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CCLXIX. E. Cambageana Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 91 (1913).

Arbor alta Blackbutt vocata, ramis longis pendulisque. Trunci, cortice cinerea et squamosa altitudini 3–4 pedes, a caule læve et albo ramisque distincte disjuncta. Lignum rubrum. Folia juvenia 15 cm. longa, 2.5 cm. lata, pallido-virentia utrinque, concoloria, ovata vel pyriforma, vena peripherica patente et a margine distincte remota. Umbellæ 3–8 in capite, paniculas plerumque terminales formantes. Alabastri clavati. Operculum ovoideum et calycis tubo circiter dimidio superante. Fructus parvi, conoidei, diametro circiter 7 mm. orificio.

“The young trees grow tall and fairly straight, but with age they become pipy and eventually simply a shell. Very liable to be attacked by white ants.” (Miss Zara Clark.)

“The trees range from 50–80 feet high, having long pendulous branches.

“They have scaly bark permanent up to 3–4 feet from the ground; this is hard and of an ironbark nature, jet black in colour, the remainder of the stem being milky-white, approaching bluish-white (glaucous); it is clear of any sign of ribbony bark beyond the butt. There is a distinct line of demarcation between the rough black and the white clean stem.

“The sapwood is exceptionally thin, the heart wood deep red or chocolate in colour, hard, heavy, long and tough in the grain, much resembling that of the Red Box (polyanthemos) of New South Wales.

“It is the most important timber in the Emerald district for all purposes, being sound, and yielding long, clean stems of many feet in length, hence exceptionally suitable for milling purposes.” (J. L. Boorman.)

Local name, “Blackbutt.” Type from Mirtna Station, Charters Towers, Queensland (Miss Zara Clark, January and December, 1912.)

Juvenile leaves.—Pale-coloured, equally green on both sides, rhomboid-ovate to pyriform and broadly lanceolate, petiolate, apex blunt, venation prominent, marginal vein at a considerable distance from the edge, the lateral veins spreading. Oil dots not obvious. Average size say 9 to 12 cm. by 5 or 6 broad.

Mature leaves.—Lanceolate, slightly curved, petiolate, thickish, shiny, pale-coloured, equally green on both sides, venation prominent, the intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge, the lateral veins spreading. Average length of mature leaves 15 by 2·5 cm.

Flowers.—Umbels 3 to 8 in the head, forming usually terminal panicles, buds clavate, the calyx-tube forming a defined raised border at its junction with the operculum, the calyx-tube tapering gradually into the pedicel, the operculum ovoid and about half the length of the calyx-tube.

Anthers belonging to the Porantheræ, pores small, opening at the side, the filament always at the base, and the small gland always at the top.

Fruits.—Small, conoid, the calyx-tube tapering with but slight abruptness into the pedicel; when young, with a well-defined grooved rim, which almost disappears on ripening, leaving a dark brown rim, tips of the valves sunk or rarely flush with the orifice. Size about 7 mm. diameter at the orifice and length the same.

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“Grows on hard clay soil, often stony, and always some distance from water. Generally in clumps and often in company of Gidgee and Brigalow in the Charters Towers district.” (Miss Zara Clark.)

Reid River, a few miles south of Townsville (N. Daley).

“The principal timber of the Emerald district, noted for its hardness and size, and for the good quality of its timber. Apparently local from Gin Gin to within 10–12 miles east of Alpha.” (J. L. Boorman.)

Some poor fruits collected by O'Shanesy from the Dawson and Mackenzie Rivers, labelled E. leptophleba by Mueller, are the present species. These were referred to by me in the present work, X, 333, where I doubted the naming of the specimen. It might be neglected altogether but for the reason that (op. cit., p. 333), it evidently formed the basis of the name E. leptophleba attached by O'Shanesy to a Blackbutt whose timber and bark he describes. He says “dispersed through the scrubby country westward from Goganjo.”

E. Cambageana, the Blackbutt of the Comet River and Coowarra districts, was first noticed between Jericho and Beta, thence onwards at intervals to Gogango, often growing with Acacia harpophylla (Brigalow).” (R. H. Cambage in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 445, 1915.)

It is therefore widely diffused in the warmer parts of Queensland, but we do not know its precise range yet.


It would appear to take the place, in Queensland, of the more southern E. polyanthemos Schauer, or rather of its narrow-leaved forms. The anthers, however, sharply separate them. The leaves also are different both in shape and venation. The rough bark is more scaly than that of E. polyanthemos, and the line of demarcation more clearly defined.

It is named in honour of Mr. Richard Hind Cambage, who has done valuable work in connection with this genus. I shall refer to this work more in detail in the epilogue. E. Cambagei Deane and Maiden is conspecific with E. elœophora F.v.M.