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05. Part V

7. VI. Eucalyptus stellulata, Sieber.

             
PAGE
1.  Description  127 
Notes supplementary to the description  127 
2.  Synonyms  129 
Notes on the Synonyms  129 
3.  Range  131 
4.  Affinity  132 




  ― 127 ―

Description.

E. stellulata, Sieb.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Sieber, plant exs. nov. holl. No. 478. Operculo conico cupulæ longitudine, pedunculis lateralibus brevissimis subteretibus, umbellis 15–20 floris, foliis oblongis utrinque attenuatis basi 3–5 nerviis. Novâ-Hollandiâ. Pet. et pedunc. 3 lin. vix longi. Folia 3 poll. longa semipoll. lata subcoriacea sublucida. Alabastra oblonga utrinque attenuata 2 lin. longa. (v.s.)—(DC., Prod. iii, 217.)

It is more fully described in Bentham's Flora Australiensis and Mueller's Eucalyptographia.

E. stellulata is an easy species to determine, with its straight-veined leaves and star-like umbels of buds. The specific name is rather happy, referring to the disposition of the buds.

It is a forest-tree of medium size in the Monaro, e.g., in the Snowy River Valley, forming a shapely tree 50 feet in height and more, with a stem-diameter of 2 to 3 feet, and with dense foliage. In New England it attains a scarcely less size, As a rule it is a straggling tree of half the size, while the narrow-leaved variety is frequently only a tall bush.

Vernacular Names.—“Black Sally,” Gippsland and Southern New South Wales at least as far north as Goulburn; also New England Ranges. “Black Gum,” Bombala. It is often called “Black Ash” in New England. The above names have been given on account of the rough, hard black bark on the butt.

“Sally Butt,” between Bathurst and Orange. The name “Sally,” without a qualifying adjective, is in use at Bombala, Boro, Braidwood, and Yass. The name is in allusion to the species being often found on the banks of streams, like a Sally (sallow or willow). “Olive-green Gum” (Leichhardt). “Green Gum,” county of Argyle and Blue Mountains (Macarthur); New England and high land near Braidwood (Dr. Woolls). “White Gum,” county of Argyle and Blue Mountains (A. Cunn.). “Blue Gum,” (Forester Mecham, Tumut). “Lead Gum,” county of Argyle and Blue Mountains; Berrima (Macarthur), Hartley and Mudgee (Woolls).




  ― 128 ―

All the above names, “Olive-green Gum,” &c., are attempts to describe the appearance of the smooth portion of the bark, which varies from white with a bluish or lead-coloured cast to even a dirty olive-green.

The species is a stunted gum growing at high elevations, smooth-barked (except at the butt), and looking as if it were blue or lead-coloured with the cold. There are so many white gums that I think the name “Lead-coloured Gum” is a useful one, while Black Sally is better still, and the most widely spread of existing names.

It is sometimes called “Muzzle-wood,” as on account of its toughness it is often selected for making muzzles for unweaned calves.

Seedlings or Sucker Leaves.—Ovate-acuminate, larger in size and thinner in texture than the mature leaves. The average dimensions of some seedling leaves in my possession are 3½ inches long by a width of 1¾ inch.

When travelling in New England I made the following notesnote on this species:—“The sucker leaves present a variety of shapes and sizes. In their early stages they are more or less stem-clasping and orbicular. Others are nearly reniform, while some might be described as almost bilobed, or with the outline more or less emarginate. Very many are about as broad as long, and scarcely acuminate, and from these shapes the gradation into the normal shape of the mature leaf is very gradual. Measurements gave up to 2½ × 2½ inches, and even a little more.”

Mature Leaves.—The tips are often hooked like those of E. coriacea, and of some forms of other species, e.g., amygdalina. The leaves of both species when dry are smooth, and usually show black dots (like E. punctata), while the parenchymatous tissue is more or less channelled. These appearances are also seen in some forms of E. amygdalina and other species, and I draw attention to them in order that too great importance be not attached to them. In E. punctata these black dots were considered to be of specific value.

The shape of the leaves is lanceolate to broadly lanceolate. The leaves are smaller than those of E. coriacea. The venation springs from the petiole, and the primary veins are prominent and roughly parallel to the mid-rib.

Messrs. Baker and Smith (Research on the Eucalypts) give the following particulars in regard to the oil of this species:—

   
Specific gravity at 15° C.  Specific rotation, [a] D   Saponification number.  Solubility in Alcohol.  Constituents found. 
0·871  -26·1°  2·1  Insoluble  Phellandrene, sesquiterpene. 




  ― 129 ―

Buds.—The calyx is sometimes swollen, while the operculum remains stationary in size. (See figure 7, pl. 25.) Mr. Froggatt informs me that this is the work of probably a parasitic wasp (one of the Chalcideæ). I have noticed the same appearance in the buds of some other species.

Bark.—This tree attains its fullest development in the alpine country of North-eastern Victoria and South-eastern New South Wales. There the butt is rough, more or less furrowed, hard and black, almost like an ironbark, with the upper part of the trunk and the branches quite smooth. This species is remarkable for the large quantity of chlorophyll in this smooth portion, it being the greenest barked of all Eucalypts, but in many districts the smooth portion is rather of a lead colour. In districts where the tree is stunted the amount of rough bark is usually very small, so that it passes for a “gum” (i.e., a smooth-barked tree).

Timber.—Pale coloured, rarely free from gum-veins, warps seriously; a sound log of any size very rare; of little value for purposes other than fuel. Timber that shrinks much in drying may do so regularly or irregularly. Those of the first class have, when dry, practically the same shape as the original piece, but those of the second class take on irregular shapes. The timbers of E. stellulata and E. coriacea belong to the latter class.

Synonyms.

  • 1. E. leucadendron, A. Cunn. Var. angustifolia, Benth.
  • 2. E. microphylla, A. Cunn., partim.
  • 3. E. Cunninghamii, Sweet, partim.
  • 4. E. Cunninghamii, G. Don, partim.

Notes on the Synonyms.

1. “Eucalyptus leucadendron, C. (Allan Cunningham).

“White Gum of the south-western interior, New South Wales, 1824.” Specimens collected by Allan Cunningham are in Herb. Kew, and also in Herb. Cant. (ex Herb. Lindl.), and are E. stellulata, Sieb.




  ― 130 ―

Variety angustifolia, Benth.

Leaves narrow, very thick and smooth, scarcely showing the venation.—(B.Fl. iii, 201.)

This form occurs in the highest parts of the Blue Mountains, also in the southern ranges, e.g., near Braidwood, often occurring with the normal form.

The variety angustifolia is usually shrubby, but it grows into a small tree.

In the highest parts of the Blue Mountains it has the fruits sometimes in dense globular umbels.

2. E. microphylla, A. Cunn.

Foliis lineari-lanceolatis subfalcatis acutis: margine incrassatis, umbellis multifloris foliisque confertis, Forming brushes upon the more elevated parts of the (Blue) Mountains.—(Field's New South Wales. p. 350.)

In Allan Cunningham's MS. Journal under date 9th April, 1817, we find the entry:—“King's Table-land.note—This exposed situation is covered with a shrub of the Eucalyptus (E. microphylla), forming thick brushes of underwood.”

On a specimen of E. stellulata, Sieb., var. angustifolia, Benth., collected by himself, Allan Cunningham has the label—“Eucalyptus, apparently E. punctata, Sieb. DC. King's Table-land, N. S. Wales, 1827, A.C.” showing that he was uncertain as to the designation of the form.

3. E. Cunninghamii, Sweet.

The meagre description is:—

46. Cunninghamii (white), N.S.W., 1825. Greenhouse shrub. Microphylla, F. T. non Link (Sweet Hort. Brit. ed. 2, page 209).

4. E. Cunninghamii, G. Don.

Leaves linear-lanceolate, rather falcate, acute, with thickened margins; umbels many-flowered, and are as well as the leaves, crowded. Native of New Holland, forming bushes upon the more elevated of the mountains. E. microphylla, Cunningham in Field's New South Wales. p. 350. Cunningham's Eucalyptus, Cult. 1824, Shrub.—(Gen. Syst. ii, 821.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 821) has already pointed out that Cunningham's specimens of E. microphylla consist of a mixture of leaves of the narrow-leaved form of E. stellulata and of E. stricta, Sieb.

It is often impossible to separate the narrow-leaved forms of these species when foliage is alone available. The same remarks apply to Sweet's and G. Don's species.




  ― 131 ―

Range.

IT is very partial to the depressions in shallow, rounded, grassy valleys, with good soil and a moist bottom. It is confined to Victoria and to New South Wales, being far more extensively distributed in the latter State.

VICTORIA.

As regards Victorian localities, Mueller states:—

Along elevated river-valleys, or flats, and in cooler mountain regions up to the sub-alpine zone; thus on the Upper Hume River (Findlay), on the Mitta Mitta, around the Barkly Range, towards Lake Omeo, and on the Upper Genoa (Mueller), Dargo Flat (Howitt).—(Eucalyptographia.)

Howitt says;—

This is also an alpine species, ascending almost, if not quite, to the same elevation as E. pauciflora (coriacea), but does not descend, according to my observations, lower than 700 feet at Dargo and Ensay. No varieties occur as far as my observations go.—(Trans. Roy. Soc. of Victoria, 1890, p. 84.)

I have specimens collected by Mr. Howitt at Buchan and Omeo.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

As regards New South Wales it follows the tops of the ranges on the New South Wales-Victorian border, thence following the Dividing Range and its spurs at least as far north as the New England Ranges, and as far west as 18 miles west of Bathurst, on the Silurian; also at Rylstone. I have specimens from these localities, but it may be reasonably expected to be found further north and further west, in mountainous districts.

Following are some specific localities:—Mount Kosciusko district (J. H. Maiden and W. Forsyth), Kiandra (E. Betche), Bombala (J.H.M.). Here it is called “Sally,” and Mr. Ronald Campbell says: “Not much used because scarce, except on flats.” Occurs all over the Monaro. “Sally” or “Black Gum” timber very cross-grained, of a soapy nature, knotty; of a flesh colour when fresh. Diameter, 2 to 3 feet; height, 30 to 50 feet; Haydon's Bog, Delegate.—(W. Baeuerlen). Tumut (J.H.M.), Braidwood, together with the narrow-leaved form (W. Baeuerlen); Queanbeyan (H. Deane), Yass (W. W. Froggatt), Goulburn (H. Deane), Wingello, “Bastard Peppermint” and “Sally” (J.H.M. and J. L.


  ― 132 ―
Boorman). “Lead-coloured Gum” of Berrima, No. 35, London Cat., 1862; 226, Paris Cat., 1855. Diameter, 18 to 30 inches; height, 30 to 40 feet. “Of no value for timber, but excellent for fuel.” The above are all southern localities.

Following are western localities:—Wentworth Falls, narrow-leaved form (J. H. Camfield); Blackheath, narrow-leaved form, also a form with the fruits in dense globular umbels (J.H.M.); Mount Victoria and Kanimbla Valley, normal and narrow-leaved forms (J.H.M.); Mount Wilson, narrow-leaved form (Jesse Gregson); Jenolan Caves, “Black Sally” (W. Blakeley); Wallerawang (H. Deane and J.H.M.); Rylstone (R. T. Baker); “Messmate,” trees from 30–50 feet; bark rough, dark; sap-wood white; the heart-wood dark brown and gummy, branches pendulous, tips of the branches and buds yellow, branches slightly ribbony.—Sunny Corner (J. L. Boorman); Charlton, Bathurst (R. H. Cambage); Millthorpe (A. W. Howitt).

Coming to the north, I have not seen it north of Sydney or Bathurst until New England is reached, but doubtless there are intermediate localities. It is more or less plentiful all over the table-land. There are copses or thickets of it at Yarrowitch, also umbrageous small trees. At Tia, and elsewhere, the trunks are 2 to 3 feet in diameter. These localities are on the Port Macquarie-Walcha road.

On the Grafton-Armidale road I followed it from Bald Hills to Guy Fawkes and right on to the Round Mountain. Its furthest northern locality is a matter for enquiry.

Affinity.

ITS only real affinity is with E. coriacea, A. Cunn., but the two species will rarely be confused.

8. VII. Eucalyptus coriacea, A. Cunn.

           
1.  Description  133 
Notes supplementary to the description  133 
2.  Synonyms  135 
Notes on the Synonyms  135 
3.  Range  138 
4.  Affinities  141 




  ― 133 ―

Description.

Eucalyptus coriacea, A. Cunn.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Schauer MSS.—Ramulis elongatis pendulis teretib. nitidis; foll. firmis rigidisq. lanceolatis oblongisve breviter petiolatis acuminatis, apiculo subfiliformi saepe deflexo, nervosis imperforatis viridib., untrinq. lucidis; capitulis axillarib. 5–8—floris; pedunculo petiolum aequante subtereti; cupula (fructus) turbinata truncata; operculo …,? capsula 3–4 loculari. Planta insignis valida; foliis 4–6 poll. longis, 1–2 poll. latis; fructib. 4 lin. altit. totidemq. diametro metientibus nitidis. In Novae Cambriæ australis interioris planitiebus.—A. Cunn. Herb., no. 35–1824.—(Schauer in Walp. Rep. ii, 925.)

It is fully described by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 201), and also by Mueller, in the Eucalyptographia; by the latter under the name E. pauciflora, Sieb. I have adopted the name given in the Flora Australiensis. Sieber's name, E. pauciflora, has doubtful priority, and it is especially inappropriate (no Eucalypt flowering more freely than this), while Cunningham's name is remarkably appropriate.

Vernacular Names.—One of the “White or Cabbage Gums,” but not to be confused with E. hæmastoma, var. micrantha, which goes by the same names. Its usual name with us is “White Gum,” though it is very frequently called “Cabbage Gum” also. In New England apparently not known as “White or Cabbage Gum,” but “White Ash,” in contradistinction to E. stellulata (Black Ash). The species goes under the name of “Weeping Gum” in Tasmania, owing to its scrambling habit; the name is also in use at Uralla, N.S.W. At Glen Innes it is locally known as “Tumble-down Gum,” also by reason of its aspect. “Glassy Gum” is a name in use at Guyra, on account of the vitreous appearance of the bark. “White Sally” is a name in use at Queanbeyan. On the Monaro I have known it to be called “Bigleaf,” for obvious reasons. Sometimes it is called “Cattle Gum,” because cattle feed on its leaves when grass is scarce. The names “Flooded Gum” and “Peppermint,” under which this species is known in Victoria (B.Fl.) would not appear to be in use in this State, and may, perhaps, have arisen through a misapprehension.

Suckers or Seedling Leaves.—Broader than the mature leaves; more or less ovate. Near Yarrowitch (New England) I noticed the leaves of some seedlings which were 2 or 3 feet high. The foliage was very coarse, being both large and thick. Following are actual measurements of individual leaves:—7½ × 3½ inches, 8½ × 3¼ inches, 6¼ × 3½ inches. Large leaves such as these were not scarce. They are a little oblique, acuminate, nearly ovate, occasionally nearly circular, and then pass through all gradations up to ovate lanceolate.—(Proc. Aust. Ass. for Adv. of Science, vii, 538.)




  ― 134 ―

Mature Leaves.—Coriaceous, yet often succulent, and hence eaten by stock. They are comparatively large, 6 inches being a common length, while 5 inches is, perhaps, under the average. The width is usually about 1½ inch. They are usually shiny, but in the coldest districts often glaucous. The venation is as stated under stellulata, and in this respect not only shows affinity with that species, but also with regnans and allied species. Besides cattle, opossums have a predilection for the young foliage of this tree, so that they often kill trees of this species.

Mr. F. B. Guthrie (Agric. Gazette, Oct., 1899) has analysed the leaves, with the view to ascertain their value for feeding stock, and following is his analysis:—

   
Water.  Ash.  Fibre.  Ether Extract (Oil, &c.).  Albumenoids.  Carbohydrates.  Nutrient Value.  Albumenoid ratio.  Tannin (Oak Bark). 
“Cattle Gum” …  36·76  2·90  8·57  6·02  8·75  37·00  59  1:5¾  1·5 

As regards the oil obtained from the leaves, I have three authenticated analyses before me. No. 1 is from Messrs. Baker and Smith's “Research on the Eucalypts,” and Nos. 2 and 3 are by W. B. Wilkinson.note

       
Sp. gravity at 15° C.  Sp. rotation, [a] D   Saponification number.  Solubility in Alcohol.  Constituents found. 
1. 0·8947  -32·8  4·62  1 vol. 80%  Phellandrene, peppermint ketone, eucalyptol, sesquiterpene. 
2. ·8943  +16·7  ………  ………  No phellandrene. 
3. ·9200  +6·0  ………  ………  Do. 

Mr. Wilkinson also gives columns “Refractive index” and “Specific refractive energy.”

It is remarkable how these analyses vary. My view is that we require hundreds of analyses of the oils of each species, taken under circumstances as different as possible, before we shall be able to make accurate generalisations in regard to them. These should be made in all the States, just as the material for botanical diagnosis is obtained over areas as wide as possible.

Timber.—Pale coloured, full of gum-veins; warps a good deal. Some notes on the timber will be found under “Range.”




  ― 135 ―

Synonyms.

  • 1. E. pauciflora, Sieb.
  • 2. E. piperita, Sm.; var. pauciflora, DC.
  • 3. E. submultiplinervis, Miq.;

Do forma minor, Miq.

  • 4. E. sylvicultrix, F.v.M.
  • 5. E. phlebophylla, F.v.M.

There is a variety, alpina, Benth.—(B.Fl. iii, 201).

Notes on the Synonyms.

1. E. pauciflora, Sieb. The original description is—

pauciflora, Sieb. 26. E. operculo conico, pedunculis abbreviatis sub—6 floris, foliis oblongolanceolatis falcatis nervosa-venosis elongatis.—(Spreng. Syst. IV. Cur. Post., 195.)

A specimen of the type in Herb. Barbey-Boissier bears the following label:—

Sieber's No. 470. Eucalyptus pauciflora, Sbr. De la nouvelle Hollande, M. Sieber, 1825, with the addition later on, “Eucalyptus piperita, Sm.; E. pauciflora, DC.”

It is figured on Plate 26, and there can be no doubt that it is correctly referred to E. coriacea, A. Cunn. I have seen a further specimen, stated to be Sieber's No. 475, and labelled Eucalyptus pauciflora, Sieber, from Herb. Berol. It consists of a leaf and a cluster of buds. The leaf is narrow, and has rather straight veins, which one reasonably associates with E. coriacea, A. Cunn. But the buds do not belong to that species, and careful examination of the specimens shows that they probably belong to one of the New South Wales “Messmates.”

E. amygdalina and E. regnans are so closely allied that it is not possible to say absolutely from the material available which species it is, since it matches E. radiata from the Blue Mountains, which we know Sieber visited, and E. regnans from southern and western localities. The texture of the leaf is amygdalina, or regnans, and not coriacea. Nothing further need be said, as there is apparently a misplacement of a label.




  ― 136 ―

2. E. piperita, Sm.; var. pauciflora.

This is the name as given in DC. Prod. iii, 219,

3. E. submultiplinervis, Miq.

34. Eucalyptus submultiplinervis, Miq., n. sp., ramulis gracilibus teretiusculus vel hic illic angulatis, foliis e basi attenuatâ lanceolatis breviter acutis, herbaceo-coriaceis, venis plerisque adscendentibus versus basin adproximatis utrinque distinctis submultiplinervis, marginibus subincrassatis subfuscescentibus, pedunculis rugosis 5–10 floris, floribus subsessilibus, calycis tubo obpyramidato-turbinato striato-sulcato glanduloso, operculo brevi-hemisphaerico subumbilicato quam tubus breviore, antheris albidis didymis. Van Diemansland (Stuart n. 10, 13, 14, 15)—Petioli circiter semipollicares antice canaliculati, angulosi. Pedunculi 3–4 lin. longi. Flores 2½ lin. æquantes. Forma præsertim quod a flores minor: E. sylvicultrix, Müll. Herb.—(Nederl. Kruidk. Arch., iv, 138, 1856.)

4. E. sylvicultrix, F.v.M., is briefly referred to in the preceding paragraph.

Bentham also noticed it:—

E. submultiplinervis, Miq. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch., iv, 138, or E. sylvicultrix, F. Muell. in Herb. Sond., is a narrow straight-leaved variety, with the flowers of the ordinary size.—(B.Fl. iii, 201.)

Following are the specimens on which the names submultiplinervis and sylvicultrix were founded:—

  • (a) Specn. No. 34 (species number in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv). “Eucalyptus sylvicultrix, Ferd. Mueller, Tasmania, in Mueller's handwriting, and E. submultiplinervis, forma minor,” in that of Miquel, have buds, and are undoubtedly coriacea as so marked by Bentham on the specimen. I fail to see that Miquel's forma minor is really smaller than other specimens.
  • (b) “E. sylvicultrix, F.v.M. Syn. E. coriacea, A. Cunn., var. sylvicultrix, F.v.M. (Herb. Melb.). Syn. E. multiplinervis, Miq. (Herb. Melb.) (a slip of the pen for submultiplinervis). No. 765, near Woodhall, Tasmania, March. Charles Stuart.”

The material of (b) is in twigs bearing leaves, very young buds, and flowers. The specimens, as far as they go, in the venation of the leaves and their hooked apices, their length and breadth, in the very young buds, in the calyces and flowers, resemble many from New South Wales.

5. E. phlebophylla, F.v.M.

40. Eucalyptus phlebophylla, Ferd. Müll., Herb. ramulis teretibus fuscescentibus, foliis longiuscule petiolatis lanceolatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis in apiculum tenuem fuscum curvulum exeuntibus, basi attenuatâ inæquilateris, vulgo totis falcato-curvatis, rigide coriaceis, punctatis, venis plurimis e basi ortis submultiplinervis, umbellis axillaribus et terminalibus confertis, 3–5 floris, pedunculis pruinosis, floribus sessilibus, calyce obovato-turbinato. Crescit in montibus Buffalo Range (F. Müller). Van Diemansland (Stuart).

Petioli ½–¾poll. longi rugosuli, in siccis pallidi vel fusculi; folia 3–7 poll. longa, 1½ lata; pedunculi 2–3 lin.; calycis tubus in fructu 2 lin. æquans.—(Ex. Miq. in Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. iv, 140, 1856.)




  ― 137 ―

I have seen the type from Mount Aberdeen, which is a very markedly veined, large, young leaf; also specimens marked “Gippsland, Mueller,” in flower.—(Herb. Calcutta.) I have examined a specimen (Van Dieman's Land, C. Stuart) bearing, in Miquel's handwriting, the words “E. phlebophylla, M.,” with the words “E. submultiplinervis affinis” cancelled.—(Herb. Melb.)

Some of Gunn's specimens in European herbaria labelled “Eucalyptus radiata,” with glaucous buds, really belong to E. coriacea. Some of them are labelled “very common about Hobart Town,” and “Weeping Gum of Norfolk Plains.” The true E. radiata, Sieb., is much less likely to be confused with E. coriacea, A. Cunn., than the forms (E. radiata, Hook., f. non Sieb.) that Hooker took to be E. radiata.

Var. alpina, F.v.M. (B.Fl. iii, 201).

Leaves short and nearly straight. Flowers rather smaller and peduncles shorter.

Mountains on Macalister River, Vic. (B.Fl.). Specimens of this variety from Mount Kosciusko, in our own State, are very glaucous. Leaves 2 inches long, or a little more.

Following is an account of the Mount Kosciusko trees:—The Snow Gum is a small-leaved form of E. coriacea, resembling E. stellulata a good deal in leaf outline, and might be mistaken for it. At low elevations it is a large tree; as the mountain is ascended it becomes smaller and smaller, till at length it becomes a dense whipstick scrub, and finally (at 6,000 feet, about) disappears altogether. It forms the limit of tree vegetation. It is usually as glaucous as if it had been sprinkled with flour, but not invariably so, and at the Jindabyne level it is frequently scarcely glaucous.note

“Forming the ‘Tree line.’—The trees of this species at the highest elevations are remarkable for their bare stems, surmounted with a dome or flattish top of leaves. The bare stems are, doubtless, the consequence of winds, the leaves being concentrated on the top as a thin ‘layer,’ and offering minimum resistance to the wind. These dwarf trees are in masses of a fairly uniform height; a different arrangement would result in the crown of leaves of the smaller plants being beaten against the bare stems of their taller brethren, and denuded of their foliage. The grotesque leaning forms of the stems, like guys or supports to resist wind-pressure, are shown in one of the illustrations. In many cases the butt of the tree forms a huge protuberance at the ground level, taking on a peculiar plastic appearance often seen in the coast districts in E. maculata (Spotted Gum) and Angophora lanceolata (Smooth-barked Apple). In E. coriacea, from this protuberance there spring out as many as four (and even more) stems of equal diameter, such stems being equidistant from each other, or nearly so.”note




  ― 138 ―

Range.

THIS tree is confined to Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. In Tasmania it is common, except the extreme south and south-west (Rodway). I have examined the following classical Tasmanian specimens:—

  • (a) Gunn's No. 684, 1,105 (Plenty Bridge); 1,107 (Glen Leith); 1,108 (Glen Leith, also road foot of Grass-tree Hill); 1,109 (Marlborough); 1,111, “Weeping Gum,” Formosa. These are typical E. coriacea and are E. piperita, var. pauciflora, DC., Prod. iii, 213, as pointed out by Hooker in Fl. Tas. i, 136.
  • (b) Col. Paterson ex. Herb. Lambert in Herb. Cant.

VICTORIA.

As regards Victoria, Mueller gives the south, north-east, and east. Speaking of Gippsland, Howitt says:—

This Eucalypt is extremely constant in character, whether found in small isolated colonies in the littoral tracts, as at Providence Ponds and Morwell, or forming forests over large areas in the Gippsland Alps up to an elevation of 5,000 feet, as on the Wonnongatta Plains, at Omeo, Woolgulmerang and Delegate. It appears to be essentially an alpine species, yet able to maintain itself, to some extent, in localities but little elevated above sea-level.

Following are some Victorian localities represented in the National Herbarium, Sydney:—

Mount Hotham, Victorian Alps (J.H.M., var. alpina). Buffalo Mountains (Mr. West, comm., C. Walter), “Cabbage Gum,” Caledonia River; Upper Broken River, Wando Dale, Hotspur (A. W. Howitt). Hills near Mansfield, Strathbogie (H. B. Williamson); Camel's Hump, Mount Macedon (C. Walter).

SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

J. E. Brown figures it in his Forest Flora under the name “The South-eastern White Gum:”—

In this State the species is as yet only known to exist in the south-eastern district, and there merely in patches within a short distance of the sea-coast. The localities are—Dismal Swamp (Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods) and Benara Estate (Beale).

The late Professor Tate records it from the volcanic area of the south-east corner of the Province, or the Mount Gambier district. Both in Victoria and South Australia it is recorded from the coast, a habitat I believe to be quite unknown in New South Wales.




  ― 139 ―

NEW SOUTH WALES.

It occurs usually at fairly high elevations, preferring undulating grassy country in the ranges and high table-lands, from south to north of the State. As already indicated, it ascends to the greatest elevation of any tree in the State. It consequently forms the limit of arboreal vegetation—the “tree-line”—which, on Mount Kosciusko, is about 6,500 feet. Following are some southern localities:— Mount Kosciusko has already been dealt with in referring to var. alpina. In the Delegate district the bark is scribbled like E. hœmastoma, and the young leaves are sometimes larger and thinner than those of the type. This scribbling of the bark is observed in other localities also. Again, in the same district we have a small fruited form, the fruits being hardly larger than those of E. stellulata. Leaves thinner and dull looking. It may be that these trees show the effects of hybridisation.

Then again, in the Cooma district (Cooma-Braidwood Road), we have leaves straight, or nearly so, about 4½ inches long, seldom falcate, fruit more nearly sessile; sometimes glaucous, and apparently connecting with variety alpina. The bark is smooth, grey, and striped, and marked with scribbles.

“Cattle Gum,” because eaten by stock. Gungahleen Estate (Gungarlin is an older spelling), Goldsbrough, Mort, & Co., Sydney. Yarrangobilly Caves, and Adaminaby to Cooma (E. Betche). Tumut (J. H. Maiden and J. L. Boorman); top of Dividing Range, Nimbo River, Cooma district (H. Deane). This is a small-leaved form, showing transit to variety alpina. Jingera Mountains, Michelago (W. Baeuerlen); “White Sally,” Queanbeyan (H. Deane); Rob Roy (H. Deane).

On the Monaro, where it is known as “White Gum,” “Cabbage Gum,” “Big Leaf,” it is looked upon as the best firewood and best to stand in the ground for wire fences. There is not much timber in the Monaro of good quality; at the same time testimony to its value is not universal.

I have specimens from the top of Mount Tabletop, Kiandra district (E. Betche). The fruits are of unusual form, being nearly hemispherical and compressed, after the fashion of E. capitellata, Sm. A tendency for fruits to take on a similar character is shown in specimens from other elevated localities in southern New South Wales.

In the Braidwood district of New South Wales this tree goes by the name of “Cabbage Gum,” on account of the softness of its timber; and reports from that district are consistent in stating, “Very durable underground, though of no use above it.” It there attains a diameter of 5 feet and a height of 80 feet, extending from the lowest level up to the highest elevation (5,000 feet). Jembaicumbene, Araluen to Braidwood (J.H.M.); Gidley, Bungendore (W. Forster Rutledge); No. 370, S. H. Mossman, from Twofold Bay, herb. Cant. ex herb. Lemann (probably from near Tarago). Barber's Creek (H. J. Rumsey); “Snappy Gum,” Paddy's River and Wingello,—“used for posts and rails in the district” (J. L. Boorman).




  ― 140 ―

At Berrima (on the banks of the Wingecarribee, opposite the Rectory) is a Ribbony Gum, with rough black bark up to the first fork. The rough bark is much like that of E. viminalis. The habit of the tree is more erect as to foliage than that of the normal coriacea close by. The timber is white and full of gum veins, like coriacea. The fruits are more hemispherical than the rest of the trees in the neighbourhood. The species is, however, very close to E. coriacea; and in all my travels I have not previously seen an E. coriacea a real Ribbony Gum as this is. E. coriacea is a species that does not present much evidence of variation as a rule, and I am inclined to think that this particular tree may present evidence of hybridisation, perhaps with E. amygdalina. It may be conspecific with Mr. Baker's E. vitrea.

Following are some western localities:—“Snappy Gum,” Jenolan Caves.— Bark smooth and mottled; there are two or three tints of slate colour with white streaks (W. F. Blakely). “Cabbage Gum,” Capertee.—Large trees plentiful all through the low lands of the district. Tendency to be pipy. Ribbony at base and clean for the most part throughout. Timber soft, useless (J. L. Boorman.) Tarana.—A large white shining gum tree, considered in the locality a great lasting timber in the ground (A. Murphy). “Large-leaved White Gum,” Sidmouth Valley. —Cattle and horses are fond of the leaves (W. Woolls). Sidmouth Valley was formerly called Lowe's Swamp, and is described in Wells' Gazetteer, 1848, as “a broad and very difficult morass, in the county of Westmoreland, 102 miles from Sydney.” The Sidmouth Valley Creek, a small southern tributary of the Fish River, runs through it. Millthorpe.—“White Gum,” thin bark, stands well in ground (R. H. Cambage). Top of Canoblas, about 4,500 feet above sea-level (R. H. Cambage); this is var. alpina. Canoblas, near Orange (Elliott Bros., Sydney).—Transit between the normal and alpine form. Kerr's Creek, near Orange.—“Cabbage or White Gum,” found in broken, sour, pipe-clay country. Timber soft, inferior, does not stand the ground well; used for rails (Forest Ranger Martin). Peak Hill (J. M. Curran).

As regards the north, it is found all over New England, as far north as Tenterfield. I expect it will be recorded from elevated localities between Orange and New England. In New England we find about Walcha (J. F. Campbell and J.H.M.) the ordinary and the alpine form. It is called “Weeping Gum” at Salisbury, Uralla (H. Deane), and “Glassy Gum,” Guyra (H. Deane). It has not been recorded from Queensland, but I should not be surprised if it were to be found in the ranges about Stanthorpe.




  ― 141 ―

Affinities.

1. E. stellulata, Sieb.

As already indicated, the closest relations of E. coriacea are with E. stellulata, of which, in some respects, it strongly resembles a coarse form.

2. E. coccifera, Hook. f.

It seems to me that the alpine forms of E. coccifera are very close to the Tasmanian E. coccifera, Hook. f., and this word of caution may be useful to the student.

3. E. vitrea, R. T. Baker, or E. vitellina, Naudin.

In a specimen from the Blue Mountains in Herb. F. Muell. the leaves are long and almost linear lanceolate, but very thick with the longitudinal veins of E. coriacea, of which it has also the flowers. —(B.Fl. iii, 201.)

In the above passage Bentham is doubtless speaking of specimens very similar to those I have from Jenolan Caves (W. F. Blakely). They are nearest to Mr. R. T. Baker's E. vitrea, though not typical. E. vitrea is, in my opinion, a hybrid between E. coriacea and E. amygdalina.

I will go into the matter at some length when dealing with E. amygdalina. Suffice it to say, at this place, that the tree referred to in the Flora Australiensis could not be confused, in the field, with E. coriacea; the former being a rough-barked tree and the latter a specially smooth gum.

9. VIII. Eucalyptus coccifera, Hook. f.

             
1.  Description  142 
Notes supplementary to the description  142 
2.  Synonyms  143 
Notes on the Synonyms  143 
3.  Range  144 
Affinities  144 
Explanation of plates  145 




  ― 142 ―

Description.

Eucalyptus coccifera, Hook., f.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Ramis ramulisque teretibus lævibus plerumque glaucis, foliis alternis parvis uniformibus lineariellipticis lanceolatis v. anguste ovatis acuminatis utrinque attenuatis apicibus juniorum unicinato-hamatis, pedunculis brevibus 3-floris rarissime 4–8-floris, alabastris ancipiti-compressis obovato-obconicis, operculo depresso apice concavo capsula latiore rugoso, capsula obconico-hemispherica latiore quam longa basin versus bicarinata brevissime pedicellata, pedicello compresso, ore plano dilatato rarius convexiusculo v. concavo, valvis axi capsulæ parvis. Tops of mountains, Lawrence, Gunn.

Arbor parva, 10-pedalis, e basi ramosa. Folia coriacea, sublonge petiolata, petiolo ½ unc. longo, lamina 1½–2½ unc. longa, ½–1 unc. lata, elliptico-ovata v. lanceolata, v. lineari-lanceolata, omnia 1-nervia. Pedunculi breves, fere omnes 3-flori. Alabastra longitidine et diametro varia, longiora ½ uncialia, obovato-obconica, pedicellata, breviora ¼ unc. longa, sessilia, breviter obconica, omnia compressa. Capsulæ ?–½ unc. latae, utrinque carinatæ, carinæ cum angulis pedicelli continuæ, nunc ad orem capsulæ productæ, nunc supra basin evanidæ—(Lond. Journ. Bot., vi, 1847, 477). It is described by Bentham in B.Fl., iii, 204.

This plant received its specific name because its foliage was infested with a Coccus, which circumstance was drawn attention to by Mr. Lawrence, who first sent it to the describer. This condition is by no means peculiar to this species, nor is this species particularly liable to such attacks; debilitated Eucalypts of perhaps any species may become thus infested.

It is a hardy species as regards temperature, and has succeeded in many parts of the United Kingdom. Its glaucous foliage renders it a pleasing object; its foliage also emits a more than ordinarily pleasant fragrance.

It is quite a small tree, of under 20 feet in height. It has a smooth white bark, and except occasionally for firewood, I know of no use to which it is put. Its leaves do not appear to be distilled for oil. It has no vernacular or aboriginal name that I know of.




  ― 143 ―

Synonyms.

  • 1. E. alpina, R.Br., MS.
  • 2. E. daphnoides, Miq.
  • 3. E. citryandra, (? Vilmorin).
  • 4. E. pinnata (?).

Var. parviflora, Benth.

Notes on the Synonyms.

1. E. alpina, R.Br., MS., top of Table Mountain (Robert Brown, 1802–5).

2. E. daphnoides, Miq.

22. Eucalyptus daphnoides, Miq. n. sp., ramulis densis glauco pruinosis subangulatis, veteribus fuscescentibus, foliis longiuscule petiolatis lanceolatis utrinque attenuatis apiculo curvulo terminalis, rigide coriaceis impunctatis, marginibus incrassatis, venis obtectis; pedunculis axillaribus et lateralibus 3–5 floris, floribus sessilibus, calycibus obconicis pruinosis, fructibus brevissime pedicellatis semiglobosis truncatis, capsula 5-loculari (p. 133).—Van Diemensland (Stuart n. 9.)

Petioli 2–5 lin., folia 1½–2¾ poll. longa, 2–vulgo 3 lin. lata. Calyx 2 lin. longus. Opercula desunt. (p. 134).—(Nederl. Kruidk. Arch., iv, (1856), 133.)

Stuart's specimens are from Mount Laperouse.

3. In Herb. Barbey-Boissier is a specimen of E. coccifera, labelled “Eucalyptus citryandra, Verrières près Paris, 27 Avril, 1891. Cult. Vilmorin, Gélé, 1890–1891.”

4. I have received a specimen of a Californian-grown Eucalyptus from Santa Monica, labelled E. pinnata, which may be this species. I have seen neither ripe buds nor ripe fruits.

Var. parviflora, Benth.

Flowers much smaller, the peduncles exceedingly short. Mount Fatigue, Gunn.—(B.Fl., iii, 204.) I have not seen authentic specimens of this form.




  ― 144 ―

Range.

THIS species is confined to Tasmania, and to the highest tops of the mountains. It is readily obtained on Mount Wellington, Hobart, where it is abundant at about 4,000 feet.

Following are some specimens examined:—E. alpina, R.Br., MS., Mount Wellington (R. Brown, 1802–5). Robert Gunn, Nos. 411 and 1,076; tree, 120 feet, Mount Wellington (Oldfield, in Herb. Barbey-Boissier). No. 53 of “Voyage de l”Astrolabe et de la Zélée, 1838–40,” M. le Guillou, 1841.—(Herb. Paris). Mount Laperouse (C. Stuart). Hartz Mountains (A. H. S. Lucas).

Affinities.

1. E. amygdalina, Labill.

This species has much the aspect of some thick-leaved forms of E. amygdalina, but is readily known by the depressed operculum and longer calyx.—(B.Fl. iii, 204.)

On Ironstone Range the buds are shorter in proportion to length, the operculum though flat, less rough, and the fruit about 4 lines diameter, thus approximating to forms of E. amygdalina.—(The Tasmanian Flora, L. Rodway.)

The affinity of this species to the alpine Tasmanian forms of E. amygdalina is undoubtedly great. The leaves of both species are very similar as regards the venation, etc. Further observations are required to absolutely settle their relations, though E. coccifera is quite a distinct species; the seedling-leaves settle this.

2. E. Risdoni, Hook. f., var. elata, Benth.

This variety and E. coccifera are so similar, as regards dried specimens, that it is frequently difficult to separate them unless a full suite of specimens be available.




  ― 145 ―

3. E. coriacea, A. Cunn.

The affinity of E. coccifera with E. coriacea, var. alpina, is so pronounced as to be apparent to the most superficial observer; but it is distinguished from that species by its more prominent and more spreading veins, showing its closer relationship to E. amygdalina. The tuberculate-corrugate surface of the flower-buds reminds one slightly of those of E. globulus, but the flat shape of the operculum of E. coccifera is quite different. The buds are very different to those of E. amygdalina and E. coriacea. The fruits of E. coccifera often display a puzzling similarity to those of E. coriacea. Both may have sunk and domed rims, but I do not call to mind any fruits of E. coriacea so angled as those of E. coccifera sometimes are.

Explanation of Plates.

Plate 25.

Eucalyptus stellulata, Sieb.

Plate 25: EUCALYPTUS STELLULATA, Sieb. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



  • 1a. Leaves; 1b, buds of the type (Sieber's No. 478).
  • 2a. Immature fruits, conoid in shape, but quite normal; 2b ripe fruits from Nimitybelle, N.S.W. (J.H.M.).
  • 3a. Juvenile leaves; 3b, mature leaf, Jindabyne, N.S.W. (J.H.M.).
  • 4. Juvenile leaves, Yarrowitch, New South Wales, New England, N.S.W. (J.H.M.).
  • 5a. Twig in flower; 5b, front and back view of anther, of var. angustifolia, Benth., Mount Victoria, N.S.W., February 10, 1901 (J.H.M.).
  • 6. Fruits of var. angustifolia in dense heads. Blackheath, N.S.W. (J. H. Camfield).
  • 7. Buds deformed by insect galls, Jindabyne (J.H.M.).

Plate 26.

E. coriacea, A. Cunn.

Plate 26: EUCALYPTUS CORIACEA, A. Cunn. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



  • 1. Sieber's No. 470 (E. pauciflora, Sieb.) type.
  • 2a. Twig with flowers; 2b, buds; 2c, front and back view of anther of No. 165, E. silvicultrix, F. Mueller, the E. submultiplinervis, forma minor, of Miquel. (Charles Stuart, near Woodhall, Tasmania.)
  • 3a. Leaf; 3b, fruits of No. 40 “Eucalyptus (6) E. phlebophylla, M. (Miquel), affinis submultiplinervis.” Van Diemen's Land, C. Stuart.
  • 4. Leaf and fruits of “E. phlebophylla, Ferd. Mueller, Mount Aberdeen (Vict.), 4,000 feet, Mueller, February, 1853.” Drawn by Miss M. Smith from a specimen in the Herbarium, Royal Gardens, Kew.
  • 5. Leaf and buds from a second sheet of specimens from Mount Aberdeen; also in the Herbarium, Royal Gardens, Kew, and drawn by Miss M. Smith. Originally also labelled E. phlebophylla.
  • 6. E. coriacea, A. Cunn., var. alpina, F.v.M., Mount Kosciusko, N.S.W. (J.H.M.).




  ― 146 ―

Plate 27.

E. coriacea, A. Cunn.

Plate 27: EUCALYPTUS CORIACEA, A. Cunn. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



  • 1a. Twig with fruits; 1b, buds, of E. coriacea, var. alpina, from top of the Canoblas, Orange, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage). Note the domed rim of the fruit and the hemispherical opercula.
  • 2. Var. alpina, Mount Tabletop, Kiandra, N.S.W. (E. Betche). Note the broad rim and the tendency to angularity in the fruits.
  • 3. Juvenile foliage, Pretty Point, Mount Kosciusko, N.S.W. (J.H.M.). The stem of this specimen was flat and ribbon-like.
  • 4. Richmond Road, near Risdon, Tasmania (No. 266, Rodway). Note the hooked leaves (by no means rare) and the small fruit.
  • 5a. Leaves and buds; 5b, fruits; Berrima, N.S.W., September, 1901 (J.H.M.). See p. 140. This form probably exhibits hybridism, and will be dealt with under E. vitrea.

Plate 28.

Eucalyptus coriacea, A. Cunn.

Plate 28: 1 and 2. EUCALYPTUS CORIACEA, A. Cunn. 3 to 5, E. COCCIFERA, Hook., f. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



  • 1a and 1b. Juvenile foliage; 1a, nearly orbicular; from the Canoblas, near Orange (Messrs. Elliott Bros., Sydney); and
  • 1b. Broadly lanceolate, from between Tenterfield and Sandy Flat, New England, N.S.W. (J.H.M.).
  • 2. Markedly domed-rimmed fruits, from Delegate River, N.S.W. (W. Baeuerlen).

Eucalyptus coccifera, Hook. f.

  • 2a, 2b. Two pairs of seedling leaves from Mount Wellington, Hobart, Tasmania (J.H.M.). Stem markedly tuberculate.
  • 3a, 3b, 3c. Leaf, front and back view of anther and fruits, from Mount Wellington (J.H.M.).
  • 4a. Leaf; 4b, buds; 4c, fruits; of the type, viz., 1,076, R. Gunn, Mount Wellington, 1844.
  • 5a. Leaf and flower buds; 5b, flowers of the type of E. daphnoides, Miq., from Mount Laperouse, Tasmania (C. Stuart).

There is a good figure in Hooker's Fl. Tas. That in Bot. Mag. 78, 4,967, has expanded flowers only and is less good. There is a poor figure in Journ. Hort. Soc. vi, 222, and one in Gard. Chron., 27th March, 1880, page 395 (young buds and expanded flowers). I believe there are figures in Fl. des Serres, vi, 736, and Lem. Jard. Fl., 242, but I have not seen them. Mueller does not figure this species in his Eucalyptographia. I intend the drawings in the present work to supplement those of Fl. Tas.

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