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Part 46




  ― 161 ―

CCLIX. E. tetragona F.v.M.

In Fragm. iv, 51 (1864).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

A shrub, tree-like, branchlets somewhat winged, or acutely tetragonal, leaves opposite or sub-opposite, coriaceous, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate or ovate, more rarely orbicular, with rather long and compressed petioles, prominently penniveined, reticulately veined, peripheral vein more or less removed from the margin, peduncles axillary, solitary, compressed, about 3-flowered, rarely absent, pedicels acute angled, shorter than the calyx-tube, which is truncate-ovate, quadridenticulate, several times longer than the depressed hemispherical, cruciate, quadristriate operculum, stamens in four bundles, a little distant from each other or together, fruits rather large, truncate-ovate, or more rarely somewhat globose, 2 to 4 ribbed, 4 or more rarely 5-celled, the smooth rim of the capsule included, the fertile seeds rather large, narrowly winged, near the acute angles.

In the hilly coastal tracts from the Stirling Range to Cape Arid (Western Australia).

A shrub soon growing taller or increasing in season to a rather small tree, with a trunk then of 25 feet; in its young state it is like E. globulus, especially in its branchlets, petioles, and chalky white inflorescence. The petioles, with narrowed curved back wings, are decurrent and as it were 2-keeled. Leaves mostly 2–4 inches long, ¾–2 inches broad, more often acute than obtuse, margin slightly thickened, the younger ones glaucous on both sides, the older ones greener, always opaque, more or less covered with pellucid dots or almost imperforate. Peduncles an inch long or shorter, sometimes cuneate-dilated. Pedicels 1–6 lines long. Bracts almost cymbiform, in the apex of the peduncle, a few lines long, deciduous. Buds campanulate-obovate. Operculum about 3 lines broad and 1 line deep, always in four divisions. Filaments free, although in bundles crowded together alternately with the ribs of the calyx-tube, very numerous, whitish, becoming tawny yellow (fulvescentia), the longer ones measuring 3–4 lines. Anthers small, ovate-cordate. Fruits measuring ½–¾ inch, somewhat contracted at the orifice.

E. odontocarpa, E. tetradonta, and E. eudesmioides have a similar quadridentate calyx in which the stamens are collected more or less distinctly into bundles, but on account of this one point it is not possible to separate Eudesmia from the genus Eucalyptus.

It was then described by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 259) in the following words:—

Varying from a low scrubby shrub, densely covered with a white meal, to a small tree, of 20 to 25 feet, the specimens often entirely deprived of the whiteness; branches mostly 4-angled or almost 4-winged, rarely terete. Leaves mostly opposite or nearly so or the upper ones alternate, from broadly ovate and very obtuse to lanceolate-falcate and almost acute, rarely above 4 inches long, thick and rigid, with diverging but rather distant veins, the intramarginal one at a distance from the edge. Peduncles axillary, short, thick, angular or flattened, with three or very rarely four or five rather large flowers, on thick angular or flattened pedicels. Calyx-tube campanulate, about 3 or rarely nearly 4 lines long and broad, with four minutely prominent teeth, sometimes very conspicuous, sometimes scarcely perceptible. Operculum depressed-hemispherical, shorter than the calyx-tube, smooth. Stamens 3 to 4 lines long, more or less distinctly arranged in four clusters or bundles, alternating with the calyx-tube, but the claws or dilatations of the disk very short or scarcely perceptible; anthers small, with parallel cells opening longitudinally. Fruit ovoid or nearly globular, truncate, contracted at the orifice, smooth or more or less ribbed, ½ to ¾ inch diameter, the rim scarcely distinct; capsule sunk, usually 4-celled.




  ― 162 ―

Oldfield observes that from the abundance of essential oil this species contains, it is killed down to the ground by the periodical fires, when other plants are only a little scorched, and is thus generally to be found only in an untidy ragged, scrubby form, but he has seen dead stems of 25 feet.

In 1906, Dr. Diels (translation herewith) wrote:—

“Of the species with juvenile characters E. tetragona (R.Br.) F.v.M. is one of the most conspicuous, if observed typically. I have frequently observed this shrub in the south-eastern part of the south-west province of Australia, from Stirling Range to Esperance Bay, in sandy heathy country. One gets the best impression of its appearance if one calls to one's mind the juvenile form of E. globulus, so common in gardens in Europe; the branches are remarkably strongly quadrangular, dusted over with white or bluish-white, the leaves are opposite, thick, ovate-lanceolate to ovate, or rarely orbicular, also strongly glaucous.” (L. Diels, Jugendformen und Blutenreife, p. 94.)

After travelling amongst a good deal of it, I published the following note in 1911:—

“The seedlings have the leaves decussate, glandular and glandular-hairy on branches and along margins of leaves, and also on the backs of the midribs. The branches are very square and the whole plant reeks with oil.

The leaves when young always stalked (flattened stalked) and the young foliage is plum-coloured.

It is a shrub, always straggly, sometimes attaining a height of 10 feet. It is known as `White Marlock,' and is a striking object.

Owing to the dazzling whiteness of the plants, the cream coloured flowers are by no means conspicuous, neither are they large. The colour of the filaments is cream, the anthers are small, and the stamens are in bundles (Eudesmiœ).

It is common from Hopetoun to near Ravensthorpe, also common on the Kalgan Plains.” (Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. III.)

I also found it at Esperance. It is not always opposite-leaved; it is very frequently alternate.

Synonyms.

  • 1. Eudesmia tetragona R.Br.
  • 2. Eucalyptus pleurocarpa Schauer.

1. Eudesmia.

Following is a translation of the Latin original:—Myrtaceæ, between Eucalyptus and Angophora.

Generic characters.—Calyx superior, 4-toothed. Petals firmly connate to the 4-striate deciduous operculum. Stamens in four polyandrous bundles, alternating with the teeth of the calyx, connate at the base. Capsule 4-celled, polyspermous, dehiscing at the apex.

The following is in English:—

Eudesmia tetragona Tab. 3. In exposed barren places, near the shores in the neighbourhood of Lucky Bay on the south coast of New Holland in 34° S. lat. and 123° E. long. Gathered both in flower and fruit in January, 1802.




  ― 163 ―

Then comes a Latin description, of which the following is a translation:—

Shrub of 3 to 5 feet, branches spreading, branchlets tetragonous, with marginate angles. Leaves opposite, at one time sub-opposite, petiolate, more often turned back, lanceolate or oblong, coriaceous, compact, margin entire, glaucous, with resinous dots, veins hardly immersed, anastomosing, 3–4 inches long, 14–16 lines broad. Umbels lateral, few-flowered, peduncles and pedicels two-edged, calyx turbinate, obtusely tetragonous, cohering with the ovary, with the angles at the top drawn out into short, subunequal teeth, the two opposite ones a little larger. Operculum depressed hemispherical, with a point, glandular, whitish, marked with four cruciform striæ, slightly depressed opposite the teeth of the calyx, as if composed of the four petals, deciduous. Stamens very many; filaments in four bundles, approximately opposite the petals, hair-like, glabrous, white, the inner ones decidedly shorter; anthers ovate-subrotund, incumbent, yellowish white, dehiscing with longitudinal cells. Ovary included in the adherent tube of the calyx, four-celled; style 1, cylindrical; stigma obtuse. Capsule included and connate with the enlarged turbinate, oblong, woody calyx-tube, dehiscing in four divisions at the apex.

Obs.—There can be no doubt respecting the affinity of this genus, which belongs to Myrtaceæ and differs from Eucalyptus solely in having a striated operculum placed within a distinctly toothed calyx, and in its filaments being collected into bundles. The operculum in Eudesmia, from the nature of its striae, and their relation to the teeth of the calyx, appears to be formed of the confluent petals only; whereas, that of Eucalyptus, which is neither striated nor placed within a distinct calyx, is more probably composed, in several cases at least, of both floral envelopes united. But in many species of Eucalyptus a double operculum has been observed; in these the outer operculum, which generally separates at a much earlier stage, may perhaps be considered as formed of the calyx, and the inner consequently of corolla alone, as in Eudesmia; this view of the structure appears at least very probable in contemplating Eucalyptus globulus, in which the cicatrix caused by the separation of the outer operculum is particularly obvious, and in which also the inner operculum is of an evidently different form.

Jussieu, in some observations which he has lately made on this subject (in Annales du Mus. 19, p. 432) seems inclined to consider the operculum of Eucalyptus as formed of two confluent bracteæ, as is certainly the case with respect to the calyptra of Pileanthus, and of a nearly related genus of the same natural family. This account of its origin in Eucalyptus, however, is hardly consistent with the usual umbellate inflorescence of that genus; the pedicelli of an umbel being always destitute of bracteæ; and in E. globulus, where the flowers are solitary, two distinct bracteæ are present as well as a double operculum. But a calyptra analogous to that of Pileanthus exists also in most of the species of Eucalyptus, where it is formed of the confluent bracteæ common to the whole umbel, and falls off at a very early period. Robert Brown in “Appendix to Flinders' Voyage,” ii, 599, t. 3; also his “Miscellaneous Botanical Works” (Ray Soc.), i, 74.

2. Eucalyptus pleurocarpa Schauer, in Lehmann's Plantœ Preissianœ, i, 132 (1844–5).

The type came from Cape Riche.

Range.

It is confined to Western Australia. The type came from coastal hilly tracts from the Stirling Range to Cape Arid, but the original Eudesmia tetragona comes from Lucky Bay, which is a little to the east of Esperance.

“From Cape Arid (Maxwell) to Lucky Bay (R. Brown), Cape Riche (Preiss), South West Bay (Oldfield), the vicinity of Stirling's Range (F.v.M.), and thence northward at least as far as the remotest sources of the Swan River (Th. Muir).” (“Eucalyptographia.”)




  ― 164 ―

From this the idea must not be taken away that E. tetragona occurs in the Swan River District. It occurs in a limited area of the southern district from the Stirling Range district to the Esperance district, Lucky Bay being its furthest record east, although I expect it to be found further east than that.

Following are some specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney:—

East of Katanning (Dr. F. Stoward); Kalgan Plains (J.H.M.); “Marlock or Spearwood,” Stirling Range (Collector for Andrew Murphy). East from Solomon's Well, Stirling Range (Dr. A. Morrison); “From the south-west front of the Stirling Range to east Mount Barren,” (Collector of Mueller); Cape Riche (Maxwell).

“Large leaf Eucalypt, scrubby, dwarf, 5–10 feet. Poor sandy ridge, midway between the eastern end of the Stirling Range and Growangerup. Only a small patch of it, but Mr. Rowe says there are miles of it on the way to Ravensthorpe.” (W. C. Grasby.)

Hopetoun to Ravensthorpe, plentiful from end to end of the railway which connects the two places (34 miles). It is hardly conceivable that it ends at Ravensthorpe (J.H.M.). Esperance (J.H.M.). Lucky Bay (Robert Brown). The type.

Affinities.

  • 1. With E. eudesmioides F.v.M. See under E. eudesmioides at p. 168.
  • 2. With E. incrassata Labill., var. angulosa.

Drummond's IV, 75, is, according to Bentham, E. incrassata Labill. var. angulosa (figured at fig. 1, Plate 14 of the present work), but a specimen of Drummond's No. 75 (1848) from Herb. Oxon., in bud and flower, is E. tetragona F.v.M. Other specimens bearing the same number are E. tetragona. The explanation is that, under this number, we have mixed material, for the two species are not closely related.




  ― 165 ―

CCLX. E. eudesmioides F.v.M.

In Fragm. ii, 35 (1860).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

Dull green, leaves alternate, opposite or sub-opposite, ovate or narrow-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, slightly curved, more seldom sub-falcate, spreading and prominently penniveined, covered with bright dots, umbels with not more than three flowers, peduncles and pedicels shorter than the calyx, rarely of the same length. Buds obovate, indistinctly tetragonous, calyx-tube ovate-campanulate, two or three times longer than the hemispherical operculum, the tooth of the fascicle of stamens thickened, semiorbicular and pointed; fruits ovate-campanulate, scarcely angled, 3–4 celled, the vertex of the capsule smooth, valves inserted near the margin of the fruit, the fertile seeds surrounded by a very narrow wing.

In sandy plains and limestone hills near the Murchison River, at least up to Mount Curious, as well as towards the Bay (Shark's) (Walcott and Oldfield).

Shrub 4–12 feet high. Called “Mallalie” by the aborigines. Branches rather smooth, branchlets compressed tetragonous. Leaves for the most part ½–4 inches long, ¼–1 inch broad, with very short and sometimes long petioles, thinly coriaceous, imperforate when old, marginate, pale-green, never hoary, peripheral veins rather distant from the margin. Peduncles at first about 2 lines long, seldom longer, like the pedicels more or less angular. Operculum traversed with four very smooth sutures often scarcely to be observed. Calyx-tube 2–3 lines long, hardly denticulate. Stamen-bundles alternating with the calyx-teeth, leaving behind an incurved tooth with a semiorbicular contracted base. Filaments white or yellowish; rose-coloured at the base, the longer ones 2½ lines long. Anthers pale, sub-ovate. Style barely a line long. The indurated fruit ?–½ inch long, with the mouth sometimes distinctly and sometimes not at all contracted, wrinkled. Sterile seeds yellow, less than a line long, angular; fertile seeds blackish, 1?–2 lines long, rhomboid-subovate, acutely angled, very narrowly and thinly winged near the margin.

The genus Eudesmia, if we except the disposition of the stamens, cannot be discerned from any species of Eucalyptus.

The filaments, rose-coloured at the base, bring this species into the list of those which have bi-coloured filaments. It belongs to a group where the reddish colour is, like that of E. Sieberiana, not wholly diffused over the whole of the filament.)

The species is described in B.Fl. iii, 260, in the following words:—

A shrub, attaining 10 feet, with a smooth bark (Oldfield). Leaves from broad-lanceolate and 4 to 5 inches long, to narrow-lanceolate and shorter, mostly mucronate-acute and often falcate, rigid, the veins rather numerous but oblique and anastomosing, very conspicuous in the narrow leaves, much less so in the larger ones, the intramarginal one usually distant from the edge. Peduncles axillary, very short, nearly terete, mostly 3-flowered. Peduncles short. Calyx-tube narrow-turbinate, 2½ to nearly 3 lines long, with four minute teeth, sometimes prominent, sometimes scarcely conspicuous. Operculum short, depressed hemispherical, very obtuse and rather thick. Stamens 2 to 3 lines long, distinctly arranged in four clusters or bundles alternating with the calyx-teeth; anthers very small, nearly globular, with distinct parallel cells. Fruit ovoid or oblong, usually ½ to nearly ¾ inch long, in some specimens (perhaps not perfect), contracted at the orifice, but usually cylindrical, the rim concave, not broad, the capsule slightly sunk, usually 3-celled.

It is not dealt with by Mueller in his “Eucalyptographia.”




  ― 166 ―

I published the following note concerning it in 1911:—

A white gum, a smooth-barked straggling tree of 20 feet, with a diameter of 9 inches and very little scaly bark. As a rule seen as a bush. Wood pale chocolate brown towards the heart, but most of it white. Branchlets brown, giving the tree a brownish cast. Juvenile leaves lanceolar, rarely broad. Leaves pale-green, glaucous, equally green on both sides. Leaves in opposite stage to top of tree. It is the exception for them to be alternate. Fruits yellowish, quadrangular. I only came across it at Minginew, where it is rare. (Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. III.)

Range.

The type comes from sandy plains and limestone hills near the Murchison River, Western Australia. It was for many years believed to be confined to that State, but I show it to also occur in South Australia and the Northern Territory. It is a species of dry country. Drummond had previously collected it, under No. 69 (6th Collection).

The following two specimens were received from Mueller, and are doubtless typical:—

(a) Shrubby, 6–8 feet. Sand plain north of Mount Curious, Murchison River (Augustus Oldfield).

(b) “Eucalyptus `Myallie' of the aborigines (evidently the same as `Mallalie' in the original description), from Pindaryah, north of Murchison” (Augustus Oldfield).

E. eudesmioides has been traced by the writer in 1877 from the Arrowsmith River to near Shark's Bay over sand and limestone ground” (Mueller, in “Eucalyptographia”). Found near Freycinet Harbour (Mueller, Shark Bay Report).

Following are additional localities:—

“Mallee, 10–12 feet high.” Sand plains between Mogumber and Gillingarra (W. V. Fitzgerald). In another label on specimens from the same locality he says, “Sandy hillsides; stems smooth-barked.”

Carnamah, Midland Railway line (Dr. A. Morrison).

Mt. Muggawah, Yandanooka, Arrowsmith River district (Dr. A. Morrison).

Small tree of 20–25 feet, Mingenew (W. V. Fitzgerald, J.H.M.). Shrub of 1½–3 metres, or small tree, young branches purplish, leaves glaucous. North of Mingenew (Dr. L. Diels, No. 3035).

The above localities are all at no great distance from the west coast; the following take a leap into the dry country easterly and we have no intermediate records.

“The fine growth of Eucalyptus eudesmioides (Desert Gum) extending for over 100 miles gave the country a very pleasing aspect.” Vicinity of Queen Victoria Spring.


  ― 167 ―
(Journal Elder Expl. Exped., p. 7). The Spring is in 30° 30' south latitude, and 123° 45' east longitude, north-east of Kalgoorlie. We have other specimens collected by the same expedition, as follows:—

(a) Camp 45, Victoria Desert (R. Helms, Elder Exploring Expedition, 8th September, 1891).

(b) Victoria Desert (R. Helms, Elder Exploring Expedition, 2nd September, 1891), (labelled E. Todtiana by a slip of the pen). The following note refers to these specimens:—W.A., near Barrow Range, Victoria Desert (C. 45 and 60), “Desert Gum, 30–45 feet.” (Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., xvi, 358). Barrow Range is approximately 26° south latitude, and 127° 20' east longitude.

We are now approaching South Australia and the Northern Territory.

South Australia.

E. eudesmioides is shown in the map of the Elder Exploring Expedition over large areas in South Australia, and although I have not seen a South Australian specimen, I readily agree that it is found in that State, since it has been found in extra-tropical Western Australia adjacent to the South Australian border, and also in the Northern Territory not far from the South Australian boundary.

Mueller and Tate (Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., xvi, 358) record a “variety with ovate leaves, 25 miles S.S.W. of Mt. Watson.” I have not seen the specimen and it would be desirable to re-examine it.

Northern Territory.

In the desert country (from the George Gill Range to Ayers Rock and Mt. Olga), at p. 81 of the Horn Expedition Narrative, Prof. Baldwin Spencer says, “All the morning we were traversing low sandhills, on many of which grew a fine sandhill gum, E. eudesmioides, which reached a height of 50 to 80 feet. The trunk is silver-grey in colour and very shiny, except the butt, where it is covered with a paper-like bark which peels off in long, yellow-brown scales. The grey-green foliage usually forms a kind of umbrella shaped mass, and it is somewhat strange to find a big tree like this right out amongst the waterless sandhills.”

Tanami Goldfield is situated in North-western Central Australia in latitude 19° 58' and east longitude 129° 45' (approx. about 48½ miles east of the boundary between Western Australia and the Northern Territory. It is 696 miles (550 by track and 146 by railway) from Darwin, or 400 miles (by track via Mucka) from the Victoria River depôt.

In Mr. Lionel C. E. Gee's “General Report on Tanami Goldfield and district” (S.A. Parliamentary Paper, 1911)—from Tanami to Mucka on the Victoria River, Desert Gums (probably E. eudesmioides) were encountered (see p. 6 of Report).




  ― 168 ―

Affinities.

1. With E. tetragona F.v.M.

“Very near E. tetragona in characters, but the narrow leaves, small flowers and narrow fruits give it a very different aspect.” (B.Fl. iii, 260.)

“The differences between E. tetragona and E. eudesmioides … consist in the much narrower leaves of E. eudesmioides, the absence of the waxy-powdery whiteness, less or not compressed flower-stalks, smaller flowers and fruits, prevailing ternary number of fruit-valves … A large fruited form of this plant from Esperance Bay, referred to E. tetragona in the `Flora Australiensis' seems to mediate the transit from E. tetragona to E. eudesmioides; it is without whitish bloom, and may exhibit the aged state of the species.” (“Eucalyptographia.”)

No form, large-fruited or other, from Esperance Bay, is referred to E. tetragona in the “Flora Australiensis.” Mueller is referring to a specimen in his own herbarium, as follows:—His label is “Eucalyptus tetragona F.M. (Eudesmia), Esperance Bay. Transit to E. eudesmioides. Flower stalks compressed.”

Diels and Pritzel refer to it in the following passages:—

E. tetragona F.v.M. We have seen a form with narrower lanceolate-elliptical leaves and less pruinose, collected in the eastern Eyre district near Israelite Bay (A. G. Brooks) in the Melbourne herb. This specimen seems analogous to the form, mentioned by Mueller in Eucalyptographia, as showing transit to E. eudesmioides, found near Esperance Bay. Still it seems to have much more affinity to E. tetragona than E. eudesmioides.” (Diels and Pritzel in Engler Jahrb., xxxv, 444.)

This Esperance Bay specimen (E. tetragona, in my view), is referred to again by Dr. Diels in the following passage (translation):—

The species (E. tetragona) belongs from its fruits and flowers to the very small group of Eudesmieæ (Bentham Fl. Austr. iii, 258) and is there doubtlessly nearly related to E. eudesmioides F.v.M. (fig. 27). Nothing is more expressive of the close relationship of the two species than the different limits different authors draw to the forms of the two species. According to F. v. Mueller (Eucalyptographia) E. eudesmioides is distinguished by the alternate, much smaller leaves, the warting of the white waxy bloom, less or not at all flattened pedicels, and smaller flowers and fruits. A large-fruited form from Esperance Bay—so continues F. v. Mueller—which is placed by Bentham (B.Fl.) with E. tetragona, seems to represent a transition of the two; it has no white bloom and is perhaps the grown-up state of the species. With this F. v. Mueller admits that a form regarded by him as E. eudesmioides is perhaps the fully matured state of E. tetragona. I can only agree with this view after examining a specimen similar to the form in question collected by Miss Brooke at Israelite Bay. This plant is from the fruit entirely E. tetragona, but the leaves are partly alternate, smaller, without bloom, and the flowers are smaller, therefore a clear transition to E. eudesmioides, whose type, collected about 900 km. more northerly, is figured at fig. 27d. (“Jugendformen und Blutenreife,” p. 94.)

This Esperance Bay specimen is figured at figs. 4a-d, Plate 188; see the description of the Plate given at page 183, where I express the opinion that it is E. tetragona, with fruits not quite ripe. It may be looked upon as starved. At the same time, I agree that it seems to show characters intermediate between E. tetragona and E. eudesmioides. Further, we must remember that it comes from country where E. tetragona is abundant, and E. eudesmioides absent, the latter being found in more northerly, much drier, country.

The chief differences between the two species are tabulated by me at page 137, Part XLV.




  ― 169 ―

CCLXI. E. Ebbanoensis Maiden n.sp.

THIS species may be described as follows:—

Mallee 9? diametro, fere 30' alta, cortice læve; foliis maturis obscure viridibus, crassiusculis, lanceolatis, sæpe falcatis, venis indistinctis, tenuibus, patentibus, vena peripherica margini approximata; alabastris 3 in axillis pyriformibus, operculo brevi-hemispherico, ca. 5 mm. diametro; calycis tubo urceolato ad conoideo; staminibus 4 fasciculis dispositis; fructibus fere hemisphericis, fere 1 cm. diametro, margine latiusculo plano vel rotundato, valvis bene exsertis.

A tall mallee, usually between 12 and 20 feet high and 6 inches in diameter, but probably attaining a height of about 30 feet; stems near the ground about 9 inches in diameter. Bark smooth.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves usually alternate, dull green, the same on both sides, rather thick, with rather long petioles, lanceolate, often falcate, gradually tapering to the apex, not very rounded at the base, profusely dotted, venation indistinct, fine, spreading, the intramarginal vein rather close to the edge.

Flowers.—Buds in threes in the axils, brown, the peduncles rounded and about 1 cm. long, the pedicels short but distinct. Pear-shaped, the operculum shallow-hemispherical, about 5 mm. in diameter, the calyx-tube urceolate to conoid, and twice the depth of the operculum. Anthers versatile, with cream-coloured filaments, the cells opening in parallel slits with large gland at back; arranged in four bundles, alternating with the calyx-teeth.

Fruits hemispherical to truncate-pyriform, nearly 1 cm. in diameter, with a broadish, flat or domed rim, and with the valves (three) well exsert.

Type from Sandplain, Ebbano, east from Mingenew, Western Australia (Dr. A. Morrison, 28th September, 1904).

Figured at Figs. 6 and 7, Plate 189.

Range.

It is confined to Western Australia, so far as we know at present. The type comes from Ebbano (Ebano), about 12–15 miles east of Mingenew, a railway station 227 miles north of Perth and about 35 miles east of Dongarra on the sea coast. Comet Vale is on the Laverton line, and is 63 miles north of Kalgoorlie. The two localities are nearly 400 miles apart in a slightly south-easterly direction.

Following are details of the two specimens seen by me:—

“Sand Plain, Ebbano, east from Mingenew” (A. Morrison, 28th September, 1904). No further particulars. Dr. Morrison spelt the name with two “b's,” but on the official map, obligingly forwarded by the Department of Lands and Surveys of Western Australia, the name is spelt with one “b.” As Dr. Morrison's original spelling was Ebbano, and in some correspondence concerning this plant that spelling was adopted, I use the name Ebbanoensis, though with some doubt.




  ― 170 ―

No. 115. No main trunk (mallee habit). Usually between 12 and 20 feet high; stem usually not more than 6 inches in diameter. Smooth bark. Many of the trees seen are re-growths. Original trees probably up to about 30 feet in height, and stems near the ground about 9 inches in diameter. Comet Vale (J. T. Jutson, No. 115, December, 1916; fruits, 25th March, 1917).

Affinities.

With E. eudesmioides F.v.M.

It is evidently closely related to this species. I have not juvenile leaves of the new species, but the two can be compared to some extent on perusing Plate 189. It seems to me that E. eudesmioides is a remarkably uniform species. E. Ebbanoensis differs from it sharply in the fruits, which are larger, inclined to be quadrangular, usually angled, with a thin rim and sunk valves. It also appears to be longer leaved and more free-growing. Both species are Mallees or small trees, and have their inflorescence in threes. The new species, while I believe it to be quite distinct, requires further investigation before we can fully define it.




  ― 171 ―

XV. E. Andrewsi Maiden.

See the present work, Part VII, p. 194, Plate 36; also my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part XXI, p. 5, with Plate 79.

Although this is commonly known as “Blackbutt,” and I have, therefore, to save confusion, proposed the name “New England Blackbutt” for it, it also passes under the names “Messmate,” “Peppermint,” and even “Stringybark” and “Woollybutt.”

Shape of the fruit.—As figured at fig. 4, Plate 36, Part VII of this work, nearly hemispherical, slightly pear-shaped fruits, with nearly filiform pedicels are shown. At figs. 20–22, Plate XXXII of Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxiii, 1898, the fruits of E. Sieberiana var. Oxleyensis (which at p. 195, Part VII of this work, I have stated to be a synonym of E. Andrewsi), are shown to be so pear-shaped as to be almost conical. This conical form of the fruit is also shown in Mr. Baker's plate of E. campanulata, and also in figs. 5g, 5h, Plate 190, which have been drawn from Mr. Baker's type.

Turning to the more bell-shaped form of the fruit from which Mr. Baker gets his name campanulata, I have not a specimen so campanulate as that of fig. 5f, Plate 190, which is a facsimile of fig. 3 of Mr. Baker's plate of his type. I think it is just a trifle diagrammatic. The nearest I can get to it is fig. 4. This tendency to the campanulate form shows a closer approximation to the type of E. Andrewsi than to E. campanulata itself. What has misled Mr. Baker in proposing the species campanulata is too close a following of typical E. Andrewsi without bearing in mind the variation as exhibited in E. Sieberiana var. Oxleyensis, and his own figures 4 and 5 (reproduced by me as 5g and 5h). The drawings now submitted, viz., figs. 1, 2b, 4, 5g, and 5h, Plate 190, usefully supplement Plate 36 of Part VII, showing that in E. Andrewsi the range of the shape of the fruits is considerable, and varies from hemispherical to conical.

Synonyms.

  • 1. E. Sieberiana F.v.M., var. Oxleyensis Deane and Maiden (1898).
  • 2. E. campanulata R. T. Baker (1911).

1. This variety is fully described in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxiii, 794 (1898), with figs. 20–22, Plate XXXII. See my comments at Part VII, p. 195 of the present work.

2. Mr. Baker's species is described in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlv, 288 (1911), with Plate XIII.




  ― 172 ―

Following is a copy of the original:—

EUCALYPTUS CAMPANULATA, sp. nov., “Bastard Stringybark.”

An average forest tree. Bark decidedly stringy, persistent on the main trunk, branches smooth.

“Sucker” or abnormal leaves broadly lanceolate, oblique not shining, same colour on both sides, often over 9 inches long, venation well marked, lateral veins oblique, distant intramarginal vein well removed from the edge. Petiole over 1 inch long. Normal leaves comparatively small, lanceolate, oblique, subcoriaceous, not shining. Venation not at all well marked on the smaller upper leaves, but distinctly so in the others. Lateral veins very oblique.

Buds, clavate or club shaped, the operculum domed.

Fruits.—At the earliest stage of development campanulate on a slender pedicel, a feature not noticed in other species by us. Mature fruits pyriform, rim truncate or slightly countersunk, about 6 mm. diameter at the rim.

Bark “stringy” as implied in its common name.

Timber, light coloured or whitish, fissile, but close grained, easy working, in fact, similar in general characteristics to some of the “Ashes” or “Stringybarks,” although perhaps a little more inclined to develop gum-veins.

Arbor (Bastard Stringybark), distincta, nomine altitudinem 60 feet, attinens, ramulis primum compresso-tetragonis mox teretiusculis.

Cortex partim secedens in trunco persistens ramis levibus.

Folia abnorme (suckers) obliqua falcato-lanceolata petiolata, alterna concoloria vena peripherica a margine remota; vena laterale obliqua graviter. Folia vulgare, falcato-lanceolata, obliqua, petiolata concoloria, alterna subcoriacea, vena aut prominentes aut obscura obliqua, pleraque 3–6? longer.

Pedunculi axillare umbellis multifloris; operculo-depresso hemispherica, mucronulatato breviter, calycis tubus circa 1 cm. longus; fructibus truncato-ovatis, 1 cm. longi, 5 mm. lati valvis non exsertis.

Remarks.—The material of this tree for investigation was collected by Mr. C. F. Laseron, the Museum Collector, at Tenterfield, where it passes as the “Bastard Stringybark.” His herbarium material appears to be identical with specimens collected by Mr. A. Rudder in the Upper Williams district.

The fruits somewhat resemble those of E. virgata Sieb. or E. Sieberiana, but then the timber, bark, and oil differ from these species. The oil of E. virgata consists almost entirely of eudesmol, as shown in our work on “The Eucalypts and their Essential Oils.” Fruits, timber and oil differentiate it from E. obliqua, which species has been collected in almost the same neighbourhood, at Mount McKenzie, Tenterfield.

There is a distinguishing feature of the species in its very early fruits, which are quite bell shaped and remind one of the shape of the mature fruits of E. Deanei. As they mature, this shape passes gradually away, the calyx gradually tapering into a pedicel, very rarely is the fruit hemispherical.

On a cortical classification it would be placed with the “Stringybarks,” or between them and the “Peppermints,” but the timber may be classed as one of the “Ashes,” such as E. regnans, E. oreades, or E. Delegatensis.

The large oblique suckers are not at all unlike those of E. obliqua, or even the above three species.

At Tenterfield it is found growing amongst such “Stringybarks” as E. obliqua and E. lœvopinea.




  ― 173 ―

Range.

This species is found in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland (chiefly on the tablelands and especially New England). A large number of localities are quoted at pages 195 and 196 of Part VII of the present work, and the following further records of specific localities in the National Herbarium, Sydney, will be more or less useful.

Mr. Forest Guard N. Stewart of Glen Innes, writing in January, 1909, made the following report in regard to his experience in New England, N.S.W. Further particulars in regard to the timber will be found at page 6, Part XXI, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”

This Blackbutt varies very much in quality according to soil and altitude, as I find that this timber growing on granite formation and at a high altitude is pale in colour and harder than the same timber at a lower altitude on soil of a basaltic formation. Where growing on the latter, the timber is generally of a pale brown colour, denser and heavier than the former, and the bark is of a more fibrous nature.

It appears to be very subject to gum-veins, although not to such an extent as to injure the timber. For house-building purposes it has been found to be very durable.

It has a wide range in this district from the Sara or Mitchell River on the south to Pheasant Creek on the north. I cannot find any of the same timber as far west as Emmaville. The Messmate of Emmaville and the Blackbutt of New England differ very much in quality, as the Emmaville timber is only used for temporary purposes as it is not durable, especially when it comes in contact with the ground, and it has too many gum-veins for house-building purposes. Blackbutt is never specified here for piles or in fencing contracts for obvious reasons, the principal one I think is that the Glen Innes people think there is no timber like stringybark or box for fencing purposes. I have examined piles of the New England Blackbutt in one building which I know has been erected twenty-four years, and they appear to be quite sound.

“Messmate,” Coolpi Mountains, near Ellenborough Falls, via Wingham (J. L. Boorman).

Mt. Lindsay Station, Nandewar Mt., 3,200 feet (R. H. Cambage, No. 2347).

“A Mountain Box” (an improper name, J.H.M.). Southern flanks of Gleniffer Range, Gleniffer. (E. H. F. Swain, Nos. 220, 223). “Blackbutt,” parish Vant, county Hawes. (E. H. F. Swain). “Stringybark,” Dividing Range, county Parry. (E. H. F. Swain). Parish Scott, county Parry (E. H. F. Swain). Usually hollow, timber regarded as useless; Dungowan Creek, county Parry. Swamp Oak, parish Vernon, county Parry (Forest Guard M. H. Simon). “Stringybark,” Nundle, county Parry (Forest Guard M. H. Simon, No. 9).

Fourteen feet in girth, parish Terregree, county Courallie, Moree district (E. H. F. Swain, Nos. 25, 38).

Timber valued for many purposes, Guy Fawkes (J. L. Boorman). “Woollybutt,” Armidale district (District Forester Stopford).

“Blackbutt,” State Forest No. 308, parish Robertson, county Gough, Glen Innes Forestry district (Forest Guard, specimen No. 20). See fig. 1, Plate 190. Pheasant Creek, Glen Elgin (J. L. Boorman).




  ― 174 ―

“Peppermint,” Marengo, counties of Gresham and Clarke (A. W. Deane, L.S.).

“Peppermint,” Gundamulda, Warialda district (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 5). “Woollybutt,” Linton, Warialda district (W. A. W. de Beuzeville).

Smoky Cape, via Kempsey (J. L. Boorman).

Eastern Dorrigo, slopes towards Coff's Harbour (W. Heron).

“Blackbutt,” Torrington (J. L. Boorman).

Summit of Beehive Mountain, Tooloom Station (Forest Guard W. Dunn, No. 369).

“Blackbutt,” Tenterfield to Sandy Flat (J.H.M.). Tenterfield (C. F. Laseron, J.H.M.). Wallangarra (J. L. Boorman). Boonoo Boonoo, north-east of Tenterfield (R. H. Cambage, No. 3790). “Messmate,” Wilson's Peak, Macpherson Range (J.H.M.).

Queensland.

Dalveen, near Stanthorpe (A. Sargent). “Stringybark,” Springbrook, Macpherson Range (C. T. White).

Affinities.

These are dealt with at Part VII, p. 196, but there may be added:—

1. E. gigantea Hook. f.

This species will be found dealt with at Part XX, p. 291, with Plate 85. As will be seen in comparing these illustrations with those in Plate 36, Part VII, and Plate 190, in both species we have very large juvenile leaves, although those of E. gigantea are the larger. Both are glaucous and exhale a delicious aroma from their leaves. The buds of the two species are not closely related, nor are the fruits, although those of fig. 2b, Plate 190, approximate to those of E. gigantea.




  ― 175 ―

CCLXII. E. angophoroides R. T. Baker.

In Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, 676 (1900), with Plate xlvi, figs. 4a, 4b, 4c.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

A medium sized tree with a white box bark persistent to the ultimate branches.

Sucker leaves ovate-acuminate, cordate, shortly petiolate, glaucous, variable in size from 1 to 3 or 4 inches long, and 1 to 3 inches broad; venation indistinct on both sides. Leaves of mature trees narrow lanceolate, about 6 inches long, acuminate, not shining, of the same colour on both sides; venation finely marked, oblique, spreading; intramarginal vein removed from the edge. Oil glands numerous.

Peduncles axillary, 3 to 4 lines long, slightly compressed, bearing a few flowers. Calyx hemispherical to pyriform, 1 line long. Pedicel about 1 line long. Operculum hemispherical, shortly acuminate Ovary domed. Stamens all fertile; anthers parallel, opening by longitudinal slits.

Fruits hemispherical to slightly pear-shaped, 2 lines in diameter and under 4 lines long; rim thick, sloping outwards—a ring just below the edge; valves generally 4, exserted under 1 line.

The author calls it “Apple-top Box,” and adds “E. Bridgesiana Baker, partim.”

For a reference to E. Bridgesiana Baker, see p. 68, Part XXIV.

Range.

It is confined to the southern coastal district of New South Wales, and may be expected to be found in eastern Gippsland, Victoria.

“Colombo, N.S.W. (W. Baeuerlen); Towrang, N.S.W. (R. T. Baker). It is quite limited in its distribution, and presents no difficulty of determination in the field.” (Original description.)

Colombo is on the Bemboka River amongst the hills. It is no great distance west of Bega, and therefore in county of Auckland, in the extreme south-east of this State. The Wyndham locality, to be quoted later, is south-west of Colombo, and in the same county. Nangutta is somewhat further south. Yourie to be referred to later is in the county of Dampier, also a coastal county, and a little north of the county of Auckland.

Towrang is a railway station 126 miles from Sydney, 8 miles north of Goulburn, and this locality is important since it yielded the oil attributed to this species which Messrs. Baker and Smith (“Research on the Eucalypts,” p. 144) examined.




  ― 176 ―

The following note bears on the apparently dubious Towrang locality:—

“Some years ago I received from Mr. Baker specimens (in bud) from Towrang, which he attributed to this species, and which I attributed to E. Stuartiana F.v.M. var. parviflora, and still hold that view.” (Figured at figs. 3 and 4, Plate 102, Part XXIV, J.H.M.).

“Recently, having received certain specimens from Mr. R. H. Cambage, which had been collected by Mr. E. C. Andrews at Wyndham, on the Pambula-Bombala road, I went into the matter again, and find that they are identical with Mr. Baker's Colombo specimens, and I agree with him as to the validity of his species so far as the Colombo specimens are concerned. Further search at Towrang reveals no E. angophoroides, but confirms the previous determination of E. Stuartiana.

“The error is to be regretted, and I would point out the inconvenience of giving more than one locality for a type.

“The combination of the two species is perpetuated in my notes of E. Stuartiana F.v.M. at page 68, Part XXIV of my `Critical Revision of the genus Eucalyptus,' now in the press, but the type was distributed before I could point out the confusion.” (Maiden in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 322, 1915.)

Mr. E. C. Andrews, now Government Geologist of New South Wales, favoured me with the following note on the abovementioned Wyndham locality, as follows:—

“Mr. Cambage has said you would like to know the area from which I collected the Eucalyptus when visiting the Whipstick mines. Enclosed please find sketch of locality at 16 miles to inch (not reproduced). The plants grow thickly alongside main road between Wyndham and Whipstick, the two being 4 miles apart. E. Sieberiana flourishes on the siliceous granites and the Devonian sediments at Whipstick, one tree being 100 feet to the first limb and about 6 to 8 feet in diameter. The Eucalyptus (angophoroides) with the peculiar seedlings, leaves, and sapling foliage grows especially on the Devonian sediments and basic granite. Its mates are E. goniocalyx; E. Bosistoana, &c. E. coriacea is there also at Candelo and a few miles west of Wyndham.” (Letter of 22nd July, 1915.)

Mr. W. Baeuerlen also collected it at Nangutta, near Eden.

I have also received this plant under the name of “Cabbage Box,” from Mr. William Dunn, from Yourie, about 30 miles westerly from Bermagui, on the Tuross waters. The locality is useful, as we do not at present know the range of this species. This is in the county of Dampier.

“Mr. Baker's tree appears to be only found in and around Yourie as far as I can learn. I called on Mr. Gough, an old resident of that locality, and he states he does not know of any other locality that the tree may be found. The specimen of the bud, &c., were obtained from two separate trees, one of which is fully 8–9 feet in circumference and with a clean barrel of 38–48 feet.” (Forest Guard William Dunn of Bermagui). Mr. Dunn is mistaken about his locality being unique, but the statement is evidence that the tree is not well known yet, and probably not very abundant. What its focus or optimum locality is, we do not yet know.




  ― 177 ―

Affinities.

1. With E. Stuartiana F.v.M. (E. Bridgesiana R. T. Baker).

“The herbarium material of this species is so similar to that of E. Bridgesiana that on my first examination it was included under that species.

“My field observations since that date, and the acquisition of further material such as timber and oil, have convinced me that the two trees are quite different, and should not be included under the same name. Mr. W. Baeuerlen, indeed, who has known the trees for very many years, has always held that the two were different in specific characters.

E. Bridgesiana is known vernacularly as `Apple' and `Woolly-butt,' but this tree as `Apple-top Box.' As stated above, the foliage, fruits, and flowers certainly resemble those of the former species, but there the similarity ends. The bark is a true box-bark, but the timber is quite unlike that of a box. …

“The bark has not an essential oil as pertains to E. nova-anglica and E. Bridgesiana.

“Although it has a regular light-coloured grey box bark, yet the appearance of the tree is more like that of an `Apple-tree' (Angophora), hence the local name of `Apple-top Box.'

“(It has) `A pale-coloured, soft, specifically light timber, open in the grain, and perhaps to be regarded as porous. It has not the broad sapwood of E. Bridgesiana Baker. It seasons well, and is suited for cabinet work, as it closely resembles in colour, weight, and texture the timber of Angophora intermedia DC. It is much superior to that of E. Bridgesiana.” (Original description.)

For E. Stuartiana see Part XXIV, plates 101 and 102, when it will be seen that the resemblance between the two species is considerable. The closest resemblance is to var. grossa, which has the coarsest juvenile foliage in the species. Morphologically it is not easy to separate the two species, but they differ, as Mr. Baker has pointed out, in timber and oil; also in their canopies, to mention no other differences.

2. With E. elœophora F.v.M. (E. Cambagei Deane and Maiden).

“It differs from E. Cambagei Deane and Maiden, in the superiority of its timber and the inferiority of its oil, and the shape of its fruits; and from E. nova-anglica Deane and Maiden in the bark, colour of timber, and oil.” (Original description.)

For E. elœophora see Part XIX, Plates 82 and 83. In E. angophoroides the juvenile leaves are more uniformly rounded, and the large intermediate leaves are common and characteristic. In E. elœophora the operculum is, as a rule, only half the length of the calyx-tube, while the fruit is sessile, cylindroid, and, as a rule, angled or ribbed. At the same time the fruits of the two species are sometimes sufficiently similar as to necessitate caution.

Miscellaneous.

“It has little affinity with such Boxes as E. hemiphloia F.v.M., E. Woollsiana Baker, E. conica Deane and Maiden, E. pendula A. Cunn. (E. largiflorens F.v.M.), although it appears to be a connecting link with these and what are known as Bastard Boxes such as E. Cambagei Deane and Maiden, and E. bicolor A. Cunn.” (Original description.)

What E. Woollsiana R. T. Baker is, will be stated in Part XLVII after reproduction of all the Plates, and revision of the evidence. It is a synonym, in my view. E. bicolor A. Cunn. is a western New South Wales species with reddish brown timber, and very different from E. angophoroides. It has E. pendula A. Cunn. and E. largiflorens F.v.M. as synonyms, and has been more than once shown in the present work.




  ― 178 ―

CCLXIII. E. Kybeanensis Maiden and Cambage.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlviii, 417 (1914).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor Mallee similis, 6–10' alta, caulibus lævibus viridibus, ligno pallido. Folia juvena lanceolata circiter 6 cm. longa, 1 cm. alta, non-glauca, subtus pallidiore-virentia, margine crassata, costa media prominente, venis lateralibus prominentibus et fere pinnatis. Folia matura coriacea, lanceolata circiter 6–8 cm. longa, 1·5 cm. alta. Alabastra operculis hemisphericis diametro circiter conoideo calycis tubo dimidio equilongis. Flores renantheri. Fructus sessiles, ad 7 in capito, fere hemispherici, diametro fere 1 cm., orificio leniter rotundati, valvarum apicibus orificio aequis.

Species cum E. stricta affinitate trahitur, fructibus autem maxime diversis et E. capitellatœ Sm. similibus, qua magna “Stringybark,” est.

Of mallee-like growth, 6 to 10 feet high, with smooth, greenish stems 1½ inches in diameter. Timber pale coloured.

Juvenile leaves.—Lanceolate, about 6 cm. long by 1 cm. broad as the alternate stage is reached, very shortly petiolate, non-glaucous, of a brighter green on the underside. Margin thickened. Midrib prominent and raised, showing a depression on the upper page of the leaf, the lateral veins prominent and roughly pinnate, intramarginal vein well removed from the edge.

Mature leaves rather coriaceous, lanceolate, about 6–8 cm. long by 1·5 cm. broad, erect, shortly petiolate, equally green on both sides. Veins fairly prominent and spreading from the base; intramarginal vein a considerable distance from the edge.

Buds.—Externally rough in texture, operculum hemispherical, the diameter about half the length of the conoid calyx-tube.

Flowers.—Renantherous.

Fruits.—Sessile, up to seven in the head. Nearly hemispherical, nearly 1 cm. in diameter, rim broad and reddish-brown, gently domed, tips of valves flush with the orifice.

The above was drawn up from the type, collected at Kybean on the Monaro.

Following is a description of a specimen from Blackheath, Blue Mountains, N.S.W., designated as “C,” and looked upon by us as a hybrid of E. stricta Sieb. It is briefly referred to in Part IX, p. 283, of the present work.

“C.—A sapling tree, say 4 inches in diameter and 12 feet high. One small clump also seen.

Juvenile leaves.—Not seen in the earlier stage, but in what may be termed the intermediate stage. In that stage they are oval or oblong, and say 1½ inch long by ½ inch broad and profusely dotted with oil glands.

Mature leaves bright green, rather coriaceous. Veins fairly prominent, and spreading from the base; intramarginal vein a considerable distance from the edge. Tips of the leaves hooked as a rule. Reminds one of foliage of E. stricta, amongst which it grows, though the venation is probably more prominent than that of E. stricta.




  ― 179 ―

Buds numerous, pointed and in heads, giving it a stellate aspect. Hardly so clavate as those of E. stricta, but not seen ripe. Four to ten in the umbel.

Flowers.—Expanded ones not seen.

Fruits in dense heads, the common peduncle up to a quarter of an inch, pedicels absent. Individual fruits rarely hemispherical, slightly compressed at the base, rim broad and reddish-brown, slightly domed, tips of valves flush with the orifice.

Bark smooth, very long ribbons.

Timber pale-coloured.

Affinities.—The surrounding species are E. stricta Sieb.; E. Siebeviana F.v.M.; E. Moorei Maiden and Cambage; and E. Gunnii Hook. f. var maculosa Maiden (E. maculosa R. T. Baker). It has already been pointed out that the foliage resembles that of E. stricta. The buds exhibit slight resemblances at least to E. stricta and to E. Gunnii var. maculosa, particularly to the former, but the affinity of the fruit is not at present obvious, though they are suggestive of some forms of both E. capitellata and E. eugenioides, to which trees our plant has otherwise not the slightest resemblance, and it may turn out to be a good species.” (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxx, 201, 1905.)

Range.

Confined to New South Wales, so far as we know at present, but it may be expected to be found in north-eastern Victoria.

The type grew on sandy conglomerate formation at Kybean, amongst Casuarina nana Sieber, near the Kydra Trigonometrical Station, on the Great Dividing Range, 4,000 feet above sea-level, 16 miles easterly from Nimitybelle, near Cooma (R. H. Cambage, 4th November, 1908.)

The plant already referred to at “C” was collected at Blackheath in a high part of the Blue Mountains.

Affinity.

1. With E. stricta Sieb., and other species.

Unfortunately the material of E. Kybeanensis is scanty, so that the last word has not been said in regard to its relationships. It is shrubby, almost Mallee-like. In this respect and to some extent in the seedlings, it has relations to E. stricta. In the somewhat straight venation of the juvenile leaves it shows affinity to the E. coriacea group, and in the fruits to the E. capitellata group. It certainly requires further investigation.




  ― 180 ―

CCLXIV. E. eremophila Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liv, 71 (1920).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Frutex vel arbor mediocris, cortice læve, squamosa, ramulis glaucescentibus; foliis junioribus angusto-lanceolatis, vel lanceolatis; foliis maturis lineari-lanceolatis ad lanceolatis, coriaceis, nitentibus, venis secondariis tenuibus sed remotiusculis, non pennivenis; pedunculis elongatis, applanatis, pedicellis fere teretibus ca. 5 mm. longis, calycis tubo oblongo vel cylindroideo, turbinato, ca. 5 mm. longo; operculo cornuto calycis tubo ca. quinquies aequilongo, diametro distincte minore, filamentis antherisque Cornutis similibus; fructibus cylindroideis vel sphæricis, calycis tubo crasso, capsulæ apice applanato fere margini aequante, fructu truncato.

A shrub or medium-sized tree, with smooth scaly bark. Branchlets glaucescent.

Juvenile leaves (suckers) not available in the earliest stage, but probably narrow. Those of the seedlings are narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate.

Mature leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, coriaceous, shiny, not glaucescent, the secondary veins fine but rather distant and, at all events in the intermediate stage, spreading and roughly parallel, not feather-veined.

Peduncles elongate, flattened, pedicels nearly terete, distinct, about 5 mm. long.

Calyx-tube oblong or cylindroid turbinate, about 5 mm. long.

Operculum sometimes coloured (reddish), straight or horn-shaped, up to five times as long as the calyx-tube and much less in diameter. Filaments yellowish, sometimes crimson, angular, glandular, and with anthers as in the Cornutæ.

Fruits cylindroid to spherical; top of the capsule nearly flush with the rim, giving the fruit when not fully ripe a characteristically truncate flattish appearance. When the fruit is ripe its mouth becomes rounded and somewhat contracted.

As it is figured as indicated below, further illustrations do not appear to be necessary at this place.

Synonym.

E. occidentalis Endlicher var. eremophila Diels, in Engler's Jahrb., xxxv, 442, 1905.

See also this work, Part XXXVI, p. 147. Figured at Plate 149, figures 7–11 of the same work.

The relations of E. occidentalis Endl. var. grandiflora Maiden (Part XXXVI, p. 149, and figures 1 and 2, Plate 150) to E. eremophila remain a matter for further consideration.




  ― 181 ―

Range.

It is confined to Western Australia so far as we know at present, but it is quite possible that it may occur in western South Australia. This is a dry country form, and its range may be stated as bounded by Watheroo on the Midland Railway, to 140 miles east of Kalgoorlie, and north of Esperance and back again to the vicinity of the Great Southern Railway. It probably has a very extensive range in country of low rainfall.

“Shrub 4 metres high, flowers yellow, calyptra (opercula) reddish.” Near Coolgardie (Dr. L. Diels, No. 5237). Coolgardie, or rather Boorabbin (E. Pritzel, No. 917). I have also received it from Coolgardie (L. C. Webster). The type comes from Coolgardie. Other localities are quoted, op. cit., p. 148.

Affinities.

It is a member of the Cornutæ.

1. With E. occidentalis Endl.

It is sharply separated from this species in its narrow juvenile foliage, that of E. occidentalis being broad. Those of the former are shiny, with more numerous oil dots. Buds usually longer, hence with longer filaments; staminal disc broader. The fruit of E. occidentalis is campanulate, while that of E. eremophila is cylindroid or inclining to hemispherical.

2. With E. platypus Hook.

Here I invite attention to the similarities and dissimilarities I have brought forward at pages 151 and 152 of Part XXXVI of the present work.




  ― 182 ―

LXX. E. decipiens Endl.

(Synonym E. concolor Schauer, No. LXIX.)

IF my readers will turn to Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liv, Proc. Dec., 1920), there will be found a brief note recording that I drew attention to the confusion that has gathered around E. concolor in the same Journal, Vol. XLVII, p. 231 (1913). I have carried the matter a stage further in the present work, Part XLII, page 66. I have now received admirable specimens from Mr. C. A. Gardner, who is collecting on behalf of Mr. C. E. Lane-Poole, the Conservator of Forests of Western Australia. His specimens come from Spearwood, near Fremantle, Western Australia, are complete, and supply the missing evidence that E. concolor is specifically identical with E. decipiens.

At the top of p. 67 I suggested “it may turn out that E. concolor is the Fremantle form of E. decipiens.” Mr. Gardner's specimens prove this, and we are therefore justified in suppressing E. concolor Schauer as a separate species. Not only has the conclusion been arrived at by the direct evidence of field observations, but the result is confirmed by seedlings raised from seeds from various localities, and grown in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney.

Mr. Gardner's description of the Fremantle tree, which follows, is valuable, that while E. decipiens, it is E. concolor, and from practically the type locality.

Eucalyptus decipiens Endl.—A tree attaining 30 to 50 feet, but usually much less, the branches spreading or almost pendulous, and very much like E. gomphocephala DC. in appearance. Bark thick, persistent and rough, of an ash-grey colour, the bark of the upper portions sometimes smooth.

Leaves variable in shape and size. Sucker leaves opposite or alternate, obcordate or almost orbicular, 2–3 cm. long and as broad, glaucous, the midrib scarcely conspicuous, the veins at an angle of 45 degrees to the midrib, the intramarginal one at a distance from the edge. Adult leaves ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, undulate, slightly falcate, coriaceous and shining, about 9 cm. long, the midrib conspicuous, the intramarginal vein distinct and usually about ·2 cm. from the edge.

Peduncles lateral, terete and thick, ·8 cm. long, bearing a dense sessile head of 6 to 9 flowers. Calyx-tube broadly turbinate, ·5 cm. long and as broad. Operculum conical as long as the calyx-tube, obtuse, the line of separation distinct. Stamens inflected in the bud, filaments white, filiform, terete or slightly flattened at the base ·7 cm. long, anthers globular. Ovary conical, style thickened at the base, about ·6 cm. long, tapering.

Fruit broadly turbinate or campanulate ·5 cm. long and about as broad. Capsule sunk beneath the prominent truncate rim, the points of the valves slightly protruding.

Collected at Spearwood near Fremantle in limestone on low hills near the sea. Some of the young trees grow in dense patches, are erect, and might in appearance suggest a mallee. Coll. C. A. Gardner, 14th September, 1920.




  ― 183 ―

APPENDIX.

Eucalyptus cochinchinensis Auct.

In Part I, p. 18 of the present work, there is a list of some non-eucalypts described as Eucalypts. The following may be added.

The late Dr. C. B. Robinson, the well-known botanical explorer of the Philippine Bureau of Science, Manila, wrote to me on 10th April, 1911, “In the Botanic Gardens at Saigon, I was shown a plant under the name of Eucalyptus cochinchinensis, and told that it is very common both in Cochin China and Cambodia. Subsequently I found it in great abundance in southern Annam. However, I believe it to be a Melaleuca. It may interest you, as it has been referred to Eucalyptus.”

Dr. E. D. Merrill, of the Bureau, sent me the following specimens:—

1012. C. B. Robinson, 8–3–11, as above. It is Melaleuca Leucadendron L.

1092. C. B. Robinson, 12–3–11. Melaleuca leucadendron L. Nha-trang, Annam. “A tree 4 m. high, growing at an altitude of 2 metres.”

Explanation of Plates (188–191).

Plate 188.

Plate 188: EUCALYPTUS TETRAGONA F.v.M. [See also Plate 189.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. tetragona F.v.M.

  • A. (Lanceolate-leaved series, with rather long petioles. It is not possible to make a sharp line of demarcation, as the leaves are transitional from lanceolate to ovate, but there is a certain amount of convenience in the grouping.)
  • 1a, 1b. Juvenile leaves, from the original plate of Eudesmia tetragona R.Br. in Appendix to Flinders' Voyage, ii, 599, t. 3.
  • 2. Buds, from shrub of 15 feet, Murchison River. (Augustus Oldfield.)
  • 3a. Leaf and fruits; 3b, fruit, end on. Drummond's No. 69.
  • 4a. Buds; 4b, leaf with fruits; 4c, fruit, as ripe as is available; 4d, fruit, end on. Esperance Bay (Correspondent of Mueller). This is the “tiansit to E. eudesmioides,” of Mueller, and is the specimen referred to by Mueller at p. 168, and by Diels and Pritzel at p. 168. The fruits are not quite ripe, and therefore imperfectly ribbed; this, I think, has contributed to the confusion concerning this specimen.
  • B. (Ovate-leaved series, with rather short petioles.)
  • 5. Juvenile leaves, showing stellate-hairs. Kalgan Plains, near Mount Stirling Range. (J.H.M.)
  • 6a. Apparently mature leaf; 6b, buds; 6c, front and back views of anther; 6d, flower in elevation; 6e, flower in plan, showing four bundles of stamens. Esperance. (J.H.M.)
  • 7. Leaves and buds. (Drummond's 4th Collection, No. 75.) (See also Plate 189.)



  ― 184 ―

Plate 189.

Plate 189: EUCALYPTUS TETRAGONA F.v.M. (1,2) [See also Plate 188.] EUCALYPTUS EUDESMIOIDES F.v.M. (3-5) EUCALYPTUS EBANOENSIS Maiden n.sp. (6,7) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. tetragona F.v.M. (concluded).

  • 1a. Leaf and fruit; 1b, fruit. (Drummond's 4th Collection, No. 78.)
  • 2a. Fruits; 2b, fruit, end on. Stirling Range (Louis Dillon). These are the largest fruits I have seen in the species.

E. eudesmioides F.v.M.

  • 3a. Juvenile leaves (not in the earliest stage); 3b, buds; 3c, mature leaf and flowers; 3d, enlarged flower, in elevation; 3e, three views of anther; 3f, fruits.
  • In considering 3d, which is enlarged, it will be observed that the top of the calyx-tube has not the sunk appearance which is observable in the fruit. The explanation is that the calyx-tube increases in length as ripening proceeds, but the disc remains stationary. The calyx-teeth eventually become absorbed or dry up and break off. I have seen one of these four teeth alone remaining on the fruit. From Mount Curious, Murchison River (Augustus Oldfield). The type.
  • 4. Fruits, more angled than usual. Mingenew. (W. V. Fitzgerald.)
  • 5a, 5b, 5c, 5d, 5e. Various stages of juvenile leaves, 5a being in the earliest stage, while 5e is most mature, but not as mature as 3c. All from Mingenew. (J.H.M.) Mingenew is on the Midland Railway Line (Perth to Geraldton), and is 227 miles north of Perth.
  • E. Ebbanoensis n.sp.
  • 6a. Mature leaf; 6b, flowers; 6c, fruits. Sand Plain, Ebbano, east from Mingenew. (Dr. A. Morrison.) The type.
  • 7a. Mature leaf and buds; 7b, three views of anther; 7c, fruits. Comet Vale, 63 miles north of Kalgoorlie. (J. T. Jutson.)

Plate 190.

Plate 190: EUCALYPTUS ANDREWSI Maiden (1-5) [See also Figs. 1-4, Plate 36] EUCALYPTUS ANGOPHOROIDES R. T. Baker (6-9) [See also Plate 191.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. Andrewsi Maiden.

  • 1. Fruits, pear-shaped and domed. From State Forest No. 308, parish Robertson, county of Gough, N.S.W. (Forest Guard's specimen, No. 20, June, 1903.)
  • 2a. Front and back views of anthers; 2b, larger, pear-shaped fruits. These are up to fourteen in the head from this locality. 2c, leaf in an intermediate stage. Boonoo Boonoo, Tenterfield District. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 3. Fruits, nearly hemispherical and slightly domed, taken from the type specimen. Tingha, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage.)
  • 4. Fruits, flat-topped, nine in the head, taken from a co-type. Howell, near Tingha. (J.H.M.)
  • 5a. Juvenile leaf, almost in the intermediate stage; 5b, mature leaf; 5c, buds; 5d, flowers, showing styles and stigmas; 5e, front and back views of anther; 5f, campanulate young fruits, a trifle diagrammatic; 5g, fruits; 5h, single fruit, both it and 5g being pear-shaped to conoid. Tenterfield, N.S.W. (C. F. Laseron). All drawn from type specimens of E. campanulata R. T. Baker, 5a, 5b being drawn from type specimens supplied by Mr. Baker, the remainder being reproduced from Mr. Baker's drawings of the type, Plate XIII, Vol. XLV, Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W.
  • I cannot separate leaves, buds, fruits, nor any other organs of E. campanulata from E. Andrewsi, and what has doubtless misled Mr. Baker in my drawings of the type of the latter in Plate 36 of the present work is the greater width of the juvenile leaf (he only depicts an intermediate leaf), and the almost hemispherical fruits, which are only one amongst several varying shapes.



  ― 185 ―

E. angophoroides R. T. Baker.

(See also Plate 191.)

  • 6a. Juvenile leaf; 6b, intermediate leaf; 6c, mature leaf; 6d, buds; 6e, fruits. “Apple-topped Box,” Colombo, Bega District, N.S.W. (W. Baeuerlen.) The type.
  • 7. Fruits, not domed, “Cabbage Box.” Nangutta, near Eden. (W. Baeuerlen.)
  • 8a. Buds; 8b, front and back view of anther; 8c, fully ripe fruits. Yourie, via Bermagui. (Forest Guard William Dunn.)
  • 9a, 9b. Juvenile leaves, quite small; 9c, intermediate leaf (compare with 6b). Wyndham, near Eden. (J. L. Boorman.) For some other specimens belonging to the same locality showing further variation of leaves in this species, see Plate 191.

Plate 191.

Plate 191: EUCALYPTUS ANGOPHOROIDES R. T. Baker (1,2) [See also Plate 91.] EUCALYPTUS KYBEANENSIS Maiden and Cambage. (3,4) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. angophoroides R. T. Baker (concluded).

  • 1a, 1b. Different stages of intermediate leaves, to be compared with those on the preceding Plate. Wyndham, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 2. Perhaps the largest intermediate leaf I have seen in this species. Wyndham (E. C. Andrews per R. H. Cambage.)

E. Kybeanensis Maiden and Cambage.

  • 3a. Mature leaf; 3b, young buds with rounded opercula; 3c, front and back views of anther; 3d, fruits on a rachis square in section, which is unusual in fruiting specimens in Eucalyptus. This species is therefore one of the few which flower when the foliage is in the juvenile stage. Kybean, Monaro, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage.) The type.
  • 4a, 4b. Juvenile leaves (N.B., the mature leaf is similar to 3a); 4c, very young buds, with pointed opercula; 4d, 4e, fruits. Blackheath, Blue Mountains, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.)
  • At one time labelled C, and looked upon as a hybrid of E. stricta Sieb. See Part IX, p. 283.
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