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CCLVII. E. Blaxlandi Maiden and Cambage.

In Proc. Roy. N.S.W., LII, 495 (1918), recapitulating descriptions at Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxx, 193 (1905), and the present work, Part VIII, 216, as the Blue Mountains form of E. capitellata.

IF the reference in the present work (under “Western Localities,”) be turned to, it will be seen that the description need not be repeated at this place.

A specimen (Blackheath, Blue Mountains, N.S.W., J. H. Maiden, January, 1905) in the National Herbarium of New South Wales is constituted the type by the authors.

It is figured at Part VIII, Plate 38, of the present work, figures 3a, 3b, 3c, 5. Those figures of the type lack the mature leaf, which is given at fig. 5, Plate 187, of the present Part.

It is named in honour of Gregory Blaxland, who was leader of the first party to cross the Blue Mountains (1813), where many trees of this species are to be found.


It occurs very extensively in New South Wales, both on the tablelands and in the coastal districts. It is also fairly widely diffused in Victoria, chiefly in Gippsland and along the east and south coast (western district), where it joins South Australian localities, extending into the Mount Lofty Range. It has been looked upon as E. capitellata, and it will be some time before it is understood that that species, sensu strictu, does not occur in the two southern States.

New South Wales.

Western Localities.—Besides the type locality, Blackheath, and other parts of the Blue Mountains from Woodford to Cox's River (Bowenfels), Jenolan Caves and Mount Wilson (see Part VIII, p. 217), we have—

Mount Currucudgy (Rylstone district (R. T. Baker). Upper Meroo (A. Murphy, timber No. 9,899). Fruits very small to medium sized, and some exsert. (A. Murphy). Localities which extend its range in a slightly north-westerly direction.

The Sydney (Outer Domain) form, referred to under E. capitellata at p. 217 and figures 4ac, Plate 38, may be looked upon as a nearly glabrous form of E. Blaxlandi; it is not typical.

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We can now branch to the south.

Southern New South Wales.—We now travel south and find that there is variation in this species, which seems to be capable of grouping, chiefly obvious in the size of the fruits. Let me briefly discuss some of the specimens in detail:—

Waterfall (J.H.M.). Intermediate leaves coriaceous, glabrous, buds stellate; fruits small, capitate.

Woronora (F. W. Wakefield No. 4). Same as Waterfall. Buds slightly glaucous. Compare Gosford.

Cobbity, banks of Nepean, near Camden (J.H.M.). Bluish cast of young foliage. Buds largish; fruits hemispherical, slightly pedicellate.

“Stringybark, like E. eugenioides, 150 yards north of hotel; Yerranderie (R. H. Cambage, No. 2,197). Juvenile leaves (upper part of trunk) lanceolate, glabrous; buds brown, stellate; fruits medium-sized fully ripe and valves well exsert. (Like Clyde Mountain, Baeuerlen).

“Blue-leaf Stringybark,” Hill Top (J.H.M.). Juvenile leaves like those of Nelligen. The juvenile leaves precisely match those from Mt. Spiraby, near Tenterfield (J.H.M.). I had already pointed out (Part VIII, p. 215) that they also precisely match those of what may be termed the Blue Mountains form of E. capitellata (infra. p. 216) (This is now E. Blaxlandi, of course.) The fruits and juvenile foliage are figured at 6a and 6b, Plate 38, and a note on them will be found at p. 215 of Part VIII. The fruits are in spherical clusters, and I suggested that this form might be intermediate between E. capitellata and E. eugenioides, which, although a view I do not hold now, is one that had some acceptance at the time.

Hill Top, buds brown, stellate; also summit of Mount Jellore (both E. Cheel). Buds and fruits like Wombeyan Caves.

1. Berrima (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman, September, 1901). Intermediate leaves like Clyde Mountain, Baeuerlen. Buds brown, stellate. Fruits varying in size and rim a little.

2. Berrima, on the Mittagong road (D. W. C. Shiress, 1919, 1920). Suckers or intermediate leaves lanceolate to ovate and nearly orbicular, glabrous; buds rounded, stellate; fruits small to smallish, capitate.

No. 1 specimens were noted at p. 216, Part VIII, and figures 7a and 7b of Plate 38. Chiefly on consideration of the fruits, they were looked upon as a small fruited form of E. capitellata, or at all events, intermediate between that species and E. eugenioides.

Bowral to Bullio; also Wombeyan Caves, Taralga road (R. H. Cambage, J.H.M.). Juvenile leaves broad, undulate, hairy, precisely like Nelligen. More advanced juvenile leaves are scabrous, broadly ovate, cordate, precisely like those of the New England tableland and those in the neighbourhood of the New South Wales-Queensland border. Buds yellowish to brownish, rounded to pointed like “tip-cats”; fruits with valves exsert and medium in size.

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Goulburn (S. Lumsden, No. 15). Fruits small, capitate. Near Goulburn (J. B. Cleland). Fruits a little larger than the preceding (fig. 7b, Plate 38), and fewer in the head. Clyde Mountain, Nelligen (W. Baeuerlen, No. 31.)

“Blue-top Stringybark.” High elevation at Nethercote, 5 miles west of Eden, on ironstone gravel and trap-rock. (Forester H. H. Rose, No. 16.)

Northern New South Wales.—Let us return to the Sydney district and branch to the north.

Stunted form, about 7 feet in height, diameter of 3 inches, growing on poor sandstone tops, Popran Trig. Reserve 1,158 (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 4). Buds stellate, rounded to slightly angular; fruit capitate.

“Stringybark,” Yarramalong, Forest Reserve, No. 38,429, Ph. Wyong (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 25). Blue tint to young foliage, which is glabrous; buds stellate; fruits capitate. “Appears like 25, but general appearance of tree is like a Blackbutt,” Yarramalong (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 27). Juvenile foliage broadly ovate to broadly lanceolate, glabrous. Very like New South Wales-Queensland border specimens.

“Stringybark.” At an elevation of between 800 and 900 feet near Booral. Attains a size up to 14 or 15 feet in circumference. Buds stellate; fruits smallish, valves exsert. These specimens are figured at figures 9a and 9b, Plate 38, and there is a note at p. 214 of Part VIII. While there placing them as a small fruited form of capitellata, I point out that some botanists may look upon them as a form of E. eugenioides with very exsert valves.

Fruits hemispherical, slightly depressed, valves slightly exsert, rim broadish. Murrurundi (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman). Figured at figs. 22a, b, Plate 40, as a form of E. eugenioides.

A New England Stringybark.—As we go further north, e.g., to New England, New South Wales, there seems to be a break in the Stringybark series, which may, of course, arise from imperfect collecting, and we find that E. eugenioides, E. Blaxlandi, and E. Muelleriana approach in a number of ways, the first being preponderant as at present defined. This New England form I referred to under (e) in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 495 (1918), as follows:—

(e) We have also a form from New England, chiefly, so far as collected, at Wilson's Downfall, Macpherson Range, Wallangarra, Armidale, &c. Also a large tree, which has broad-lanceolate up to orbicular juvenile foliage (I have not seen any coriaceous), with buds as depicted on Plate 37. The fruits are smaller than those of the type (i.e., are of the size of those of 1b, 4c, 8c, Plate 38); sessile to pedicellate. The pedicellate fruits are mostly flat-topped, and with a smooth, distinct rim. The shape of these rimmed fruits may be seen in 1f, Plate 38, but in that case the fruits are sessile, the series depicted under fig. 1, however, shows an amount of variation in a South Australian form which is repeated in the New England, New South Wales, specimens now under review.

There is some usefulness in referring to this series in geographical order, going north. Frankly, I cannot separate these trees in some cases by marked characters, and I take the opportunity of contemplating them from the point of view of affinity to E. Blaxlandi. At the same time, other botanists will find it useful to consider them

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as variants of other Stringybarks. We require further observations (although much collecting has been already done) for they furnish additional evidence of the truth of the Preliminary Note attached to Part VIII. There can be no harm in making a pause.

Juvenile leaves on the whole narrowish, but not representative, some leading to broadish; undulate; buds rounded, stellate. Yarrowitch (J.H.M.). “Tall trees; the principal timber of the district. Juvenile foliage on the narrow side. Buds rather large, bursting into flower, opercula conoid.” Yarrowitch (J. L. Boorman).

Buds stellate, or nearly so, brownish; fruits small, capitate, Tia, via. Walcha (J.H.M.). Figured at 18ad, Plate 40, as E. eugenioides. (See also p. 238, Part VIII), with broad sucker leaves, but evidently a form of the present series. Tia River (E. Betche). Very like the preceding, except valves a little more exsert. Walcha (J. F. Campbell). Buds brownish; fruits smallish, hemispherical, slightly exsert.

Then we come to three specimens, A., B., C., collected by the late Dr. A. W. Howitt from the Armidale district:—

  • A. Armidale district.
  • B. Between Chandler and Styx Rivers. Bark stringy to smaller limbs and branches. Up to 50 feet.
  • C. Styx River. A Stringybark tree, tall, 60–70 feet.

Some of A. W. Howitt's Armidale specimens are figured under E. eugenioides at figs. 1ad, Plate 39, and they are identical with J. L. Boorman's Stanthorpe (Q.) specimens figured at 2ad of the same Plate. The Armidale specimens are referred to as intermediate between E. Muelleriana and E. eugenioides at p. 219 of Part VIII. I have other specimens broader than the juvenile leaves figured. They are alike, and belong to the northern Stringybark. Nor can anyone contemplating them doubt their relations to (e.g.), the Osler's Creek, Victoria, tree figured at 2ac, Plate 38, nor the Mount Lofty (S.A.) specimens figured at 1bf of Plate 38, both now placed by me under E. Blaxlandi. The seedling or sucker leaves are narrow to broadish, some are nearly glabrous, slightly hairy and undulate, the buds stellate, the fruits sessile to pedicellate, nearly hemispherical, but variable.

Another specimen, Armidale (J.H.M.), the common Stringybark of the district, and figured at figs. 1 and 2 of Plate 39, would well stand for it.

State Forest No. 322, Ph. Mackenzie, Co. Hardinge, Armidale district (Forestry Commission, 1918). Same as preceding, with fruits becoming a little more pilular.

Then we have round, plump buds, getting pedicellate, fruits pear-shaped to hemisperical, e.g., Rampsbeck, 30 miles north-east of Armidale (J. F. Campbell). This is another specimen entered as E. Muelleriana, but showing transit to E. eugenioides.

Then we come to Lawrence, Clarence River (J. V. de Coque). Figured under 21a, b, Plate 40, as E. eugenioides.

Drake (E. C. Andrews). Fruits with well exserted valves. Figured at fig. 19, Plate 40, as E. eugenioides, and considered to show transit to E. Muelleriana. Drake (A. Hagman), with sunk valves, apparently not as fully developed as the preceding. Figured at fig. 20 as E. eugenioides.

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See also the Moonambah, Richmond River (W. Baeuerlen), specimens referred to at p. 238 of Part VIII, but not figured, and foot of Mount Lindsay (W. Forsyth) figured at fig. 16a, b, of Plate 40.

“Woolly Butt.” Juvenile leaves broadish, more or less scabrous, and even undulate to glabrous and lanceolate. (An odd leaf as broad as any of Wilson's Downfall; see below). Buds brown, rounded, stellate. Fruits pedicellate, but with pedicels not long; medium in size, hemispherical, rimmed, valves non-exsert to more or less exsert. Bolivia, near Tenterfield (J.H.M.). A similar specimen was referred to as follows in Part VIII, p. 238:—

“Tenterfield to Sandy Flat (J.H.M.). Fruits very similar to those of E. eugenioides, Sydney, e.g., Concord Park (believed to be typical), hemispherical, and somewhat exserted valves. Buds very compressed, almost like capitellata. I figured this (Plate 4, Part I) as E. Muelleriana, and I now put it under E. eugenioides with doubt. It certainly is a transit form.

Juvenile foliage (suckers) lanceolate, glabrous,; small stellate brown buds; fruits hemispherical, slightly pedicellate, more or less. Some a little piperita- or acmenioides like, but very variable. Acacia Creek, Macpherson Range (Forest Guard W. Dunn.) At one time looked upon as a small-fruited from of E. Muelleriana.

Suckers glabrous, lanceolate. Buds stellate. Fruits very shortly pedicellate, for the most part sessile. Medium sized, rimmed with more or less exsert valves. Cataract Run, near Tenterfield (L. C. Irby). Certainly a transit form between the pedicellate (eugenioides) series and the sessile (Blaxlandi).

Tree of 20 or 30 feet. Suckers not in the youngest state nearly glabrous (shining upper surface). Buds clavate, nearly bursting into flower. Fruits somewhat E. pilularis-like, becoming exsert. Pedicels very short or none. Wallangarra (J. L. Boorman). This is another intermediate form related to E. eugenioides and perhaps E. Muelleriana.

Then we have, suckers broad, nearly orbicular to broadly lanceolate, glabrous; buds small, brown, stellate to clavate, with pointed opercula when bursting into flower (it is very desirable to describe the shape of the buds when they are bursting into flower if possible, as they have a definite shape for that form); fruits smallish to medium large, exsert to prominently exsert. Pedicellate to sessile. Wilson's Downfall (R. H. Cambage, Nos. 2,822, 2,826, 2,839). This is another puzzling form, named at different times E. eugenioides and E. capitellata, though not typical.


Buds slightly pedicellate, slightly glaucous; fruits medium, E. pilularis-like. Stanthorpe (J. L. Boorman). Figured at 2ad, Plate 39, and not distinguishable from the Armidale specimens already referred to.

Now let us turn to Victoria and South Australia, beginning with Victoria.


It seems to me that the true E. capitellata does not extend to Victoria, and that Mr. Howitt's notes on Gippsland forms, quoted at Part VIII, p. 217, refer to

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E. Blaxlandi. One of Mr. Howitt's specimens was figured at 2ac, Plate 38, as regards seedling leaves, buds, and fruits. They are from Osler's Creek, and have much in common with E. Blaxlandi from the Blue Mountains and the South Coast of New South Wales. The seedling leaves are narrower than those depicted for the type, but many of the type specimens are similar. The chief difference is that the fruits are more pedicellate than those of the type.

“Small fruited Yellow Stringybark,” but when freshly cut and green the heart wood is brown in colour. Wangarabelle, also found plentifully between Genoa and Mallacoota, and at Cann River; also at Orbost. (H. Hopkins, 1915).

Now let us proceed to Western Victoria (Portland district). If we turn to page 213, Part VIII, with the corresponding figures 8, 9, 10 of Plate 37, we find that they have a good deal in common with E. Blaxlandi, and are perhaps inseparable from that species; they also possess affinity to E. capitellata, from which they differ in the following points:—In the broader suckers, which are nearer those of E. capitellata, and in the pedicellate fruits with the valves less exsert.

At the same time the affinities to E. lœvopinea R. T. Baker are worthy of consideration, and should be worked out. (This form of E. Blaxlandi ascends to the Grampians, see p. 218, Part VIII, and fig. 12 of Plate 37).

South Australia

These Western Victorian specimens carry us on to South Australia, and the species is found in the south-east, Kangaroo Island, Mount Lofty, and elsewhere.

A reference to the south-east is under Narracoorte, p. 218, Part VIII, where we have clavate, scarcely angular buds, with domed fruits, valves well exsert. These are figured at 11, Plate 37.

There is a reference to a Kangaroo Island specimen collected by Robert Brown about 1802 at p. 213 of Part VIII, viz.:—

Kangaroo Island, Hundred of Cassini (W. J. Spafford, No. 7, 1916). This cannot be separated from figs. 11a and 11b, Plate 37 (Narracoorte).

We now come to the Mount Lofty specimens referred to at p. 218, Part VIII, and if we turn to figures 1bf of Plate 38 of fruits all gathered from the same tree, we have a remarkable instance of variation in this species. Fruits sessile, shortly pedicellate, rim flat-topped or domed, valves sunk or exsert. Some of the specimens are remarkably like the type of E. Blaxlandi.

Then we have Aldgate, near Mount Lofty (J.H.M.), with juvenile leaves scabrous, nearly orbicular to oblong and broadly lanceolate. Not to be separated from the Narracoorte specimens (S.A.), nor from those from Osler's Creek (Vic.). See also Willunga, Mount Lofty Range (W. Gill).

The following locality is more distant. One or two miles west of Bordertown, where the scrub of the 90-mile Desert begins (J. M. Black, No. 2). Like Narracoorte, but with mostly smaller fruits.