Part 45

  ― 133 ―

CCLIII. E. erythrocorys F.v.M.

In Fragm. ii, 33 (1860.).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original description:—

Shrubby, leaves opposite, thickly coriaceous, long and narrowly lanceolate, somewhat falcate or slightly curved, imperforate, densely and spreadingly penniveined, with long petioles, the intramarginal vein somewhat distant from the edge; the peduncles thick, compressed, generally three-flowered, the calyxes large and sub-sessile, calyx-tube obpyramidate-tetragonous, plicate-costate, at the angles with a short apiculate tooth, several times longer than the scarlet operculum, depressed at the vertex, quadri-costate at the angles, swollen and wrinkled, fruits very large, very broadly campanulate, the top convex, deeply marked in front of the very rounded indentations of the margin, and broadly surrounding the orifice of the four-celled capsule; the valves red, converging, sunk below the vertex of the fruit, seeds winged.

At the Murchison River and toward Shark's Bay, in rocky plains.

A shrub 8–10 feet high, called “Illyarie” by the natives, by whom it is named on account of its ornamental character. Branches somewhat terete. Branchlets compressed-tetragonous, sturdy. Leaves of the same colour on both sides, shining, 3½ to 7 inches long, under ? to 1 inch broad, slightly pointed at the base and very much so at the apex; veins prominent. Peduncles about 1 inch long. Buds about 1 inch long or slightly shorter, contracted towards the base. Calyx tube dark green, bicostate on each side, from whence it is somewhat plicate. Operculum twice as broad as deep, cinnabar-red from the observation of the finder, preserving the red colour remarkably when dried, sometimes with and sometimes without a small umbo. Filaments innumerable, the collector has observed them to be purple, in dry specimens in a young state they were yellowish-green and half an inch shorter. Limbs four, confluent; the peduncles very thick, semi-orbicular, corresponding with the sides of the calyx-tube. Anthers sub-ovate, bearing a conspicuous gland at the back of the apex. Pollen golden. Fruits about 1½ inch long and broad, twelve-ribbed, ribs confluent in threes at the apex; flat top of the width of the orifice, undulate, smooth; vertex of the capsule itself somewhat smooth, valves acuminate when contracted. Seeds 1½ to 2½ lines long, some are sterile and angular-clavate, others half renate or half-round or deltoid, always smooth; I have not seen ones bearing the embryo. One of the most magnificent species of the genus; it now seems to have been known to Drummond (compare Hooker, Kew Misc., v, 121). I have hardly seen the flowers well opened; if the stamens, on the observation of Drummond, are collected in bundles of four, then the species should be added to the Eudesmicæ.

Drummond's earlier account is as follows:—

“A square-capsuled opposite-leaved Eucalyptus, not yet seen in flower, grows among the hills near Dundarangan; and a beautiful yellow-flowered Eucalyptus grows on the limestone hills to the west of the Valley of the Lakes; it grows to a tree from 20 to 30 feet high, the leaves resemble those of the Red Gum (E. calophylla), they are hispid on the young shoots, glabrous on the flowering branches, they are always opposite in vigorous growth, sometimes alternate on old stunted trees; the cups are of a bright scarlet colour, and have a verrucose appearance; when the capsule expands in a quadrangular form, the angles carry with them the stamens in four divisions; the seed-vessels are nearly as large as those of the Red Gum. The scarlet cups, fine yellow flowers, and opposite shining leaves of this tree make it one of the finest species of the genus.” James Drummond in Hooker's Journal of Botany, vol. 5, p. 121, 1853.

From Bentham we learn that this description applies to Drummond's 6th Coll. No. 70, fragments of which I have figured at figs. 1a and 1b, Plate 184.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 258) re-described the species in the following words:—

A shrub of 8 to 10 (Oldfield) or a tree of 20 to 30 feet (Drummond). Leaves mostly opposite or nearly so, or the upper ones alternate, all petiolate, long-lanceolate or broadly linear, often above 6 inches long,

  ― 134 ―
rigid, but with the oblique rather irregular veins conspicuous on both sides, the intramarginal one near the edge. Peduncles axillary or lateral, very thick, flat and broad, ½ to 1 inch thick, flattened pedicels. Calyx-tube turbinate, very thick, irregularly ribbed, ½ to ¾ inch long, and nearly ¾ inch diameter at the top. with four more or less prominent angles, terminating in exceedingly short, obtuse, scarcely prominent teeth. Operculum red, thick and fleshy, depressed and flat-topped, broader and shorter than the calyx-tube, obtusely square or almost four-lobed, divided into four quarters by raised ribs, forming a cross on the top, each quarter transversely wrinkled, with a raised rib along the centre, opposite to the calyx-teeth. Stamens very numerous, inflected, forming four bundles alternating with the calyx-teeth, the claw or entire part very short and broad, or four clusters if the claw be considered as a mere dilatation or lobe of the margin of the staminal disk. Ovary much depressed, flat-topped. Fruit nearly hemispherical, ribbed, 1 to 1½ inch diameter, the margin of the calyx horizontally dilated, the disk very broad and obtusely prominent, giving it the shape of an old-fashioned hat, the capsule depressed in the centre, the valves not raised.

Mueller redescribed it, with a figure, in his “Eucalyptographia.” In that work he repeats that the filaments are sometimes purplish, thus adding it to the number of species with filaments of more than one colour.

“To the description should be added:—Juvenile leaves broader than the adult, margin very smooth, broadish and both sides and the branchlets stellato-scabrous.

“This species is often shrubby, but sometimes a tree of 10 metres, in calcareous coast-lands, it seems to be restricted to the Irwin district. Mueller's Eucalyptographia' plate unsatisfactory.” (Diels and Pritzel, Engler's Jahrb. xxxv, 444, 1905.)

The authors do not say in what respects Mueller's plate is unsatisfactory—perhaps in the absence of juvenile leaves which were, however, sent by Drummond, although apparently Bentham and Mueller did not see them. Probably they refer to the reduced scale of the drawing, which is thus calculated to mislead, and the plan of the flower, at figure 2, which does not show the stamens in bundles.

Following is the history of two out of several plants in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney, raised from Mr. W. D. Campbell's seed. We find it requires a sheltered situation to do well. Sown 10th October, 1913, seedlings drawn in various stages, planted out 11th May, 1914, flowered 12th April, 1917.

  • (a) 12 feet high and 7 inches girth at 3 feet from the ground (23/4/17). 19 feet 5 inches high, and 13 ft. 6 in. in girth (15/10/20).
  • (b) 16 feet high, and 7 inches girth at 3 feet from ground (23/4/17). 20 ft. 3 in. high, and 10½ inches in girth (15/10/20).

The following description is taken from fresh material from the above two small trees:—

Stems white, smooth. The mature leaves opposite, and the branchlets decussate. The inflorescence displays the most charming colour-scheme of any Eucalypt known to me. The axes or branchlets bearing the inflorescence are of a dull purple lake (see Dauthenay, Plate 170, shades 2–4). The long, flattened peduncles are moss-green (see Dauthenay, Plate 272, shades 1 and 2). The buds are handsome because of the large, fleshy, biretta-like opercula, of an old carmine red (see Dauthenay, Plate 107, shades 1 and 2), which contrast well with the rich, grass-green ribbed calyx-tubes (Dauthenay, Plate 273, shades 2–4). The inside of the large operculum is smooth and white, and the outside has four raised, cruciform ridges, the general surface being more or less rugose. The falling of the operculum is succeeded by the protrusion of filaments, at first greenish-yellow (primrose-yellow), and afterwards lemon or golden-yellow (see Dauthenay, Plate 16, shades 2 and 3). The staminal disc or ring being broad and white, it effectively contrasts the colours of the calyx-tube and filaments. See also p. 135, for a further account of the stamens and staminal ring.

  ― 135 ―

The stigma is punctate and green, thus contrasting with the stamens. The top of the expanded flower shows a rim or hub round the base of the stigma (top of the ovary) and radiating from it, in the direction of the greatest widths of the staminal rings (greatest lengths of stamens) are four equidistant ribs or spoke-shaped processes which enclose four shallow troughs which are filled with honey and are therefore nectaries.

The inflorescence is alike bizarre and beautiful; the plant is most charming.

Fresh fruits sent to me from spontaneous trees by Mr. Campbell were up to 2¼ by 2¼ inches (therefore, much larger than those of the type), with sessile or rudimentary flattened pedicels.

Bundling or Tuftiness of the Stamens.

Robert Brown included “Stamens in four polyandrous bundles, alternating with the teeth of the calyx, connate at the base” as a character in his definition of Eudesmia as a genus distinct from Eucalyptus. He dropped the genus as untenable, later on, but Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 258) preserved the name to indicate a sub-series (IX) of Eucalyptus, which he called Eudesmieæ. His definition of the sub-series includes “Stamens sometimes (my italics) very shortly united in four clusters, alternating with the calyx-teeth.”

The matter of grouping will be dealt with subsequently, at the proper place, but Miss Flockton has produced such an excellent figure (fig. 2g, Plate 184), of the bundling or apparent bundling of the stamens in a large-flowered species such as E. erythrocorys that a few remarks may be offered at this place. In the Eudesmieæ we have (so far as the material at our disposal permits us to judge) various degrees of bundling (compare fig. 3c, Plate 185, for another example, E. tetrodonta). E. tetragona and E. eudesmioides will follow in the next part.

In E. erythrocorys, the white staminal ring (which is ultimately deciduous) is undulate on both margins, becoming wider at the crests or tops of each undulation, of which there are four, and becoming narrowest in each trough. An effect of the narrowness of the staminal ring at the four troughs is that there is a diminution of the number of stamens, since there is less room for them, and thus an appearance of tuftiness or bundling is caused. As a matter of fact there is not, at all events, at the period of the fall of the operculum, any complete break in the continuity of the stamens, though, as the flower develops, there is some deciduousness where the trough is deepest. If therefore the use of the word “bundle” or “tuft” means a complete break in the continuity of the stamens, it is incorrect, but there certainly is an appearance of bundling.

Further, there is variation in the lengths of the filaments, the longest emerging from the crests of each undulation and the shortest at the troughs. This character increases the appearance of tuftiness of the stamens.

It may be convenient at this place to contrast the stamens of five species of Eudesmieæ where I have adequate stamen-material. The material of the other species is not so satisfactory.

E. erythrocorys (see Plate 184, this Part). The stamens are in four bundles, usually quite round the undulating staminal ring, but there are not so many in the trough, nor so long as those on the crest. The outer row expands last, in the following species the inner row expands last.

  ― 136 ―

E. tetrodonta (see Plate 185, this Part). The stamens are in four bundles, but are disposed round the staminal ring, which is not undulate in this case.

E. tetragona (see Plates 188, 189, Part XLVI). The stamens are in four bundles on an undulating staminal ring, with a distinct gap between the four clumps. This species is especially interesting because it is that on which the genus Eudesmia was founded.

E. eudesmioides (see Plate 189, Part XLVI). The stamens are in four bundles on an undulating shallow staminal ring. There is a gap without stamens between each pair of bundles.

As regards E. tetragona and E. eudesmioides, the stamens appear to have thinned out or disappeared where the staminal ring becomes narrowest at the troughs. Speaking generally, as regards the Eudesmieæ, whether the ring is of varying thickness or not, the stamens appear to thin out at four parts of the periphery.

E. Baileyana (see Plate 182, Part XLIV, where, however, the stamens are not shown in the mass). The stamens are in four distinct bundles right round the staminal ring, although more deciduous between the bundles.


It is confined to Western Australia. The type was collected “at the Murchison River, towards Shark's Bay, in rocky plains,” by Oldfield.

In “Eucalyptographia” its range is defined as “In stony undulating bushy country between the Irwin River and Shark Bay, rather rare.” “Not observed nearer (to Shark's Bay) than 20 miles south of Freycinet Harbour. The plants indigenous around Shark's Bay and its vicinity.” (Mueller, Parliamentary Paper, W.A., 1883, p. 14.)

This would bring it not many miles north of the Murchison River, and it would be desirable to enquire into its limits more accurately, which are at present recorded as 10 miles south of Dongarra (which is at the mouth of the Irwin River) on the Arrow-smith road in the south, and 20 miles south of the Freycinet estuary in the north. We do not know its eastern boundary. If Drummond's Dundaragan be identified, as it seems to be, with the modern Dandaraga, then the southern boundary is removed to say, the Moora district, Moora being a railway station 108 miles north of Perth. It would be very desirable to obtain more accurate information in regard to the range of one of the most interesting species of the genus.

I have seen specimens of Drummond's No. 70 (6th Coll.) in Herb. Calcutta and Herb. Cant. “Limestone Hills, west of the Valley of the Lake,” which is, of course, near Dundaragan, as already quoted from Drummond's original letter. This place has been already referred to. I have also seen it from the Murchison River, in Herb. Barbey-Boissier, collected by Oldfield.

  ― 137 ―

“Tree of about 25 feet, rather straggly, has white bark, looks like a white gum but is slightly different. The pink buds look peculiar.” Arrowsmith-road, about 10 miles south of Dongarra (W. D. Campbell).


With E. megacarpa F.v.M.

“Among Eucalypts, it resembles E. globulus on account of the shape of the bud. The latter species appears also to grow in the humid tract of land on the coast of south-west Australia near Cape Leeuwin, as far as it is possible to judge from the specimens of our carpological collection.” (N.B.—This was an error, the globulus-like species being E. megacarpa J.H.M.). (Original description.)

“It differs widely from the few other species of that section (Eudesmia) in the large size of its flowers and fruits, in the shape and coloration of the lid, as well as in the very broad expansion of the summit of its fruit, irrespective of some less conspicuous differences.” (“Eucalyptographia.”)

It is convenient to have a small table of characters illustrating all the Eudesmieæ, as follows. The number preceding each species-name indicates the Part of this work in which it has or will be treated.

44. Baileyana 45. tetrodonta   45. odontocarpa 44. similis 44. lirata 46. eudesmioides 46. tetragona 45. erythrocorys
Eastern Species.  Eastern Species. 
Size …  Medium-sized tree or larger. “Black Stringybark.”  Medium-sized tree to very large. “Messmate.”  Shrub …  Medium-sized tree. “Yellow Jacket.”  Medium-sized tree.  A shrub or small tree up to 20 feet. “WhiteGum.”  Tall, glaucous shrub or small tree. “White Marlock.”  Tall shrub or small tree. Branches decussate. 
Bark …  Hard, thick, fibrous, inter-locked. A coarse stringybark.  Whitish, fibrous, persistent.  Yellow flaky  Rough and greyish, soft and friable.  Smooth, a little scaly at butt.  Smooth, a little scaly at butt.  Smooth, with a little ribbony bark. 
Timber   Pale brown …  “Pale” (W.V.F.), “Reddish-brown” (R.H.C.)  Brownish …  Pale-chocolate brown towards heart; most of it white.  Pale … …  Pale brown. 
Leaves   Broadly - lanceolate.  Long-lanceolate. Huge juvenile leaves.  Linear-lanceolate.  Ovate acuminate, then narrow lanceolate.  Lanceolate …  Lanceolate …  Reek with oil …  Very large. 
Flowers   Filaments cream-coloured.  Buds reminiscent of large cloves. Filaments yellowish-white.  Filaments yellow.  Filaments cream-coloured.  Filaments cream-coloured.  Very large filaments primrose yellow. Opercula carmine-red. 
Fruits   Nearly globular  Oblong - cylindrical.  Oblong-cylindrical (smaller than preceding).  Truncate-ovoid  Truncate-ovoid perhaps larger and more globular than similis Quadrangular  Ovoid to nearly globular. Rather large.  Tetragonous, quadrangular, 2¼ × 2¼ inches. Largest fruit in genus. 

  ― 138 ―

Thus we have one purely eastern species (Baileyana), one eastern species (similis) which probably will be found further west. Confined to the tropics are tetrodonta, odontocarpa, and lirata. Sub-tropical Western Australia has eudesmioides, erythrocorys, and tetragona, of which the first two are true west and the last south-west; the first is inland (approaching the coast), the last two are coastal.

Apparently the largest tree is E. tetrodonta, but E. Baileyana, E. similis and E. lirata are fairly large trees. E. tetragona and E. erythrocorys are tall shrubs or small trees, while E. odontocarpa, of which we know very little, has hitherto only been recorded as a shrub. The branchlets of all are quadrangular. E. Baileyana and E. tetrodonta are more or less fibrous-barked, the former being the more stringy. E. eudesmioides, E. tetragona, and E. erythrocorys are Gums, while E. similis is a Yellow Jacket, and E. lirata may prove to be so.

The leaves of all are opposite or sub-opposite, thus showing affinity to Angophora, though in the fruits the latter genus more closely resembles the Angophoroideæ section of Eucalyptus. The Eudesmieæ have interesting affinities, but a fuller discussion of them must be deferred until the affinities of the whole of the species are dealt with.

E. tetragona stands out because the leaves reek with oil, and because of its glaucousness.

Speaking generally, the filaments are arranged in four bundles or tend to be so; the filaments are yellowish white or yellow, those of E. erythrocorys being bright primrose yellow, E. Preissiana being the only species that can approach it in this respect. The opercula of E. erythrocorys are unique in that they are shaped like a biretta, and are of a rich carmine-red colour.

The buds of E. tetrodonta and E. odontocarpa are reminiscent of cloves, the former being the larger.

The outstanding characters of the fruit are brought out in the table, the huge fruits of E. erythrocorys (the most remarkable species amongst the Eudesmieæ) and the smaller globular fruits of E. Baileyana, being perhaps the most striking.

  ― 139 ―

CCLIV. E. tetrodonta F.v.M.

In Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 97 (1859).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

A tree with angular branchlets, leaves opposite, falcate-lanceolate, gradually acuminate, moderately petiolate, opaque, indistinctly penniveined, peripheral vein rather close to the margin, umbels axillary, terminal, solitary, bibracteate, three-flowered, bracts slowly falling off, rather large, the angled peduncle the same length as the petiole, calyx sub-campanulate, quadridentate, gradually narrowed into a compressed pedicel which is barely the same length as the tube, teeth deltoid, operculum hemispherical, and the tube and spreading teeth twice as long as the operculum.

In woody elevated less fertile tracts everywhere in Arnhem's Land. (At Port Essington, Armstrong, and on the North Coast, A. Cunningham in herb. Hook.) Flowering in August and September.

A medium-sized tree with a straight slender trunk, with a dirty grey fibrous bark persisting all over. With bark of “Stringybark trees.” Branchlets reddish, rigid. Leaves 3–6 inches long, ½–1½ inches broad. peduncles 3–4 lines long, bearing at the apices two cymbiform, lanceolate, obtuse, acuminate bracts, about 3 lines long, deciduous. The tube of the calyx with the teeth, 4–5 lines long. Operculum coriaceous, obtuse, opaque, greenish. A species especially remarkable for the toothed calyx, showing transit to Angophora.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 260) then described it in the following words:—

A tree, with a whitish, fibrous, persistent bark (F. Mueller). Leaves opposite or alternate, long-lanceolate, acuminate, often falcate and above 6 inches long; coriaceous, but the numerous somewhat oblique veins prominent, the intramarginal one near the edge. Peduncles axillary or two or three together at the ends of the branches, short and thick but not dilated, each bearing three or very rarely five rather large flowers, on thick angular or flattened pedicels of 2 to 4 lines. Calyx-tube obconical or turbinate, 3 to 4 lines long, with four rounded very obtuse teeth, slightly prominent on the bud. Operculum hemispherical or nearly globular, smooth. Stamens very numerous, the longest attaining 5 or 6 lines, not distinctly arranged in clusters; anthers oblong, with parallel cells opening longitudinally. Ovary flat-topped. Fruit oblong-cylindrical, ½ to ¾ inch long, 4 to 6 lines diameter, not contracted at the orifice, the rim narrow but forming an acutely prominent ring, the capsule sunk, usually three-celled.

Mueller subsequently redescribed it and figured it in “Eucalyptographia.”

In this work he speaks of it as “not tall” and “stem rather slender,” and in the original description as a “meduim-sized tree.” It will be observed that, as regards the Northern Territory, it is described as “exceedingly well developed and reaching very large size, 70 or 80 feet or more and 3 feet or more in diameter.” It is evidently one of the most important timber trees of the tropics, and it is desirable that we should know more of its distribution and abundance.

Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald (MSS.), speaking of Kimberley, says: “Tree of 40–50 feet, trunk to 25 feet, diameter 1–1½ feet; bark persistent on stem and branches, greyish, fairly rough, and very stringy; timber pale, fissile, moderately hard; filaments yellowish-white.”

  ― 140 ―

Mr. R. H. Cambage, speaking of North Queensland, says (Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., XLIX, 414, 1915):—

This species, which was the only Eucalypt met with belonging to the sub-series Eudesmieæ, is a very interesting one, for in addition to being one of the few having calyx teeth, like the Angophoras, it is apparently the only stringybark to be found in Northern Australia, excepting in the extreme east. It is known both as Messmate and Stringybark, and its bark is decidedly fibrous, the timber being reddish-brown. … The “sucker” leaves are opposite or alternate, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, up to 7 inches long by 3 to 4 inches broad, with petioles of half to three-quarters of an inch long, the lateral veins being arranged at an angle of about 60 degrees with the midrib, the intramarginal vein being close to the edge, the midrib prominent on the upper side of the leaf, the young leaves often reddish. The trees, which are erect, have an average height of about 40 feet with a diameter of about 1 foot, and prefer siliceous soil.

There is a discrepancy in the colour of the timber as given by Fitzgerald and Cambage, but anyone who has given much attention to Stringybark timber in general knows how it varies in colour according to the district, and as the tree is large or small and the specimen fresh or dry.

I overlooked Mr. Cambage's earlier description of the juvenile leaves, or I would not, in the following passage, have stated that they had hitherto not been described.

Juvenile leaves of this species have been received from Darwin from Dr. Jensen (July, 1916), and have not hitherto been described. I proceed to describe them.

The branchlets are markedly quadrangular, and like the leaves are entirely glabrous or very slightly glaucous, and equally green on both sides. They are large, oblique or falcate, very acuminate with prominent purplish midribs, raised chiefly on the lower sides of the leaves.

Secondary veins very distinct, but fine, roughly parallel, and making an angle of about 60 degrees with the midrib. The intramarginal vein is at a considerable distance from the edge.

A not uncommon size of the lamina is 25 cm. (say 10 inches) long and 13 cm. (say 5 inches) broad, with a petiole of 1·5 cm. Still in the opposite stage they may be half the width. (Maiden in Ewart and Davies' “Flora of the Northern Territory,” p. 314, 1917.)

The flower buds are strongly reminiscent of large cloves, the opercula are ribbed, the ribs being occasionally almost winged.

E. tetrodonta would probably merge into the division of Pachyphloiæ, which comprises all the Stringybark trees.” (“Eucalyptographia.”)


The type came from the entrance to the Victoria River and the elevated sterile districts of Arnhem's Land, “Stringybark.” (Mueller.) These are, of course, Northern Territory.

Bentham adds “North Coast,” A. Cunningham, and Port Essington, Armstrong. Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) adds to these Port Darwin, Maria Island and Liverpool River and Escape Cliffs. All the localities so far quoted are Northern Territory, unless Cunningham's be tropical Western Australia.

But Mueller has definitely reported it from Tropical Western Australia (Prince Regent's River), while we have abundant localities from Northern Queensland. So that

  ― 141 ―
its range may be at present stated as from the most northern tropical portion of Australia, extending from the West Kimberleys in Western Australia along the Northern Territory to North Queensland.

Western Australia

Mueller first recorded the species from Western Australia from the Prince Regent's River, collected by Bradshaw's Expedition. See Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xvi, 469 (1891).

Subsequently W. V. Fitzgerald reported “A small forest of Messmate or Stringybark was observed in sandy loam and among quartzites on the Packhorse Range.” (Kimberley Report, p. 12, 1907.)

Some of his specimens are labelled “Messmate Creek (presumably named after this tree), Packhorse Range,” and Packhorse Range generally. (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 1,214.) The locality is, of course, considerably south of the Prince Regent's River. Mr. Fitzgerald (MSS.) adds Charnley River in West Kimberley, and says it is called “Messmate” and “Stringybark,” and that it is found in sandy soil overlying quartzite and sandstone.

Northern Territory

It is frequently referred to as “Stringybark” by Leichhardt in his “Overland Expedition from Moreton Bay to Port Essington.” It is the Stringybark of the Gulf Country, and he notes it both in what is now Northern Queensland and the Northern Territory. I have seen a specimen of his labelled “West Coast of the Gulf.” Dr. H. I. Jensen says, in a letter to me, “Stringybark occurs, as in the Northern Territory, on poor sandy granite and sandstone soils, but not abundantly.”

The following specimens are before me:—

Bathurst Island (G. F. Hill, No. 466); Melville Island (Prof. Baldwin Spencer); Darwin (Nicholas Holtze, Prof. Baldwin Spencer).

“The common Stringybark from Port Darwin to inland slopes, several hundred miles from the coast. Always on poor soil—coastally rather stunted in porcellanite and laterite formation. At the Adelaide River, Stapleton, Batchelor, and in the hill belt generally, exceedingly well developed and reaching very large size, 70–80 feet or more high, and 3 feet or more in diameter on granite, quartzite, and sandstone.” (Dr. H. I. Jensen.) (G. F. Hill, No. 340.)

“Large Eucalypt, hard wood.” Batchelor Farm (C. E. F. Allen, No. 224). “Stringybark Box, white flower,” Pine Creek (Dr. H. I. Jensen). Pine and Horseshoe Creeks (E. J. Dunn and R. J. Winters).

Edith Creek and track generally to Katharine River (Prof. Baldwin Spencer).

Speaking generally, but with especial reference to Darwin, Dr. Jensen writes: “On the granite country we get Stringybark (E. tetrodonta), Bloodwood (E. latifolia), E. setosa, Salmon Gum (?), Ironwood (? Tristania suaveolens). E. miniata, and patches, of E. phœnicea.”

  ― 142 ―


Following are some localities of specimens I have seen, and with the greater settlement in Queensland, as compared with the remainder of the tropics, I look for additional localities, in order that its range may be better defined.

Sources of the South Coen River (Stephen Johnson, in Melbourne Herbarium). This is, of course, in the Cape York Peninsula, and the most northern Queensland locality recorded.

Stewart River (Stephen Johnson).

This is the species referred to by Leichhardt as Stringybark, and noted at various points from the upper Lynd right to the settlement at Port Essington.

Walsh River (correspondent of F. M. Bailey). Mitchell, Gilbert, and Norman Rivers (E. Palmer).

“Messmate,” “Fibrous or stringybark on trunk and large branches, 40–50 feet.” Little River, between Gilbert River and Croydon (R. H. Cambage, No. 4,005).

It was first noticed between the twenty-second and twenty-fourth mile posts from Alma-den, and again towards the fifty-first mile post. It was subsequently seen at various points along the Gilbert River, at the changing station on the Little River, and around Normanton. (R. H. Cambage in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 413, 1915.)

Referring to Leichhardt's “Overland Expedition to Port Essington,” at p. 279 (op. cit.), he speaks of the koolimans of the natives being “very large, almost like small boats, and (were) made of the inner layer of the bark of the Stringybark tree.” At p. 285, “The Stringybark grew to a fine size on the hills, and would yield, together with Ironbark, and the Drooping Tea-tree, the necessary timber for building.” At p. 291, “All along the Lynd we had found the gunyas of the natives made of large sheets of Stringybark, not, however, supported by forked poles, but bent, and both ends of the sheet stuck in the ground.” They found them frequently afterwards during the journey round the Gulf.


1. With E. odontocarpa F.v.M.

“… this, however, I found only of shrubby growth, its leaves much narrower, the calyces very considerably smaller on shorter and thinner stalklets, the fruit also of much less size, its minute teeth protruding beyond the outward not decurrent rim.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. tetrodonta). See also under E. odontocarpa at p. 145.

  ― 143 ―

2. With Angophora.

“… the strongly toothed calyx demonstrates some transit towards Angophora, although the lid is no ways dissolved into petals as in that genus, nor can the operculum be rightly regarded as petaloid, it being quite of the texture and structure normal in most Eucalypts, indeed, in this respect not different from the lid of E. Preissii, E. terminalis, E. Abergiana, and a few other species, in which the calyx is rather irregularly ruptured than circumcised by a clearly defined sutural line; at best only the inner layer of the lid could be assumed to be corollaceous, but it is closely connate with the outer stratum as usual in the genus.” (“Eucalyptographia.”)

The relations of the Eudesmieæ to Angophora will be treated at greater length in my grand classification of the various species of Eucalyptus.

  ― 144 ―

CCLV. E. odontocarpa F.v.M.

In Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 98, (1859).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

A shrub with angled branchlets; leaves opposite, rather shortly petiolate, linear or narrow-lanceolate, sub-falcate, acute at the base, shining, covered with bright dots, penniveined and reticulately veined, peripheral vein slightly distant from the margin; umbels axillary, not exceeding three flowered, shortly pedunculate; the obconical acute quadridentate tube of the shortly pedicellate calyx three times as long as the depressed hemispherical operculum; fruits ovate-obconical indistinctly costate, quadridentate, trilocular, valves inserted below the margin.

In sandy desert near Sturt's Creek, flowering in autumn.

Shrub of 8–10 feet. Branches rather slender. Leaves 2–5 inches long, 3–6 lines broad. Umbels sometimes two, one of the depauperate. Fruits 3–4 lines long, shining.

It was next described in English by Bentham, in B.Fl. iii, 260:—

A shrub of 8 to 10 feet, with slender branches (F. Mueller). Leaves opposite or alternate, linear-lanceolate, mostly 3 to 5 inches long, with oblique anastomosing veins, inconspicuous at first, more prominent in the fruiting specimens, the intramarginal one near the edge. Peduncles axillary, short, each with three small flowers on short pedicels, but not seen expanded. Calyx-tube in the bud narrow-turbinate, about 2 lines long, with four small, but prominent, spreading teeth. Operculum hemispherical, very obtuse. Stamens apparently not in clusters; anthers small, with parallel cells. Fruit oblong-cylindrical, 4 to 5 lines long, not contracted at the orifice when fully ripe; rim narrow, concave, the capsule slightly sunk, three or four celled.

It was not included in the “Eucalyptographia,” but under E. tetrodonta it is stated that well developed flowers (of E. odontocarpa) are unknown.


On a drawing of a portion of the type the words “Sturt's Creek, Desert, February, 1856, Ferd. Mueller.” This is in the Northern Territory, in about 18 degrees south latitude.

It also occurs in north West Australia (West Kimberley), also in desert.

Northern Territory

“Small tree (Mallee).” Tanami Goldfield. (Dr. H. I. Jensen; C. E. F. Allen's No. 202.)

See also the Sturt's Creek locality already given for the type.

  ― 145 ―

Western Australia

“Desert south of Fitzroy River, West Kimberley.” (W. V. Fitzgerald.)

This is one of Mr. Fitzgerald's labels, and his discovery of this species as new to Western Australia does not appear to have been recorded. It will be observed that, like Mueller, he speaks of it occurring in a “desert.”


1. With E. eudesmioides F.v.M.

E. odontocarpa is “very much like some specimens of E. eudesmioides, but the stamens do not appear to be arranged in clusters.” (B.Fl., iii, 260.)

The affinities of the various species of the Eudesmieæ are dealt with at p. 137. The morphology of the filaments in the various species is discussed separately at p. 135.

2. With E. tetrodonta F.v.M.

E. odontocarpa “… at once distinguished from the following species (tetrodonta) by the very much smaller flowers.” (B.Fl., iii, 260.) Luehmann (Proc. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, vii, 524) thought E. odontocarpa is probably a variety of E. tetrodonta. The species are compared to some extent in the table at p. 137.

3. With E. tetragona.

E. tetragona is through E. eudesmioides also cognate to E. odontocarpa, of which well-developed flowers remained as yet unknown; the differences of the latter consist in still narrower and somewhat curved leaves with more spreading veins, in the smallness of its flowers with proportionately more developed calyx-teeth, and the not membranously margined seeds; very possibly its anthers will bring it nearer to E. tetrodonta.” (“Eucalyptographia.”)

See the table at p. 137. E. tetragona and E. eudesmioides will be dealt with in Part XLVI.

  ― 146 ―

XVII. E. capitellata Smith.

In “A Specimen of the Botany of New Holland,” p. 42, 1793 (1794).

THE original description will be found at Part VIII, p. 211 of the present work. It was at this place more fully described by me, but my definition of the species, while largely following Bentham, Mueller and other competent authorities, was too wide. My references at Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 493 (1918), were also too inclusive, as they include the dwarf form that I separated under the name E. Camfieldi. (See Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liv, 66, 1920); see also below, p. 149.

The type from Port Jackson may be described as follows:—

A small to medium-sized tree with a stringy bark and timber brown or pale brown in colour, the young branchlets sometimes almost quadrangular.

Juvenile leaves with undulate margins and a few stellate hairs when quite young, but developing later into a glabrous leaf of thicker texture of much larger size, ovate to orbicular (say 8 by 8 cm. and 8 by 10 cm., and even greater dimensions), shortly pedunculate or almost sessile, secondary veins few, spreading or looped, the intramarginal vein far removed from the edge.

Mature leaves “ovate lanceolate, firm, astringent but not very aromatic.” (Original description.) Equally green on both sides; coriaceous, venation spreading.

Buds.—The buds and peduncles somewhat thick and angular or flattened. “We have seen no other species in which the flowers stand in little dense heads, each flower not being pedicellated so as to form an umbel.” (Original description.) This, of course, does not remain true now.

Fruits.—In consequence of the fruits being sessile, or nearly so, and crowded into heads, these assume a polygonal shape at the base, as if they had been pressed together when in a plastic condition. With this exception, the fruits have the form of a very much compressed spheroid, the horizontal diameter of which is from one and a half times to twice the depth. The fruit is swollen out below the rim, which is sometimes very well defined, and of a red or brown colour. The fruit is sometimes truncate, but more frequently the rim is dome-shaped. There is great variability in the amount of exsertion of the valves. The fruit may be perfectly ripe without exserted valves, but a twig from the same tree may have them exserted.

The type came from Port Jackson (Sydney), N.S.W.

A figure of the species will be found at Plate 106, Part XXVIII, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales”; figure B of that Plate belongs to E. Camfieldi Maiden. In the present work it is figured at Part VIII, Plate 37, figures 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, so that the figures of the juvenile and intermediate leaf (4a, 4b) in Plate 186 seem quite adequate. The juvenile leaves of the two species can be compared.

  ― 147 ―


This species is confined to New South Wales, so far as we know at present.

It occurs in poor, sandy land from Sutherland, near Port Hacking, a few miles south of Sydney, northerly to Port Stephens, and north of that it is found in certain New England localities indicated below. It is quite obvious that additional southern localities will be found, and intermediate ones between Port Stephens and Walcha.

While it seems to prefer coastal localities, it will be seen that it occurs on the northern tableland also. Indeed, the range of the species requires to be carefully ascertained.

Following are some localities, travelling north:—

Sutherland (J. L. Boorman). Woronora (F. W. Wakefield, No. 4). Kogarah, Oatley, Como and Hurstville (J. H. Camfield). Folly Point, Middle Harbour (D. W. C. Shiress).

George Caley's specimens in the British Museum, “Twisted Stringybark, near Sydney, January 15th, 1807, capitellata.” (All in Caley's handwriting). Also British Museum, Nos. 15 and 5 from Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S., Keeper of Botany, British Museum, 1912.

Corner of Pittwater and Spit roads, 20–50 feet high; also Common from St. Ives to Tumble Down Dick, a distance of about 5 miles (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress.)

Passing Broken Bay, the following coastal specimens are strictly typical:—

Brisbane Water (W. D. Francis). Wyong (Forester F. G. McPherson). Morissett (A. Murphy). “Bark deeply furrowed, timber good.” “This species has always yellow inner bark,” Wyee (A. Murphy); Wallsend (W. W. Froggatt); Port Stephens district (A. Rudder); South Head of Port Stephens (J. L. Boorman).

The most northerly locality from which we have it is the Round Mountain, Guy Fawkes Range, 4,250 feet above the sea, and about 50 miles east of Armidale, on the Grafton road (J.H.M.). Buds as compressed as it is possible for them to be. Fruits large and hemispherical (figured at 7a and 7b, Plate 37). From the material available there may be room for opinion as to whether this is E. capitellata or E. macrorrhyncha, but the buds, at least, incline me to the view that it is E. capitellata.

  • (a) Near Apsley Falls, Walcha, No. 1,217, R. H. Cambage (E. C. Andrews), is identical with the preceding.
  • (b) Fourteen miles east of Deepwater at 4,000 feet, No. 1,219, Cambage (E. C. Andrews). In intermediate foliage only, but doubtless identical with the preceding.
  • (c) Near Swamp Oak, Walcha, No. 1,218, Cambage (E. C. Andrews), has a very short pedicel and is one of the specimens which show how difficult, and perhaps impossible, it is to say what line of demarcation there is between E. capitellata and E. macrorrhyncha.

  ― 148 ―

CCLVI. E. Camfieldi Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., LIV, 66 (1920).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Frutex vel arbor pumila fere Mallee similis, statu immaturo pilis stellatis vestitis, cortice fibrosa; foliis junioribus scabrissimis, pilis stellatis dense vestitis, parvis, cordatis vel orbicularibus, saepe emarginatis; foliis maturis coriaceissimis, nitentibus, oblongis vel late lanceolatis, obliquis, apice obtuso; alabastris ca. 9 capitulo, sessilibus pedunculo breve, angulatissimis sed post anthesin ovoideis; antheris reniformibus; fructibus hemisphaericis ad 1 cm. diametro in capitulis, compressis, capsula 4-loculare, apicibus distincte exsertis.

A low branching shrub or stunted tree, almost Mallee-like and under 12 feet in height, and with stems about two inches in diameter. Covered with stellate hairs when young. Bark scaly-fibrous or fibrous, flattish, tough—a Stringybark.

Juvenile leaves very scabrous, abundantly provided with stellate hairs in the earliest stage, cordate to orbicular, often emarginate, never lanceolate in the young state. Often 2 cm. by 2 cm. with intermediate sizes up to 4 cm. by 4 cm. (They remind one irresistibly of Angophora cordifolia, and when small as well as young, of Correa speciosa.)

Mature leaves remarkably coriaceous and oblong to broadly lanceolate, with a blunt point, oblique, lustrous or shiny, as if varnished. Up to 1 dm. long, and, say, 3·5 cm. broad. Oblique and coarse in the intermediate stage with a mucro.

Buds about nine in the head, small, very angular through compression, becoming ovoid or scarcely angular on anthesis, sessile on a short peduncle or none. Anthers renantherous, but not typically so.

Fruits hemispherical, up to 1 cm. in diameter, in heads, compressed, sometimes so much so that they are almost syncarpous, with a shiny dark-red rim, capsule four-celled with the tips distinctly exsert.

The type is from Middle Harbour, Port Jackson, 25th May, 1897. Julius Henry Camfield, for many years Overseer of the Garden Palace Grounds, Botanic Gardens, Sydney, who died 26th November, 1916, was not only an excellent gardener, but a competent botanist, and I have much pleasure in dedicating this interesting species to his memory.


On exposed situations on sandstone tops, only known at present between Broken Bay and George's River, a few miles north and south of Port Jackson, New South Wales. There is little doubt that careful search will greatly extend the range. Following are specific localities:—

About half a mile south of the 17-mile post on the Galston road from Hornsby (W. F. Blakely). The west side of Berowra Creek, Hornsby, or about one and a half miles from the 17-mile post above.

  ― 149 ―

Eight to 9 feet high, in low Honeysuckle (Banksia) Scrub, Willoughby (A. G. Hamilton). Near the Suspension Bridge, Willoughby (J. L. Boorman). “Looks like E. capitellata. From very stunted trees (very likely saplings from old stumps), only a few feet high. Note the sucker leaves.” On the high ground of Middle Harbour (J. H. Camfield, 25th May, 1897). Northbridge, opposite the Spit (D. W. C. Shiress). Mosman (W. M. Carne).

The following are south of Port Jackson:—

Woronora River at Heathcote (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman). A dwarf form, 8 feet high, Waterfall (R. H. Cambage, No. 4,169).


With E. capitellata Sm., with which it has long been confused.

E. capitellata is a tree, sometimes a large tree, and the organs are all larger, while there is an absence, or almost absence, of stellate hairs in the young shoots. E. Camfieldi is a Mallee-like plant, forming a dense undergrowth, from three to about twelve feet high. E. capitellata appears to be absent from the Hornsby district, where the new species is not rare. The juvenile leaves (suckers) of E. Camfieldi are smaller, more orbicular to cordate, scabrous with a persistent stellate tomentum, apparently always present around the base of the adult plants, forming thickets, similar to the low stunted forms of Angophora cordifolia. They are never lanceolate like those of E. capitellata. The new species has buds smaller than those of E. capitellata, and less attenuate, usually ovoid; in some specimens they are almost round and devoid of angles. The common peduncle is shorter than in E. capitellata and quadrangular to nearly terete. The peduncle of E. capitellata is very often more compressed in the early bud. The fruits are smaller than those of E. capitellata, but otherwise very similar.

The juvenile foliage shown in figures 4a and 4b, Plate 37, Part VIII, of this work (under E. capitellata), and also figure B, Plate 106, Part XXVIII, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” belong to E. Camfieldi.

It is the form (b), for the most part, of p. 493 of Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., LII, 1918.

Mr. Blakely has pointed out to me that E. ligustrina DC. (see this work, Part XL), apparently bears the same relation to E. eugenioides Sieb. that E. Camfieldi does to E. capitellata.

  ― 150 ―

CCLVII. E. Blaxlandi Maiden and Cambage.

In Proc. Roy. N.S.W., LII, 495 (1918), recapitulating descriptions at Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxx, 193 (1905), and the present work, Part VIII, 216, as the Blue Mountains form of E. capitellata.

IF the reference in the present work (under “Western Localities,”) be turned to, it will be seen that the description need not be repeated at this place.

A specimen (Blackheath, Blue Mountains, N.S.W., J. H. Maiden, January, 1905) in the National Herbarium of New South Wales is constituted the type by the authors.

It is figured at Part VIII, Plate 38, of the present work, figures 3a, 3b, 3c, 5. Those figures of the type lack the mature leaf, which is given at fig. 5, Plate 187, of the present Part.

It is named in honour of Gregory Blaxland, who was leader of the first party to cross the Blue Mountains (1813), where many trees of this species are to be found.


It occurs very extensively in New South Wales, both on the tablelands and in the coastal districts. It is also fairly widely diffused in Victoria, chiefly in Gippsland and along the east and south coast (western district), where it joins South Australian localities, extending into the Mount Lofty Range. It has been looked upon as E. capitellata, and it will be some time before it is understood that that species, sensu strictu, does not occur in the two southern States.

New South Wales.

Western Localities.—Besides the type locality, Blackheath, and other parts of the Blue Mountains from Woodford to Cox's River (Bowenfels), Jenolan Caves and Mount Wilson (see Part VIII, p. 217), we have—

Mount Currucudgy (Rylstone district (R. T. Baker). Upper Meroo (A. Murphy, timber No. 9,899). Fruits very small to medium sized, and some exsert. (A. Murphy). Localities which extend its range in a slightly north-westerly direction.

The Sydney (Outer Domain) form, referred to under E. capitellata at p. 217 and figures 4ac, Plate 38, may be looked upon as a nearly glabrous form of E. Blaxlandi; it is not typical.

  ― 151 ―

We can now branch to the south.

Southern New South Wales.—We now travel south and find that there is variation in this species, which seems to be capable of grouping, chiefly obvious in the size of the fruits. Let me briefly discuss some of the specimens in detail:—

Waterfall (J.H.M.). Intermediate leaves coriaceous, glabrous, buds stellate; fruits small, capitate.

Woronora (F. W. Wakefield No. 4). Same as Waterfall. Buds slightly glaucous. Compare Gosford.

Cobbity, banks of Nepean, near Camden (J.H.M.). Bluish cast of young foliage. Buds largish; fruits hemispherical, slightly pedicellate.

“Stringybark, like E. eugenioides, 150 yards north of hotel; Yerranderie (R. H. Cambage, No. 2,197). Juvenile leaves (upper part of trunk) lanceolate, glabrous; buds brown, stellate; fruits medium-sized fully ripe and valves well exsert. (Like Clyde Mountain, Baeuerlen).

“Blue-leaf Stringybark,” Hill Top (J.H.M.). Juvenile leaves like those of Nelligen. The juvenile leaves precisely match those from Mt. Spiraby, near Tenterfield (J.H.M.). I had already pointed out (Part VIII, p. 215) that they also precisely match those of what may be termed the Blue Mountains form of E. capitellata (infra. p. 216) (This is now E. Blaxlandi, of course.) The fruits and juvenile foliage are figured at 6a and 6b, Plate 38, and a note on them will be found at p. 215 of Part VIII. The fruits are in spherical clusters, and I suggested that this form might be intermediate between E. capitellata and E. eugenioides, which, although a view I do not hold now, is one that had some acceptance at the time.

Hill Top, buds brown, stellate; also summit of Mount Jellore (both E. Cheel). Buds and fruits like Wombeyan Caves.

1. Berrima (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman, September, 1901). Intermediate leaves like Clyde Mountain, Baeuerlen. Buds brown, stellate. Fruits varying in size and rim a little.

2. Berrima, on the Mittagong road (D. W. C. Shiress, 1919, 1920). Suckers or intermediate leaves lanceolate to ovate and nearly orbicular, glabrous; buds rounded, stellate; fruits small to smallish, capitate.

No. 1 specimens were noted at p. 216, Part VIII, and figures 7a and 7b of Plate 38. Chiefly on consideration of the fruits, they were looked upon as a small fruited form of E. capitellata, or at all events, intermediate between that species and E. eugenioides.

Bowral to Bullio; also Wombeyan Caves, Taralga road (R. H. Cambage, J.H.M.). Juvenile leaves broad, undulate, hairy, precisely like Nelligen. More advanced juvenile leaves are scabrous, broadly ovate, cordate, precisely like those of the New England tableland and those in the neighbourhood of the New South Wales-Queensland border. Buds yellowish to brownish, rounded to pointed like “tip-cats”; fruits with valves exsert and medium in size.

  ― 152 ―

Goulburn (S. Lumsden, No. 15). Fruits small, capitate. Near Goulburn (J. B. Cleland). Fruits a little larger than the preceding (fig. 7b, Plate 38), and fewer in the head. Clyde Mountain, Nelligen (W. Baeuerlen, No. 31.)

“Blue-top Stringybark.” High elevation at Nethercote, 5 miles west of Eden, on ironstone gravel and trap-rock. (Forester H. H. Rose, No. 16.)

Northern New South Wales.—Let us return to the Sydney district and branch to the north.

Stunted form, about 7 feet in height, diameter of 3 inches, growing on poor sandstone tops, Popran Trig. Reserve 1,158 (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 4). Buds stellate, rounded to slightly angular; fruit capitate.

“Stringybark,” Yarramalong, Forest Reserve, No. 38,429, Ph. Wyong (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 25). Blue tint to young foliage, which is glabrous; buds stellate; fruits capitate. “Appears like 25, but general appearance of tree is like a Blackbutt,” Yarramalong (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 27). Juvenile foliage broadly ovate to broadly lanceolate, glabrous. Very like New South Wales-Queensland border specimens.

“Stringybark.” At an elevation of between 800 and 900 feet near Booral. Attains a size up to 14 or 15 feet in circumference. Buds stellate; fruits smallish, valves exsert. These specimens are figured at figures 9a and 9b, Plate 38, and there is a note at p. 214 of Part VIII. While there placing them as a small fruited form of capitellata, I point out that some botanists may look upon them as a form of E. eugenioides with very exsert valves.

Fruits hemispherical, slightly depressed, valves slightly exsert, rim broadish. Murrurundi (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman). Figured at figs. 22a, b, Plate 40, as a form of E. eugenioides.

A New England Stringybark.—As we go further north, e.g., to New England, New South Wales, there seems to be a break in the Stringybark series, which may, of course, arise from imperfect collecting, and we find that E. eugenioides, E. Blaxlandi, and E. Muelleriana approach in a number of ways, the first being preponderant as at present defined. This New England form I referred to under (e) in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 495 (1918), as follows:—

(e) We have also a form from New England, chiefly, so far as collected, at Wilson's Downfall, Macpherson Range, Wallangarra, Armidale, &c. Also a large tree, which has broad-lanceolate up to orbicular juvenile foliage (I have not seen any coriaceous), with buds as depicted on Plate 37. The fruits are smaller than those of the type (i.e., are of the size of those of 1b, 4c, 8c, Plate 38); sessile to pedicellate. The pedicellate fruits are mostly flat-topped, and with a smooth, distinct rim. The shape of these rimmed fruits may be seen in 1f, Plate 38, but in that case the fruits are sessile, the series depicted under fig. 1, however, shows an amount of variation in a South Australian form which is repeated in the New England, New South Wales, specimens now under review.

There is some usefulness in referring to this series in geographical order, going north. Frankly, I cannot separate these trees in some cases by marked characters, and I take the opportunity of contemplating them from the point of view of affinity to E. Blaxlandi. At the same time, other botanists will find it useful to consider them

  ― 153 ―
as variants of other Stringybarks. We require further observations (although much collecting has been already done) for they furnish additional evidence of the truth of the Preliminary Note attached to Part VIII. There can be no harm in making a pause.

Juvenile leaves on the whole narrowish, but not representative, some leading to broadish; undulate; buds rounded, stellate. Yarrowitch (J.H.M.). “Tall trees; the principal timber of the district. Juvenile foliage on the narrow side. Buds rather large, bursting into flower, opercula conoid.” Yarrowitch (J. L. Boorman).

Buds stellate, or nearly so, brownish; fruits small, capitate, Tia, via. Walcha (J.H.M.). Figured at 18ad, Plate 40, as E. eugenioides. (See also p. 238, Part VIII), with broad sucker leaves, but evidently a form of the present series. Tia River (E. Betche). Very like the preceding, except valves a little more exsert. Walcha (J. F. Campbell). Buds brownish; fruits smallish, hemispherical, slightly exsert.

Then we come to three specimens, A., B., C., collected by the late Dr. A. W. Howitt from the Armidale district:—

  • A. Armidale district.
  • B. Between Chandler and Styx Rivers. Bark stringy to smaller limbs and branches. Up to 50 feet.
  • C. Styx River. A Stringybark tree, tall, 60–70 feet.

Some of A. W. Howitt's Armidale specimens are figured under E. eugenioides at figs. 1ad, Plate 39, and they are identical with J. L. Boorman's Stanthorpe (Q.) specimens figured at 2ad of the same Plate. The Armidale specimens are referred to as intermediate between E. Muelleriana and E. eugenioides at p. 219 of Part VIII. I have other specimens broader than the juvenile leaves figured. They are alike, and belong to the northern Stringybark. Nor can anyone contemplating them doubt their relations to (e.g.), the Osler's Creek, Victoria, tree figured at 2ac, Plate 38, nor the Mount Lofty (S.A.) specimens figured at 1bf of Plate 38, both now placed by me under E. Blaxlandi. The seedling or sucker leaves are narrow to broadish, some are nearly glabrous, slightly hairy and undulate, the buds stellate, the fruits sessile to pedicellate, nearly hemispherical, but variable.

Another specimen, Armidale (J.H.M.), the common Stringybark of the district, and figured at figs. 1 and 2 of Plate 39, would well stand for it.

State Forest No. 322, Ph. Mackenzie, Co. Hardinge, Armidale district (Forestry Commission, 1918). Same as preceding, with fruits becoming a little more pilular.

Then we have round, plump buds, getting pedicellate, fruits pear-shaped to hemisperical, e.g., Rampsbeck, 30 miles north-east of Armidale (J. F. Campbell). This is another specimen entered as E. Muelleriana, but showing transit to E. eugenioides.

Then we come to Lawrence, Clarence River (J. V. de Coque). Figured under 21a, b, Plate 40, as E. eugenioides.

Drake (E. C. Andrews). Fruits with well exserted valves. Figured at fig. 19, Plate 40, as E. eugenioides, and considered to show transit to E. Muelleriana. Drake (A. Hagman), with sunk valves, apparently not as fully developed as the preceding. Figured at fig. 20 as E. eugenioides.

  ― 154 ―

See also the Moonambah, Richmond River (W. Baeuerlen), specimens referred to at p. 238 of Part VIII, but not figured, and foot of Mount Lindsay (W. Forsyth) figured at fig. 16a, b, of Plate 40.

“Woolly Butt.” Juvenile leaves broadish, more or less scabrous, and even undulate to glabrous and lanceolate. (An odd leaf as broad as any of Wilson's Downfall; see below). Buds brown, rounded, stellate. Fruits pedicellate, but with pedicels not long; medium in size, hemispherical, rimmed, valves non-exsert to more or less exsert. Bolivia, near Tenterfield (J.H.M.). A similar specimen was referred to as follows in Part VIII, p. 238:—

“Tenterfield to Sandy Flat (J.H.M.). Fruits very similar to those of E. eugenioides, Sydney, e.g., Concord Park (believed to be typical), hemispherical, and somewhat exserted valves. Buds very compressed, almost like capitellata. I figured this (Plate 4, Part I) as E. Muelleriana, and I now put it under E. eugenioides with doubt. It certainly is a transit form.

Juvenile foliage (suckers) lanceolate, glabrous,; small stellate brown buds; fruits hemispherical, slightly pedicellate, more or less. Some a little piperita- or acmenioides like, but very variable. Acacia Creek, Macpherson Range (Forest Guard W. Dunn.) At one time looked upon as a small-fruited from of E. Muelleriana.

Suckers glabrous, lanceolate. Buds stellate. Fruits very shortly pedicellate, for the most part sessile. Medium sized, rimmed with more or less exsert valves. Cataract Run, near Tenterfield (L. C. Irby). Certainly a transit form between the pedicellate (eugenioides) series and the sessile (Blaxlandi).

Tree of 20 or 30 feet. Suckers not in the youngest state nearly glabrous (shining upper surface). Buds clavate, nearly bursting into flower. Fruits somewhat E. pilularis-like, becoming exsert. Pedicels very short or none. Wallangarra (J. L. Boorman). This is another intermediate form related to E. eugenioides and perhaps E. Muelleriana.

Then we have, suckers broad, nearly orbicular to broadly lanceolate, glabrous; buds small, brown, stellate to clavate, with pointed opercula when bursting into flower (it is very desirable to describe the shape of the buds when they are bursting into flower if possible, as they have a definite shape for that form); fruits smallish to medium large, exsert to prominently exsert. Pedicellate to sessile. Wilson's Downfall (R. H. Cambage, Nos. 2,822, 2,826, 2,839). This is another puzzling form, named at different times E. eugenioides and E. capitellata, though not typical.


Buds slightly pedicellate, slightly glaucous; fruits medium, E. pilularis-like. Stanthorpe (J. L. Boorman). Figured at 2ad, Plate 39, and not distinguishable from the Armidale specimens already referred to.

Now let us turn to Victoria and South Australia, beginning with Victoria.


It seems to me that the true E. capitellata does not extend to Victoria, and that Mr. Howitt's notes on Gippsland forms, quoted at Part VIII, p. 217, refer to

  ― 155 ―
E. Blaxlandi. One of Mr. Howitt's specimens was figured at 2ac, Plate 38, as regards seedling leaves, buds, and fruits. They are from Osler's Creek, and have much in common with E. Blaxlandi from the Blue Mountains and the South Coast of New South Wales. The seedling leaves are narrower than those depicted for the type, but many of the type specimens are similar. The chief difference is that the fruits are more pedicellate than those of the type.

“Small fruited Yellow Stringybark,” but when freshly cut and green the heart wood is brown in colour. Wangarabelle, also found plentifully between Genoa and Mallacoota, and at Cann River; also at Orbost. (H. Hopkins, 1915).

Now let us proceed to Western Victoria (Portland district). If we turn to page 213, Part VIII, with the corresponding figures 8, 9, 10 of Plate 37, we find that they have a good deal in common with E. Blaxlandi, and are perhaps inseparable from that species; they also possess affinity to E. capitellata, from which they differ in the following points:—In the broader suckers, which are nearer those of E. capitellata, and in the pedicellate fruits with the valves less exsert.

At the same time the affinities to E. lœvopinea R. T. Baker are worthy of consideration, and should be worked out. (This form of E. Blaxlandi ascends to the Grampians, see p. 218, Part VIII, and fig. 12 of Plate 37).

South Australia

These Western Victorian specimens carry us on to South Australia, and the species is found in the south-east, Kangaroo Island, Mount Lofty, and elsewhere.

A reference to the south-east is under Narracoorte, p. 218, Part VIII, where we have clavate, scarcely angular buds, with domed fruits, valves well exsert. These are figured at 11, Plate 37.

There is a reference to a Kangaroo Island specimen collected by Robert Brown about 1802 at p. 213 of Part VIII, viz.:—

Kangaroo Island, Hundred of Cassini (W. J. Spafford, No. 7, 1916). This cannot be separated from figs. 11a and 11b, Plate 37 (Narracoorte).

We now come to the Mount Lofty specimens referred to at p. 218, Part VIII, and if we turn to figures 1bf of Plate 38 of fruits all gathered from the same tree, we have a remarkable instance of variation in this species. Fruits sessile, shortly pedicellate, rim flat-topped or domed, valves sunk or exsert. Some of the specimens are remarkably like the type of E. Blaxlandi.

Then we have Aldgate, near Mount Lofty (J.H.M.), with juvenile leaves scabrous, nearly orbicular to oblong and broadly lanceolate. Not to be separated from the Narracoorte specimens (S.A.), nor from those from Osler's Creek (Vic.). See also Willunga, Mount Lofty Range (W. Gill).

The following locality is more distant. One or two miles west of Bordertown, where the scrub of the 90-mile Desert begins (J. M. Black, No. 2). Like Narracoorte, but with mostly smaller fruits.

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CCLVIII. E. Normantonensis Maiden and Cambage.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 490 (1918.)

“Box”-arbores parvae altae pedes decem ad triginta, interdum aliquem de “Mallee” admonentes. “Box”-cortex in arboris trunco et ramis magnis. Rami superiores interdum leves et subvirides. Arbores localiter ut “Box” cognitae.

FOLIA JUVENILIA.—In conditione immaturissimâ non visa, sed sub-glauca sunt, ramusculi angulares, folia lanceolata, exique petiolata, longa circiter novem cm. (tres uncias et dimidium) et 2–2·5 cm. lata, irregulariter pinnata, venae secundariæ apud angulum 45° e mediâ costâ; vena intramarginata clare a margine denota.

FOLIA MATURA.—Lucide viridia, aliquanto nitida, contusa nullum oleiodorem dant. Angusta-lanceolata, pyramidata speciatim in apice, directa vel aliquanto falcata, petiolata, ad decem cm. (quatuor uncias) et longiora, et plerumque infra unum cm. lata, viridia cum flavedine, utrobique color idem, cum multis inconspicuis fere pinnatis venis secundariis.

FLORES.—Pedunculi aliquanto breves terminales in exemplis conducibilibus, in singulis umbellis circiter quinque ad septem flores aliquanto parvi. Gemmae obtuse clavatae, calycistubus gradatim pyramidatus in pediculum. Gemmae saepe alterius vel externi operculi vertigium gerunt. Operculum hemisphaerium cum mucrone brevissimo, in longum circiter supremi calycis tubi trientem. Antheræ ut in E. gracilis.

FRUCTUS.—Fructus parvus, cylindraceus-urceolatus, circiter quatuor mm. longus et tres mm. latus. Ora angusta ab annulo stamines constante coronata, capsula profunde suppressa.

TYPUS.—R. H. Cambage, No. 3,930 (fructifer).

Pauca millia passuum ad orientem et meridiem e “Normanton” (sinus “Carpentaria” civitas “Queensland”) in formationem arenaceam et cretaceam calculos ferreos continentem.

Etiam in viam a “Normanton” ad “Cloncurry” inter rivos “Normanton” et “Flinders” occurrit.

Small Box-trees of 10 to 30 feet, sometimes suggestive of Mallee. Box-bark on trunk and large branches. Upper branches sometimes smooth and greenish. Known locally as “Box.”

JUVENILE LEAVES.—Not seen in the earliest state, but are sub-glaucous, branchlets angular, leaves lanceolate, shortly petiolate, up to say 9 cm. (3½ inches) long, and 2–2·5 cm broad, irregularly pinnate, the secondary veins at about an angle of 45 degrees with the midrib; intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge.

MATURE LEAVES.—Bright green, somewhat shiny, give no odour of oil when crushed. Narrow-lanceolate, tapering, particularly to the apex, straight or somewhat falcate, petiolate, up to 10 cm. (4 inches) and more, and usually under 1 cm. wide, yellowish green, the same colour on both sides, with numerous not conspicuous almost pinnate secondary veins.

FLOWERS.—Peduncles shortish, terminal in the specimens available, each umbel with about five to seven rather small flowers. Buds bluntly clavate, the calyx-tube gradually tapering into the pedicel. The buds often carry the remains of a second or outer operculum. The operculum hemispherical, with a very short mucro, about a third as long as the ridge calyx-tube. Anthers as in E. gracilis.

FRUITS.—Fruit small, cylindroid-urceolate, about 4 mm. long and 3 mm. broad. The narrow rim crowned by a persistent staminal ring, the capsule deeply sunk.

Type. R. H. Cambage, No. 3,930 (in fruit).

  ― 157 ―


A few miles to the east and south of Normanton (Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland), on a sandy cretaceous formation containing ironstone pebbles. Also occurs on Normanton–Cloncurry road between Normanton and Flinders River (R. H. Cambage).

Normanton (Ivie Murchie).

The description was drawn up from Mr. Cambage's No. 3,930, with the exception of that of the ripe bud and stamens, in which Mr. Murchie's specimen has been used.

The trees provisionally identified as Eucalyptus gracilis (No. 3,930) are growing a few miles to the east and south of Normanton on a sandy cretaceous formation containing ironstone pebbles. They are small box trees from 10 to 30 feet high, often with branching stems suggestive of Mallee, leaves bright green and shiny, yielding no smell of oil when crushed, box bark on trunk and large branches, some small branches smooth and greenish, adult leaves from 3 to 4½ inches long, about 1 cm. wide, juvenile leaves up to 3 inches long and 1¼ inches wide, fruits about 4 mm. long and 3 mm. in diameter. Leichhardt appears to have passed through this identical forest after crossing the Norman River, the native name of which he gives as the “Yappar.” He writes:—“The hills were composed of iron-sandstone ..… The intervening flats bore either a box-tree with a short trunk branching off immediately above the ground,” &c. (R. H. Cambage, in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 422–3, 1915.)

I have received the species from Berricannia, between Muttaburra and Hughenden. Trees quite common about the homestead. (Mr. Svensson, through C. T. White.)

Dr. H. I. Jensen says that a medium sized gum answering to the description of E. Normantonensis is very common on desert sandstone country, associated with Lancewood (Acacia Shirleyi?) and Yellow Jacket (E. peltata).


With E. gracilis F.v.M.

It is closely allied to this species, but the leaves are of a different texture, and there is a sticky exudation in patches, the result of insect punctures. The juvenile leaves are broader and have a different venation to that of E. gracilis. There are no conspicuous oil-dots on the buds, as in the case of E. gracilis. The fruits, although very similar in shape to those of E. gracilis, are crowned by the persistent staminal rings as in some of the Ironbarks and Boxes.

J. E. Tenison-Woods (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vii, 337) speaks of E. gracilis in Queensland, but we now know that most of the specimens to which he refers belong to E. Thozetiana F.v.M. Local observers might, however, inquire if those trees seen by him “on the dry sandy scrubs on the Burdekin River, not far from Charters Towers,” refer to that or the present species.

  ― 158 ―

This species had already been referred to twice in the Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., viz., xlix, 326–7, in which I looked upon it as an aberrant form of E. calycogona var. gracilis. The second occasion is in xlix, 422, by Mr. R. H. Cambage, who collected the material both he and I provisionally described. He points out that it is probably referred to by Leichhardt, “Overland Expedition to Port Essington,” p. 337, in words he quotes. It seemed to us that it is worthy of specific description. The first passage referred to is as follows:—

“I now desire to invite attention to a form first received from Mr. Ivie Murchie from Normanton, Queensland, not far from the Gulf of Carpentaria, in November, 1911, under the name of `Box Wood.'

Enquiries failed to elicit any further particulars until Mr. R. H. Cambage collected it at the same place in August, 1913. He obtained a full suite of specimens, and furnished the following particulars:—`No. 3,930. Small Box-trees of 10 to 30 feet, sometimes suggestive of Mallee. Leaves bright green, somewhat shiny, give no odour of oil when crushed. Box-bark on trunk and large branches. Upper branches sometimes smooth and greenish.

Formation pebbly (ironstone) and sandy; cretaceous (?).

Also occurs on Normanton–Cloncurry road between Normanton and Flinders River.'

So far as I am aware, var. gracilis has not been recorded previously from nearer than 1,500 miles, and it is not surprising that the Normanton specimens differ a little from the type. I fail to get hold of any characters of sufficient importance to separate it from var. gracilis, and therefore note E. calycogona var. gracilis as an addition to the Queensland flora.

Compared with typical var. gracilis, the leaves are of a different texture, and there is a sticky exudation in patches, the results of insect punctures.

Mr. Cambage's note of absence of oil does not mean that there is no oil at all, for the oil dots can be seen and are not scarce, but in comparison with other forms there is an absence of oil. At the same time the leaves from southern specimens of var. gracilis vary a good deal in oil content. The most important character is that the inflorescence is terminal in the Normanton specimens (chiefly those of Mr. Murchie), whereas it seems to be usually axillary in all our other specimens.”

  ― 159 ―

Explanation of Plates (184–187).

Plate 184.

Plate 184: EUCALYPTUS ERYTHROCORYS F.v.M. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. erythrocorys F.v.M.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaf; 1b, mature leaf, of No. 70, 6th Collection, Western Australia (James Drummond).
  • 2a. Juvenile leaf, covered on both sides with stellate hairs; 2b, mature leaf; 2c, the axis; 2d, a sessile bud and a newly expanded flower on a long, flattened peduncle; 2e, stamens; 2f, the biretta-like operculum looked at from above; 2g, an individual flower, looked at from above, showing the stamens (somewhat tufted, and a little diagrammic) and the stigma. All from specimens grown in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney, from seed from near Dongarra, W.A., (Mr. E. W. Clarkson, through Mr. W. D. Campbell, L.S.).
  • 3a, 3b. Different views of fruits from the Murchison River, W.A. (Augustus Oldfield, in the Vienna Herbarium).
  • 4. Fruit from near Dongarra, the largest I have seen (W. D. Campbell).

Plate 185.

Plate 185: EUCALYPTUS TETRODONTA F.v.M. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. tetrodonta F.v.M.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaf; 1b, intermediate leaf. Darwin, Northern Territory (Dr. H. I. Jensen, July, 1916).
  • 2. Buds with strongly marked wing-like processes to the operculum. Messmate Creek, Packhorse Range, North-West Australia (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 1,214).
  • 3a. Buds; 3b, a flower in elevation; 3c, a flower in plan; 3d, front and back view of anthers; 3e, mature leaf and fruits; 3f, plan of a fruit. Pine and Horseshoe Creeks, Northern Territory (E. J. Dunn).

Plate 186.

Plate 186: EUCALYPTUS ODONTOCARPA F.v.M. (1-3) EUCALYPTUS CAPITELLATA Sm. (4) [See also Plate 37, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. odontocarpa F.v.M.

  • 1a. Twig with young buds; 1b, the same enlarged; 1c, twig with fruits. Sturt's Creek, Northern-Territory (Mueller). From a drawing of the type at Kew, made by Miss M. Smith.
  • 2. Broad, young leaf, as young as I have seen it. Desert south of Fitzroy River, West Kimberleys, North-West Australia (W. V. Fitzgerald, September, 1906).
  • 3a. Front and back views of anthers; 3b, twig with fruits in various stages of maturity. Tanami Gold-field, Northern Territory (Dr. H. I. Jensen, through C. E. F. Allen).
  • NOTE.—Tanami is a gold-field, and not a tin-field, as inadvertently so recorded in this work in Part XXXVII, p. 186 (under E. aspera) and Part XXXVIII, p. 212 (under E. sctosa).

E. capitellata Sm.

  • 4a. Orbicular juvenile leaf in the earliest stage; 4b, juvenile leaf a little further advanced; 4b, juvenile leaf still further advanced, with the venation modified; 4d, mature leaf. Corner of the Pittwater and Spit roads, Port Jackson (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress).
  • This species is also figured in Part VIII, Plate 37, figures 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7.

  ― 160 ―

Plate 187.

Plate 187: EUCALYPTUS CAMFIELDI Maiden (1-4) [See also Fig. 4, Plate 37.] EUCALYPTUS BLAXLANDI Maiden and Cambage (5) [See also Fig 3, Plate 38.] EUCALYPTUS NORMANTONENSIS Maiden and Cambage. (6,7) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. Camfieldi Maiden.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaves in the orbicular state; 1b, juvenile leaves, a stage more advanced, becoming pointed at the apex; 1c, a juvenile leaf of a larger size, entirely covered with stellate hairs, but more thickly at the back; a portion of the leaf is enlarged to show the thick marginal vein and the stellate hairs; 1d, mature leaf, thick and very shiny; 1c, umbel of buds, nine in the head; 1f, front and back view of anther; 1g, fruits. West side of Berowra Creek, Hornsby, near Sydney (W. F. Blakely).
  • 2. Intermediate leaf, on a twig bearing juvenile leaves. About half a mile south from the 17-mile post, Galston road, Hornsby (W. F. Blakely).
  • 3a. Twig with fruits having exserted valves; 3b, immature fruits. Woronora River, Heathcote, a little south of Botany Bay (J. L. Boorman and J.H.M.).
  • 4a. Front and back views of anthers; 4b, fruits so compressed as to be almost syncarpous. Waterfall, a few miles south of Sydney (R. H. Cambage, No. 4,169).
  • The juvenile leaves figured at fig. 4, Plate 37, belong to this species.

E. Blaxlandi Maiden and Cambage.

  • 5. A mature leaf, Blackheath, N.S.W. (J.H.M.). From the type, which is further figured as regards juvenile leaves, buds and fruits at Plate 38, figs. 3a–3c.

E. Normantonensis Maiden and Cambage.

  • 6a. Intermediate leaf; 6b, buds; 6c, front and back views of anthers. Normanton, Queensland. (Ivie Murchie).
  • 7a. Juvenile leaf, as young as I have seen one; 7b, mature leaf; 7c, fruits; 7d, plan of the fruit. Normanton (R. H. Cambage, No. 3930). The type.