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CCXLII. E. Stowardi Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., li, 457 (1917).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Mallee vocatus ad 10' altus. Foliis maturis coriaceis, nitentibus, lanceolatis, paullo falcatis, ca. 11 cm. longis, 3 cm. latis maxima latitudine, longis petiolis 2–3 cm. Floribus teretibus pedunculis, pedicellis ad 5 cm. Alabastris magnis, clavatis, calyce tubo operculo minus dimidio aequante, ca. 1·5 cm. longo, 5-costis prominentibus in pedicellem angustatis, costis operculi longi paullo angustati obtusi numerosioribus minore profundis. Fructibus magnis conoideis, 3–5 costis prominentibus, margine. truncata planata lata, orificio parvo.

“A shrubby Mallee” with smooth bark.

Juvenile leaves not seen in their earliest stages, but broader, and with the intramarginal vein more remote from the edge than in the mature ones.

Mature leaves coriaceous, shining, of similar colour on both sides, covered with fine black dots, with long petioles (say 2–3 cm.) lanceolate, asymmetrical, slightly falcate, tapering gradually to an apex consisting of a soft point, about 11 cm. (say 4½ inches) long and 3 cm. broad in its widest part.

Flowers with a terete peduncle of 2–2·5 cm., about seven in the head, with flattened pedicels up to ·5 cm. The buds large, clavate, the calyx-tube longer than a third of the operculum, about 1·5 cm. long, with five prominent ribs tapering into the pedicel, the long slightly tapering blunt operculum with more numerous, shallower ribs than those of the calyx-tube.

Filaments cream-coloured, sometimes with a purplish flush at the base, tapering trigonous or tetragonous, ribbed, with numerous glands, anthers large with parallel cells and large gland at back.

Fruits conoid, with three to five more prominent ribs and a number of intermediate shallower ones, with a truncate, flattish, slightly rounded, broad rim, with a small orifice; tips of the valves sunk or scarcely flush with the orifice.

Kwelkan, on the Northam-Merriden line, a few miles north of Kellerberrin, Western Australia. (Dr. Frederick Stoward, Government Botanist and Plant Pathologist, No. 150, April, May, 1917.) The type.

The material is scanty and it would appear that the following specimen also belongs to this species As this material is also sparse, it is desirable to describe it:—

A shrub or “small tree, the highest I have seen does not exceed 10 feet.” Bark of a smooth, dull grey. Branchlets round, more or less glaucous, as also the petioles, young leaves and fruits, the whole plant perhaps largely glaucous at certain seasons.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves very thick, coriaceous, dull to shiny, of an olive green, and the same colour on both sides, lanceolate to ovate, petiolate, the base ending rather abruptly in a petiole of 2 cm., the lanceolate leaves mostly tapering into a fine point, about 10 cm. (4 inches) long, or shorter, and about 2·5 cm. (1½ inch) broad, both surfaces entirely covered with innumerable fine black dots, the midrib and secondary veins moderately prominent, the secondary veins spreading and roughly parallel, making an angle of about 45° with the midrib, the intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge.

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Buds cylindroid, the blunt cylindrical operculum about twice as long as the slightly ribbed calyx-tube, about five to eight in the umbel, on a decurved peduncle of 2·5 cm., each calyx-tube gradually tapering into a pedicel of under 1 cm.

Flowers.—“The bloom is evidently a large pale yellow” (Vachell). Anthers large, with parallel cells and large gland at back.

Fruits moderately large, conoid, flat-topped, rather gradually tapering into a flattish pedicel, with two especially prominent longitudinal ribs or wings running from the rim and causing an expansion of the pedicel, together with a number of less prominent ribs of which two are only secondary to the main ones, rim moderately broad and flat, with four deltoid or acicular tips of the valves distinctly protruding beyond the orifice and encased with the whitish remains of the capsule-lining.

“Baronrath,” via Kellerberrin, W.A. Flowers and ripe fruit, September, 1903; nearly ripe fruit, December, 1903 (F. Harvey Vachell).

“Grows on the sand-plains about here. I have only met with a small group of them.”


This species is only known from Western Australia. The localities already indicated are Kwelkan and Kellerberrin. A third locality is Uberin Hill, Dowerin (from Mr. C. A. Fauntleroy, through Mr. W. C. Grasby), in the same general area.


1. With E. erythronema Turcz.

See Plate 93, Part XXII of the present work. The leaves of E. erythronema are narrower, the pedicels longer, the calyx-tubes not ribbed, the filaments pale and not glandular, the opercula conical, the fruits smaller, more flat-topped and less constricted at the orifice. The anthers are not dissimilar, and it would appear that E. Stowardi and E. erythronema are closely allied.

2. With E. Forrestiana Diels.

See Plate 95, Part XXII of the present work. In E. Forrestiana the peduncle is longer, the pedicels more articulate, the anthers more rounded, the filaments less grooved, though glandular. The opercula shorter, more conoid and less in diameter than the calyx-tube. The fruits larger and more quadrangular, the ridges more pronounced.

3. With E. incrassata Labill., var. angulosa.

Compare Plate 14, Part IV of the present work. The foliage of var. angulosa is coarser, the peduncle strap-shaped, the operculum shorter, and it and the fruit more corrugate.

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4. With E. Pimpiniana Maiden.

See Plate 72, Part XVI of the present work. Attention may be drawn to the imperfectly known E. Pimpiniana to which it is also related, but less closely so. The fruits of E. Pimpiniana are more ovoid and less ribbed.

5. With E. occidentalis Endl.

It appears to be closest allied to this species, but the peduncle is flat in E. occidentalis and terete in E. Stowardi. In some forms of E. occidentalis we have also glandular filaments. The buds of E. occidentalis are more terete, i.e., less ribbed; the fruits more urceolate and the valves more exsert, with a much thinner rim.

Since the above was written I received the excellent specimens from Mr. Fauntleroy (referred to at Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 510 (1918), which enable me to clear up all doubts as to the affinities of the species.

I surmised that its closest affinity was E. occidentalis Endl., and these specimens leave no doubt on the point. They have the angular filaments seen in that and allied species, and peculiar, I believe, to the Cornutæ. Mr. Fauntleroy also supplies a small log, which is quite smooth, with long, thin, tough ribbons, and barely 2 inches in diameter for the most part, though where it is swollen, as the result of the boring of an insect, it is more than 3 inches. The colour of the small timber is white, varying to pale brown in the centre.