subovata.” (Link's Enumeratio.)

We have also Hoffmannsegg—

“431. Eucalyptus piperita. In Link Enum. folia … basi subovata dicuntur, itidemque in E. media, mucronata, et reticulata. In Flor. Port. autem constitutum est, ovatum esse id, cujus latitudo plus quam dimidium sit longitudinis. Tune hic terminus basin respicere nequit. Forte cl. Aut. sententiam ibi pronunciatam mutavit; equidem ei semper, utpote utilem expertus, fideliter adhæreo.” (Verz. Pfl. Nachtr. 2, p. 114.)

E. piperita was first fully described in English by Bentham, in B.Fl. iii, 207. Mueller described it and figured it in his “Eucalyptographia,” but his figure is very unsatisfactory, and his description shows that he has confused it somewhat with E. eugenioides, Sm.—like E. piperita, a common Sydney species.

The fruits depicted are intermediate between those of E. piperita and E. pilularis or E. eugenioides; they are far from being typical. Mueller states (“Eucalyptographia,” under piperita) that the seedling or juvenile foliage there depicted belongs to E. eugenioides. It is certainly not typical eugenioides, but rather capitellata or macrorrhyncha. See figures in Part VIII. The juvenile foliage of E. piperita is always glabrous.




  ― 300 ―

The species may be described as follows:—

Vernacular names.—“Peppermint” is its usual name about Port Jackson and in some other districts. It goes by the name of “Messmate” in some other parts of the State. It has been called “Almond-leaved Stringybark” and sometimes “White Stringybark.” Through confusion with E. pilularis (to which it is often not dissimilar in general appearance) it is sometimes known as “Blackbutt,” but such names as Stringybark and Blackbutt as applied to this species should be discouraged.

Bark.—Sub-fibrous on the trunk, with smooth branches. In mountainous districts it is often decidely a ribbony Gum.

Timber.—Pale-coloured, with gum-veins, deficient in strength and durability, and only used in default of better timber.

Seedling leaves.—The seedlings are cordate at the base; stem-clasping, blunt, or with a short, sharp apex. They are arranged decussately and horizontally; hardly glaucous; paler on the underside. Venation well marked. They have a strong peppermint perfume.

Mature leaves.—Very oblique, more or less falcate and acuminate. In the Flora Australiensis it is stated that the leaves are rarely above 1 inch long, but this appears to be a mere typographical error, as specimens with far longer leaves which were examined by Bentham himself, and leaves 5 or 6 inches long, are common. The venation is oblique.

Flowers.—Renantherous. The bud has a pointed operculum and is often curved; often nearly falcate when unripe. Sometimes the operculum is markedly pale-coloured; this is accentuated in dried specimens.

Fruit.—The fruits may be arranged under three forms, which pass into one another:—

  • (a) Urceolate (the type).
  • (b) Egg-shaped.
  • (c) Nearly spherical, open-mouthed.

Notes supplementary to the description.

As regards the shape of the fruits, we have—

  • (a) Urceolate.—This is the commonest Port Jackson form, and must, we think, be regarded as the type. It is probably the form corresponding to the leaves secured by White. It is found in the Blue Mountains, Goulburn, Braidwood, Moruya, and throughout the range of the species generally.
  • (b) Egg-shaped.—The range of this form is probably co-extensive with the species. We have egg-shaped fruits from Port Jackson, the Blue Mountains and the Mudgee district, and south to Thirlmere, Picton to Bargo and Ulladulla.
  • (c) Nearly spherical.—These occur at Manly, Port Jackson, and some other places elsewhere in this State. Some of Mr. Howitt's Gippsland specimens in my opinion also fall under this group. The fruits are very small, not exceeding 2 lines in diameter.

This form may, perhaps, be confused with E. numerosa, Maiden, if individual fruits be alone examined, but the leaves of the latter are much narrower, are thinner, duller, full of oil dots (the leaves reek with oil), and the twigs are rusty-tuberculate.




  ― 301 ―

In the “Flora Australiensis,” iii, p. 207, we find mentioned, var. laxiflora, Benth.:

Pedicels rather long. Fruit more obovoid, the rim more depressed. Manly Beach, Twofold Bay, Camden, Macleay and Clarence.

I have been trying to ascertain what this so-called variety really is. No specimens are so labelled in the Melbourne Herbarium, although it contains specimens from the Macleay and Clarence. Specimens from the other localities mentioned do not, in my opinion, answer satisfactorily to Bentham's brief description. They probably are referable to one of the many departures from the strict type of the species. Probably they are nearest to the egg-shaped fruits already referred to.

In a paper “On the essential oil and the presence of a solid camphor or stearoptene in the ‘Sydney Peppermint,’ Eucalyptus piperita, Sm,”note Messrs. Baker and Smith announce the discovery of a solid camphor named Eudesmol in this oil, and also in the oil of E. macrorrhyncha, F.v.M. The paper does not bear brief abstraction.

Synonyms.

Metrosideros aromatica, Salisb. Prod. Stirp. in hort Chapel Allerton (1796), p. 351.

M. foliis alternis: laminis late ovatis, acuminatis, subtus glaucis, tenuibus. Sponte nascentem juxta Port Jackson legit, Dav. Burton.

A specimen of “Metrosideros,” “Peppermint tree” from Port Jackson received from Banks, and now in Herb. Vindob. ex Herb. Jacq., although in leaf only is E. piperita, Sm.

[E. piperata, Stokes, in Bot. Mat. Med. iii, 69, is a misspelling of piperita.

E. piperita var. pauciflora, DC., Prod. iii, 219, is Sieber's No. 470 = E. coriacea, A. Cunn. (Hooker's Fl. Tas. i, 136)].

Range.

THIS species is almost confined to New South Wales.

North and South Coast districts; as far north as the Myall Lakes, but the northern limit is uncertain. At Bullahdelah there are many large trees of this species, consequently it is not likely that this place represents its northern boundary.




  ― 302 ―

I have not seen any indubitable E. piperita from Queensland. There are plants in the Melbourne Herbarium from the Macleay and Clarence Rivers attributed to E. piperita, but they have no fruits, and the determination requires confirmation.

It is found on the Dividing Range and its spurs, being especially plentiful on the Blue Mountains. It is found west at least as far as Mudgee.

The typical form is found at least as far south as Moruya, but trees which are considered to belong to this species occur, as already indicated, as far south as Gippsland, Victoria.

“No. 32, Eucalyptus piperita, Smith.—DC., lc. iii, p. 219, n. 29. St. Kilda (Müll.),” Miq. Kruidk. Arch. iv; 137. St. Kilda is near Melbourne, and the locality requires confirmation.

It occurs on poor, rocky, sandstone land generally; is usually an indication of poor soil. It is very abundant in the Port Jackson district and in the Counties of Cumberland and Camden, New South Wales, generally.

Southern Localities.—The “Stringybark of Camden,” No. 124, 50–100 feet, W. Macarthur (1854), in Herb. Kew, is E. piperita. It was numbered 48 in the Catalogue of New South Wales Exhibits of Southern Timbers at the London Exhibition of 1862, where Sir William Macarthur gives the aboriginal name (Cumberland and Camden) as “Bour-rougne,” and its diameter as 24–54 inches. He adds: “Not equal in stature or in hardness to the coast variety” (doubtless of Stringybark).

Common about Hill Top (J.H.M.); Belmore Falls, Moss Vale (W. Forsyth); Barber's Creek, now Tallong (H.J. Rumsey and J.H.M.).

“Messmate.” Wood of a yellowish colour; when fresh much inclined to ring. Urceolate, shape of fruit very pronounced, reminding one a good deal of those of E. trachyphloia, from which the species differs in almost every other respect See fig. 8, Plate 45, Wingello (J. L. Boorman). At Wingello we also have it with fruits less pronouncedly urceolate and broader, more luxuriant foliage. From the same place, with the fruits nearly pilular—i.e., scarcely urceolate at all.

Conjola, near Milton (W. Heron); Currawang Creek, near Nelligen (W. Baeuerlen); Messmate and Almond-leaved Stringybark of the Clyde River (W. Baeuerlen).

Mr. Forester J. S. Allan, long stationed at Moruya, speaks of it as occurring “on the coast ranges; not plentiful.” This would refer to the southern part of the State. I have never seen it, at least in its typical form, south of the Clyde River.

Western Localities.—This is a common tree by the roadside most of the way going over the Blue Mountains, but does not continue much beyond the sandstone area towards Wallerawang (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.).




  ― 303 ―

Mt. Wilson.—Here we have fruits less urceolate; the typical and less urceolate forms existing side by side.

Curricudgy Mountain, Rylstone District (R. T. Baker).

Northern Localities.—Gosford (H. Blacket). “Not very plentiful; scattered in places along the coast and slopes of Dividing Range and New England; somewhat gregarious in habit. Height 100 feet, diameter 2 feet 6 inches” (Mr. Forester Rudder, Booral).

Very scarce in the Kempsey District (Mr. Forester Macdonald).

I have not personally seen it further north than Bullahdelah (Mr. Rudder's locality).

As regards Queensland, while admitting it into his “Queensland Flora,” p. 613, Mr. F. M. Bailey says:—

There is some doubt as to whether the normal form of this species has been met with in Queensland. Some years ago, however, I gathered a specimen off a tree at Highfields, which Baron Mueller at the time considered the normal form, and now I have none of the specimens to refer to.

Affinities.

1. With E. eugenioides. (Compare Part VIII, p. 240.)

In the “Flora Australiensis” E. eugenioides is reduced to a variety of E. piperita, and even in the “Eucalyptographia” the Baron almost expresses doubts as to whether finally Bentham's opinion that both should be regarded as forms of one species may not have to be adopted. His figure of E. piperita is incorrect, as has already been pointed out. A comparison of the two types as they occur near Sydney must convince the most incredulous as to the distinctness of the two species. Nevertheless there are certain forms which, judging from herbarium specimens or fruits alone, are intermediate.

Howitt in his “Eucalypts of Gippsland” (Trans. R.S. Vict., Vol. ii, Part I, p. 87) speaks of the “near alliance” of E. piperita and E. eugenioides. Speaking generally, the two species are very distinct and are not to be mistaken one for the other. They differ markedly in their seedlings, in the venation of the mature leaves, and in the odour of the same; in their bark and timbers.

Howitt has figured a number of fruits in his Plate 13 which he attributes to E. piperita, viz., Nos. 6–19, Nos. 20 and 21 being referred to E. eugenioides. Nos. 6 to 9 are possibly, yet doubtfully, referable to E. piperita; as regards the remainder I would suggest that they belong to E. eugenioides without any doubt. I would also invite attention to Mr. Howitt's excellent drawings of seedlings on Plate 14. Nos. 1 and 4 seem to me to belong to identical species, viz., E. eugenioides. I never saw hairs on a piperita seedling.




  ― 304 ―

I would draw attention to the following specimens:—

  • (a) Bark fibrous; not so fibrous as that of a typical Stringybark, and perhaps little more fibrous than that of the ordinary E. piperita. The fruits nearly globular and showing a mottled appearance, due to unequal shrinkage of the outer layers of cells of the fruit. The orifice small, the rim depressed and not very prominent. The specimens, which are from Port Jackson, precisely match some labelled, in Baron von Mueller's handwriting, “Stringybark, E. piperita, Twofold Bay.” The fruits figured in the “Eucalyptographia” are not very dissimilar to them. They have short pedicels and are frequently sessile. The Port Jackson-Twofold Bay specimens may for convenience be referred to as A. The texture of the leaves of A and the prominence of the veins are perhaps intermediate between typical E. piperita and E. eugenioides, as is also the amount of essential oil so characteristic of E. piperita. The fruits of E. piperita have a very thin rim; in A it is a little broader, in typical E. eugenioides it is well defined. The size of the orifice of A is intermediate between the two species named. The shape of the fruits of A is less ovoid than those of E. piperita, and less hemispherical than those of typical E. eugenioides. At the same time it is referable to E. eugenioides without doubt.
  • (b) In 1879 Mr. A. W. Howitt sent to Baron von Mueller from Walhalla, Gippsland, specimens with the following note: “Tree locally known as Stringybark; the specimen is taken from a tree split for palings, and I am informed that the wood is sound and durable, and both saws and splits well.” The Baron labelled these specimens “E. eugenioides, Sieb.,” and also “E. piperita, Sm., var. eugenioides.” Some identical specimens sent by Mr. Howitt from the Tambo River were labelled by the Baron “E. eugenioides, Sieb.,” and he adds, “To this the specific name E. pilularis would well apply.” This is certainly E. eugenioides.
  • (c) Following is Mr. Howitt's note on other specimens:—“A Stringybark growing on the clayey flats (Post-Pliocene?) at Toongabbie, near the foot of the hills. Grows to a moderately large tree—say, 100 feet. Native name Yangoura.” The late Baron von Mueller labelled this specimen “E. piperita.” It undoubtedly bears the closest resemblance to the Port Jackson and Twofold Bay specimens just referred to. Some of the fruits are a little more ovoid than those of the Port Jackson and Twofold Bay specimens, but that appears to be because they are riper; specimens less mature from the three localities cannot be separated. This is E. eugenioides.

At Wingello, N.S.W., there is an interesting tree known as “Messmate,” one of two or three local trees which display variation. This particular “Messmate” has fruits with rather thicker rim than normal piperita, and some fruits even display a rim like eugenioides. It would be difficult, from fruits and leaves alone,


  ― 305 ―
to say whether this specimen is eugenioides or piperita, but the buds, bark, and timber display a closer tendency towards typical piperita, under which species I have accordingly arranged it. See fig. 8, Plate 45.

2. With E. pilularis, Sm.

It is clear, on reading Mueller's description of E. piperita in “Eucalyptographia,” that he has not had typical New South Wales specimens in his mind, for he describes it as having both “stem and branches covered with fibrous outside grey and rough bark,” and he mentions, as one of the means of distinguishing it from E. pilularis, “its rough bark extending to the branches (Pachyphloiæ),” whereas the typical E. piperita is only a “half-barked” tree like E. pilularis.

In the same work, under E. pilularis, he lays emphasis on the globular fruits of E. piperita, in contradistinction to those of E. pilularis. The matter is referred to at p. 300.

At Oatley, George's River, near Sydney (J. H. Camfield), we have a form apparently normal piperita in every respect, except that the fruits are very coarse and large, thick-rimmed, and nearly pilular. They certainly show affinity to E. pilularis, for which the fruits could be readily mistaken. I would call them an intermediate form.

3. With E. obliqua, L'Hérit.

I mention these two species together because they are so referred to in “Eucalyptographia,” but would point out that they have really very little in common. Reference to the shape of the buds, the venation of the leaves, and the coarseness of the foliage of E. obliqua alone show that the two species have no very close affinity.

34. XXXIII. Eucalyptus Sieberiana, F. v. Mueller.

         
Description  306 
Notes supplementary to the description  306 
Synonyms  307 
Range  307 
Affinities  309 




  ― 306 ―

Description.

XXXIII. Eucalyptus Sieberiana, FV.M.

DESCRIBED and figured in “Eucalyptographia,” Decade ii (1879). I have seen the type, and the fruits depicted are not quite satisfactory. It is very rarely that the fruits are so small as shown on the plate, nor is the drawing of them good.

This is the species referred to as E. virgata, Sieb. (B.Fl, iii, 202), in part. I would suggest consideration of my remarks on this subject in Part IX, p. 275, of this work.

It may be described as follows:—

Vernacular names.—“Mountain Ash” is its usual name. It attains its greatest luxuriance in mountain districts, and its timber is thought to resemble Ash. It is sometimes called “Black Ash,” but this name should be reserved for E. stellulata. In Tasmania it is sometimes called “White-top Ironbark,” but in that State there are no true Ironbarks. It has been also called Blackbutt, but that name should be reserved for E. pilularis. It was called “Yowut” by the aborigines of the Gippsland District, according to Howitt. It has been called “Messmate” or “Stringybark” at the Dromedary, N.S.W.; but the use of such names for this species is to be deprecated.

Bark.—In young trees the bark somewhat resembles “Stringybark” when viewed from a little distance. Hence the tree has been sometimes called Stringybark with a qualifying adjective. In older trees the bark becomes denser, darker coloured, more furrowed, and rugged in character. The casual observer might be excused if he took the tree for an “Ironbark,” but a closer examination would show the bark to be neither dense nor tough enough. The small branches are smooth.

The smooth bark of saplings appears always to be glaucous.

Timber.—Pale-coloured and fissile, less variable perhaps than that of many of the Eucalyptus. Very suitable for inside work, but not durable when not protected from the weather.

Juvenile leaves.—The seedling leaves are vertically arranged; of the same colour on both sides; glaucous, and larger than those of E. piperita. The venation is rather acute with the midrib. Seedling and sucker leaves are glaucous, dull-coloured on drying, and have the veins more spreading than is the case in the mature foliage.

Mature leaves.—The leaves are usually smooth, shining, and coriaceous; they are more or less falcate. The venation is spreading.

Leaves from Mt. Wilson in the west and Barber's Creek in the south are hooked; probably this will be found to be no unusual character.

Buds clavate.

Operculum.—Hemispherical or slightly umbonate. Pale-coloured opercula are often observed in the Blue Mountains. Double opercula sometimes occur in this species.

Inflorescence.—Frequently ocellate; this is sometimes a useful guide in distinguishing this from allied species.

Fruits.—Pear-shaped, usually a little oblique, the rim sometimes slightly concave, particularly when ripe. Edge of rim frequently sharp. Sometimes the plane of the rim is not at right-angles to the axis of the fruit. Shining. The rim usually well defined and often dark as in E. hœmastoma.

Notes supplementary to the description.

There is a narrow-leaved form, both at the Sugarloaf Mountain (Braidwood) and at the Dromedary. Tasmanian specimens appear to have longer, narrower, and more falcate leaves. There is a broad-leaved and very glaucous form in the Snowy Mountains.




  ― 307 ―

The fruit is more hemispherical in some Tasmanian specimens.

Apparently the fruits attain their largest size on the Blue Mountains. It would appear that the fruits of E. Sieberiana are usually more pear-shaped and larger in New South Wales.

Synonyms.

IN “Eucalyptographia,” under E. Sieberiana, F.V.M., Mueller gives E. virgata, Sieb., as a synonym. It is not proper to state it so. Mueller thought, when describing it, he was suppressing the “misleading” name virgata for it. The explanation is that E. virgata, Sieber, was for many years confused by Bentham, by Mueller, and other botanists with the tree Mueller, in spite of himself, properly separated from virgata under the name Sieberiana. I have explained the situation under E. virgata, at Part IX, p. 275, of this work, and need not repeat myself here.

I know no true synonyms of E. Sieberiana, F.V.M.

Range.

TASMANIA, Victoria, and New South Wales. It occurs in the Snowy Mountains (near the Victorian Border), at an elevation of 4–5,000 feet, and thence northward along the ranges west at least as far as Mudgee. On the Snowy Mountains it is interesting to observe that E. Sieberiana is always found on slopes with a southern aspect.

The species loves high, rocky, stony mountain ranges, on poor barren ground, and never takes to grassy localities.

In his “Second Census,” Mueller records this species from South Australia, but, under E. vitrea, p. 167, Part VI, and p. 189, Part VII, of this work, I have shown that this is founded on a misapprehension. E. Sieberiana should be struck out of the flora of that State until additional evidence is forthcoming.

In Tasmania it is chiefly found near the north-east coast. Mueller quotes in his “Eucalyptographia”:—

“Frequent on granitic coast-ridges and in valleys of rather sandy or stony soil as well as on slate-hills, from Falmouth to George's Bay, occurring also on hills of the sandstone formation north of St. Mary's (Bissill, Simson), and on East Mount Field at elevations of from 1,000 to 1,500 feet.”

As regards Victoria, he says:—

“In the forests towards the Upper Yarra waters and of Gippsland, ascending to 4,000 feet elevation, extending along the Genoa up to the White Rock Mountains.”




  ― 308 ―

Dr. A. W. Howitt, in an official (unpublished) report, says:—

“The Rough-barked Mountain Ash of Gippsland (E. Sieberiana) is known also by the trivial names of “Gumtop,” “Silvertop,” and “Bastard Ironbark.” White Ironbark grows from near the sea level to an elevation of about 3,500 feet, where it abruptly ceases. It is found extensively as the main forest tree in many parts of Gippsland as at Walhalla, Wilson's Promontory, the Omeo Road, Gelantipy, &c. It also grows in places in the northern fall of the Divide.”

Following is a note by him on the same tree:—

“Yowut” or “Mountain Ash,” near the top of the ridge half way from Eaglehawk to the Thomson River. The bark is deeply eroded, but not so deeply as the Ironbark in Western Victoria. It becomes smoother in the upper part of the bole and the limbs are always more or less smooth. The extreme twigs are reddish in colour. The young saplings have often in the upper part a smooth bluish-grey bark. The branches shoot up pretty straight.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

It is plentiful about Port Jackson, Broken Bay, Port Hacking, and Counties of Cumberland and Camden generally. It is common on the Blue Mountains.

Southern Localities.—“Eucalyptus virgata, Sieb., ‘Mountain Ash.’ Tree, 120–150 ft. Bark, persistent, ridged. Eden, New South Wales (Oldfield).” Oldfield's specimens from this locality in several herbaria are E. Sieberiana, FV.M.

Nos. 266 and 370 of S. Mossman, Tororago (Tarago?), Twofold Bay (it is really near Braidwood, but on the old road to Twofold Bay), in Herb. Cant. Specimens collected in 1854, presumably for the Paris Exhibition.

On the cliffs at Eden, also Pipe Clay to Eden (J.H.M.). The lower parts of the filaments (especially before expansion) are purple, giving the flowers an ornamental “eye.”

From 4–5,000 feet on dry ridges, Snowy Mountains (resembling the Victorian specimen) (W. Baeuerlen); Nimitybelle (A. Rudder), and Tantawanglo Mountain (W. Baeuerlen). In both these adjacent localities known as “Mountain Ash” and “Black Ash.”

Copy of original label of Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, late New South Wales Government Geologist:—

No. 6, “Stringybark, Messmate.” Trees up to 4 feet in diameter growing straight and lofty, the trunk covered with deeply furrowed fibrous bark of dark-brown colour, resembling that on Ironbark, but not so hard. Branches and boughs smooth and white. Dromedary Ranges, 1,500 feet above sea-level. Formation Silurian, 2nd November, 1878.

This is E. Sieberiana and is referred to in “Eucalyptographia” (under E. Sieberiana), and also by me in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxix, 759 (1904).

Conjola (W. Heron); Sugar Loaf Mountain, Braidwood (W. Baeuerlen); Reedsdale, near Braidwood (H. Deane); Queanbeyan (H. Deane); Jervis Bay (J.H.M.); Iron Pot Creek, Badgery's Crossing to Nowra (W. Forsyth); Cambewarra Mountain (J. V. de Coque).




  ― 309 ―

“White-topped Messmate,” Kangaloon. “Grows on rich soil; inferior timber. Carefully distinguished locally between “Black-topped Messmate,” a good timber which grows on poor soil” (J. Bruce). I can see no botanical difference in the two sets of specimens, and Mr. Bruce's observation is an illustration of what has been often remarked “Good timber, poor soil,” and vice versâ.

“White Ash.” Hoskinstown (W. Daniel); Box Point to Barber's Creek, also Nye's Hill, Wingello (J. L. Boorman and J.H.M.); Bowral to Bullio (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.); “Stringybark,” Mittagong (W. W. Froggatt); Berrima (J. L. Boorman and J.H.M.); Hill Top (J.H.M.); Appin (J.H.M.).

Western Localities.—Has on the Blue Mountains a range very similar to that of E. piperita, and is confined to the more barren parts of the mountains.

Mt. Wilson (Jesse Gregson); Jenolan Caves and Black Range generally (W. Blakely).

I have seen specimens from the Mudgee district (Forester C. Marriott), but there are none in this Herbarium.

I have seen no E. Sieberiana specimens north of the above localities, but certainly expect to hear of such in the mountain ranges going north from the places named.

Affinities.

1. With E. virgata, Sieb.

This has been dealt with under E. virgata, in Part IX.

2. With E. Luehmanniana, F.v.M., var. altior, Deane and Maiden.

Dealt with under E. Luehmanniana in Part IX. E. Sieberiana has a rugged black bark; the variety of Luehmanniana is a Ribbony Gum. Sometimes the unripe fruit and herbarium specimens generally very strongly resemble those of E. Sieberiana, but I think the drawings in the last and present Parts will put botanists on their guard.

3. With E. Consideniana, F.v.M.

Will be dealt with under E. Consideniana.

4. With E. hœmastoma, Sm.

Mueller, in “Eucalyptographia,” speaking of E. Sieberiana and E. hœmastoma, states that “the stem bark of the former is far more ridged than that of the latter, the veins of the leaves of E. Sieberiana are less spreading and less prominent, while the fruit is usually longer, more exactly semiovate and never verging towards an hemispheric form.” In regard to these statements, I would observe that E. hæmastoma is a smooth-barked tree, and that those rough-barked trees which were thought to show some transition towards E. Sieberiana (as well as to other species) have since been shown to belong to other species.




  ― 310 ―

The Sydney or depauperate form is often confused with E. hæmastoma, as the young trees often have the appearance of White Gum if the butts be not carefully examined, and they are often so small that it is not easy to detect the rough bark.

If E. Sieberiana leaves be crushed in the warm hand, they evolve a slight odour of peppermint which is not observable in E. hæmastoma.

In the “Flora Australiensis,” Bentham also draws attention to the affinity between E. Sieberiana and E. hæmastoma, and lays some stress on the differences between their anthers. I am of opinion that it is impossible to distinguish the two species by means of their anthers.

5. With E. coriacea, A. Cunn.

Both Bentham and Mueller compare E. Sieberiana and E. coriacea. The closest similarity appears to be in the shape of the fruits. For fruits of E. coriacea, see Plates 26 and 27, Part V of this work. They are coarser and more fleshy than those of E. Sieberiana; the coarse, fleshy, spreading veins of E. coriacea are also characteristic and quite different from those of E. Sieberiana. In addition, E. coriacea is a smooth-barked tree, while E. Sieberiana is rough-barked.

6. With E. obliqua, L'Hérit., var. alpina, Maiden (E. delegatensis, R. T. Baker).

This is that “Mountain Ash” which, in the high Southern Ranges of New South Wales, and also in Victoria, “succeeds” E. Sieberiana at a higher elevation than the latter attains. It is the E. Sieberiana (b) of A. W. Howittnote; see also p. 69, Part II, and p. 177, Part VI, of this work. I desire to pay a further visit to this tree in the field, after which I will again refer to it and contrast it with E. Sieberiana.

7. With E. vitrea, R. T. Baker.

Mueller, “Eucalyptographia” (under E. Sieberiana) says:—

…. occurring also on low moist sandy tracts between the Glenelg River and Mount Gambier and Lake Bonney (Dr. Wehl). ….

…. in the cripply Stringybark forests near Lake Bonney (this is in South Australia; a long narrow body of water running parallel with the coast-line, north from Cape Banks, and not very far from the Victorian border.—J.H.M.), dwarfed to 10 or 12 feet, though amply flowering.

I am of opinion that these specimens come nearest to or are referable to E. vitrea, R. T. Baker; see pp. 164–7, Part VI, and p. 189, Part VII, of this work.

Since the above was written I have received specimens from Penola Forest, S.A. (not far from the Victorian border), from Mr. Walter Gill, with the following notes:—

…. what everything indicates to be E. Sieberiana. It is a stunted form and weeping habit, and grows in low-lying country under water in winter.




  ― 311 ―

They have certainly affinity to E. Sieberiana, but I think the specimens are referable to E. vitrea, not quite typical, which is not to be surprised at. Note the low-lying habitat, which is a character of vitrea and not of Sieberiana.

In addition to Mr. H.B. Williamson's specimens, referred to at p. 166, Part VI, I have an interesting one from him labelled “No. 933,” from Portland, Victoria. “Height 10 feet, probably from a young tree.” Mr. Williamson had no more definite information to give me concerning these specimens, which seem referable to E. vitrea, but they have remarkably broad coarse foliage, and most botanists would, pardonably, refer them at once to E coriacea. These specimens would appear to strengthen my view that E. vitrea is a coriacea hybrid. Portland is not far from the other South Australian localities cited.

I think that the descriptions and figures given of E. vitrea and E. Sieberiana should put botanists on their guard in regard to two forms presenting a good deal of external resemblance, so far as herbarium specimens are concerned.

35. XXXIV. Eucalyptus Consideneana, Maiden.

       
Description  312 
Notes supplementary to the description  312 
Range  313 
Affinities  315 




  ― 312 ―

Description.

XXXIV. Eucalyptus Consideniana, Maiden.

A TREE of medium height.

Juvenile leaves.—Narrow-lanceolate, petiolate, soon becoming alternate. A common size is a length of 3 inches with a width of ½ inch. I have them, however, both shorter and broader. They are narrower than those of E. Sieberiana, F.v.M., of E. piperita, Sm. Of a rather strong peppermint odour, and often of a silvery appearance. The young branchlets and seedling stems angular.

Mature leaves.—Commonly oblique and falcate, broadly lanceolate. I have them up to 9 inches in length, and nearly 2 inches in greatest width; they are rather thick in texture. Colour equally green on both sides, dull or shiny, blue-green or a bright sap-green. Veins strongly marked, spreading from the base, the intramarginal vein at a considerable distance from the edge, often looped (brachydodromous). “Leaves hang straight down” (Cambage).

Buds.—Usually clavate and sometimes with pointed opercula.

Flowers.—Anthers uniform.

Fruits.—Usually pyriform in shape, often nearly conical, rather more than ¼ inch in diameter. The valves often well sunk below the rim, but the points of the valves occasionally protruding. Sometimes the rim is slightly domed and the valves rather more exserted. The rim broad, smooth, well-defined, and usually red in colour.

A medium sized tree with grey tough bark to the tips of the branches, said bark being of that sub-fibrous character well known in Australia as “peppermint,” very like that of E. piperita, but very different from that of E. Sieberiana.

Timber.—Wood pale-coloured, with kino rings, remarkably like that of the common Sydney Peppermint (E. piperita, Sm.). “Soft and ringy; not nearly so good as Mountain Ash, E. Sieberiana” (Boorman).

Notes supplementary to the description.

I name this species in honour of First-Assistant Surgeon D. Considen, one of the founders of Australia. In reviewing the “Historical Records of New South Wales” (Vol. I, Part 2) in the Sydney Morning Herald of 23rd July, 1892, I drew attention to the fact that Considen's letter, dated 18th November, 1788, to Sir Joseph Banks, is perhaps the most interesting one in the collection to the student of economic botany. From the following passage it would appear that Considen was the founder of the eucalyptus oil industry: “We have a large peppermint tree, which is equal, if not superior, to our English peppermint. I have sent you a specimen of it. If there is any merit in applying these and many other simples to the benefit of the poor wretches here, I certainly claim it, being the first who discovered and recommended them.” At this time a bottle of Eucalyptus oil was sent to Sir Joseph Banks by Governor Phillip. I further wrote in the review: “I think that some effort should be made to rescue the name of the first user of Australian plants from oblivion. I trust that at least a species will be named after the pioneer before many months are over.”

I regret that the matter slipped my memory on more than one occasion, but I now dedicate to his memory a species very closely allied to that from which he distilled the first Australian eucalyptus oil. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 475, 1904.)




  ― 313 ―

The species can be most conveniently distinguished by its pyriform fruits and “peppermint” bark; the narrow sucker-leaves are also characteristic. Mr. R. H. Cambage, who has prominently brought this tree under my notice, gives the local names as “Peppermint” or “White Mahogany”; Mr. Boorman as “Messmate.”

In Gippsland it seems more of a Stringybark; with rough bark here, as elsewhere, right up to the very tips of the branches. It has a yellowish cast on the bark, which is perhaps rougher than that of the type, but certainly smoother than that of the stringybarks. “Yertchuk” trees have patches of bark thinner than that of the remainder of the bark, and “rubbed looking” and Peppermint-like.

Range.

IN coastal and coast-range districts of New South Wales, and Gippsland, Victoria, extending in the former State, as far as is known at present, from the Clyde River in the south, across the country to near Goulburn, thence viâ Burragorang to the Blue Mountains (Wolgan), and the Penang Mountain near Gosford. Doubtless the species will be found in localities intermediate between the Clyde River and Gippsland.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

Southern Districts.—Nelligen, Clyde River (J. L. Boorman). This is the most southerly locality known to me in New South Wales.

“Looks like a Peppermint (piperita); has rough grey bark.” On sandy ground, Burrill, Milton (R. H. Cambage).

Grows on sandy, rather barren soil. Grey bark right out on branches, something like that of E. piperita. Nearest affinity may be E. Sieberiana, but it is distinct from that species in the bark. Leaves hang straight down. Timber fairly hard. Pigeon House, Milton, to within 100 feet of the top (R. H. Cambage).

Rather stunted trees, bark rough, soft, from the base up to tips of branches, grey in colour. Leaves not so large as E. Sieberiana, but the bark differing both in texture and colour. The wood is soft and ringy, not nearly so good as “Mountain Ash” (Sieberiana) which it in many respects resembles, partly in the fruit, but more like piperita in bark. Wingello (J. L. Boorman).

Following is a report made on a subsequent visit to Wingello:—

“Messmate.” Medium sized trees, rough bark to the tips of the branches, not ribbony. In appearance reminds one of E. Sieberiana, but smoother and softer in the bark, having an affinity to a Stringybark. Distributed abundantly over an area of half a mile in the vicinity of Kingston's saw-mills, Wingello (J. L. Boorman).

“Fairly smooth, fibrous bark, something like piperita and distinct from the rough bark of Sieberiana” (top of Mountain, east of Burragorang, 3 or 4 miles). Hawkesbury Sandstone (R. H. Cambage).

Top of Barrengarry Mountain. Medium sized trees. Poor sandstone, rocky soil (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.).




  ― 314 ―

Western Localities.—Mr. Cambage and I found E. Consideniana in full bloom (November, 1904) and not rare near the 40-mile post on the road from Sydney, 4½ miles east of Springwood. This the nearest locality to Sydney so far.

The Valley, near Springwood (H. Deane and J.H.M.); Faulconbridge; common near the 10-mile post (road), and the last tree observed near the road was near the western boundary of Portion 12, Parish of Linden (nearly midway between Linden and Woodford Stations). In full flower at 10 feet high, and the only Eucalypt in full flower in the district (12th November). (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.)

On Hawkesbury Sandstone, top of mountain, north of Wolgan Shale Mine. “Growing near E. piperita, E. Sieberiana, E. eugenioides, E. punctata. The most north-western locality known to me” (R. H. Cambage).

Northern Locality.—Penang Mountain, Gosford (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman).

“Very like a Peppermint in appearance, only the bark is not so stringy—more flaky, white smooth limbs. A fair sized tree and scarce.” Penang (A. Murphy).

VICTORIA.

In his “Eucalypts of Gippsland,” Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., ii, 82, 84, 85, Dr. (then Mr.) A. W. Howitt speaks of a broad-leaved form of E. amygdalina, known to the aborigines as “Katakatak” or “Yertchuk.” This is his E. amygdalina (d). He also mentions a broad-leaved amygdalina (b) which is E. dives, Schauer (E. amygdalina, Labill.; var. latifolia, Deane and Maiden).

As regards the “Yertchuk,” (variety d) I have received excellent specimens from Dr. Howitt, and refer them to E. Consideniana.

What Dr. Howitt (loc cit.) says about the “Yertchuk” is as follows:—

It grows most freely upon the rather poor sandy and clay lands of the littoral tracts, but I have also observed it in the mountains — for instance, where poor sandy tracts occur, as well as on the quartz grits and conglomerates at Wild Horse Creek, Wentworth River, on the Upper Silurian sediments, between Toongabbie and Walhalla, the Silurian sediment in the Tambo Valley Road, the Upper Devonian formations of the Insolvent Track, the Devonian porphyries at Gelantipy, and the Silurian formations at Delegate River.

It rarely grows more than 100 feet in height, but is generally a rather small tree, often stunted. The bark classes it with the Stringybarks, for it is fibrous and persistent up to the smaller branches, somewhat resembling that of E. obliqua, but thinner, more fissile, and lighter in colour. For roofing purposes the bark is worthless, and the timber of no value for splitting or sawing, having the soft, veiny character of some types of amygdalina.

The seedlings have opposed, narrow, lanceolar leaves, with, occasionally, tufts of hairs and frequently wavy margins.

The opposed character of the leaves is not maintained beyond the first two or three pairs, and the leaves then become ovate lanceolar, resembling, in their pointed and unequal-sided form, those of E. obliqua, though rarely as large. They are thick in consistence, of a dull green, and not shiny, in the latter trait resembling those of E. Sieberiana.

The umbels have numerous buds, with the typical form of E. amygdalina, to which also the shape of the calyx tube, the short style, and depressed lid belong. The fruit is ovate, top-shaped, with a flat and slightly convex margin, and small deltoid valves.

The tree is found at a height of 100 feet above sea level at Merriman's Creek and the Bairnsdale to Buchan Road, to 2,500 feet at the Upper Wentworth River. I have not observed it on the mountain plateaux, even where they descend to the latter height, and conclude that it is a littoral species which ascends the coast ranges.




  ― 315 ―

Affinities.

1 and 2. With E. piperita, Sm., and E. Sieberiana, F.v.M.

The closest affinity of this species is to E. Sieberiana and E. piperita; in fact, it is possible that it is a hybrid between these two species.

In expressing this opinion, I desire to make a note inculcating caution. It is sometimes difficult to properly assign the use of names; for the fact is, all species have probably arrived at their present development largely by means of hybridism. The following will illustrate what I mean:—

E. Consideniana perhaps has E. piperita and E. Sieberiana blood in its veins. We therefore might perhaps explain its position by saying that it is a hybrid between these two. But if E. Consideniana had been described first, it perhaps would not have occurred to botanists to describe, say, E. piperita as a hybrid of it.

Dr. Howitt writes to me: “I have been turning over in my mind your remarks re possible hybridisation in ‘Yertchuk.’ I am doubtful about it, because it forms a considerable part of the forests in a stretch of some 20 miles. In one part there is E. Sieberiana, but not elsewhere. I do not know of E. piperita, but E. eugenioides occurs throughout the forests together with another Stringybark.”

Since the above was written, I have had the opportunity, in the company of Mr. J. L. King, who travelled a good deal with Dr. Howitt in Gippsland, of inspecting the Yertchuk country from the head of Dead Horse Creek to near Boggy Creek. The prevailing eucalypt is E. Sieberiana, with a little E. eugenioides. There is no E. piperita, as Dr. Howitt states. Yertchuk may be a hybrid still, i.e., between E. Sieberiana and E. eugenioides, the slight differences between the New South Wales and Victorian trees being perhaps explained by the absence of E. piperita in Gippsland.

Of course, hybridism is merely an explanation of the origin of E. Consideniana to begin with; the type once established and coming true from seed, it would become propagated in time in districts in which neither of its reputed first parents (piperita and Sieberiana) are to be found. I will discuss the matter again when dealing with the general subject of hybridisation in Eucalypts.

With E. piperita, Sm

The bark is fibrous like that of E. piperita, and the general appearance of the tree reminds one of that species.

E. piperita fruits in large masses or bunches, while E. Consideniana is a comparatively shy fruiter.

With E. Sieberiana, F.v.M.

The leaves, buds, and fruits are reminiscent of E. Sieberiana, though the leaves are perhaps thinner. The narrow juvenile foliage leaves, however, separate E. Consideniana from any with which it is most likely to be confounded. The Penang fruits are not perfectly typical; they show more than ordinary resemblance to those of E. Sieberiana.




  ― 316 ―

The Blue Mountains trees of E. Sieberiana have not, as a rule, the furrowed Ironbark-looking bark of the typical form, and, speaking in general terms, the bark of E. Consideniana presents some resemblance also to the bark of the trees of E. Sieberiana, with which it is associated.

3. With E. Andrewsi, Maiden.

Compare pp. 195, 196, Part VII of this work. The fruits of E. Consideniana are conoid to pyriform. Those of E. Andrewsi may be conoid, but they are smaller in size than those of Consideniana. Both are “Messmates,” and the affinities of the two species require more working out in the field. At present we have a gap between the localities of E. Consideniana (going north) and those of E. Andrewsi. If possible, I want to see if either or both species occur in this gap, and, if they grow together, whether the fruits of E. Consideniana become smaller. The two species have marked dissimilarities, and cannot be confused in their typical forms.

4. With E. virgata, Sieb., var. stricta.

That the species possesses affinity to this variety there is no doubt.

In some fruits the base of the capsule is remarkably constricted, the whole being pear-shaped; the rim is broad and somewhat sunk in some specimens. Since this was first observed, the fruit has been found to be more domed when fully ripe, and hence the similarity to var. strìcta is less strong. What was described later as E. Consideniana was referred to by Mr. Deane and myself as a variety of E. stricta in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1900, p. 109.

5. With E. regnans, F.v.M., var. fastigata.

Its affinity to this variety is considerable, in points other than that of the shape of the fruit. The barks of the two trees are not very dissimilar, but E. Consideniana prefers drier, rockier situations than E. regnans, var. fastigata. It was referred to by Mr. Deane and myself as a pyriform-fruited fastigata in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1901.

6. With E. hæmastoma, Sm.

The fruit is somewhat like that of E. hæmastoma in shape, particularly the large-fruited, coastal Sydney form, which is typical. Of course, E. hæmastoma is a Gum (i.e. a smooth-barked species).

36. XXXV. Eucalyptus hæmastoma, Smith.

           
Description  317 
The type form  317 
Varieties  318 
Synonyms  319 
Range  321 
Affinities  322 




  ― 317 ―

Description.

XXXV. Eucalyptus hæmastoma, Sm.

Trans. Linn. Soc. iii (1797), 286. See also “Eucalyptographia” (Mueller).

Following is the original description:—

Operculo hemisphærico depresso mucronulato, umbellis lateralibus, terminalibusque: pedunculis compressis, ramulis angulatis, fructu subgloboso.

The leaves are coriaceous, lanceolate, terminating in a long linear point.

Flowers in umbels, not capitula, their covers depressed at the top, but suddenly terminating in a little point.

Fruit globose, cut off at the summit, its orifice surrounded by a broad deep-red border.

This species has a great affinity with the Leptospermum umbellatum of Gaertner, but I dare not assert it to be the same.

The type form.—The species is found in two principal forms—a coarse form (the type), and a slender one; the latter with small flowers and fruits, and known as variety micrantha in consequence.

As regards the type, the leaves, flowers, and fruits are alike larger, and the leaves thicker, but, as a rule, the tree itself does not attain the magnitude of its variety.

With Bentham's amplified description of the species as given in B.Fl. iii, 212, I, in the main, agree, so that it will only be necessary to add a few notes.

Vernacular names.—“White Gum” is the commonest and most appropriate name for this species.

Bark.—Smooth, with a few ribbony flakes near the butt.

Timber.—Red, and of an inferior character, though a fairly lasting timber for posts in the districts in which it grows.

Juvenile leaves.—Broadly lanceolate, somewhat similar in shape to the adult leaves, only larger; 4 to 6 inches long by 1¼ inch broad, are measurements of some from the Sydney district.

Mature leaves.—Coriaceous, thick, spreading, and veins very distinct, oblique, and several starting from near the base of the leaf. As in the case of some other species, the mature foliage of trees growing close to the sea is very coarse and thick.

Peduncles.—Angular and flattened.

Calyx-tube.—Much longer than the operculum and insensibly tapering into the pedicel.

Operculum.—Pointed when young, becoming more hemispherical as maturity is approached. Often the buds may be described as clavate.

Fruits.—Speaking generally, the shape of the fruits reminds one of a pear. The rim is more or less domed and usually brownish or red (hence the specific name). I do not agree that, speaking at all generally, “the capsule is slightly depressed,” as stated at B.Fl. iii, 212.

Pedicels not so thin, being more tapering than is the case with var. micrantha.

Sometimes the fruits are hardly pear-shaped, but this is unusual. We have some nearly hemispherical, but much larger than those of var. micrantha. At the same time, there are fruits which undoubtedly show transition between E. hæmastoma and its variety micrantha.

The anther is reniform and is figured at fig. 14d, plate 47. It seems to differ very little whether typical or var. micrantha.




  ― 318 ―

Varieties.

(1) The small-fruited form (variety micrantha).

Vernacular names.—“White Gum” is a very common name. It, however, in one or other of the many districts in which it occurs, usually goes under some name referring to the softness or brittleness of its timber, e.g., “Cabbage Gum,” “Snappy Gum,” “Brittle Gum,” “Brittle Jack.”

Bark.—Smooth, right to the ground. The colour of the bark is usually white, but sometimes, particularly in localities comparatively remote from the sea, the bark is at certain seasons of the year yellowish. I have seen the trunk as yellow as if washed with yellow ochre. Away from the sea, also, the bark appears to have a greater tendency to peel off in patches, giving it more or less a spotted appearance.

Timber.—Soft, red. An excellent timber for fencing posts, and in some districts, especially the southern table-land, preferred for this purpose. At the same time, excellence is comparative, and in the coast districts we find other timbers of special merit.

Juvenile leaves.—Nearly ovate, then nearly oblong (rounded at both ends), and with crenulate margins. As growth proceeds, they become attenuate at both ends and somewhat falcate.

The seedling leaves tend to be vertical, and therefore are equally green (blue-green) on both sides. The twigs are red, as also in mature specimens. Venation less acute than in E. Sieberiana.

They then become alternate, ovate-lanceolate, very acuminate, a little oblique, up to 6 inches long and 2½ inches broad. The intramarginal vein much removed from the edge. From this stage the foliage gradually develops into the mature stage.

Mature leaves.—These vary somewhat, which is not a matter for surprise, considering the extensive range of the tree. They are often thick and glossy. Those from Bargo Brush are of this character, and 5½ inches long and 1 to 1½ broad. Those from Queanbeyan are narrow-lanceolate. Some in the Sydney district are quite small, usually not exceeding 3 by ½ inch. The foliage of many trees in the Mudgee district is quite sparse. In the Macleay and Hastings districts the trees frequently have broadish, lanceolate long leaves up to 7 inches by 1½. Sometimes the leaves are hooked at the ends, a character more general in Eucalypts than was at one time supposed.

But there is no doubt that the leaves of this form pass insensibly into those of the normal species. Specimens from the Blue Mountains (e.g., Mt. Victoria) show this transition very clearly.

Operculum.—Nearly hemispherical or with a small umbo; perhaps less pointed than in the typical form.

Fruits.—The fruits are usually as flat-topped (they are but rarely slightly domed) as in any species of Eucalyptus, and therefore are not satisfactorily represented in the figure of E. hæmastoma in the “Eucalyptographia.” The fruits are small, nearly hemispherical, rarely tapered below, have thin pedicels, and are usually numerous. Some from Queanbeyan are [?] of an inch in diameter. Those from Bargo, &c., have flat tops and sharp rims. Some from the Mudgee district and South Coast afford instances of slight doming of the fruits. Occasionally they are depressed hemispherical—almost tazza-shaped. They are often pale-coloured and with markedly red mouths.

I have fruits from Mt. Wilson which, though quite small, taper like those of normal hæmastoma, and are in some respects connecting links.

Size.—Usually 30 or 40 feet in height, with a trunk diameter of 2 or 3 feet.

Mr. Andrew Murphy, in sending me specimens from Morisset, has trto differentiate between the type-form and the small-fruited form in the following words:—

  • “1. Broad-leaved White Gum, similar to narrow-leaved variety in appearance, much larger tree, generally grows in high dry country. Both these Gums are similar to E. coriacea. Large fruits.”
  • “2. Narrow-leaved White Gum. A very white bark to the ground. Straight tree. Small fruits.”




  ― 319 ―

But I repeat that the two forms run into each other and represent, in my view, climatic and soil differences only.

(2) var. capitata, var. nov.

In some cases, trees belonging to this species have fruits in dense heads. In these trees the foliage is coarser and larger than that of var. micrantha usually is; at the same time, the fruits, while numerous in the head, have thicker pedicels than those of var. micrantha; as regards size, the fruits are intermediate between the type and its variety. The bark is smooth.

This form, for which I propose the name variety capitata, is figured at 6, Plate xxx, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxii (1897), by Mr. Deane and myself, under var. micrantha.

The type is Mt. Victoria, 1st April, 1889 (J. H. Maiden). There are closely allied forms, not strictly capitate, and it occurs on the Blue Mountains and the Hawkesbury Ranges.

Synonyms.

  • 1. E. micrantha, DC.
  • 2. E. signata, F.v.M.

1. E. micrantha, DC. Following is the original description:—

Operculo conico cupulae longitudine, pedunculis angulatis petioli longitudine axillaribus et subterminalibus, umbellis 15–20—floris, foliis oblongis coriaceis basi attenuatis longè acuminatis nervulis antè marginem confluentibus. In Novâ-Hollandiâ, Sieb., plant ex. n. 497. Folia utrinquè lucida, petiolo semipollicari, laminâ 6–7 poll. longâ, pollicem latâ, venis penniformibus. Alabastra ovoidea generis minima.—(Prod. iii, 217.)

I have examined Sieber's No. 497, and it is var. micrantha.

2. E. signata, F.v.M. This is described in Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 85 (1859). Mueller quotes for his type specimens,—“In hills and wooded grassy hills near the Brisbane River.” Also Macarthur's Sydney Woods, Paris Exhibition, No. 163 in herb. Hook. He also states that it is called “Spotted Gum” in the Moreton Bay district.

I have a specimen of Mueller's type from Kew, besides which I saw it at Kew. It is typical var. micrantha.

Macarthur's specimen was exhibited under No. 163 for the Paris Exhibition of 1855 and under No. 30 for the London Exhibition of 1862. His label is, “Aboriginal name in Cumberland and Camden, ‘Caarambuy.’ Known as ‘White Gum.’ Diameter, 24–40 inches. Height, 60–80 feet. Not much valued, being generally of crooked growth.” This also is typical var. micrantha.




  ― 320 ―

Following is a doubtful form, and I am not yet satisfied as to whether it can be separated from var. micrantha, although the authors think the two forms are identical.

E. Rossii, R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith, “Research on the Eucalypts,” p. 70 (1902). See also Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxviii, 352 (1903).

The authors give E. micrantha, DC., as a synonym, and state, “Research on the Eucalypts,” p. 71: “Leaves were obtained (for oil) from Cow Flat, Bathurst.” In the following year Mr. Baker (op. cit., xxviii, 352) says: “Camboon is the only locality I have collected it” (so that we really have two localities). Bungendore (see oil analysis) is a third locality. See also xxi, 448.

The authors, op. cit., p. 71, say: “The oil had no resemblance to that of E. hæmastoma of Smith, the ‘Scribbly Gum’ of the coast.”

Under E. hæmastoma, Sm., the authors give E. signata, F.v.M., as a synonym, and this is identical with E. micrantha, DC., as already shown.

The analyses of the oils of E. hæmastoma and E. Rossii, as given by the authors, are herewith:—

     
Species  Whence collected for oil.  Specific gravity at 15°C.  Specific rotation [a]D   Saponification number.  Solubility in Alcohol.  Constituents found. 
hæmastoma …  Barber's Creek, N.S.W.; Gosford.  0.9195  -32.77° (first fraction).  5.1  Insoluble  Phellandrene, eucalyptol, sesquiterpene. 
Rossii …  Cow Flat, Bathurst; Bungendore.  0.9168 to 0.9215  +7.8° to +7.9°  7.95  1¼ vols. 70 

The type specimens (from Camboon) have pale-coloured foliage. An umbel of flowers and a leaf are figured by Mr. Deane and myself at fig. 14, Plate xxxi, and an umbel of fruits from the Grenfell District is figured at fig. 13 of the same Plate (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxii, 1897). In the legend of the Plate the Grenfell fruits are described as having “thin long pedicels and flat-topped sharp-rimmed fruits. Sometimes there are twenty in a head.”

The Grenfell and Camboon specimens have much in common, and, except in the number of flowers in an umbel (not a very definite character), I see no difference between them. As regards the sharp-rimmed fruits of the Grenfell specimens, we have them sometimes not sharp, and they seem identical with those of Camboon.

Camboon timber “is very hard, red coloured, and durable, and is far superior to that of E. hæmastoma” (R. T. Baker). Mr. Forester Postlethwaite, who collected the Grenfell specimens and was a sound bushman, says: “Quality of timber indifferent.”




  ― 321 ―

I have specimens which are very close to Mr. Baker's E. Rossii from Adelong (also from a local forester who did not append his name to them).

The anther of (?) E. Rossii is depicted at fig. 15, Plate 47, and it seems to be more compact, less reniform, and with the cells less divergent than those of E. hæmastoma usually are. Compare figure 14d of the same Plate.

I do not see my way to withdraw E. Rossii from E. hæmastoma, var. micrantha, with such evidence as I have at present. It seems that the Grenfell specimens connect the coastal specimens of var. micrantha, and both Camboon and Grenfell have more or less western climatic influence, so that we expect some difference.

Range.

THE specimens are all var. micrantha unless the contrary is indicated.

The typical species apparently does not extend beyond the Hawkesbury sandstone, and is most abundant not far from Port Jackson, the Hawkesbury and George's River, and the ridges and broken country in the vicinity. While the range is not very precisely defined at present (I have it from the Newcastle District), that of the variety micrantha is undoubtedly very much more extensive.

Besides New South Wales, it is also found in Queensland, and in our own State it extends from north to south, and from the coast across the table-land to at least as far south as Tumut, and west to the head of the Castlereagh River.

It is common in the National Park as well as around Port Jackson and County of Cumberland generally, and we have all sizes of fruits from as small to as large as seen anywhere.

No. 4,754, of Robert Brown (1802–5), distributed by J. J. Bennett in 1876, is var. micrantha.

Southern Localities.—Cambewarra, fruits of medium size (W. Baeuerlen); Badgery's Crossing to Nowra, fruits intermediate (W. Forsyth and A. A. Hamilton); Nowra (J. V. de Coque); Jervis Bay, fruits nearly as large as those of the type (J.H.M.); Bankstown and Cabramatta, very small fruits (J. L. Boorman); Appin, on cold sandy flats (J.H.M.); with large fruits near the type, Cataract Dam (E. Cheel); flats, Picton to Bargo (J.H.M.); Hill Top, on flats and also on ridges. Fruits sometimes a little pear-shaped (J.H.M.); Wingello, fruits of intermediate size (J. L. Boorman); Barber's Creek (J.H.M.); “Brittle Jack,” Pomeroy, Goulburn (H. Deane); Bungendore, fruits medium size (A. W. Howitt); granite hills, near Bungendore, south of Lake George. The thickening of the pedicels gives the fruits an almost conical form (W. S. Campbell); “Brittle Gum,” filiform fruit stalks, Queanbeyan (H. Deane); Adelong, Hills S.W. (½ mile) from Mt. Horeb Railway Station (R. H. Cambage); Cooma (on gneiss) (R. H. Cambage).




  ― 322 ―

Western Localities.—Penrith, with unusually small fruits (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman).

The small-fruited form continues the whole way across the Mountains, and is confined to the poor soil, avoiding the deep valleys.

Mt. Wilson, on the sandstone (Jesse Gregson). Some of these specimens have flat-topped and rather large fruits, and resemble a good deal those from Grenfell referred to under E. Rossii. They also have affinity to var. capitata as regards the shape of the fruits.

Capertee (J. L. Boorman). In fruit only, and may be compared with the Camboon specimens (see E. Rossii); Mudgee No. 10 F.; Apsley (R. H. Cambage) Perth (J. L. Boorman).

“Near the head of the Castlereagh River, which extends the range of the species further towards the westward than it has previously been found in this latitude. It is a large tree, and is locally known as ‘Cabbage Gum’” (W. Forsyth).

Northern Localities.—Berowra, large fruits (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman); Tuggerah Lakes (J.L.B.); Morisset (A. Murphy); Dudley, near Newcastle, with fruits as large as ever found near Sydney (Jesse Gregson); Belmont, near Newcastle (Jesse Gregson); Raymond Terrace (A. Rudder); Failford to Forster (J.H.M.); Port Macquarie (G. R. Brown); Port Macquarie to Kempsey (J.H.M.); Moonambah, Brunswick River (W. Baeuerlen); “Tumble-down Gum,” Hillgrove and Enmore, Armidale District (J. F. Campbell); Emmaville (J. L. Boorman).

QUEENSLAND.

“Spotted Gum,” type of E. signata, F.v.M. Brisbane River, from F. v. Mueller, from Kew.

“White or Sugar Gum,” of no utility. Maryborough (W. H. Williams).

“Eucalyptus scarcely distinct from E. hæmastoma, Sm., Moreton Bay, 1824, A.C.” This specimen of Allan Cunningham in Herb. Cant. ex herb. Lindl. is var. micrantha.

Archer's Station, Rockhampton (Leichhardt).

Affinities.

1. With E. Sieberiana.

As regards the vernacular names in the “Flora Australiensis,” Cunningham's name of “Blackbutt” is a misnomer, and has probably arisen from confusion of the species with the “Mountain Ash” (E. Sieberiana), and the name of “Mountain Ash” for E. hæmastoma has probably arisen through too close reliance upon herbarium specimens, those of E. hæmastoma and E. Sieberiana being frequently difficult to discriminate unless complete material be available.

As compared with E. Sieberiana, there is a close affinity in juvenile foliage. See E. Sieberiana, p. 306.




  ― 323 ―

2. With E. virgata, Sieb.

Herbarium specimens sometimes exhibit a good deal of similarity. I have a flat-topped fruit (not quite ripe) of the large-fruited kind of hæmastoma from Peat's-road, Hawkesbury River, which was named E. virgata by an excellent authority.

3. With E. Luehmanniana, F.v.M.

The juvenile leaves present a good deal of resemblance. There is a closer resemblance between typical hæmastoma and Luehmanniana, variety altior, which it may be sufficient to draw attention to.

4. With E. coriacea, A. Cunn.

The large-fruited or typical hæmastoma may resemble those of E. coriacea a good deal, but the venation of the leaves is different. E. hæmastoma has clean white stems much after the appearance of E. coriacea.

5. With E. Gunnii, Hook, f., var. maculosa.

This will be dealt with when the variety is reached.

In 1901 (Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., p. 125), Mr. Deane and I described, under the name of E. hæmastoma, Sm., var. montana, a shrubby plant only 2 or 3 feet high, from Mt. Victoria, collected by myself. The bark of so small a shrub was no guide, and the blood-red rims decided us to place it with E. hæmastoma—a pardonable error, as it obviously strongly resembles that species.

Since then, however, I have obtained typical E. amygdalina, var. nitida, and I find that these specimens precisely match Gunn's No. 808, e.g., Currie's River, Tasmania. The pale-brown fruits with the dark red-brown rims arrest attention. The only point in which I can distinguish the Mt. Victoria specimens from those of Currie's River consists in the more obvious oil-glands of those from Mt. Victoria, but this may be in a measure owing to the age (over 60 years) of the Tasmanian specimens. The similarity of the specimens is remarkable when it is borne in mind that the Tasmanian specimens are mostly from the sea-coast, while Mt. Victoria is an inland mountain locality. In a papernote I have given very definite evidence of the absolute similarity of many Tasmanian and New South Wales forms, and this is an additional example.

E. hæmastoma, var. micrantha, differs in the erect, less falcate foliage of E. amygdalina, var. nitida. Both forms show oil-dots very abundantly. E. amygdalina, var. nitida, shows these dots far more abundantly than E. hæmastoma, var. micrantha, as a rule, whose leaves are generally thicker, but in mountain specimens it is sometimes not possible to separate them on these grounds.

The fruits are less brown, less sessile, and with a rather more marked rim than those of var. nitida.

As regards amygdalina generally, the rims of the fruit are thinner; amygdalina has fibrous, and hæmastoma a smooth bark; but in dwarf mountain forms it is sometimes difficult to speak about bark.

37. XXXVI. Eucalyptus siderophloia, Bentham.

             
Description  324 
Notes supplementary to the description  324 
Varieties  324 
Synonyms  325 
Note on E. persicifolia, DC.  325 
Range  326 
Affinities  328 




  ― 324 ―

Description.

XXXVI. Eucalyptus siderophloia, Benth.

(B.Fl. iii, 220.) Re-described by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia,” with a plate.

Notes supplementary to the description.

A “coarse” species—that is to say, having coarse foliage, coarse fruits (as compared with the other Ironbarks, paniculata and crebra), and coarsely furrowed bark. Altogether a very sturdy tree, reminding one, in this respect, of the British Oak.

The buds are often, when young, of the “egg in egg-cup” shape—that is to say, the operculum is of noticeably less diameter than the calyx. The fruits have exsert valves, which is usually quite sufficient to distinguish this from other Ironbarks.

The “She Ironbark” (Woolls) given as a name for this species in the “Flora Australiensis” arose from a mixture of specimens of E. paniculata with those of E. siderophloia from Parramatta.

There is a Brachyscelid gall common on the leaves and branchlets of this species, which Mr. W. W. Froggatt tells me is Opisthoscelis Maskelli, Froggatt. It has been found at Homebush, Newcastle, Maitland, Stroud to Gloucester, &c. I have never found it on any other species of Eucalyptus, and it, therefore, has some diagnostic value, in the present state of our knowledge.

Varieties.

(1.) Var. (?) rostrata, Benth. Operculum ¼ to ½ in. long; capsule valves more prominent—Port Jackson, “Ironbark” R. Brown, Caley; “Greater Ironbark,” Backhouse; “Large-leaved Ironbark,” Woolls (B.Fl. iii, 220).

I find E. siderophloia on the whole very uniform in character. It is a rostrate budded species, with a certain amount of variation in the length of the operculum, it is true, and which Bentham allows.

I have Woolls' specimens labelled by him var. rostrata, and they are the ordinary form. All Port Jackson specimens are rostrate-budded. It is rostrate-budded to Central Queensland. I agree with Bentham in his doubt as to the value of the name var. rostrata, and go further and say that it is a name whose use can only result in confusion.

[Specimens which most literally conform to Bentham's original description of E. siderophloia are some mixed ones of E. paniculata and E. siderophloia collected by Woolls at Parramatta.

The description also applies more or less well to the Paddy's Hill, Woy Woy, Taree to Wollamba, and Port Macquarie specimens referred to under “Range.” These are, however, exceptional, and I follow Mueller (see figure of E. siderophloia in the “Eucalyptographia”) in looking upon E. siderophloia as having a rather long operculum, and the fruit as having well exserted valves. There is no room for a variety rostrata.]




  ― 325 ―

(2.) Var. glauca, Deane and Maiden. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxiv, 461 (1899).

Following is the original description:—

This is the glaucous interior form of the species, which goes under the names of “Blue-leaf Ironbark” (in allusion to its glaucous foliage) and “Broad-leaf Ironbark,” in allusion to its broad sucker-leaves.

Its operculum is shorter than that of the normal species, but the fruit of var. glauca and of the type are precisely similar except as regards glaucousness.note

Dubbo District (H. Deane, Nov., 1892; J. V. de Coque and J. L. Boorman, Nov., 1897). This form (from fragments in our possession) will probably be found to have extended range easterly, and more particularly northerly of the Dubbo District.

“Broad-leaf Ironbark.” Mr. J. V. de Coque recently drew attention to this tree, and pointed out that its timber is inferior to that of the other Ironbarks of the Dubbo District. Its timber is of an inferior quality, both as regards “ringing” and “splitting” (cracking), so much so that the timber-getters never cut it except for rails. Mr. Boorman points out that it grows on slightly elevated lands, and is confined to such situations only. When growing in the forest it can readily be noted by its glaucous appearance.

The “Blue-leaf Ironbark” is not really different from the preceding, although local people point out differences in breadth and glaucousness of leaves.

It bears a strong superficial resemblance to a specimen in the National Herbarium, Melbourne (in bud only), collected by Charles Stuart in “New England, 1,000–1,500 feet.” (New England is never as low as this, so that, if the heights be correct, it must have been collected during an ascent.) His label further states: “30–40 feet, bark very rugose and deeply furrowed, flowers light yellow; Mountain Ironbark, No. 128.” It bears a label in Mueller's handwriting “E. leucoxylon,” and is probably the var. pallens of Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 210). Ample botanical material is desirable of these aberrant forms; at the same time it is not suggested for a moment that there are not two glaucous species,note the stamens and stigma of E. siderophloia and E. leucoxylon (really sideroxylon) being very different.

In addition to the localities above enumerated, I have it from—

“On the sides of hills and out of the crevices of rock, all over the district, not perhaps plentiful, but widely scattered over the hills.” A stunted tree, Gungal, near Merriwa (J. L. Boorman).

Synonyms.

  • 1.E. fibrosa, F.v.M.
  • 2. E. ornata, Sieb.

Note on E. persicifolia, DC.

1. E. fibrosa, F. Muell. in Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 87, from the Brisbane, is only known from specimens in young bud, in which state I am unable to distinguish them from the var. rostrata of E. siderophloia. F. Mueller, however, designates it as a Stringybark. It may, therefore, prove to be distinct. (B.Fl. iii, 220.)




  ― 326 ―

In the “Eucalyptographia” Mueller says the bark of E. fibrosa “now proves far less fibrous than that of the real Stringybark trees,” and he consents to its being considered a synonym of E. siderophloia.

I have dealt with the matter at p. 34, Part I of this work. I had overlooked Mueller's remark (made after he had reinvestigated the bark), and am now of opinion that E. fibrosa, F.v.M., is a synonym of E. siderophloia, Benth. The name was, however, most unfortunate, as the bark of E. siderophloia is never fibrous.

2. E. ornata, Sieb., Pl. Exs. Quoted by Bentham in B.Fl. iii, 208 (I cannot find the original description).

A specimen from Herb. Oldfield in Herb. Kew, labelled “Eucalyptus resinifera, Large-leaved Ironbark, Parramatta, New South Wales, W. Woolls,” was examined by Bentham for the “Flora Australiensis,” and is the E. siderophloia, Benth., var. (?) rostrata, of B.Fl. iii, 220. (It bears the provisional pencil name, in Bentham's handwriting, of “ornata, var.”)

The original specimens were gathered by Woolls, at Cabramatta, near Parramatta, and are in the Woollsian Herbarium presented by me to the Sydney Herbarium. Cf. p. 33, Part I of this work.

Note on E. persicifolia, DC. “E. persicifolia, DC., Prod. iii, 217, and F. Muell., Fragm. ii, 61 (in part only), not of Lodd.” These are the words of Bentham, quoting synonyms, in describing E. siderophloia. I have gone into the matter in Part I, p. 32, and arrived at the conclusion that E. persicifolia is a synonym of E. pilularis, Sm. I have reinvestigated the matter, and see no reason to alter my opinion.

Range.

BENTHAM gives it as Port Jackson to Moreton Bay, while Bailey speaks of it as found in Southern Queensland.

It is, however, found at least as far south as the borders of the Counties of Cumberland and Camden, New South Wales; and since the trees in that locality are of considerable size, I do not doubt that search will show that it occurs at least as far south as the County of Camden.

In Queensland it is found as far north as Rockhampton. In its glaucous form it occurs as far west as the Dubbo District.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

We have it in the National Herbarium, Sydney, from a number of localities in the County of Cumberland, south, west, and north of Sydney. It has been almost exterminated from the suburbs of Sydney, partly because it yields a valuable timber and partly because of the natural progress of settlement.




  ― 327 ―

It is fairly common still at Homebush and Flemington, Bankstown to Cabramatta (the Railway Station); Cabramatta (the Cabramatta of the “Flora Australiensis,” where Woolls collected, and now called Rossmore, since the name has been given to a railway station several miles away); Smithfield.

Specimens of twigs and timber were sent by the late Sir William Macarthur to the Paris Exhibition of 1855 and the London Exhibition of 1862, under the following numbers:—

  • (a) 137 (Paris), 4 (London).
  • (b) 137b (Paris), 5 (London).

They both belong to this species, although some local variation caused Sir William to think they were different.

With reference to the aboriginal name given by Macarthur, it is interesting to note that George Caley, who collected for Sir Joseph Banks in the County of Cumberland, 1800–1810, called it “Derrobarry,” evidently the same word, and I believe that Macarthur's names were obtained quite independently.

Sir William Macarthur furnished the following information:—

  • (a) “Terri-barri” (aboriginal name); “Broad-leaved rough Ironbark” or “Rough-leaved Rough-barked Ironbark” (local names, Counties of Cumberland and Camden). Diameter in inches, 24–48; height in feet, 80–120. From Appin; common in Cumberland. One of the strongest and most durable of timbers. “This tree has been proposed for their emblem by the colonists of New South Wales.
  • (b) “Ironbark.” Diameter in inches, 24–48; height in feet, 80–120. From Appin; distinguishable by its very rough bark in broad deep longitudinal furrows, its very broad leaves, its smooth bark on the young branches, and the different grain of its wood.

Turning to the west it is more or less abundant to the foot of the Blue Mountains—e.g., Rooty Hill, St. Mary's, Penrith, Emu Plains, Richmond.

It extends to the Capertee Valley (J.H.M. and J.L. Boorman) and Murrumbo, Rylstone District (R. T. Baker), with somewhat blunter opercula, and showing transit to the variety glauca found much more to the west.

In the north it is much more abundant, and practically all the supply of this timber comes thence.

Following are some records of northern specimens in the Sydney Herbarium:—

“Red Ironbark.” Height 50 feet, diameter 1 foot. Clarence Town (A. Rudder); Paterson, the commonest Ironbark of the district (J. L. Boorman); Jones' Flat, 12 miles south of Stroud (J.H.M.); Bullahdelah (A. Rudder). “Red Iron-bark,” Lawrence, Clarence River (J. V. de Coque); Myrtle Creek, County of Richmond (W. P. Pope).




  ― 328 ―

It has been already stated that E. siderophloia is a species very uniform in character, and the following specimens from central coastal New South Wales display as much difference from the normal form as is known to me (variety glauca excepted).

  • (a) Raymond Terrace to Stroud (Red Ironbark).

Some of these trees have fruits with exserted valves, and also fruits strikingly like those of E. paniculata in shape,—valves hardly, if at all, exserted, and the orifice in some cases somewhat contracted. For example, at Paddy's Hill, 14 miles north of Raymond Terrace, we have these paniculata-like fruits, with valves of fruit not exsert (J.H.M.).

Woy Woy.—Similar to preceding (A. Murphy), and with buds probably not so long in the operculum, but they are not ripe in either case.

  • (b) With short operculum with a tendency to a beak, like E. rostrata, but not long like E. tereticornis or E. resinifera. Taree to Wollamba (No. 291, Forest Department) sent as “Narrow-leaved Ironbark.” The leaves of most trees are narrower as the top of the tree is reached. It is not E. paniculata.

Specimens sent as “Red Ironbark,” Port Macquarie, by Forest Ranger G. R. Brown, are similar.

QUEENSLAND.

Moreton Bay (James Backhouse, 1836).

Near Brisbane, where it is said to be sometimes known as “Yellow Ironbark” (P. MacMahon).

Taylor's Range (F. M. Bailey). E. resinifera grows in the district, and has buds with long opercula also.

“Red Ironbark,” Rockhampton and North Rockhampton. I see no difference between these and Port Jackson specimens (A. Murphy).

Affinities.

1. With E. pilularis, Sm.

“When the operculum is short, specimens in bud only are much like those of the Blackbutt (E. pilularis) with which they appear to have been confounded, both by De Candolle and F. Mueller, although distinguished by all collectors; when the flowers are open the anthers give a ready character, and the venation of the leaves is somewhat different.” (B.Fl. iii, 220.)

The fruits, bark, and timber of the two species are very different, but specimens in bud, and even young bud (and the early collectors sometimes were only able to obtain such) sometimes show the similarity to which Bentham refers.




  ― 329 ―

2. With E. cornuta, Labill.

“Stamens almost straight in bud, only slightly flexuose, thus imitating those of the E. cornuta and its allies; hence the anthers not concealed before the expansion of the flower by the inflection of the filaments.”

(Mueller in “Eucalyptographia” under E. siderophloia).

The anthers and other characters of the two species are, however, very different, and the differences in other respects are very marked.

3. With E. hemiphloia, F.v.M., var. albens (E. albens).

“Evidently allied” (Benth.). The affinity is not close, and will be referred to when E. hemiphloia is dealt with.

4 and 5. With E. crebra, F.v.M., and E. paniculata, Sm.

“Evidently allied to E. crebra and the other Ironbarks” (Benth.).

It is most readily distinguished from the other Ironbarks (E. paniculata and E. crebra, being the species with which it is most likely to be confused), by its coarseness of foliage and the flattish, broad ridges of the bark. In E. crebra the inflorescence and fruits are much smaller. In E. paniculata the anthers are very different and the fruits have not the valves exsert, but the latter is a character which must be used with caution. See p. 328.

5. With E. resinifera, Sm.

“The rostrate variety, when in young bud, resembles E. resinifera, and even E. tereticornis, but the venation, and still more the anthers, distinguish it.” (B.Fl. iii, 220).

The species most likely to be confused with E. siderophloia in herbarium specimens is E. resinifera, Sm., the proof being that such confusion actually does take place, the two species being often mixed by botanists, particularly when leaves and buds are alone available. See fig. 27, Plate 47. The two trees cannot be confused in the field, the bark of E. resinifera being fibrous and the timber very different.

38. XXXVII. Eucalyptus Boormani, Deane and Maiden.

         
PAGE  
Description  330 
Notes supplementary to the description  330 
Range  331 
Affinities  331 




  ― 330 ―

Description.

XXXVII. Eucalyptus Boormani, Deane and Maiden.

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxvi, 339 (1901).

Bark.—Dark in colour, often very dark grey and even black. In texture scaly, sometimes hard scaly, and even in parts nearly as rugged as an Ironbark, but never as soft as a Box. The rough bark extends to the small branches.

Timber.—Pale reddish-brown in colour, hard and durable, and, according to the testimony of many observers, while of an Ironbark character, even superior to the Ironbarks of the district in which it grows.

Suckerleaves.—Broad and coarse, nearly orbicular, but early becoming lanceolate.

Mature leaves.—Ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, usually 3 to 6 inches long, and over 1 inch in breadth; veins fine and rather spreading, the intramarginal vein usually quite close to the edge. Texture of the leaf coriaceous and tough, like that of E. siderophloia.

Buds.—The buds and stamens appear to us not to differ from those of E. siderophloia.

Operculum.—Conical, like that of E. siderophloia, but we have not observed the operculum much to exceed the calyx, which is very commonly the case in E. siderophloia, especially in var. rostrata.

Fruits.—Nearly semiovate, often slightly angular, usually presenting a good deal of resemblance to those of E. siderophloia, but the valves (which usually number four, and sometimes five) scarcely exserted. About three to four lines in diameter, and not contracting at the orifice. Sometimes so subcylindrical in shape as to exhibit considerable resemblance to those of typical E. hemiphloia, F.v.M. (op. cit.).

Notes supplementary to the description.

Named in honour of John Luke Boorman, Collector, Botanic Gardens, Sydney, who, in regard to this and other species, has prosecuted inquiries in an intelligent and painstaking manner.

The name “Black Box” seems to be most generally in use for this species; the even better name of “Ironbark Box” (which certainly indicates its affinities) is nearly as frequently in use. At Lue it is also called “She Ironbark,” its difference from the ordinary Ironbarks being thus recognised.

This seems to me to be a natural hybrid between E. siderophloia, Benth., and E. hemiphloia, F.v.M. The evidence available is published by Mr. Henry Deane and myself in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, p. iii (1900), and xxvi, p. 339 (1901). Later on, xxx, p. 494 (1905), I drew attention to the remarkable discovery by George Caley (botanical collector in New South Wales, 1800–1810), of hybridisation between E. siderophloia and E. hemiphloia.

As it is my intention to publish, later on, an account of hybridisation in Eucalyptus, with necessary illustrations, I will not present the evidence at this place.




  ― 331 ―

Range.

BANKSTOWN and Cabramatta districts; thence across country to Penrith. It has also been found at Lue, on the Mudgee line.

Affinities.

1. With E. leptophleba, F.v.M.

It seems to have its closest affinity to E. leptophleba (drepanophylla). Further investigations may even cause it to be looked upon as a southern form of the Queensland species; but the latter is always described as an Ironbark, and the imperfect specimens of the type that I have hitherto had the opportunity of seeing present differences in the fruit and leaves which caused Mr. Deane and me to form the opinion that the interests of science would best be served in giving the former a name.

2 and 3. With E. siderophloia, Benth., and E. hemiphloia, F.v.M.

When young it has the flattish bark often seen in young E. siderophloia. The foliage, inflorescence, and fruits show obvious resemblance to that species, while its other resemblances to this species, and also to E. hemiphloia, have been already referred to.

4. With E. affinis, Deane and Maiden.

It has undoubted affinity to E. affinis, particularly in the timber and bark. At Lue they are both called “Black Box,” and so far as specimens in my possession go, I cannot separate the trees, either in timber or bark, except with difficulty; the leaves also are much alike in texture and venation, but the fruits are very dissimilar.

39. XXXVIII. Eucalyptus leptophleba, F. v. Mueller.

         
Description  332 
Notes supplementary to the description  332 
Synonym  332 
Range  333 
Affinities  334 




  ― 332 ―

Description.

XXXVIII. Eucalyptus leptophleba, F.v.M.

Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 86 (1859).

THE original description is in Latin, and may be translated as follows:—

A tree; the branches below nearly terete, and above slightly angled; leaves alternate, scarcely petiolate, falcate-lanceolate, without evident oil-dots, very finely veined, intramarginal vein but little removed from the edge; umbels axillary and terminal, 3–5 flowered, in pairs, in threes, or in panicles; peduncles angled; pedicels shorter; the tube of the calyx semiovate; fruits semiovate, not ribbed, 4–5 celled; the valves deltoid, acuminate, and sunk below the rim.

Habitat.—In grass land near the Gilbert River. Flowering in summer.

A small or large tree; bark of a dirty grey, rugose, fissured on the trunk and persistent on the branches. Leaves mostly 3–5 inches long, up to 1 inch broad. Primary peduncles equalling or exceeding the petioles. Pedicels of the calyx variable, shorter than the tube. Fruit 3–4 lines long, not contracted at the orifice. Valves with tips scarcely exserted. Near to E. patellaris.

It is briefly described in B.Fl. iii, 221.

Notes supplementary to the description.

E. leptophleba, or Blackbutt, is a large tree of quick growth, rising to a height of about 100 feet, with a diameter of 3–4 feet; bark dark, persistent, and separating into numerous small pieces (similar to that of E. tesselaris) on the trunk, grey, smooth, and deciduous on the branches. This tree has the general appearance of E. tereticornis, with the bark of E. tesselaris and the fruit of E. crebra. The wood is red, hard, and durable, but not much used, in consequence of being generally hollow in the centre. It is only known from Queensland, and is dispersed through the scrubby country westward from Gaganjo.— (P. O'Shanesy, Rockhampton).

“Yudhulwan” is the aboriginal name, according to Mr. O'Shanesy.

Attention is invited to the fact that this species is variously described as “Ironbark” and “Box.” This is not the only Ironbark which becomes a Box as tropical regions are approached, and E. crebra and E. melanophloia may be mentioned in this connection. It would appear that the outer bark becomes flatter and more fibrous, or softer and more flaky, in warm regions.

The silky sheen of leaves of E. leptophleba (or drepanophylla) appears to be a character.

The kino of E. drepanophylla is described by C. Mannich in Journ. Pharm., Chim., (6) xvi, 216; abstract in Pharm. Journ., xv (4), 523 (November, 1902).

Synonym.

E. drepanophylla, F.v.M., in B.Fl. iii, 221 (1866).

In the “Eucalyptographia,” under E. siderophloia, Mueller speaks of “E. drepanophylla, which may be perhaps a mere variety of the imperfectly-known E. leptophleba.”




  ― 333 ―

In the “Second Census,” E. leptophleba is suppressed, but E. drepanophylla is recognised.

E. drepanophylla includes as a variety E. leptophleba.” (J. G. Luehmann, in Proc. A.A.A.S., 530, 1898.)

This cannot be, as E. leptophleba is the older name, but it is additional testimony that the species are the same.

E. leptophleba, F.v.M., and E. drepanophylla, F.v.M., are imperfectly-known species, but there seems no doubt at all that one is a synonym of the other, and therefore E. leptophleba, the older name, must stand. E. drepanophylla is more fully described, and it is not necessary to redescribe it until more field knowledge is available. This is work for Queensland botanists, and suites of specimens from various localities should be collected, and juvenile leaves should be especially remembered, since at present these are unknown.

Range.

E. leptophleba is found in Queensland, though I believe it may occur in New South Wales. The type comes from the Gilbert River.

The following are specimens referred to E. leptophleba by Mueller himself:—

  • (a) Trinity Bay (Cairns). Fruit rather more spherical than those of drepanophylla usually are.
  • (b) In bud, from Rockingham Bay (Dallachy).
  • (c) A specimen of small conoid fruits, stated to have been collected by O'Shanesy between the Dawson and Mackenzie Rivers, differing from any other fruits, I have seen labelled by Mueller either leptophleba or drepanophylla.

I doubt the correctness of the naming of this specimen.

Bentham gives the following localities and vernacular names for E. drepanophylla:—

N. Australia.—N.W. coast, A. Cunningham.

Queensland.—E. coast (A. Cunningham); Keppel Bay and Shoalwater Bay (R. Brown); Burdekin Expedition (Fitzalan); Port Denison, “Ironbark-tree” (Fitzalan, Dallachy); Bowen River, “Ironbark,” (Bowman).

The specimens from the N.W. coast that I have seen are in young fruit (the style still persistent), and with a few stamens on one flower. In my view, they are doubtful.




  ― 334 ―

I have seen specimens of the following, named by Mueller, and chiefly in the Melbourne and Calcutta herbaria:—

S.E. Carpentaria, “Box tree,” in fruit-only (E. Palmer); Sources of the South Coen River, York Peninsula, in fruit (Stephen Johnson); “North Coast,” R. Br., 1802–5, not in fruit, pale-coloured operculum; Endeavour River, N. Holland, Lieutenant King (afterwards Admiral P. P. King) ex herb. Lambert in herb. Cant.; Palmer River, in fruit only (collector?); Daintree River (Fitzalan), in flower only; Cleveland Bay (Townsville), in bud, pale-coloured operculum (S. Johnson); Edgecumbe (? Range), near Port Denison, a poor stunted tree, 20 feet high (Dallachy); Port Denison, in flower (Fitzalan); Ravenswood, Burdekin River, in fruit (S. Johnson); Mt. Elliot (S.W. of Bowling Green Bay), in flower only (Fitzalan); Stuart River (Nanango District), with the ordinary sub-cylindrical, and with more hemispherical fruits (S. Johnson).

Affinities.

E. drepanophylla differs from E. crebra chiefly in the large flowers, and in the larger, harder, and more globular fruit. From E. leptophleba it is chiefly distinguished by the leaves not so thick, with more oblique veins. It is not impossible, however, that E. melanophloia, drepanophylla, trachyphloia, leptophleba, and crebra, all of them Ironbarks, may be but forms of one species. (B.Fl. iii, 221.)

In the specimens I have seen, the leaves of E. drepanophylla are thicker, if anything, rather than “not so thick” as those of E. leptophleba; indeed, I do not think they differ at all. Almost without exception, the fruits of E. drepanophylla, determined by Mueller himself, are sub-cylindrical. The words “more globular” seem to me inappropriate in the connection in which they are used.

E. melanophloia, trachyphloia (a Bloodwood), and crebra are good species, and certainly different. E. leptophleba (drepanophylla) is again different, though closest to crebra of the species mentioned.

E. drepanophylla, which may be perhaps a mere variety of the imperfectly-known E. leptophleba, is still nearer to E. siderophloia than E. crebra; it is generally of more stunted growth; its leaves are narrower, of a paler hue, more opaque, usually also more curved and provided with stomata of almost equal number on either page; the flower-stalks are less angular and rather thinner; the lid is blunter, and only of about the same length as that of the calyx-tube; the filaments show a somewhat inflected curvature while in bud; the style is shorter, and bears a slightly broader stigma.—(Under E. siderophloia, in Mueller's “Eucalyptographia.”)

40. XXXIX. Eucalyptus Behriana, F. v. Mueller.

         
Description  335 
Notes supplementary to the description  335 
Synonym  335 
Range  336 
Affinities  336 




  ― 335 ―

Description.

XXXIX. Eucalyptus Behriana, F.v.M.

Following is the original description of the species:—

Fruitcose; leaves alternate, coriaceous, somewhat shining, lanceolate or ovate, acute, slightly oblique, thinly veined, dotted; umbels pedunculate, panicled, few-flowered; flowers small, nearly sessile; lid hemispherical, blunt or minutely apiculate; tube of the calyx obconical, bell-shaped, nearly twice as long as the lid; fruit half-ovate, sessile, not contracted at the top, valves of the capsule enclosed; seeds brown, streaked.

In arid plains and on stony hills near the Avoca, Murray, and Gawler Rivers, and in Bacchus Marsh.—Trans. Vic. Inst., i (1855), 34.

At about the same time Mueller sent specimens to Miquel, who was then engaged on his “Stirpes Novo-Hollandas.” The latter independently described the species, and as his description is published in Ned. Kruidk., Arch. iv, 140 (1856,note not 1859, as mentioned in B.Fl.), an excessively rare work, I quote it here:—

39. Eucalyptus Behriana, Ferd. Müll. E. pruinosa, Behr. Herb. non Schauer. Fruticosa, ramulis teretiusculis summo apice compresso-angulatis foliisque subtus pruinosis, his ovato-lanceolatis inæquilateris acuminatis, basi in petiolum contractis, coriaceis, penniveniis, umbellis capitatis paucifloris (1–7 floris), in paniculis axillaribus lateralibus et terminalibus confertis, pedunculis umbellarum teretiusculis, calycis tubo parvo obeonieo turbinato, operculo hemisphærico mutico vel apiculato quam tubus duplo breviore.

In Nova Hollandia australi legit cl. Dr. Behr., autumno. Teste Cl. Müller prope E. polyanthemos inserenda. Frutex 6–12 pedalis. Folia ad 3 poll, longa ½ lata.

It is figured in the “Eucalyptographia,” but the figure is not a very good one.

Notes supplementary to the description.

E. Behriana is always a Mallee. It grows in scrubs, and usually is 5 to 10 feet high, though it sometimes forms small trees, which have rarely a diameter of as much as 9 inches. The bark is always smooth, and commonly of a dirty-white colour, or, according to one observer, of “a dark oily-looking green.” The timber is red. The flowers and fruit are small, with a panicled inflorescence, the opercula being blunt, and the fruit shiny and dark coloured. It bears seed abundantly. The leaves are comparatively broad, and are thick and shiny.

Notes on variations in this species will be found in the description under Plate 48.

Synonym.

E. pruinosa, Behr, non Schauer. See above. I have seen a specimen.




  ― 336 ―

Range.

IT has hitherto been recorded from a few localities in South Australia, and certain of the drier parts of Victoria and New South Wales.

Besides those localities mentioned in the original description, Mueller quotes (“Eucalyptographia”) “in the hilly forest region of Wirrabara, near Crystal Brook, and Mount Remarkable on deep marly clay-soil” (J. E. Brown), and quotes Dr. Behr, “in the scrubs of Sandarac-Cypresses (Callitris) near the Gawler River.”

Prof. Ralph Tate, in his “Flora of South Australia,” states that it is found in the northern agricultural areas, the Port Lincoln District, Kangaroo Island, and south of the Murray Desert. A few more specific South Australian localities are desirable.

VICTORIA.

Bacchus Marsh (Mueller), a type locality; Swan Hill, Murray River (J. G. Luehmann), 1890; Mallee District (C. Walter), 1889; Inglewood and Wedderburn (J. Blackburn); Yarram Biack (C. Walter), 1886; Wimmera (J. Reader); Nhill (St. Eloy D'Alton).

NEW SOUTH WALES.

“Mallee,” Wyalong (H. Deane), about 1890.

Wyalong (Forester J. G. Postlethwaite), April, 1892. Height 20 feet; diameter 6 inches.

Wyalong (W. S. Campbell), October, 1901.

20–30 feet, with one or two dozen stems of 3 to 4 inches in diameter springing from one root. Barmedman and other stations in the Lachlan District (J. Duff).

Leaves smooth, green, and shining; flowers small. Grows in scrubs 5 to 10 feet high, sometimes small trees, rarely up to 9 inches in diameter. Bark, dirty white, smooth. Broad green-leaf Mallee. (R. H. Cambage, Wyalong and Barmedman, September, 1900.)

“Broad-leaf Mallee,” Wyalong (J. L. Boorman).

Affinities.

1. With E. bicolor, A. Cunn.

Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) defines the difference between E. Behriana and E. bicolor (largiflorens) to be—

  • (1) The bark of the latter persists.
  • (2) The leaves are conspicuously narrower, of thinner consistence, of duller hue, finer veined, and better provided with oil-dots.



  •   ― 337 ―
  • (3) Its panicles are more spreading.
  • (4) The lids (at least often) are double, and the stamens not constantly all fertile.

In the field the species are at once separated by the large size of E. bicolor, which has rough bark up to the small branches. The timber of both is red. In the herbarium, I imagine that they would be readily separated by the broad shiny leaves of E. Behriana, to mention no other characters. I do not attach much importance to No. 4 as characters.

2. With E. hemiphloia, F.v.M.

Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) says:—

E. Behriana approaches closely to E. hemiphloia, from which it mainly differs in—

  • 1. Never attaining the stately dimensions of that species.
  • 2. Bark remaining smooth from succession of outer layers.
  • 3. The leaves are as a rule (subject, however, to exceptions) shorter and broader.
  • 4. The panicles are less ample, by which means the umbels are not rarely arranged in a racemous manner.
  • 5. The flowers and fruits are smaller, their stalklets are less abbreviated, the lid is shorter and blunter, and the fruit-valves are less deeply enclosed.

To which may be added: Their timbers are totally different, that of E. Behriana being of a red colour; that of E. hemiphloia is the ordinary pale-coloured Box, whose appearance and properties are thoroughly well known. The flowers of E. Behriana are small, with short filaments.

In the field the species could never be confused for a moment, but as expert botanists have confused them (i.e., E. Behriana with forms attributed to E. hemiphloia,—my var. microcarpa) in the herbarium, it is idle to contend that they do not possess some degree of similarity. Perhaps this note will be the means of causing attention to be given to the matter.

3. With E. odorata, Behr.

Under E. Behriana, F.v.M., Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 214) describes a var. purpurascens, F.v.M., originally collected by Wilhelmi at Lake Wangaroo (Wangary), South Australia. At p. 217 (under E. hemiphloia) he refers to South Australian specimens (Memory Cove and Kangaroo Island, R. Brown; Port Lincoln, Wilhelmi), and says:—“In Mr. Brown's South Australian specimens the leaves are smaller, but in Wilhelmi's they are the same as in the northern ones, and I can find no character to distinguish them. Both R. Brown and F. Mueller had given them the MS. name of E. purpurascens. R. Brown's plant (collected 1802–5) was distributed from the British Museum under the number 4,735.

I have examined the type, labelled by Mueller “E. purpurascens, Ferd. M. Scrub of Port Lincoln, January, 1855. 4–6 feet. Carl Wilhelmi.” Afterwards the same specimen was labelled by Mueller “E. hemiphloia, var.,” with the note: “Pedicels none; lid short and blunt.” All these specimens referred to E. Behriana and E. hemiphloia are, in my opinion, identical. They are usually easily recognised by their purple filaments, and belong to E. odorata, Behr. Judging from herbarium specimens alone, it is easy to see how botanists wavered, placing them at one time under E. hemiphloia and at another under E. Behriana. I will deal with the matter subsequently, when dealing with E. odorata. (I have recently visited the type-locality.) I then propose also to deal with the affinity of E. Behriana to E. odorata in general.




  ― 338 ―

4. With E. incrassata, Labill., var. dumosa, F.v.M.

Both are Mallees, and often much of the same size. The leaves of both are thickish, those of E. Behriana are broader. The inflorescence of var. dumosa is less paniculate, the anthers sharply different, while the fruit of var. dumosa is usually noticeably larger. The operculum of var. dumosa is usually ribbed. See also Part IV of this work.

41. XL. Eucalyptus populifolia, Hooker.

         
Description  339 
Notes supplementary to the description  339 
Synonyms  340 
Range  341 
Affinities  342 




  ― 339 ―

Description.

XL. Eucalyptus populifolia, Hook.

THE species was describednote in Hooker's Icones Plantarum, t. 879 (1852), and the description was, of course, accompanied by a plate. Following is this description:—

Ramis gracilibus teretibus, foliis longe petiolatis subrhombeo-orbicularibus obtusissimis basi subcuneatis tenue penninerviis nervis obliquis approximatis margine paulum incrassatis, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis vel foliis delapsis subpaniculatis subquinquefloris, fructu (vix maturo) turbinato laevi, pedicellis teretibus. Hab., Wide Bay district, north-eastern Australia, Mr. Bidwill (n. 76).

The lid or operculum of the calyx I have not seen, but the leaves alone will readily distinguish this species from any with which we have hitherto been acquainted.

The type accordingly came from what we now know as Queensland. The species is, however, more widely diffused in New South Wales.

Mueller's description, in English, will be found in the “Eucalyptographia.”

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 214) confused it with E. polyanthemos, Schauer.

Notes supplementary to the description

Mueller, in the “Eucalyptographia,” emphasises the following points:— Leaves orbicular-ovate or roundish, very shining (the leaves may, however, be narrow.—J.H.M.); umbels paniculate; anthers roundish-ovate, opening below the summit by pores; fruits very small.

There are many gradations of size and width of leaf. The species is usually very easily recognised, but the narrow lanceolate leaves may be a pitfall in some cases; they then sometimes show affinity to E. bicolor.

The type, as figured by Hooker, shows slightly urceolate fruits, but scarcely urceolate in “Eucalyptographia.”

For notes as to certain variations in the species, see the descriptions (at p 348) referring to Plate 48.

It is commonly known as “Bimbil” (aboriginal name) (“Bibble” is a corruption), or “Glossy- or Shiny-leaved Box.” Sometimes the leaves are strikingly Poplar-like (hence the specific name), while the resemblance to a Poplar is enhanced by the upright habit, for it is one of the most compact, straight-growing trees of the genus.

It has rough bark except to the very ultimate branchlets. Other notes on this tree will be given under the localities.




  ― 340 ―

Synonyms.

  • 1. E. micrantha, A. Cunn., non DC.
  • 2. E. populnea, F.v.M.
  • 3. E. largiflorens, F.v.M., var. parviflora, Benth.
  • 4. E. bicolor, A. Cunn., var. parviflora, F.v.M.
  • 5. E. polyanthemos, Schauer, var. populifolia, F.v.M.

1. E. micrantha, A. Cunn, non DC.

I cannot trace that this species was ever described. A number of Cunningham's specimens have, however, been distributed in various herbaria under this name, amongst others those from the Peach Valley, Lachlan River, 199/1817 June. Sometimes called by Cunningham “Bastard Box,” but not to be confused with E. bicolor, A. Cunn.

2. E. populnea, F.v.M.

(E. populifolia, Hook.,note in Mitch. Trop. Austr., p. 204, non Desfont.)

Arborea, ramulis tenuibus teretiusculis laevibus, foliis alternis longe petiolatis ovato-vel rhombeo-orbicularibus apice obtusis vel emarginatis basi acutiusculis utrinque nitentibus concoloribus pellucide punctatis subtiliter venosis, umbellis 3–7 floris axillaribus vel lateralibus solitariis vel simpliciter paniculatis, pedunculis calycem vix excedentibus alabastris clavato-ovatis, calycis minuti tubo ecostato in pedicellum brevissimum attenuato operculi hemisphaerico mutici longitudinem duplo excedente, fructibus parvis turbinato-obconicis, valvis inclusis seminibus.

Hab. in tractu orientali Novæ-Hollandiæ subtropicæ passim sylvas constituens praesertim in collibus fertilioribus. Anth., Oct.-Dec.

Arbor mediocris; cortice sordide fusco-cinereo in trunco ramisque persistente rugoso et rimulosa. Petioli tenues teretiusculi saepe 1 inch longi. Folia 1½–3 uncias longa, 1–3 uncias lata, nonnunquam longitudine latiora. Pedunculi partiales 2–4 uncias longi. Calycis tubus circiter 1½ unciam metiens. Stamina albida 1 unciam vix longiora. Fructus maturus deest. (Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 93 (1859).)

3. E. largiflorens, F.v.M., var. parviflora, Benth.

A specimen in the Melbourne Herbarium, labelled “Box-tree of Suttor River,” bears the further label “E. largiflorens, F.v.M., var. parviflora, Benth.,” which was afterwards properly cancelled by Mueller for E. populifolia. It is the form with the narrower, longer leaves common in the species. It is not the No. 2 “Gum-topped Box” from Suttor River, Bentham, in B.Fl. iii, 222, under E. crebra, which is E. acmenioides, Schauer.

The fruits are immature, but they and the flowers do not appear to be smaller than usual.

4. E. bicolor, A. Cunn., var. parviflora, F.v.M.

“Flowers much smaller. Stamens not 1 line long. Burdekin River, F. Mueller” (B.Fl. iii, 215).

Similar to the preceding, and the same remarks as to immaturity of fruit apply. Labelled E. populifolia by Mueller in Herb. Melb. I have received a duplicate specimen from Kew, and in this view I concur.

5. E. polyanthemos, Schauer, var. populifolia, F.v.M.

Mueller distributed a number of specimens under this name.




  ― 341 ―

Range.

IT seems to be confined to New South Wales and Queensland. It is a dry country or interior species. It does not appear to have been recorded from South Australia; but in view of the New South Wales localities I have indicated, which approach the South Australian border, I should not be surprised to hear of its occurrence in the latter State.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

Wentworth (Mrs. Forde). This is the specimen in regard to which Dr. Woolls (“Plants of New South Wales,” p. 52) announced E. Behriana as occurring in New South Wales, and I believe his determination was based on the plate of E. Behriana as depicted in “Eucalyptographia,” which it matches very well. (It is, however, not a very good plate.) The plant is, however, E. populifolia.

“Hay district. ‘Glossy-leaved Box.’ Native name ‘Geral’ (Lower Lachlan). This is our second largest tree, attaining a height of 40 or 50 feet, with a diameter of 3 feet. It is peculiar to the back country, and is easily distinguished from the Box growing on the plains and along the banks of streams by its round and glossy leaves. As a rule, this tree grows near spots where water collects after rain and is almost invariably found bordering cane or Lignum (Muehlenbeckia Cunninghamii) swamps” (K. H. Bennett).

I have also received it from the same locality (Ivanhoe), from A. G. Little through H. Deane.

Mossgiel (John Bruckner). Labelled E. hemiphloia by Mueller.

Zara, viâ Hay (Miss Edith Officer). Lanceolate leaves, some of them narrow; reddish flowers, and with specially paniculate inflorescence. This remarkable specimen may show hybridisation with E. bicolor and I will deal with it on another occasion.

Narrandera, labelled “White Box” (F. R. Condell); Warrii (J. S. Taylor).

E. populifolia was not noticed south of the Wyalong district, but from this point northwards it is one of the commonest trees in the interior. Although usually known as “Bimble Box,” I was informed that away to the westward of Wyalong it bears the name of “Minty Box”; but as I did not visit the locality indicated, I cannot be certain of the species. (R. H. Cambage.)

Euabalong (J. L. Boorman), with both narrow and broad leaves; “Bimbil” or “White Box.” Egg-shaped leaves. Very hollow and gnarled (Forest Ranger Kidston and J.H.M., Condobolin); Bogan Gate (J. L. Boorman); Cobar (Andra); Mt. Boppy (J. L. Boorman); “Mallee Box,” Nymagee (J. Wharton Cox); “Bembil Box,” Nyngan (District Forester C. Marriott).

Coolabah (R. N. Peacock and J. L. Boorman); Marrar Creek viâ Girilambone (T. E. Grigg).




  ― 342 ―

Bourke (O. C. MacDougall and J.H.M.); plentiful along the Western Line from Mumbil to Bourke (J. L. Boorman); North Bourke (A. Murphy). Most of the specimens with narrow lanceolate leaves and the foliage more drooping than usual.

Tarcoon (J. L. Boorman); Brewarrina, “Bibble Box” with very paniculate inflorescence (C. J. McMaster).

“Bibble or Round-leaved Box.” Near Mitchell's Out-station, Dunlop, &c., Louth (R. Etheridge).

“Bastard Box,” W. Baüerlen, Tarella, Wilcannia, August, 1887, No. 62. Bark persistent; tree, 30–50 feet. Some of the leaves are large and coarse; similar leaves are found in the Bourke district. Others are lanceolate, and even narrow lanceolate; Wilcannia (H. V. Jackson); White Cliffs (E. P. O'Reilly); Cobham Lake (W. Baüerlen); Tinapagee, Wanaaring (R. J. Dalton).

Minore (J. L. Boorman); Narromine (R. Helms); Tomingley to Narromine (J.H.M.); Dubbo (C. J. McMaster).

“Poplar-leaved Box.” Small spreading tree on the Castlereagh (W. Woolls); on the plains near Baradine (W. Forsyth); “Box,” Wee Waa, Burren Junction (J. L. Boorman).

“Bibble Box,” “Broad-leaf Box,” or “Peppermint Box.” Useful for fencing purposes, &c. Strong and durable. Habitat, open forests and low flats. Plentiful in some localities. Flowering period varies. (Forest Ranger McGee, Narrabri); Narrabri, common (J.H.M.); Moree (J. L. Boorman); Gungal, Merriwa, apparently scarce in the district (J. L. Boorman).

QUEENSLAND.

Blackall, Barcoo (Bailey); Crocodile Creek (Bowman); Lake Elphinstone, Rockhampton (Amalia Dietrich); Rockhampton (R. Simmons); Chinchilla (Bailey); Dalby and other parts of South Queensland (Bailey); Darling Downs (Bailey); Gayndah (S. A. Lindeman).

“Scrub Box-tree” of Burdekin River (E. largiflorens, F.v.M., var. parviflora, Benth. (B.Fl. iii, 215).

“Box-tree” of Suttor River (E. largiflorens, F.v.M., var. parviflora, Benth. (B.Fl. iii, 215).

Affinities.

1. With E alba, Reinw.

The name E. populifolius was originally used (with Hooker as author) in Mitchell's “Tropical Australia,” p. 204, foot-note (1848). Mitchell's specimens were collected near Mt. Owen, adjacent to the River Maranoa, Queensland. I have seen Mitchell's specimens, and will give a figure (sufficient to bring out the characters) under E. alba, Reinw.




  ― 343 ―

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 243) has a note on these specimens, which, he says, belong more probably to E. platyphylla than to E. polyanthemos. The fact is, that they are indubitable platyphylla, which is a synonym of E. alba.

I will discuss the matter when I figure E. alba, but it appears to me that E. populifolius, Hook. (1848), is a synonym of E. alba, and that E. populifolius, Hook. (1852), is the “Bimbil” or “Glossy-leaved Box,” and must fall, were it not that it has been in universal use for over half a century, and there seems to be a general consensus of opinion amongst botanists that names so used should stand, irrespective of the laws of strict priority. (Vienna Code.) The next oldest name is, of course, E. populnea, F.v.M.

E. alba has leaves of a Poplar shape, but usually much larger than those of E. populifolia, and less shiny. The fruits and buds are quite different and the trees differ in other obvious and important particulars—e.g., the smooth or flaky bark of E. alba as compared with the fibrous bark of E. populifolia.

2. With E. bicolor, A. Cunn.

A “Drooping Box” of the river-flats of the interior. Its drooping habit would at once distinguish it from normal E. populifolia; so would its lanceolar, dull (often pale) leaves, and its red timber. The barks of both trees are Box-like; the fruits of E. bicolor are larger and more sub-cylindrical than those of E. populifolia.

3. With E. Behriana, F.v.M.

E. populifolia is a larger tree; its habit is erect and Poplar-like; it has a rough (Box-like) bark. In all these particulars it differs from E. Behriana. The leaves of E. populifolia sometimes resemble those of E. Behriana in shape and lustre (see p. 341); the inflorescences are sufficiently similar (the filaments of both are short) to put one on one's guard, though the fruits are dissimilar. Usually the inflorescence of E. Behriana is more paniculate, and the fruits more cylindrical and darker in colour.

42. Doubtful Species: Eucalyptus Bowmani, F. v. Mueller.

         
Description  344 
Notes supplementary to the description  344 
Range  344 
Affinities  344 
Explanation of Plates  345 




  ― 344 ―

Description.

Doubtful species.note

E. Bowmani, F.v.M., in B.Fl. iii, 219 (1866). Named in honour of Edward Macarthur Bowman. He was the eldest son of Dr. James Bowman, of Ravensworth, Hunter River, and nephew of Mr. James and Sir William Macarthur, of Camden Park, New South Wales. He obtained his botanical training from the latter gentleman.

Notes supplementary to the description.

Bentham (loc. cit.) says: “I have some hesitation in describing the species without having seen the fruit.”

It is indeed imperfectly known. Only a few leaves, buds, and anthers of the type are in existence, at all events in Australia.

Range.

QUEENSLAND, where it was collected by the late E. Bowman in only one locality, which may have been the Suttor River, where Bowman collected other Eucalypts; but this is surmise.

Affinities.

1. With E. hemiphloia, F.v.M.

“Probably includes E. Bowmani, described from insufficient material.”—(J. G. Luehmann, Proc. Aust. Adv. Science, vol. 7, p. 526, 1898.)

I think this opinion is the correct one, on the material available. It is, at all events, closely allied to E. hemiphloia. I have no proof that it is a distinct species, and publish the drawing and these few notes in order that the origin of E. Bowmani may, if possible, be traced. I do not think any useful purpose would be served in discussing further, at present, the possible affinities of this plant.

2. With E. hemiphloia, var. albens, and E. cladocalyx, F.v.M. (corynocalyx).

Bentham (loc. cit.) says: “It seems to be allied to E. albens and E. corynocalyx, but differs from both in the shape of the flowers.”




  ― 345 ―

3. With E. siderophloia, Benth.

Chiefly different from E. siderophloia in less shining leaves with about equal numbers of stomata on each side, mostly solitary umbels on a broadly-compressed stalk, absence of stalklets, the lid not long-pointed, the filaments while in bud more twisted, and possibly also in bark and fruit. The tree from Mount Elliott referred to by Bentham under E. Bowmani, belongs to E. drepanophylla.—(Under E. siderophloia, in Mueller's “Eucalyptographia.”

4. With E. Baileyana, F.v.M.

Under E. Baileyana, F.v.M., Mueller, in “Eucalyptographia,” points out certain differences between that species and E. Bowmani, but inasmuch as Mueller himself included two species under E. Baileyana,note his figure being a composite one, with fruits of E. Baileyana and flowers and leaves of E. eugeniodes, the comparison in question is of no value. It has no close affinity to E. Baileyana.

Explanation of Plates (45–48).

Plate 45.

Plate 45: E. PIPERITA, Sm. (1-9). E. SIEBERIANA, F.v.M. (10-15).



E. piperita, Sm.

  • 1a, 1b. Juvenile leaves (seedlings). Linden, Blue Mountains, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.)
  • 2. Juvenile leaves. Hornsby, near Sydney. (E. H. F. Swain.)
  • 3a. Leaf; 3b, buds (note the sharp operculum and the somewhat falcate twist of each bud in this species); 3c, flowers; 3d, fruits (ovoid).
  • 4. Buds. Corricudgy Mountain, near Rylstone. (R. T. Baker.)
  • 5. Fruits, almost spherical. Lawson, Blue Mountains. (J. H. Camfield.)
  • 6. Fruits, typically urceolate in shape. Wingello, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 7a. Fruits of E. piperita (Port Jackson); 7b, fruits of E. eugenioides (Lane Cove, Port Jackson); 7c, fruits (Hurstville, Sydney) which appear to be intermediate in character between 7a and 7b. See p. 305.
  • 8a. Juvenile leaves; 8b, leaf in the intermediate stage; 8c, mature leaf and buds 8d, 8e, fruits of a “Messmate.” Wingello, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.) This plant is not typical of E. piperita and is discussed at p. 304.
  • 9. Reniform anthers of E. piperita.

E. Sieberiana, F.v.M.

  • 10a, 10b. Juvenile leaves (seedlings). Blackheath, Blue Mountains, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.)
  • 11. Leaf, intermediate stage. Cox's River, Blue Mountains. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.)
  • 12. Buds. Badgery's Crossing to Nowra, N.S.W. (W. Forsyth and A. A. Hamilton.)
  • 13. Fruits. Twofold Bay, N.S.W. (Oldfield). Seen by Bentham and marked by him E. virgata, Sieb. The error is explained at p. 308.
  • 14a. Mature leaf; 14b, buds; 14c, fruits. Dromedary Range, N.S.W. (C. S. Wilkinson.) This is the specimen formerly labelled E. hœmastoma by Mueller, and the error is explained at p. 308.
  • 15. Reniform anther of E. Sieberiana.




  ― 346 ―

Plate 46.

Plate 46: E. CONSIDENIANA, Maiden (1-9). E. HÆMASTOMA, Sm. (10-17). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. Consideniana, Maiden.

  • 1a. Mature leaf; 1b, buds; 1c, fruits. Stradbroke, South Gippsland, Victoria. (A. W. Howitt.)
  • 2a. Juvenile leaf; 2b, mature leaf. Boggy Creek, Gippsland. (A. W. Howitt.)
  • 3a, 3b. Juvenile leaves; 3c, fruits of type. Pigeon House, Milton, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage.)
  • 4. Buds. Top of mountains east of Burragorang. (R. H. Cambage.)
  • 5. Fruit. Top of Barrengarry Mountain, N.S.W. (J.H.M.).
  • 6a. Mature leaf; 6b, buds; 6c, fruits. Wingello, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 7a. Buds; 7b, back and front view of anther; 7c, fruits. Blaxland to Valley Heights, Blue Mountains, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.)
  • 8a. Buds (with operculum rather more pointed than in the type); 8b, fruits. Mountain north of Wolgan Shale Mine, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage.)
  • 9a. Buds; 9b, fruits (more spherical in shape than in the type, and also with sunk rim). Penang, Gosford. (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman.)

E. hæmastoma, Sm.

  • 10. Twig, showing buds and leaf, being portion of Sieber's No. 497 (Fl. Novæ Holl.), which is the type of E. micrantha, DC.
  • 11. Fac-simile of a portion of Pl. 5, F. micrantha, DC., “Mémoire sur la Famille des Myrtacées,” par Aug. Pyr. De Candolle. Figure of the type.
  • 12. Juvenile leaf of E. hæmastoma, Sm., var. micrantha. Blackheath, Blue Mountains, N.S.W. (J.H.M.)
  • 13. Intermediate leaf of var. micrantha. Port Macquarie, N.S.W. (J.H.M.)
  • 14a, 14b. Flattened hemispherical fruits (aberrant) of var. micrantha. Moruya, N.S.W. (J. S. Allan.)
  • 15. Fruits of var. micrantha, Queanbeyan, N.S.W. (H. Deane.)
  • 16. Mature leaf and fruits of var. micrantha. Bankstown, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 17a, 17b. Buds; 17c, 17d, fruits (note the difference in size). Mt. Wilson, N.S.W. (Jesse Gregson and J.H.M.)

Plate 47.

Plate 47: E. HÆMASTOMA, Sm. and Vars. (1-18). E. SIDEROPHLOIA, Benth. (19-33). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. hæmastoma, Sm. (concluded.)

  • 1. Fruit of var. micrantha. Failford to Forster. N.S.W. (J.H.M.)
  • 2. Fruits of var. micrantha. Port Macquarie to Kempsey. N.S.W. (J.H.M.)
  • 3a, 3b. Fruits of var. micrantha. Brisbane. (F. M. Bailey.)
  • 4. Fruits of var. micrantha. (? loc.) (Leichhardt.)
  • 5. Fruits of var. micrantha. Maryborough, Queensland. (W. H. Williams.)
  • 6a. Mature leaf; 6b, buds; 6c, fruits of E. signata, F.v.M. Brisbane River. See p. 319.
  • 7a, 7b. Fruits of var. micrantha. Grenfell, N.S.W. (F. R. Postlethwaite.)
  • 8a. Mature leaf; 8b, fruits of var. micrantha. Head of the Castlereagh River, N.S.W. (W. Forsyth.)
  • 9a. Mature leaf; 9b, buds; 9c, flowers; 9d, fruits of E. Rossii. (R. T. Baker.) Camboon, N.S.W. (R. T. Baker.) See p. 320.
  • 10. Pear-shaped fruits of var. micrantha, near Bungendore, south of Lake George, N.S.W. (W. S. Campbell.)
  • 11a. Mature leaf; 11b, fruit (intermediate in size) of E. hæmastoma. Thornleigh, Sydney. (W. W. Froggatt.)



  •   ― 347 ―
  • 12. Fruits (intermediate) of E. hæmastoma. Hornsby, Sydney. (E. H. F. Swain.)
  • 13a. Buds; 13b, fruits; 13c, top view of fruit (showing marked rim) of E. hæmastoma. Middle Harbour, Sydney. (J. H. Camfield.)
  • 14a. Leaf; 14b, buds; 14c, fruits; 14d, anthers of typical E. hæmastoma. Middle Harbour, Sydney. (J. H. Camfield.) Note the large size of the fruits, and also the great variation in the sizes of the fruits.
  • 15. Anther of (?) E. Rossii. Adelong, N.S.W. See p. 321, and compare the shape of the anther with 14d, var. capitata, Maiden (var. nov.)
  • 16a. Twig with leaf and fruits; 16b, side view of a fruit. Mt. Victoria, N.S.W. (J.H.M.)
  • 17. Head of fruits. Mt. Victoria. (J.H.M.) Approaching var. capitata. See p. 319.
  • 18a. Leaf; 18b, fruits of a form of E. amygdalina (near var. nitida) also from Mt. Victoria, N.S.W. (J.H.M.) This is a form called E. hæmastoma, Sm., var. montana. (Deane and Maiden.) See Part VI, p. 163 of this work. The leaves are narrower, but note the general resemblance of the fruits to those of E. hæmastoma var. capitata.

E. siderophloia, Benth.

  • 19. Large, broadly ovate juvenile leaf. Smithfield, Sydney. (J.H.M.)
  • 20a. Buds; 20b, anthers (3 drawings). Cabramatta, N.S.W. (W. Woolls.)
  • 21. Fruits. Bankstown, Sydney. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 22. Fruits. Paterson, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 23. Fruits. Bullahdelah, N.S.W. (A. Rudder.)
  • 24. Mature leaf. Flemington, Sydney. (J.H.M.)
  • 25. Fruits. Jones' Flat, Stroud, N.S.W. (J.H.M.)
  • 26a. Buds; 26b, anther, “Yellow Ironbark.” Brisbane, Queensland. (P. MacMahon.)
  • 27. Buds. Taylor's Range, Q. (F. M. Bailey.) These belong to E. resinifera, Sm., and are placed here for comparison between 20a and 26a. It will be seen that examination of buds alone of E. siderophloia and E. resinifera must be conducted with caution.
  • 28. Fruits. Rockhampton, Q. (A. Murphy).

E. siderophloia, Benth., var. glauca.

  • 29. Juvenile leaf. Dubbo-Coonamble Road, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 30. Fruits. Dubbo. (H. Deane.)
  • 31. Fruits. Dubbo, with valves less exsert. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 32. Mature leaf. Minore, Dubbo. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 33a. Buds (note the comparatively short-pointed operculum); 33b, buds (note the “egg in egg-cup” shape which is common enough in the normal form also, although a separate figure has not been given); 33c, fruits. All from Gungal, near Merriwa, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.) See p. 325.

Plate 48.

Plate 48: E. BOWMANI, F.v.M. (1). E. BOORMANI, D & M. (2). E. LEPTOPHLEBA, F.v.M. (3-5). E. BEHRIANA, F.v.M. (6-10). E. POPULIFOLIA, Hook. (11-18). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. Bowmani, F.v.M.

  • 1a. Leaf with immature fruit; 1b, front and back view of anther, from fragment of type. “Queensland.” (Bowman.)

E. Boormani, Deane and Maiden.

  • 2a. Juvenile leaf; 2b, mature leaf; 2c, buds; 2d, anthers; 2e, fruits from type. Bankstown and Cabramatta. (J. L. Boorman.)




  ― 348 ―

E. leptophleba, F.v.M.

  • 3 Mature leaf. South Coen River, Q. (Stephen Johnson.)
  • 4a. Buds; 4b, anthers. Port Denison, Q. (J. Dallachy.)
  • 5. Fruits. Endeavour River, Q. (Lieut. King, in Herb. Cambridge, ex Herb. Aylmer Lambert.)

E. Behriana, F.v.M.

  • 6a. Juvenile leaf (in opposite stage); 6b, leaf (in intermediate stage); 6c, fruits (note their unusual conoid shape); 6d, fruits (note their defined rim). All from Wyalong, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 7. Fruits. Swan Hill, Victoria. Note their small size. (J. G. Luehmann.)
  • 8. Buds. Yarram Biack, V. (C. Walter.) (Note the marked paniculate inflorescence.)
  • 9. Very young buds. Inglewood, V (J. Blackburne.) Note their angularity.
  • 10. Anthers. Barmedman, N.S.W. (J. Duff.)

E. populifolia, Hook.

  • 11a. Juvenile leaf (in opposite stage); 11b, fruits. Coolabah, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 12a. Broadest mature leaf; 12b, average leaf of a tree at Bogan Gate, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 13. Mature leaf. Gungal, near Merriwa, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 14. Mature leaf. North Bourke, N.S.W. (A. Murphy.) (Note its lanceolate shape.)
  • 15. Buds. Tinapagee, Wanaaring, N.S.W. (R. J. Dalton.) (Note the conical opercula.)
  • 16. Fruits. Cobar, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.) (Note their well-defined rims.)
  • 17. Anther. Bulgandramine, Narromine, N.S.W. (A. R. Samuels.)
  • 18a. Leaf with flowers and immature fruits; 18b, anthers. Fragment of the type of “E. bicolor, A. Cunn. var. parviflora, Muell.” Burdekin River, Q. (From Kew.) Compare the leaf of 14, and see pp. 339 and 340.

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