Part 43

  ― 71 ―

CCXXXVI. E. ficifolia F.v.M.

In Fragmenta ii, 85 (1860).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

Leaves moderately petiolate, opposite, ovate-lanceolate or sub-ovate, acute, coriaceous, spreadingly and very finely penniveined in a crowded manner, scarcely pellucid-punctate, straightly and faintly reticulate-veined, paler on the underside, peripheral vein close to the margin, umbels terminal and paniculate, pedicels quadrangular, about the same length as the calyx-tube, fruits large, truncate- or suburceolate-ovate, exangular, three- or four-celled, valves deltoid, deeply included and deflexed, fertile seeds greyish brown with long wings in the fore part, most of the seeds sterile, narrow and elongated.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 256), had his doubts as to its specific rank, and dismissed it in the following words:—

E. ficifolia, F. Muell. Fragm. ii, 85. Only known from imperfect specimens in fruit, which differ in no respect from E. calophylla, except that the seeds are of a pale colour and the testa expanded at one end, or round one side into a broad, variously-shaped wing. Further specimens may prove these differences not to be constant.

West Australia. Broke's Inlet, “Black-butt,” Maxwell. From the Hay, Gordon and Tone Rivers in the same neighbourhood are flowering specimens undistinguishable from E. calophylla, which may possibly belong to this species.

It was then more fully described, and also illustrated, by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia.” Some of his remarks on the colour of the filaments are referred to below.


E. ficifolia F.v.M. var. Guilfoylei Bailey, in Proc. Roy. Soc. Q., x, p. 17 (1894).

This is identical with E. calophylla R.Br. var. rosea (Hort.) Maiden, see below, p. 75.


The type came from Broken Inlet, “near the coast of the estuary, Broken Inlet, south West Australia,” Maxwell. I would suggest that this is a slip of the pen or a limited local name for Brookes' Inlet, between Irwin Inlet and D'Entrecasteaux Point (i.e., approaching Cape Leeuwin).

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Bentham says “from the Hay, Gordon and Tone Rivers in the same neighbourhood are flowering specimens undistinguishable from E. calophylla, which may possibly belong to this species.” It may be said that dried flowering specimens of E. ficifolia and E. calophylla may be difficult to discriminate from each other.

Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) says: “From the western side of Irwin's Inlet to the entrance of the Shannon, constituting a distinct forest belt in the coast region, though not actually approaching the sea-shore.”

Brookes's Inlet appears to be the most westerly locality, and it extends easterly to the west side of Irwin's Inlet and the Shannon River to Irwin's Inlet, and northerly to near Mount Hoskins in the Frankland district. The range of this species, which is not very great, has not yet been definitely ascertained. It is so extensively cultivated in gardens that one has to be on one's guard in recording localities for it, particularly west and north of King George's Sound.

Dr. R. H. Pulleine, of Adelaide, who made an extensive trip, found it “beautifully in flower in December, 1917.” He found it on coastal hills (some of them hundreds of feet high), between Landers' Camp, about 15 miles north-north-west of Nornalup. It forms flat-topped impenetrable thickets, 8–10 feet high, often so thick and inter-twined that you could walk over the top, rather than get through it. He referred me to Mr. Brockman, who obligingly replied as follows:—

“Only found in its wild state along the south coast in small areas extending from Denmark to the Nornalup Inlet, a distance of about 35 miles by roughly 5 miles. There is no large extent of it in this area, and I think about 2,000 acres is about the largest area where it grows, scattered and in stunted trees. There are a few clumps of flat-topped thickets mixed with other varieties of Gums. The largest tree, judging from memory, was about 6 feet (sic) diameter and about 35 feet, with a ragged and spreading top.” (E. J. T. Brockman, Reviley via Balingup.)

It is in the National Herbarium of New South Wales from the following localities:—

“Trees of 12, 14 and 20 feet,” west side of Irwin's Inlet (Sid. W. Jackson, through H. L. White).

“Red-flowering Gum. Height up to 30 feet and up to 3 feet in diameter. Grows on sandy hills near Irwin Inlet and on granite hills near Mt. Hoskins in the Franklin district.” (Dr. F. Stoward, No. 112).

Shannon River; also near Wilson's Inlet (W. V. Fitzgerald).


With E. calophylla R.Br. See p. 78.

  ― 73 ―
CCXXXVII. E. calophylla R.Br.

In Journ. Geog. Soc. i, 1831 (1832), 20; Lindley in Bot. Reg. (1841), Pl. Misc. 72.

IN the “General view of the botany of Swan River,” by Robert Brown (Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc. i, 17–21, 1832), at pp. 19–20, we have:—

Of Eucalyptus, the only species in the collection (Fraser's) had been first found on Captain Flinders' voyage at King George's Sound, on the shore of which it was the only useful timber tree, though there of very moderate size. I have named it Eucalyptus calophylla.

Lindley's description was as follows:—

Foliis alternis ovato-lanceolatis marginatis parce punctatis nunc acuminatis nunc obtusis cum mucrone; venis primariis simplicibus pennatim dispositis contiguis subparallelis, umbellis terminalibus et axillaribus 4–5 floris, pedunculatis, operculo minimo hemisphaerico umbonato hinc cupulae c. cardine affixo.

(Of which the following is a translation:—Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, marginate, with a few dots, sometimes acuminate, sometimes obtuse, with a mucro. Primary veins simple, pinnate, close together, sub-parallel, umbels terminal and axillary, 4–5 flowered, pedunculate, operculum very small, hemispherical, umbonate, fixed to the calyx-tube by a hinge.)

Lindley then proceeds in English:—

The name of E. calophylla is current in gardens for this beautiful plant, but I cannot discover it in books. It is a native of Port Augustanote on the south-west coast of New Holland, whence its seeds were sent to Capt. Jas. Mangles, R.N., by Mrs. Molloy, a lady enthusiastically fond of flowers, to whom we are indebted for many acquisitions. Its branches are of a rich reddish brown. The leaf-stalks, which are rather more than an inch long, are of the same colour. The leaves are from 4 to 6 inches long, ovate-lanceolate, flat, pale green, with a rich red marginal line, within which, at the distance of a quarter of a line, runs a faint intramarginal vein; when bruised they have a faint and rather pleasant smell; very few transparent dots are visible; the veins are delicate lines, almost at right angles to the midrib, from three-fourths to one and a half lines asunder, and running somewhat parallel till they lose themselves in the intramarginal vein; they are held together by fine reticulations. The whole appearance of the foliage is that of a Calophyllum. The flowers are large and white, the cup is obconical, 6 lines long, and as much across the mouth; the lid, however, is only half that diameter, and hangs to the edge of the cup on one side, by a narrow neck, so that it cannot fall off; this arises from the cup continuing to enlarge after the separation of the lid. (Lindley, op. cit.)

It is redescribed by Schauer in Plantæ Preissianæ, i, 131 (1844–5).

  ― 74 ―

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 255) then described it as follows:—

A beautiful tree, with a more dense foliage than usual in the genus, the rough, corky bark coming off in irregular masses (Oldfield). Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, obtuse or mucronate-acute, rather rigid with very numerous transverse parallel veins, the intramarginal one scarcely distant from the edge. Umbels loose, with rather large flowers, in a terminal corymbose panicle, with one or two sometimes in the upper axils. Peduncles flattened or nearly terete, pedicels longer than the calyx-tube. Calyxtube turbinate and often ribbed on the adnate part, the free part much dilated, often ½ inch diameter. Operculum hemispherical, obtuse or umbonate, shorter than the calyx-tube and continuous with it till the flower expands. Stamens ½ to ¾ inch long; anthers ovate, with parallel distinct cells opening longitudinally. Ovary flat or slightly convex on the top. Fruit when perfect ovoid-urceolate, 2 inches long and above 1 inch diameter, very thick and hard, with a thick neck contracted at the orifice, but sometimes the fruit is smaller, the neck less distinct and less contracted. Capsule deeply sunk. Seeds large, ovate, black, flat or with a raised angle on one face, the edges acute but scarcely winged, the hilum large on the inner face.

It was figured and described by Mueller in his “Eucalyptographia.”

Here we have a case of nomen nudum had the date been, say, thirty years later. Nowadays a date would not be accepted without a description, as was accepted by our predecessors in the case of 1831 or 1832. Probably Robert Brown distributed specimens to herbaria at this time, but the generally accepted dates of species in the old days were often in the nature of a compromise. Schauer in Plantæ Preissianæ 1, 131 (1845), attributes this species to Lindley, but Bentham, Mueller, and all other writers on Eucalyptus are unanimous in attributing it to Brown, and I do not agree that they are wrong. Lindley himself speaks of the name as “current” in his time.

This is the commonest “Red Gum” of Western Australia. The leaves slightly perfoliate in the young state. There is caoutchouc in the young leaves.

Miss Bussell, of Ellensbrook, informed me that Red Gum blossom is called “Booneet” by the blacks. They state that when it is in flower the Groper comes into the reef, so that the blacks can spear them. They make a somewhat similar observation in regard to the plant they call “Whale's Eye” (Candollea cuneiformis Labill).

In bark and general appearance the Red Gum resembles the Bloodwoods of the east. Red Gum is a pale-coloured timber with abundant gum-veins (in this respect also resembling Bloodwood). (It owes its common name to the abundance of its red astringent gum or kino.) I noticed fruit cases made with Jarrah ends and Red Gum sides. At a little distance the pale wood in a fruit case resembles Pine. (J.H.M. in Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. III, 1911).

When travelling in Western Australia a few years ago, this tree was reputed to flower every alternate year, and was said by some to yield the best honey.

Mr. A. H. Smith, of Baker's Hill, W.A., gave the following particulars in the Western Mail of 6th March, 1914, in regard to the flowering of this species. He is a beekeeper, and the notes would have increased value if they had been backed with the dates of the flowerings.

When well grown it is the largest of the trees in the coastal and hills districts. It blooms from February to April, March being the month of full bloom. Every year a few trees, particularly saplings, may be found in bloom, but usually only one year out of three is marked by abundant general blossoms. In other words, the majority of trees bloom one year and miss two. Sometimes only one year is missed,

  ― 75 ―
sometimes it is three. Apparently the season and the bush fires have something to do with the blossoming. From a beekeeper's point of view the Red Gum honey harvest may be counted on once in three years. As the buds are formed only shortly before blossoming time, one canot tell whether the tree will bloom until December or maybe early in January.

This tree is occasionally planted by beekeepers, particularly in South Australia and Victoria, as a honey plant.

Schauer in Plantæ Preissianæ gives the aboriginal name as “N'gumbat.” Captain J. Lort Stokes, in his “Discoveries in Australia,” ii, 132, gave the aboriginal name as “Kardan.” At Ellensbrook, in the south-west, the name, at least for the blossom, is “Booneet.”

The following inspired paragraph in the Western Mail of 11th April, 1919, shows that an attempt is being made to change the vernacular name of Red Gum, so commonly applied in Western Australia to this tree, and replace it by “Marri,” said to be of aboriginal origin. It remains to be seen if people will give up a name at the bidding of authority, however desirable the change may be.

Mr. Lane-Poole, the Conservator of Forests, is endeavouring to correct and replace the misleading name by which one of our most prominent timbers, the so-called Red Gum, is known. In the eastern States the term “Red Gum” is applied to Eucalyptus rostrata, the wood of which is red, hard, and somewhat resembles in appearance our Jarrah. The name of the tree evidently arose from the colour of the wood. Our Red Gum is Eucalyptus calophylla, and the name “Red Gum” was probably given to it on account of the quantity of red gum or kino which exudes from this tree. In some portions of the South-west, the natives, according to the writings of pioneers, called this tree “Kurden” or “Karden,” while other tribes called it the “Marri” or “Maree.” As the native name “Marri” is simple and in harmony with the native names karri, jarrah, and wandoo, Mr. Lane-Poole has decided to try and get people to adopt this name instead of the present common misleading one (sic) of Red Gum.

I have seen fowls eating the seeds, but do not know the result of lengthened indulgence in such a diet. The fruits, which are large, and of a suitable shape, have had a limited use in country districts as tobacco pipes, both in Australia and South Africa. During the Great War these fruits had a great vogue as protectors of steel knitting needles. Two fruits were connected with strips of elastic by ladies who knitted socks and other garments for our soldiers, and they were willing to pay fancy prices for these fruits and thus the Red Cross benefited.


Var. rosea Maiden, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xli, 187 (1916), a synonym of E. ficifolia F.v.M. var. Guilfoylei Bailey. As a matter of convenience this will be found under “Affinities” at p. 78 below, since it is not easy to make the subject clear without entering into an exhaustive comparison of E. ficifolia and E. calophylla.

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  • 1. E. splachnicarpa Hook.
  • 2. E. glaucophylla Hoffmansegg (perhaps)

1. In Hooker's Bot. Mag. t. 4036, is a figure of a twig in bud and flower, with immature fruit, sufficient, however, to distinguish the species. This is accompanied by a description in Latin, of which the following is a translation:—

Leaves alternate, oblique, ovate-lanceolate, with a marginal vein, penninerved, coriaceous, with terminal compound umbels, hemispherical operculum, sub-globose, broader than the calyx-tube. Fruit splachniform in shape.

Splachniform means that it resembles the fructification of a moss of the genus Splachnum. Sir William Hooker was a considerable authority on mosses.

2. E. glaucophylla Hoffmg.

The original, in a very rare work, is as follows:—

“(429) Eucalyptus glaucophylla. E. foliis superioribus sparsis petiolatis oblongis acuminatis apiculatis coriaceis glaucis, passim basi inaequalibus, nervis reticulantibus ante marginem connexis.

Hab. in Austral.

Caulis ramique teretia, cumque petiolis purpurascentia. Folia utrinque glauca. Petiolo superiores ad 6? lg. Lamina magis nunc ad ovatum nunc ad lanceolatum accedens, versus apicem sensum angustata 4–6' lg., [S] 2' lt., nervo primario pallido.

An E. longifolia? Link. Enum. Nonullis quadrans, aliis discrepans. Differt enum potissimum: foliis plurimis basi non inaequilibus, nullis ullo modo punctatis, coloris valde glauci, qui tamen in aliis, e.g., purpurascente, expresse memoratur, nullâ mentione, acumine non incurvo, ita ut illam credere non audeam. Quousque sese extendat identitas, pronuncient comparantes arbitri me peritiores.

Peregrinator quidam dixit, eam a cl. Wendland E. glaucescentem vocari; alii peritiores, meam aliam, novamque sp asserunt.” (Hoffmg. Verz. Pfl. Nachtr. 2, p. 113.)

Schauer in Walpers' Repertorium ii, 927, says this is E. splachnicarpa Hook. I have not seen the type, but agree with Bentham that it is “very doubtful,” particularly as there is an absence of glaucousness in the foliage of E. calophylla.


The type came from near Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia, and the species has not been found out of that State. Schauer says it is found around Perth and “totius coloniae.”

Bentham says “Common about King George's Sound, R. Brown, Fraser, Oldfield and others; and thence to Swan River, Fraser, Drummond No. 150; Preiss's No. 250; rare towards Port Gregory, Oldfield.”

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Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) puts it this way: “Interspersed accompanying E. marginata through nearly the whole area of that species, but less gregarious, reaching its northern boundary about the Hill River, and the southern at King George's Sound, mixed also into the forests of E. loxophleba (fœcunda), but not into those of E. diversicolor, preferring a richer and deeper soil than E. marginata.”

It is a lover of good soil and well-watered districts, and forming as it does a large, picturesque, often scrambling tree, with huge branches, occurring exclusively over large areas, it gives to country what is known as a “park-like” aspect. It occurs within a line roughly connecting Cape Riche and Port Gregory, but we do not fully know the localities north and east of that line.

I have seen the following:—

A specimen labelled “E. calophylla Lindl. No. 250 of Mr. L. Preiss, 1837–1840, Swan River.” Also Drummond's No. 150 (presented by British Museum through Dr. A. B. Rendle).

Following are “modern” specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney:—

King George's Sound (B. T. Goadby, No. 90). Albany (Henry Deane, R. Helms, J.H.M.). Shrub of 2–3 metres, flowers sweet-scented; near King George's Sound (Dr. L. Diels, No. 2188). “South West Plantagenet” (Dr. E. Pritzel, No. 250). Denmark (Dr. F. Stoward, No. 159). Bow River, also Wilson's Inlet and Deep River (Sidney W. Jackson, presented by Mr. H. L. White). (These are as near to the type locality as I have got; they are a few miles to the east of it.)

Foot of Stirling Range near Mt. Tulbrunup. Juvenile leaves perfoliate (J.H.M.). (This is as far east as I have seen it. It is very abundant in the locality, and has by no means petered out in the district).

Jarrahwood (Forest Ranger Wm. Donovan). Preston Valley, with perfoliate juvenile leaves (Max Koch, No. 1855). (The above are connecting localities between the extreme south-west and the York district.)

Tree of 20–30 feet. Thick, rough, brown, spongy bark. Growing in black humus, foot of hill near Cut Hill, York (O. H. Sargent, No. 280). Bald Hill, near York (O. H. Sargent, No. 421).

Following are in the Perth district:—

Greenmount (Dr. Stoward, No. 285). Guildford (W. V. Fitzgerald). Woodlupine Creek near Perth (A. G. Hamilton). Perth (Dr. J. B. Cleland): Lower Canning River (Dr. A. Morrison, No. 28).

The following locality is on the Midland Railway. 25 metres high, Gingin (Dr. L. Diels, No. 1945). This is the same as the Moore River.

Mueller gives the Hill River (which is on the same parallel as Watheroo, on the Midland Railway) as the northern limit, but this is greatly exceeded towards the north by Port Gregory (Oldfield) which is near Northampton, which is again north of Geraldton.

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With E. ficifolia F.v.M.

Bentham's contrast in the Key (B.Fl. iii, p. 199) is—

Seeds large, not winged … … (E. calophylla).

Seeds (very irregularly) winged … (E. ficifolia).

This contrast has to be taken philosophically. While the seeds of E. ficifolia appear to usually have more wing than those of E. calophylla, those of the latter species are sometimes not without a winged appendage.

This species, as far as is known, is related to E. calophylla, but is very distinct in having pale brown, smaller seeds and a transparent wing running down the back as long or longer than the nucleus. The leaves resemble those of certain species of Ficus of the series of F. elastica. (Translation of original description of E. ficifolia.)

The characteristics by which E. ficifolia can be distinguished from E. calophylla are as follow:—The tree is of less height, the bark is somewhat more deeply furrowed, the leaves are proportionately not quite so broad but longer, the flowers are mostly larger, the calyces assume a reddish hue, the filaments are of a splendid crimson [see my remarks below.—J.H.M.], the fruits less turgid, while the seeds are much paler in colour, have a smaller kernel, and are provided with a conspicuous appendicular membrane. Irrespective of this a very marked difference in the seedlings is observable, as those of E. ficifolia show only slighly or not at all the bristly roughness of E. calophylla, nor are the seedling-leaves inserted above their base to the stalk, as in that species. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. ficifolia.)

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 256) pointed out that “certain flowering specimens of E. ficifolia are indistinguishable from E. calophylla, which may possibly belong to this species (ficifolia).”

The seedling of E. ficifolia is described at i, 533, of Lubbock “On Seedlings,” and that of E. calophylla at the same place, and also fig. 344. There is a seedling of E. calophylla figured at the back of the plate of E. calophylla in “Eucalyptographia.” It is difficult, and perhaps impossible, to lay down important differences between the seedlings of E. ficifolia, calophylla and hæmatoxylon. All are more or less scabrous, with large cotyledon leaves (those of E. calophylla are especially large), and with early peltate leaves. I prefer to leave the matter of seedlings to a subsequent Part, when those belonging to some hundreds of species can be compared as a whole, which is the true method to elucidate affinities.

The following notes contrasting E. ficifolia and E. calophylla lay especial stress on the colours of the filaments in the two species, and deal with a hybrid form.

Everyone who knows Sydney and Melbourne, and who pays attention to horticultural matters, must have noticed the great development, during the last few years, of the cultivation of what the ordinary citizen calls “Flowering Gums.” By this he means with flowers comparatively large in size and other than white in colour. Some people, a little more definite, simply call them Red-flowering, and many, Scarlet- or Crimson-flowering indiscriminately, using the terms scarlet and crimson as if they

  ― 79 ―
were interchangeable, just as they are said to be both “red.” As one to whom flowers of various kinds are often sent, I find that, as often as not, when a man writes “scarlet” he means “crimson,” and vice versa. In the case of trees like Eucalypts and Kurrajongs, which include both scarlet and crimson flowers, the confusion may be inconvenient.

Colour of Flowers (filaments).—The colour of the filaments of E. ficifolia F.v.M., is not given in Mueller's original description, but is stated to be “crimson” in “Eucalyptographia,” in the first half of the formal description, but in the second half it is described as “beautifully cinnabar-red, occasionally varying to a lighter colouration, but never very pale.” Further down, in contrasting E. ficifolia with E. calophylla, he says, “the filaments (of E. ficifolia) are of a splendid crimson.” This may be carelessness, but it probably arises from a not very clear knowledge of English terms for the colours concerned.

I have received from Dr. G. P. U. Prior, Mental Hospital, Rydalmere, near Sydney, flowers which are true E. ficifolia. They are bright scarlet in colour or, in in the language of Plate No. 79 of Rép. de Couleurs, bright fiery-red or russet-orange. The filaments do not contrast with the whitish anthers, for the pollen-masses are scarlet, too. The calyx-tubes are suffused with scarlet, and so the whole inflorescence is of a uniform tone of colour.

Supplementary Note.—We have an indubitable E. ficifolia flowering in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney (January, 1920), which has all the morphological characters of the species, but the rich-coloured filaments (Dauthenay Plate 114), with stamens hardly in contrast, are rich crimson red, and do not belong to the orange or scarlet series at all. Evidently we must take more evidence in regard to these forms.

Dr. Prior's No. 2 is a shrub at present; it is the E. ficifolia alba of nurserymen; it has white filaments, with a suspicion of colour at the base, arising from the coloured rim. Calyx-tube green. A little colour on the operculum.

In E. calophylla R.Br. the filaments are white or creamy, and I saw the trees in flower over large areas in their native habitats. Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald states that the filaments are “rarely pink”; this indicates a tendency.

This muddle that Mueller got into as regards the filaments of E. ficifolia is continued by the nurserymen. Large numbers of plants are sold; indeed, the demand exceeds the supply. I need scarcely observe that precision is desirable, and sometimes necessary, in speaking of the colours of flowers. The following is a useful work of reference:—“Répertoire de Couleurs (quoted as Rép. de Couleurs) publié par la Société Française des Chrysanthémistes,” &c. (Rennes and Paris, 1905). Two portfolios of plates and a handbook.

In Vilmorin's (Paris) Catalogue of Plants, the colour of the flowers of E. ficifolia is given as “rouge carmin,” which is not a colour admitted, as such, into Rép. de Couleurs. The firm is evidently following the late M. Naudin, a great French authority on the genus, who, Mém. Eucal. i, 555, says:—“E. ficifolia qui les a d'un rouge carmin trés brillant, au moins dans une de ses variétés.”

  ― 80 ―

In examining the catalogues of good Australian firms, I find the following given under E. ficifolia:—

1. “Red-flowering Gum,” 20 feet. This colour may mean any thing.

2. Scarlet, 15 feet; “Scarlet-flowering Gum,” 15 feet. Scarlet is correct.

3. Crimson, 20 feet; Crimson-flowered Gum, 20 feet; “Bright Crimson,” 15–20 feet. This may or may not be a confusion with scarlet, as begun by Mueller; I shall have something to say about a Crimson-flowering Gum presently. See also p. 79.

Then one firm has:—

6. “Scarlet-flowering Gum, 15 feet, literally a blaze of beautiful rich crimson shade.”

In examining the catalogues of Australian nurserymen I cannot find one which describes the colour of E. calophylla correctly. It should be white. One firm calls it “rich pink.”

Several firms, however, have E. calophylla rosea in their lists, either without comment, or “Bright pink, 30 feet,” or “Similar to E. ficifolia, but rosy pink flowers.”

I think this view of the case is correct; the rose- or crimson-flowering forms, which are large-growing (getting size from their calophylla parent, and their colour more or less from their ficifolia parent). The habit of these trees reminds me more strongly of E. calophylla than of E. ficifolia, and as to colour, we have them of all shades of the faintest blush-pink (almost white) to deep crimson.

The flowers of E. ficifolia and E. calophylla are honey-smelling, the perfume heavy and oppressive in a room. They flower mostly in December and January, and the climatic conditions in Sydney during the last season have induced an exceptionally fine display of bloom.

I have received from Dr. Prior flowers, fruits and seeds of what I call No. 1. The flowers are Tyrian Rose in colour; see Plate No. 155 of Rép. de Couleurs. There is a short, white attachment to the anther, which is creamy-white in colour, with a line of Tyrian Rose running round the back, and this colour is sometimes blurred. When old, the anther-cells inside take a pinkish shade. The pollen is creamy-white.

In Proc. Roy. Soc. Qsld., x, 17 (1893), the late F. M. Bailey described “what is probably an accidental sport” in the Melbourne Botanic Gardens, with flowers of a “deep rose” as E. ficifolia var. Guilfoylei … “It proved to be only a form of E. ficifolia differing from the normal plant in its smaller foliage, more compact inflorescence, different colour of flowers, with prominent umbo to the operculum and slight difference of seed-wing. I have received specimens of this form both from the late Mr. Guilfoyle and from Mr. J. Cronin. The yellow anthers contrast well with the filaments. The calyx-tubes are urceolate and apple-green, and both on account of the contrast of filaments with anthers and calyx-tubes, the effect in the mass is most charming.

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The Rydalmere tree is 40 feet high, and flourishing. In every respect that I can see, it is identical with E. ficifolia var. Guilfoylei and E. calophylla var. rosea Hort., and I am inclined to think that the more reasonable view is to look upon it as a form of E. calophylla. The habit and size of the hybrid incline to those of E. calophylla, while the pink or purple tinge (in contradistinction to the scarlet of E. ficifolia) naturally occurs in E. calophylla.

Size and habit.—E. calophylla is a huge tree, with gnarled trunk and scrambling, umbrageous branches, the counterpart of the Apple (Angophora intermedia) of eastern Australia. The size is given as up to 150 feet, with a stem-diameter of 10 feet (“Eucalyptographia”), and I am certain this is not exaggerated.

E. ficifolia, on the other hand, is a small tree; I think it rarely exceeds 30 feet in height, and it is usually erect, and not scrambling.

The hybrid may be fairly stated as intermediate in size.

Seeds.—Those of E. calophylla are large, ovate, black, flat, and with a raised angle on one face, the edges acute but scarcely winged, the hilum large on the inner face.

Those of E. ficifolia are of a pale colour, testa expanded at one end, or round one side into a broad, variously-shaped wing (B.Fl. iii, 256). The hilum is towards the end of the seed, and furthest from the wing.

The seeds of the E. calophylla × E. ficifolia hybrid are flatter than those of E. ficifolia, and also paler in colour. As compared with those of E. ficifolia, they are a little darker and less winged, but the hilum is more remote from the wing. In other words, they are intermediate between the two species. Most of the seeds are, however, sterile, and these are pale reddish-brown in colour, shining, and mostly boomerang-shaped.

The sterile seeds of E. calophylla are similar in shape, perhaps a little darker in colour.

It seems to me that, in this rose-crimson series, we have incontrovertible evidence of hybridisation, the two most obvious factors being colour and size; and I, therefore, add E. calophylla and E. ficifolia to the very long list of pairs of species of which the evidence that they hybridise appears to be sufficiently clear.

I have touched on the general question of hybridisation in the genus in Report Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1904, p. 297, in the Proceedings of this Society, xxx, p. 492 (1905), and on many other occasions. (Maiden in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xli, 185, 1916.)

  ― 82 ―

CCXXXVIII. E. hæmatoxylon Maiden.

In Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 218 (1913).

Arbor parva altitudinem 20' et trunci diametrum 18? attinens, “Mountain Gum” nominata. Bloodwood typicus. Cortex stratis mollibus rubris secedens. Lignum rubrum, gummi venis. Folia petiolata lanceolata ad lato-lanceolata, coriacea, 8-9 cm. longa 2–3 cm. lata. Venae secundariae tenues et fere paralleles. Flores in corymbo irregulare. Filamenta alba. Fructus ovoidei vel fere sphaerici, aliquando orificio constricti, urceolati, 3 cm. longi, 2·5 cm. lati. Orificium 1 cm. latum.

A small tree, attaining a height of 20 feet and a trunk diameter of 18 inches. “Much resembling E. calophylla R.Br., the `Red Gum,' in general appearance.” Known as “Mountain Gum.” It is a typical “Bloodwood.”

Bark.—In soft reddish flakes, typically that of a “Bloodwood.”

Timber.—Red, with gum veins, stated to be “very soft”; a typical Bloodwood timber, hence the specific name suggested.

Juvenile Leaves.—Broadly lanceolate, thin-membranous, reddish purple, petiolate, margin thickened, secondary veins very fine and nearly parallel to each other. Containing caoutchouc.

Mature Leaves.—Petiolate, lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate, symmetrical or somewhat oblique, apex attenuate-acuminate, coriaceous and of medium thickness, equally green on both sides, margin thickened, intramarginal vein not far removed from the edge. Secondary veins fine and nearly parallel to each other. Length say 8 or 9 cm., and breadth 2–3 cm.

Buds.—In a large corymb consisting of individual umbels of four to seven. Each peduncle thin, flattened, ribbed, and about 2·5 cm. long; the pedicels similar but slenderer, and from 1 to 1·5 cm long. The bud club-shaped, the operculum pointed, short, less than half as long as the calyx-tube, which is contracted at the orifice, and which does not taper gradually into the pedicel.

Flowers.—Filaments cream-coloured, stamens inflected in the bud, the anthers all fertile, long and somewhat pale, opening in parallel slits, small gland at the top; versatile.

Style ribbed, the stigma hardly exceeding it in thickness.

The anthers, style and stigma appear to be identical with those of E. corymbosa.

(The description of the buds and flowers, op. cit. xlviii, 432 (1914).)

Fruits.—Ovoid to nearly spherical, sometimes constricted at the orifice, thus taking on an urceolate shape. Large, 3 cm. long and 2·5 cm. broad, with an aperture of 1 cm. and less. Tips of valves well sunk. Seeds large, wing rudimentary.

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It is confined to south West Australia so far as we know at present. Specific localities are:—

Happy Valley, Jarrahwood Railway, Western Australia. Generally in poor, sandy country (Forest Ranger W. Donovan, July, 1912).

“Mountain Red Gum.” Height 30–40 feet and up to 12–18 inches in diameter. Trees are of a stunted nature, and the wood is very faulty. Grows in ironstone country in the mountains with Jarrah, between Busselton and Jarrahwood. (Dr. F. Stoward, No. 108.)


The affinity at once suggested is E. ficifolia F.v.M., but the filaments of the new species are white, and the fruits are of a different shape, viz., smaller and more spherical, those of E. ficifolia being somewhat cylindroid. The seeds of the latter species also are winged, its bark is more fibrous and its timber paler; it lacks the rich cedar-coloured timber of the present species.

It is also allied to E. calophylla R.Br., a much larger tree. The three species are closely related, and all have very large, handsome cotyledon leaves, and the young leaves soon become more or less peltate, but the character is apparently most common in E. calophylla.

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CCXXXIX. E. maculata Hook.

In Icones Plantarum, t. 619 (1844). The figure shows mature leaves, buds and flowers.

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original description:—

A tall tree, the trunk spotted, leaves alternate, petiolate, lanceolate, drawn out into a long point, pellucid-dotted, purplish at the edges, copiously and distinctly veined, obliquely spreading, panicles axillary and terminal, sparsely branched, shorter than the leaves, operculum double, the external one conical-hemispherical, mucronate, shorter than the sub-angled calyx-tube, the interior one (the corolla) hemispherical membranous, shining. Spotted Gum, MSS. No. 37. (The type is therefore doubtless Backhouse's No. 37 from the Maitland district, see p. 87.)

The rest of the description is in English, and is as follows:—

A large tree, Mr. Backhouse observes, of which the bark falls off in patches, giving it a spotted appearance. The timber is nearly equal to oak, but the sap or outer layers decay rapidly. The lid or operculum is double, inner one membranaceous; this inner one has justly been considered by Mr. Brown as the corolla, and it here forms an exactly hemispherical glossy membranaceous cup, which often continues to adhere after the outer one has fallen away. “The gum from the tree contains benzoic acid.” (Backhouse.)

It is described as follows by Bentham:—

A lofty tree with a smooth bark falling off in patches so as to give the trunk a spotted appearance. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, straight or falcate, acuminate, mostly 4 to 6 inches long or even more, with numerous parallel but rather oblique veins, not so close as in the preceding species (E. pyrophora), and rather coarse, the intramarginal one close to the edge. Umbels 3-flowered, usually several together, on short leafless branches, forming a panicle or corymb. Peduncles and pedicels short and thick, scarcely angular. Calyx-tube in the young bud shortly cylindrical, when open broadly turbinate, 3 to 4 lines diameter. Operculum hemispherical, much shorter than the calyx-tube, the outer one much thicker and more persistent than in most species where it has been observed, and usually umbonate or shortly acuminate, the inner one (corresponding to the single one of most species) thin, obtuse, smooth and shining. Stamens attaining 4 or 5 lines; anthers ovate with parallel distinct cells opening longitudinally. Ovary flat-topped. Fruit ovoid-urceolate, usually about ½ inch long, and nearly as much in diameter, the rim narrow, the capsule deeply sunk. (B.Fl. iii, 258.)

Mueller figured and described it in the “Eucalyptographia.” Some additional notes on the species, which need not be reprinted here, will be found at Vol. I, p. 154 of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”

This is the common Spotted Gum of New South Wales and Queensland, because of the mottled appearance of its smooth bark. There are other Spotted Gums, but none more characteristic in appearance than this.

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“Yah-ruigne” was the name of the aborigines of the Illawarra, and “Booangie” of those of Cumberland and Camden, N.S.W., according to the late Sir William Macarthur. Mr. Forester Allan tells me that “Thurraney” was the name used by the South Coast blacks. “Urar” is a Brisbane name, according to Mr. T. Petrie. “Kangar” is a name employed by Queensland aborigines to denote the variety citriodora.

Many years ago Mr. Charles Hedley informed me that in Queensland certain persons were affected by what is known as “Spotted Gum rash” after handling timber of this species. He instanced one case (at Maryborough) in which a man was habitually so indisposed after touching sawn Spotted Gum that he declined to handle it further. This acridity of the sap must be rare, as I have only heard of one other case, and this was in New South Wales. I have dealt with the matter in regard to other Eucalyptus timbers in my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Vol. V, p. 175.


The original describer quoted the following localities for the species:—“Interior of N. Holland (Fraser) [which was not far from the coast.—J.H.M.]; Maitland, Liverpool and Newcastle (Backhouse).” Liverpool is about 20 miles south of Sydney, and Newcastle and Maitland are about 100 miles to the north.

It is confined to eastern Australia, extending from Gippsland, Victoria, in the south, from south to north of New South Wales, along the coast and coastal ranges and in Queensland to at least as far north as the Rockhampton district, while the variety citriodora occurs as far north as the Gulf of Carpentaria. It prefers ridges and poor country, and is commonly found with Ironbark.


In “Eucalyptographia,” under E. Watsoniana, Mueller records that Reader found E. maculata in the neighbourhood of the Genoa River. It was subsequently known from a specimen sent by Mr. J. H. King to the late Dr. A. W. Howitt, from the eastern slope of a spur from the Tarra Mountain, on the track from Buchan to Orbost, Gippsland, and about 15 miles from the former place, where it forms a small compact colony of a few acres in extent. (Vict. Nat., xiii, 150, 1897.) I hope our southern neighbours will connect this locality with the most southern of New South Wales localities, for I do not know any very close to the border of the two States.

New South Wales.

Southern Localities.—“The Spotted Gum practically disappears after crossing the Bega River near Tathra. I believe there is no sign of Spotted Gum at Eden, and none between Eden and the Victorian border; there is a forest or two about Bermagui; there is also some between here (South Bermagui) and the Bega River, but once the Bega River is crossed the tree is lost.” (Forest Guard W. Dunn.)

  ― 86 ―

Bodalla district (Dromedary Mountain). (W. Baeuerlen.)

Having travelled about much in localities where the Spotted Gum occurs, I notice that it is usually accompanied by the Burrawang (Macrozamia spiralis)—both sure indications of poor soil. Usually when the Burrawang disappears, Messmates, Stringybarks, &c., make their appearance and the Spotted Gum disappears. Sometimes I travel for miles over a tract of country where I see no Burrawang, but as soon as I notice the Burrawang making its appearance again I always expect that the Spotted Gum will appear also, which is usually the case. (W. Baeuerlen, writing from Bat man's Bay.)

George's Basin and Wandandian and South Coast road generally (J.H.M.). With intermediate leaves. Milton (J. L. Boorman). Nowra (J.H.M.).

A specimen in Herb. Kew in bud only labelled “Sydney Woods, Paris Exhib. No. 95, Spotted Gum, 100–150 feet; W. Macarthur, 1854,” is E. maculata. To trace the history of this specimen we must turn to the N.S.W. Catalogues of the Paris Exhibition of 1855 and of the London Exhibition of 1862. In the former catalogue it is called “Spotted Gum” and “Mottled Gum,” and the aboriginal name is given as “Yah-ruingne.” In the latter catalogue Illawarra is given as the place where the name is in use, and “Booangie” as the name in the Counties of Cumberland and Camden.

We now leave the South Coast, and the following locality is on the tableland, perhaps as high (2,500 feet) as I have met it. Nye's Hill, Wingello (not common). (J. L. Boorman.)

Very large intermediate leaves. Theresa Park to Werombi, Camden district (J.H.M.). Liverpool to Bringelly (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman). “I believe picked up at Mulgoa, April, 1810.” (Copy of label in George Caley's handwriting, British Museum, No. 43.)

On sandy shale, ¾ mile south of Prospect Hill, near Parramatta (R. H. Cambage, No. 3590). We are now practically at Sydney.

Following is an admirable account of the range of the species chiefly on the “South Coast” of New South Wales, and with particular reference to the geological formations on which it occurs:—

E. maculata … occurs just where the monoclinal fold, already alluded to, has thrown down the shales and exposed the Hawkesbury Sandstone, about 4 miles before The Oaks is reached. This species … is widely distributed throughout the coastal districts of New South Wales. By the casual observer, erect trees of Angophora lanceolata are sometimes mistaken for E. maculata. In going south from Sydney along the Illawarra railway line, the Spotted Gum is not seen, except for a few trees just beyond Wollongong, until the neighbourhood of Nowra is approached, after which it becomes common, and occurs at many points along the Milton road, such as at The Falls, and beyond Tomerong, where the geological formation is of Permo-Carboniferous age. It is absent, however, from the igneous formation of Milton, but reappears to the south immediately the sedimentary rocks are reached, being plentiful towards Bateman's Bay and also at Wagonga, where some of the very finest specimens of this species may be found. It extends into the north-eastern part of Victoria, but is only very sparsely represented in that State. On parts of the North Coast of New South Wales it is a common tree, and occurs in the Maitland-Singleton district on the Permo-Carboniferous formation in company with E. crebra, the Narrow-leaved Ironbark. It extends to within about 20 miles of the Great Dividing Range at Crooked Creek, on the Tenterfield-Casino road. E. maculata is decidedly rare, however, in the Sydney district, and generally speaking, appears to avoid the Hawkesbury Sandstone formation. There are a few exceptions to this discrimination, one being its occurrence on the sandstone just near the monoclinal fold from The Oaks to the western side of Mulgoa, while others are at Newport, and on the Appin road, about 5 miles from Campbelltown. At Newport, the Spotted Gum is growing on the rocks which form a remnant of the base of the Hawkesbury

  ― 87 ―
Sandstone immediately overlying the Narrabeen Shales; while at The Oaks and near Campbelltown it occurs on the top of fairly thick beds of Hawkesbury Sandstone, from which the overlying Wianamatta Shale is, in places, only just barely removed. Observations in regard to the distribution of this species tend to show that it does not seek either a highly siliceous sandstone, or a shale or slate of basic origin, but flourishes best where there is a combination of the two; and while it usually avoids the Hawkesbury Sandstone areas, as too siliceous, it is also absent from the deepest portions of the Wianamatta Shale. Its occurrence on this latter formation denotes the presence of sand in the vicinity. (R. H. Cambage, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xx vi, 551 (1911).)

Western Localities.—In New South Wales the most western locality known to me is Poggy, a wild district a few miles from Merriwa. There is also some on the Mudgee. Cassilis road. Parish of Curryall, County of Bligh (Forest Guard J. B. Yeo). This is in the Cassilis district.

Northern Localities.—Occurs on the Ranges at Ourimbah, 6 miles from Gosford (J.H.M.). Near Clarence Town (Forest Guard Ikin).

Common between Newcastle and Maitland (J.H.M.). Maitland (James Backhouse, No. 37, about 1837). Presented by Kew. The type. Ravensworth (Forest Guard L. A. MacQueen). Dungog (W. F. Blakely).

Taree (E. H. F. Swain).

Anderson's Sugar Loaf, Macleay River (J. L. Boorman).

Grafton to Coff's Harbour (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman). South Grafton (Henry Deane). Lawrence, Clarence River (J. V. de Coque). Lower Southgate, Clarence River (W. W. Froggatt). Very large intermediate leaves; Copmanhurst, Upper Clarence River (J. L. Boorman). Casino, Richmond River (District Forester Pope).


Canungra, near Mt. Warning (J. L. Boorman.)

Enoggera, Brisbane (F. M. Bailey). With young peltate leaves, Brisbane (J.H.M.). “Fairly large trees of 60-80 feet, with a diameter of 3-4 feet still remain, where it has been preserved against the constant demands on this valuable timber.” Waterworks road, Brisbane (J. L. Boorman). Aspley, 5 miles north of Brisbane (E. Bilbrough).

“Spotted Gum, Burro, Taylor's Range.” (Dr. L. Leichhardt, 1843.)

Hatton Vale, Laidley (W. H. Pimlott).

Kalbar (formerly Engelsburg), 76 miles west of Brisbane, via Ipswich and Dungandan (W. H. Martin).

Goomboorian Range, near Gympie (R. N. Jolly). Brian Pastures, Gayndah (S. A. Lindeman). Bundaberg (J.H.M.). East of Rockhampton, near sea coast (P. MacMahon).

The allusions to Spotted Gum by Leichhardt in his “Overland Expedition” are few; two of them are at pages 20 and 48. On the banks of Hodgson's Creek he points out that Spotted Gum and Ironbark (a combination often confirmed since Leichhardt's time) formed the forest, while at Robinson's Creek (p. 48) he found the same two species.

  ― 88 ―


Var. citriodora F.v.M.

I have gone into the question of whether E. citriodora is a variety of E. maculata or not at pages 154, 155, 164, of Vol. I of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”

Mueller (Fragm. ii, 47) used the name E. citriodora and so did Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 257). The latter, by placing it between E. corymbosa and E. terminalis, indeed he says “evidently very closely allied to E. corymbosa,” did not realise its close affinity to E. maculata, although he remarks, under E. citriodora, “Woolls' Spotted Gum from Parramatta [which is E. maculata.—J.H.M.] is very much like E. citriodora.” Later, Mueller (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. maculata) thus speaks of it:—

E. citriodora can only be considered a variety of E. maculata, differing merely in the exquisite lemon-scent of its leaves, and holding as a variety precisely the same position to E. maculata as Boronia citriodora to B. pinnata, or Thymus citriodorus to T. Serpyllum. Mr. Bailey, who had opportunities to compare the two trees promiscuously growing, confirms their specific identity.

Under the circumstances it seems proper to attribute the authorship of the variety to Mueller.

Mr. Bailey, in his “Queensland Flora,” records it as E. maculata var citriodora.

I have occasionally crushed the young foliage of E. maculata and detected the citriodora perfume. This was the case in some specimens collected by Mr. J. L. Boorman at Copmanhurst, Clarence River.

Messrs. E. Schimmel & Co., Miltitz, Saxony, in “The Volatile Oils” (Gildemeister and Hoffman, p. 536), describe the oil of E. maculata, and say that “it cannot be distinguished from the following oil (E. citriodora).” See my “Forest Flora” i, p. 155. This means that, while the oil of E. maculata is less in quantity, its composition is similar to that of E. citriodora.

An adaptive character, like the presence of oil, cannot or should not in itself be used for specific determination.

That is the evidence. The two trees (maculata and its variety citriodora) do not differ in important morphological characters (the young shoots of the latter are more hairy, and perhaps the leaves are narrower and the buds less pointed, but these differences do not amount to much), and their oils run into each other, the relative proportion of Citronellal being vastly greater in the latter. Here, there seems to me, is a case of a variety clearly enough, and as I think that the term variety is a useful botanical designation, I employ it in the present instance.

At the same time, the distiller and seller of oil (like the forester and gardener) are not to be blamed if they choose the simple descriptive name “Eucalyptus citriodora” for the unwieldy one of “Eucalyptus maculata variety citriodora.” Although I would much like to see trade names approximate to the botanical ones, ordinary people will have to be more educated before they will accept ponderous names for everyday use. The application of botanical names is subject to laws; trade names, which sometimes simulate them, are not so controlled, and divergences between the two kinds of names are sometimes inevitable.

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There is a note on the size of this tree at Wide Bay, Queensland, and on a planted one in the Sydney Botanic Gardens, in Dr. George Bennett's “Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia” (1860), p. 265. Dr. Bennett got Mr. Norrie, the Sydney chemist, to distil the leaves for oil and the specimen was sent to Kew, and must have been one of the earliest prepared from the species.

Synonyms (of variety).

1. E. citriodora Hooker, in Mitchell's Journ. Trop. Austral., 235.

A translation of the brief Latin description is as follows:—

Branches angular, brownish, minutely tuberculate, leaves broad-lanceolate, petiolate, pinnulate, spreading parallel veined, green (not glaucous).

Then follows the statement:—

Sir William Hooker has ventured to name this Eucalyptus, though without flower or fruit, from the deliciously fragrant lemon-like odour, which exists in the dry as well as the recent state of the plant.

I have seen the following specimens:—

(a) “1846, July 16, No. 153 bis. Sub-tropical New Holland, Lieut.-Col. Sir T. L. Mitchell. Eucalyptus citriodora.”

(b) “1846, July 17, No. 217. Height 6 feet. [Evidently young scrub, not yet arrived at the flowering stage.—J.H.M.] Leaves perfumed like lemon. Sub-tropical New Holland. Lieut.-Col. Sir T. L. Mitchell. Eucalyptus citriodora Hooker, 204.”

(c) “Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., Sub-tropical New Holland, Col. Mitchell.” All in Herb. Cant. All in leaf only; (b) in young leaf, (a) and (c) in older, broad, shining and markedly veined. All are E. citriodora Hook.; (a) and (b) are ex Herb. Lindley.

Imperfect specimens were described by Bentham in B.Fl. iii, 257, as E. citriodora, from Balmy Creek, Mitchell, and Wide Bay, Moore.

2. E. melissiodora Lindley in Mitchell's Journ. Trop. Austral., 235. (non F.v.M., which = peltata.)

The brief description is in Latin, which may be translated as follows:—

Branches ferruginous-tomentose, scabrous, leaves on both sides with rusty papillae, scabrous, ovate oblong obtuse, peltate above the base (flowers and fruits unknown).

I have examined the following specimens:—

(a) “No. 153, July 16, 1846. Sub-tropical New Holland. Lieut.-Col. Sir T. L. Mitchell. Height 5 feet. `Strong balm scent.' Eucalyptus ? melissiodora.” Herb. Cant. ex Herb. Lindl.

  ― 90 ―

(b) “Eucalyptus melissiodora Lindl. Sub-tropical N. Holland. Col. Mitchell.” Herb. Cant.

The label of (b) is in the same handwriting as (c) var. citriodora (I think Lindley's handwriting).

The principal difference between the type specimens of melissiodora and citriodora lies in the greater amount of rusty tomentum on the leaves and stem of the former. The difference is, however, very slight and variable.

E. melissiodora was described by Mitchell, when he first came across it, as having “a powerful odour of balm.” (Melissa officinalis.)

At the same time and place he found “another bush, with leaves of the same shape, and glossy, but having a perfume equally strong of the lime.” This was called E. citriodora. Neither species had flower or fruit.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 254) doubtfully describes this in the following words:—

A shrub, exhaling a powerful odour of balm, and covered with a rusty resinous pubescence, short and scabrous on the foliage, almost bristly on the branchlets. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, more or less peltately inserted on the petiole above their base, the veins transverse, but not close. Flowers and fruit unknown.

Queensland.—Sandstone rocks, Balmy Creek, Mitchell. Possibly a barren state of E. citriodora or some allied species, in which the leaves of the flowering branches are not peltate.

3. E. variegata F.v.M. in Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 88 (1859). The specific name was given because of the appearance of the bark.

Following is a translation of the original:—

A tree, branchlets angular, leaves alternate, moderately petiolate, lanceolate-linear or narrow-lanceolate, falcate elongate, long acute, shining, thickly penniveined, covered with pellucid dots, peripheral vein very close to the edge, umbels paniculate, 3-flowered, the calyx-tube semiovate, twice as long as the hemispherical operculum, and like it ecostate, fruits truncate-ovate, 3-celled, 2-4 times longer than the pedicel, ecostate, smooth at the vertex, valves included, seeds winged. Habitat in the grassy hills near the Burnett River. Flowering in the summer.

A rather tall tree, trunk smooth, ashy-white, variegated with the grey or dirty reddish outer layer of the bark. Leaves mostly 4-7 inches long, and an equal number of lines broad. Peduncles 2-3 lines long, angular. Buds ovate. Fruits 5-6 lines long, gradually contracted at the apex.

Called Spotted Gum-tree by certain of the colonists. In habit it hardly differs from E. tereticornis and E. rostrata, except in the trunk, which is stripped of the outermost layers of bark as far as the base, and not covered with old woody, flaky, wrinkled layers of bark.

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Range (of Variety).

The type came from Balmy Creek, a name given, presumably, because of the presence of this tree, whose odour reminded Major Mitchell of Balm. See Mitchell's “Tropical Australia,” p. 235, and it is marked on his map, opposite p. 189. It is south of Mantuan Downs, and Dr. J. Shirley informs me that it is 20–30 miles west of Springsure.

In his “Queensland Flora” Bailey records it from Gladstone, Rockhampton, Springsure, Herberton and Port Denison.

In the Catalogue of the Queensland Forestry Museum (1904) the record is given “Plentiful around Gladstone and the Port Curtis district, Rockhampton, west side of Eungella Range (Mackay district), Herberton, Mount Garnet, and a large quantity on the Hughenden-Charters Towers Railway Line.”

With peltate young growth. (Queensland, recorded as E. melissiodora Lindl.; with no further details.)

Bundaberg and Gladstone Railway (correspondent of F. M. Bailey).

Duaringa, 65 miles west of Rockhampton (J.H.M.). O'Shanesy points out that E. exserta and E. citriodora are often found in company. See this work, Part XXXII, p. 35.

“Scented Gum,” Stannary Hills. (Dr. T. L. Bancroft.) Irvinebank (correspondent of F. M. Bailey).

Dr. H. I. Jensen informs me that the Lemon-scented Gum abounds on mixed soils and on the porphyries on the Herberton-Irvinebank tableland, but seeks good deep soils.

“Scented Gum.” “Found sparsely throughout the coastal range north of Town ville. Grows in ridgy country, tall growing with spare top, pink bark, timber grey, dark heart.” Near Atherton (District Forest Inspector H. W. Mocatta).

This tree which is so very common on the east side of the coast range in New South Wales, was thought at no very distant date to be almost confined to this colony. But it changes its character, and under another name, E. citriodora or Lemon-scented Gum, extends right up to the waters of the Carpentaria. It is always a fine tree and loves the warm sheltered eastern slopes of the ranges. But in tropical Queensland it becomes a very much finer tree. The peculiar spotted appearance of the stem is exchanged for a uniform greyish blue tint. The tree is tall and stately, with a large sound trunk, and, in fact, there are no Eucalypts which can at all compete with it in size except E. Raveretiana, and its leaves now send forth a strong perfume which is most grateful at a distance and like roses, but close it is most powerful and pungent and exactly like essential oil of lemon.… I have tried to fix the southern limit of the citriodora variety. Between Maryborough and the Burnett is the first place where the peculiar smell of rose leaves becomes apparent in the open forests. Mr. C. Moore is quoted as having found it in Wide Bay. On the road between Gympie and Maryborough, or about 120 miles north of Brisbane, the spotted variety of E. maculata is very abundant on stony ridges. The spotted character has disappeared somewhat and the trunks of the trees have a uniform reddish hue which is very remarkable. Here, too, one notices that the trees exude great quantities of a dark brown resin that ought to be of some commercial value. The strong rose scent in the woods, which is indicative of this tree, begins about the Burrun River on the overland road between Maryborough and Bundaberg. The tree is, however, nowhere abundant, and I think

  ― 92 ―
places may be found where the two varieties grow side by side on the Burnett. After this, the spotted variety disappears and the scented kinds are confined to a few stony spots of the most elevated ridges as one journeys north. The farthest north I have seen it was on the summit of the Slate Range, 2,100 feet above the sea, on Carpentarian waters, in about Lat. 16° S. It extends no great distance inland. Fifty miles from the coast is the farthest I remember to have seen it.… In the young state the shoots are often hispid from an abundance of coarse glandular hairs of red colour. This variety has more the odour of balm than of lemon, and hence was described as a different species. This is E. melissiodora Lindley, of the Flora, which was found by Mitchell and described in “Tropical Australia.” The appearance for a young Eucalypt is very remarkable. The foliage is short and rough and quite rusty looking, from the glands which become bristly on the small branches. (Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vii, 338, 1882–3.)

Affinities (of Species).

E. maculata is a well-defined member of the Corymbosæ, but it stands out from all of them because of its smooth, blotched bark.

With E. Torelliana F.v.M.

This is the nearest species to it, but it has black, scaly bark up to about 10 feet up, while E. maculata has practically no rough bark. Then let us turn to Plate 160, Part XXXIX, for E. Torelliana. It will be seen that the leaves of both species are peltate and hairy in their earliest stages, developing into the usual lanceolate-leaved form, but in E. Torelliana the persistence of the broad, juvenile form is greater than in E. maculata. The flower buds have a good deal of resemblance, but the opercula are more conoid and more sessile in E. Torelliana. The fruits are more urceolate and more distinctly urceolate in E. Torelliana, while there is an absence of the warty excrescences so often seen in the fruits of E. maculata.

  ― 93 ―

CCXL. E. Mooreana (W. V. Fitzgerald) Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 221 (1913).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor parva, contorta, glauca. Ramuli teretes. Folia juvenilia ovato-cordata vel lato-lanceolata, amplexicaula vel perfoliata, crassa, pleraque 10 cm. longa, 8 cm. lata. Venae patentiores, venis secundariis fere parallelibus, vena peripherica a margine remota. Folia matura ampliora et acuminatiora. Opercula conica et longitudine et diametro 1 cm.metientia. Fructus hemisphaerico-cylindroidei, valvarum apicibus conspicue exsertis.

In honour of Newton J. Moore, Minister for Lands, subsequently Premier, and then Agent-General in London for the State of Western Australia.

A small crooked tree, glaucous all over, branchlets round. Notes on bark and timber not available. (A White Gum with reddish timber; see below.)

Juvenile leaves.—Ovate-cordate or bluntly and broadly lanceolate, stem-clasping or perfoliate. Thick, somewhat undulate, uniform colour on both sides, venation somewhat spreading, the secondary veins roughly parallel. Intramarginal vein distant from the edge. Average size say 10 × 8 cm.

Mature leaves.—These do not differ essentially from the juvenile leaves, except that they are larger and more acuminate. Average size, say 15 × 9 cm.

Buds.—Four to seven on a sessile or nearly sessile head with a thick common peduncle of about 1 cm. Symmetrical, the operculum bluntly conical, about 1 cm. long and of equal diameter, the calyx-tube of equal length and with one or two angles.

Flowers.—Pale yellow when fresh, drying orange red. Anthers long and creamy in colour, opening in parallel slits, large gland at the back, filament attached to the middle, versatile.

Fruits.—Hemispherical-cylindroid, with a thin, sharp, slightly domed rim, the tips of the valves very prominently protruded. Diameter at rim scarcely 1 cm.

When Mr. Fitzgerald went to the war in April, 1916, he entrusted many of his botanical manuscripts to me, and amongst them I found the following description of E. Mooreana, which I reproduce here, as it usefully supplements the description I had drawn up nearly three years previously. A few notes from it I published in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., li, 454 (1917).

Arborescent; branchlets, foliage and inflorescence mealy-white, seldom green, the branchlets terete or slightly angular; leaves sessile, opposite, broadly ovate, obtuse or scarcely acute, cordate or almost amplexicaul, rather rigid, veins divergent, the intramarginal one distant from the edge; flowers sessile, mostly 6–8 together, on axillary opposite peduncles which are thick, angular and dilated upwards; calyx-tube obovoid, obtusely angled, lid conical, as long as or slightly longer than the tube, tapering into a short obtuse beak, enveloped until shortly before expansion of the stamens in an outer membranous covering of the same shape; stamens all antheriferous, the outer somewhat short and flexuose, the inner

  ― 94 ―
inflected in the bud; anthers broadly oblong or almost ovate, with distinctly parallel cells dehiscing longitudinally; ovary conical; style stout, shorter than the stamens; fruit broadly obovate, obscurely angled, not constricted at the summit, the rim rather thick and flat; capsule scarcely sunk; valves four, deltoid and much protruding; seeds angular, the sterile ones small and narrow.

Height, 30 feet, the trunk and limbs crooked, the former 10 feet; diameter 1½ feet. Bark smooth, white and persistent. Timber reddish, tough and moderately hard. Leaves 4–6 inches long, 2½–3 inches broad. Peduncles usually ½ inch long; calyx-tube 4 lines long. Stamens about 3 lines, the filaments pale-yellow. Fruit 5 lines long, 4 lines diameter. Seeds black.

In sandy soil overlying sandstone and quartzite. Summits of Mts. Broome, Leake, Rason and Bold Bluff. (W.V.F.)

Occasionally the leaves are quite connate and the calyces concrete. Affinity—E. pulverulenta Sims.


So far as we know at present, it is confined to tropical Western Australia.

Summits of Mounts Broome, May; Leake, July; Rason, September, 1905; and Bold Bluff, all Lady Forrest and King Leopold Ranges, Kimberley, north West Australia (W.V. Fitzgerald). Collected during the Kimberley Survey Expedition.


1. With E. perfoliata R.Br.

Both have thick perfoliate leaves which generally resemble each other, but those of E. perfoliata are longer. The flowers and inflorescence are different, while the very large fruits which belong to the section Corymbosæ, and have sunk valves, are totally different.

2. With E. alba Reinw.

The fruits have something in common and also the juvenile leaves, which are, however, petiolate in E. alba. The buds are very different. The mature leaves of E. alba are never so lanceolate as those of E. Mooreana. E. alba is a glabrous, soft, large Gum of moist flats, E. Mooreana is a crooked glaucous tree of mountain tops. (I have never seen the trees, and the above suggestions as to affinities were made as the result of examination of such herbarium material as was available to me in 1913.)

  ― 95 ―

3. With E. pulverulenta Sims.

Mr. Fitzgerald makes this suggestion, as we have already seen. For E. pulverulenta, see Part XXI, p. 12, with Plates 90 and 91. E. Mooreana is a tree of 30 feet; E. pulverulenta is a tall spindly shrub. Both of them, so far as we are aware, have broad leaves in all stages, although apparently those of the latter species do not attain the size that those of the former do. The buds possess a good deal of similarity, but those of E. pulverulenta never exceed three in number, while those of E. Mooreana may have as many as eight. The valves of those of E. Mooreana are more exsert than those of E. pulverulenta, and the fruits are probably rather smaller. The geographical positions of the two species are widely different, and the absence of photographs of the tree and of specimens of bark and timber make it difficult, under the circumstances, to assess the affinities of E. Mooreana. Mr. Fitzgerald had such remarkable success in collecting in the Kimberleys, and describing new forms, that it is to be hoped that this area will be further botanically explored, in order to still further add to our knowledge of the affinities of the Eucalypts and other genera.

  ― 96 ―

CCXLI. E. approximans Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liii, 65 (1919).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Frutex Mallee similis 4–10 ft. altus magna multitudine crescens. Foliis teneribus lineari-lanceolatis, foliis maturis lineari-lanceolatis rectis vel leniter falcatis, acuminatis 7·5 cm.—1 dm. longis, 6–7 mm. latis, crassis, nitentibus, costa media sola conspicua, marginibus uniformiter glandulosis, glandulis oleosis dense punctatis. Pedunculis circiter ·5 cm. longis, 4–8 flores breve pedicellatos ferentibus. Alabastris clavatis, operculo hemispherico-conoideo calycis tubo dimidio aequilongo. Antheris reniformibus. Fructibus cylindroideis circiter 5 mm. diametro, capsula valde emersa.

“A Mallee-like plant of 4–10 feet growing in masses. Much resembles E. stricta of the Blue Mountains in its mode of growth. Stems dark grey, with patches of lighter bark. Becomes ribbony at certain periods. Generally one inch in diameter and never more than two.” (J. L. Boorman.)

Juvenile leaves (seen almost but not quite opposite) linear-lanceolate, very similar to the mature leaves, the stems glandular.

Mature leaves linear-lanceolate, straight, or slightly falcate, acuminate, and often with a hooked point, 7·5 cm. to 1 dm. (say 3 to 4 inches) long, and 6–7 mm. broad, thick and shining, the midrib alone visible, the margins uniformly glandular, giving them almost the appearance of being serrulate. Uniformly and copiously dotted with oil-glands on the upper surface, the more prominent of which become black points as age proceeds.

Peduncles about ·5 cm. long, slightly angular or terete, each with 4 to 8 shortly pedicellate flowers.

Buds clavate, calyx-tube about 3 mm. in diameter, operculum hemispherical-conoid, about half the length of the calyx-tube. Stamens inflected in the bud, filaments nearly white, anthers reniform.

Fruits cylindroid or ovoid-oblong, truncate, not contracted at the orifice, about 5 mm. in diameter, the rim narrow and sloping inwards, the capsule deeply sunk.


Type from Barren Mountain (Henry Deane), in National Herbarium, Sydney.

Confined to the north-eastern part of New South Wales so far as we know at present. “From the summit of the Barren Mountain, on the range dividing the Bellinger and Clarence Rivers, 45 miles from the coast, and 4,500 feet above the sea.” (Henry Deane, 1901.) “Grows facing a northerly aspect. This mountain is in the Dorrigo and Guy Fawkes district.” (J. L. Boorman, 1913.)

  ― 97 ―


1 and 2. With E. stricta Sieb., and E. apiculata Baker and Smith.

Its closest relations are with these two species, but their fruits are always urceolate or ovoid, and not cylindroid or ovoid-oblong. The leaves are broader than those of E. apiculata and resemble those of E. stricta a good deal, but those of the present species are more copiously dotted and possess the appearance of an almost serrulate margin.

The species is referred to in Part IX, 283, under E. stricta. The specimen from Blackheath referred to as “B” (Maiden and Cambage) has prominent spreading, usually well-defined venation, with the fruits inclined to be barrel-shaped. This puzzling form is still under investigation, for it has affinities with other Renantheræ.

E. approximans is a member of a trio (the other two members being E. stricta and E. apiculata) that are not easy to separate. Thus the two latter can only be separated by a convention (width of suckers, a variable, like all other characters, see Part IX). The same thing may be said (perhaps quoting other characters) of other geminate species. But it seems to me that, in the important matter of fruits, those of E. stricta and E. apiculata are always urceolate, or approximate thereto. In specimen “B” the primary shape appears always to be that of a barrel, while in E. approximans the shape is always cylindroid. I have raised seedlings of “B,” E. apiculata (E. stricta may be omitted, as less close to E. approximans than E. apiculata) and E. approximans. Those of “B” are for the most part with stem-clasping leaves, and have no close affinity to the last; those of E. apiculata and E. approximans present certain differences that are difficult to make clear without illustrations.

I have already shown how close the species is to the E. stricta series, but although I have examined the relationship over and over again since I received the plant in 1901, I have never distributed it before describing it as new, as after every careful inquiry I felt that I could not place it under a described species.

  ― 98 ―

CCXLII. E. Stowardi Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., li, 457 (1917).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Mallee vocatus ad 10' altus. Foliis maturis coriaceis, nitentibus, lanceolatis, paullo falcatis, ca. 11 cm. longis, 3 cm. latis maxima latitudine, longis petiolis 2–3 cm. Floribus teretibus pedunculis, pedicellis ad 5 cm. Alabastris magnis, clavatis, calyce tubo operculo minus dimidio aequante, ca. 1·5 cm. longo, 5-costis prominentibus in pedicellem angustatis, costis operculi longi paullo angustati obtusi numerosioribus minore profundis. Fructibus magnis conoideis, 3–5 costis prominentibus, margine. truncata planata lata, orificio parvo.

“A shrubby Mallee” with smooth bark.

Juvenile leaves not seen in their earliest stages, but broader, and with the intramarginal vein more remote from the edge than in the mature ones.

Mature leaves coriaceous, shining, of similar colour on both sides, covered with fine black dots, with long petioles (say 2–3 cm.) lanceolate, asymmetrical, slightly falcate, tapering gradually to an apex consisting of a soft point, about 11 cm. (say 4½ inches) long and 3 cm. broad in its widest part.

Flowers with a terete peduncle of 2–2·5 cm., about seven in the head, with flattened pedicels up to ·5 cm. The buds large, clavate, the calyx-tube longer than a third of the operculum, about 1·5 cm. long, with five prominent ribs tapering into the pedicel, the long slightly tapering blunt operculum with more numerous, shallower ribs than those of the calyx-tube.

Filaments cream-coloured, sometimes with a purplish flush at the base, tapering trigonous or tetragonous, ribbed, with numerous glands, anthers large with parallel cells and large gland at back.

Fruits conoid, with three to five more prominent ribs and a number of intermediate shallower ones, with a truncate, flattish, slightly rounded, broad rim, with a small orifice; tips of the valves sunk or scarcely flush with the orifice.

Kwelkan, on the Northam-Merriden line, a few miles north of Kellerberrin, Western Australia. (Dr. Frederick Stoward, Government Botanist and Plant Pathologist, No. 150, April, May, 1917.) The type.

The material is scanty and it would appear that the following specimen also belongs to this species As this material is also sparse, it is desirable to describe it:—

A shrub or “small tree, the highest I have seen does not exceed 10 feet.” Bark of a smooth, dull grey. Branchlets round, more or less glaucous, as also the petioles, young leaves and fruits, the whole plant perhaps largely glaucous at certain seasons.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves very thick, coriaceous, dull to shiny, of an olive green, and the same colour on both sides, lanceolate to ovate, petiolate, the base ending rather abruptly in a petiole of 2 cm., the lanceolate leaves mostly tapering into a fine point, about 10 cm. (4 inches) long, or shorter, and about 2·5 cm. (1½ inch) broad, both surfaces entirely covered with innumerable fine black dots, the midrib and secondary veins moderately prominent, the secondary veins spreading and roughly parallel, making an angle of about 45° with the midrib, the intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge.

  ― 99 ―

Buds cylindroid, the blunt cylindrical operculum about twice as long as the slightly ribbed calyx-tube, about five to eight in the umbel, on a decurved peduncle of 2·5 cm., each calyx-tube gradually tapering into a pedicel of under 1 cm.

Flowers.—“The bloom is evidently a large pale yellow” (Vachell). Anthers large, with parallel cells and large gland at back.

Fruits moderately large, conoid, flat-topped, rather gradually tapering into a flattish pedicel, with two especially prominent longitudinal ribs or wings running from the rim and causing an expansion of the pedicel, together with a number of less prominent ribs of which two are only secondary to the main ones, rim moderately broad and flat, with four deltoid or acicular tips of the valves distinctly protruding beyond the orifice and encased with the whitish remains of the capsule-lining.

“Baronrath,” via Kellerberrin, W.A. Flowers and ripe fruit, September, 1903; nearly ripe fruit, December, 1903 (F. Harvey Vachell).

“Grows on the sand-plains about here. I have only met with a small group of them.”


This species is only known from Western Australia. The localities already indicated are Kwelkan and Kellerberrin. A third locality is Uberin Hill, Dowerin (from Mr. C. A. Fauntleroy, through Mr. W. C. Grasby), in the same general area.


1. With E. erythronema Turcz.

See Plate 93, Part XXII of the present work. The leaves of E. erythronema are narrower, the pedicels longer, the calyx-tubes not ribbed, the filaments pale and not glandular, the opercula conical, the fruits smaller, more flat-topped and less constricted at the orifice. The anthers are not dissimilar, and it would appear that E. Stowardi and E. erythronema are closely allied.

2. With E. Forrestiana Diels.

See Plate 95, Part XXII of the present work. In E. Forrestiana the peduncle is longer, the pedicels more articulate, the anthers more rounded, the filaments less grooved, though glandular. The opercula shorter, more conoid and less in diameter than the calyx-tube. The fruits larger and more quadrangular, the ridges more pronounced.

3. With E. incrassata Labill., var. angulosa.

Compare Plate 14, Part IV of the present work. The foliage of var. angulosa is coarser, the peduncle strap-shaped, the operculum shorter, and it and the fruit more corrugate.

  ― 100 ―

4. With E. Pimpiniana Maiden.

See Plate 72, Part XVI of the present work. Attention may be drawn to the imperfectly known E. Pimpiniana to which it is also related, but less closely so. The fruits of E. Pimpiniana are more ovoid and less ribbed.

5. With E. occidentalis Endl.

It appears to be closest allied to this species, but the peduncle is flat in E. occidentalis and terete in E. Stowardi. In some forms of E. occidentalis we have also glandular filaments. The buds of E. occidentalis are more terete, i.e., less ribbed; the fruits more urceolate and the valves more exsert, with a much thinner rim.

Since the above was written I received the excellent specimens from Mr. Fauntleroy (referred to at Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 510 (1918), which enable me to clear up all doubts as to the affinities of the species.

I surmised that its closest affinity was E. occidentalis Endl., and these specimens leave no doubt on the point. They have the angular filaments seen in that and allied species, and peculiar, I believe, to the Cornutæ. Mr. Fauntleroy also supplies a small log, which is quite smooth, with long, thin, tough ribbons, and barely 2 inches in diameter for the most part, though where it is swollen, as the result of the boring of an insect, it is more than 3 inches. The colour of the small timber is white, varying to pale brown in the centre.

Explanation of Plates (176–179).

Plate 176.

Plate 176: EUCALYPTUS CALOPHYLLA R.Br. (1-5) E. FICIFOLIA F.v.M. (6,7) [See also Plate 177.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. calophylla R.Br.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaf in the earliest stage, scabrous, peltate, secondary veins curved. These juvenile leaves vary in size; 1b, intermediate leaf, the feather veins approaching those of the normal leaves. Both from Bow River, south West Australia. (Sid. W. Jackson, presented by H. L. White.)
  • 2. Young buds, showing bracteoles. Deep River, south West Australia. (Sid. W. Jackson, presented by H. L. White.)
  • 3a. Mature leaf; 3b, buds; 3c, anthers; 3d, unripe fruit, drying irregularly; the urceolate and the bullate appearance are alike exaggerated. Perth district. (Dr. F. Stoward.)
  • 4. Fruit. Albany. (Henry Deane.) A stunted specimen, taking on a globular appearance, and with orifice somewhat contracted.
  • 5. Normal fruit, contracted a little in drying, but fairly characteristic of the species. Lower Canning River, Perth district. (Dr. A. Morrison.)

E. ficifolia F.v.M. (See also Plate 177.)

  • 6a. Mature leaf (small); 6b, buds and flowers (note the persistent operculum); 6c, front and back view of anther. Shannon River, south West Australia. (W. V. Fitzgerald.)
  • 7 Young buds, showing bracteoles. Cultivated, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. (W. F. Blakely.)

  ― 101 ―

Plate 177.

Plate 177: EUCALYPTUS FICIFOLIA F.v.M. (1-3) [See also Plate 176.] E. HÆMATOXYLON Maiden. (4-7) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. ficifolia F.v.M. (See also Plate 176.)

  • 1. Mature leaf. The leaves vary a good deal in width and size.
  • 2. Mature fruit. Near Wilson's Inlet, south West Australia. (W. V. Fitzgerald).
  • 3. Not quite mature fruit, showing an urceolate shape. Irwin's Inlet, south West Australia. (S. W. Jackson, presented by H. L. White.)

E. hæmatoxylon Maiden.

  • 4. Juvenile leaf, not quite in the earliest stage. “Mountain Gum.” (Department of Woods and Forests, Perth, W.A., 1914. Probably from Jarrahwood, W.A.)
  • 5. Intermediate leaf; cultivated, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. (W. F. Blakely.)
  • 6a. Small intermediate leaf; 6b, mature leaf; 6c, nearly fully expanded buds; 6d, front and back view of anther; 6e, nearly ripe fruit, dotted all over. Jarrahwood, south West Australia. (Forest Ranger Donovan.)
  • 7a. Mature leaf; 7b, calyx-tubes just after the fall of the stamens; 7c, ripe fruits. Happy Valley. (Forest Ranger Donovan.)

Plate 178.

Plate 178: EUCALYPTUS MACULATA Hook. (1-4) E. MACULATA var. CITRIODORA F.v.M. (5-7) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. maculata Hook.

  • 1a, 1b. Juvenile leaves in the earliest stage, scabrous and peltate. Brisbane, Queensland. (J.H.M.)
  • 2a. Large mature leaf; 2b, unexpanded buds, still enclosed in double opercula; 2c, coarse, warty old fruits. Enoggera, near Brisbane. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 3. Small, non-urceolate fruits. Milton, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 4a. Buds, showing outer and inner opercula; 4b, back and front view of anthers; 4c, fruits. Near Liverpool, N.S.W. (J.H.M.)

E. maculata var. citriodora F.v.M.

  • 5. Juvenile leaf in the earliest stage, scabrous and peltate and very aromatic. Duaringa, 65 miles west of Rockhampton, Queensland. (J.H.M.)
  • 6. Juvenile leaf in the earliest stage. Type of E. melissiodora Lindl., collected by Sir Thomas Mitchell at Balmy Creek. (See p. 91.)
  • 7a. Mature leaf (from top of tree); 7b, buds; 7c, front and back view of anthers; 7d, ripe fruit, warted. Stannary Hills, North Queensland. (Dr. T. L. Bancroft.)

Plate 179.

Plate 179: EUCALYPTUS MOOREANA (W. V. Fitzgerald) Maiden. (1) E. APPROXIMANS Maiden. (2) E. STOWARDI Maiden. (3,4) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. Mooreana (W. V. Fitzgerald) Maiden.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaf; 1b, umbel of buds included in double operculum; 1c, mature leaf, with ripe buds and an expanded flower; 1d, views of anther; 1e, mature fruits. 1a and 1b, summit of Mount Broome; 1c, 1d, and 1e, summit of Mount Rason, King Leopold Range, Kimberleys, north Western Australia. (W. V. Fitzgerald.) The type.

E. approximans Maiden.

  • 2a. Mature leaves; 2b, portion of a leaf, enlarged, showing the sinuate, translucent margin, and the abundance of oil-glands; 2c, unripe buds; 2d, front and back view of anther; 2e, fruits. Barren Mountain, north-eastern New South Wales. (Henry Deane.) The type.

E. Stowardi Maiden.

  • 3a. Juvenile leaf, though not quite in the earliest stage; 3b, mature leaf, with flower and also calyx-tube with persistent style; 3c, buds; 3d, front and back views of anthers, with angular and glandular filaments; 3e, different views of fruit. Kwelkan, Western Australia. (Dr. F. Stoward.) The type.
  • 4a. Smaller buds and flowers; 4b, front and back view of anthers; 4c, fruits, smaller than those of the type. Kellerberrin, W.A. (F. H. Vachell.)