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XV. E. Andrewsi Maiden.

See the present work, Part VII, p. 194, Plate 36; also my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part XXI, p. 5, with Plate 79.

Although this is commonly known as “Blackbutt,” and I have, therefore, to save confusion, proposed the name “New England Blackbutt” for it, it also passes under the names “Messmate,” “Peppermint,” and even “Stringybark” and “Woollybutt.”

Shape of the fruit.—As figured at fig. 4, Plate 36, Part VII of this work, nearly hemispherical, slightly pear-shaped fruits, with nearly filiform pedicels are shown. At figs. 20–22, Plate XXXII of Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxiii, 1898, the fruits of E. Sieberiana var. Oxleyensis (which at p. 195, Part VII of this work, I have stated to be a synonym of E. Andrewsi), are shown to be so pear-shaped as to be almost conical. This conical form of the fruit is also shown in Mr. Baker's plate of E. campanulata, and also in figs. 5g, 5h, Plate 190, which have been drawn from Mr. Baker's type.

Turning to the more bell-shaped form of the fruit from which Mr. Baker gets his name campanulata, I have not a specimen so campanulate as that of fig. 5f, Plate 190, which is a facsimile of fig. 3 of Mr. Baker's plate of his type. I think it is just a trifle diagrammatic. The nearest I can get to it is fig. 4. This tendency to the campanulate form shows a closer approximation to the type of E. Andrewsi than to E. campanulata itself. What has misled Mr. Baker in proposing the species campanulata is too close a following of typical E. Andrewsi without bearing in mind the variation as exhibited in E. Sieberiana var. Oxleyensis, and his own figures 4 and 5 (reproduced by me as 5g and 5h). The drawings now submitted, viz., figs. 1, 2b, 4, 5g, and 5h, Plate 190, usefully supplement Plate 36 of Part VII, showing that in E. Andrewsi the range of the shape of the fruits is considerable, and varies from hemispherical to conical.


  • 1. E. Sieberiana F.v.M., var. Oxleyensis Deane and Maiden (1898).
  • 2. E. campanulata R. T. Baker (1911).

1. This variety is fully described in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxiii, 794 (1898), with figs. 20–22, Plate XXXII. See my comments at Part VII, p. 195 of the present work.

2. Mr. Baker's species is described in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlv, 288 (1911), with Plate XIII.

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Following is a copy of the original:—

EUCALYPTUS CAMPANULATA, sp. nov., “Bastard Stringybark.”

An average forest tree. Bark decidedly stringy, persistent on the main trunk, branches smooth.

“Sucker” or abnormal leaves broadly lanceolate, oblique not shining, same colour on both sides, often over 9 inches long, venation well marked, lateral veins oblique, distant intramarginal vein well removed from the edge. Petiole over 1 inch long. Normal leaves comparatively small, lanceolate, oblique, subcoriaceous, not shining. Venation not at all well marked on the smaller upper leaves, but distinctly so in the others. Lateral veins very oblique.

Buds, clavate or club shaped, the operculum domed.

Fruits.—At the earliest stage of development campanulate on a slender pedicel, a feature not noticed in other species by us. Mature fruits pyriform, rim truncate or slightly countersunk, about 6 mm. diameter at the rim.

Bark “stringy” as implied in its common name.

Timber, light coloured or whitish, fissile, but close grained, easy working, in fact, similar in general characteristics to some of the “Ashes” or “Stringybarks,” although perhaps a little more inclined to develop gum-veins.

Arbor (Bastard Stringybark), distincta, nomine altitudinem 60 feet, attinens, ramulis primum compresso-tetragonis mox teretiusculis.

Cortex partim secedens in trunco persistens ramis levibus.

Folia abnorme (suckers) obliqua falcato-lanceolata petiolata, alterna concoloria vena peripherica a margine remota; vena laterale obliqua graviter. Folia vulgare, falcato-lanceolata, obliqua, petiolata concoloria, alterna subcoriacea, vena aut prominentes aut obscura obliqua, pleraque 3–6? longer.

Pedunculi axillare umbellis multifloris; operculo-depresso hemispherica, mucronulatato breviter, calycis tubus circa 1 cm. longus; fructibus truncato-ovatis, 1 cm. longi, 5 mm. lati valvis non exsertis.

Remarks.—The material of this tree for investigation was collected by Mr. C. F. Laseron, the Museum Collector, at Tenterfield, where it passes as the “Bastard Stringybark.” His herbarium material appears to be identical with specimens collected by Mr. A. Rudder in the Upper Williams district.

The fruits somewhat resemble those of E. virgata Sieb. or E. Sieberiana, but then the timber, bark, and oil differ from these species. The oil of E. virgata consists almost entirely of eudesmol, as shown in our work on “The Eucalypts and their Essential Oils.” Fruits, timber and oil differentiate it from E. obliqua, which species has been collected in almost the same neighbourhood, at Mount McKenzie, Tenterfield.

There is a distinguishing feature of the species in its very early fruits, which are quite bell shaped and remind one of the shape of the mature fruits of E. Deanei. As they mature, this shape passes gradually away, the calyx gradually tapering into a pedicel, very rarely is the fruit hemispherical.

On a cortical classification it would be placed with the “Stringybarks,” or between them and the “Peppermints,” but the timber may be classed as one of the “Ashes,” such as E. regnans, E. oreades, or E. Delegatensis.

The large oblique suckers are not at all unlike those of E. obliqua, or even the above three species.

At Tenterfield it is found growing amongst such “Stringybarks” as E. obliqua and E. lœvopinea.

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This species is found in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland (chiefly on the tablelands and especially New England). A large number of localities are quoted at pages 195 and 196 of Part VII of the present work, and the following further records of specific localities in the National Herbarium, Sydney, will be more or less useful.

Mr. Forest Guard N. Stewart of Glen Innes, writing in January, 1909, made the following report in regard to his experience in New England, N.S.W. Further particulars in regard to the timber will be found at page 6, Part XXI, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”

This Blackbutt varies very much in quality according to soil and altitude, as I find that this timber growing on granite formation and at a high altitude is pale in colour and harder than the same timber at a lower altitude on soil of a basaltic formation. Where growing on the latter, the timber is generally of a pale brown colour, denser and heavier than the former, and the bark is of a more fibrous nature.

It appears to be very subject to gum-veins, although not to such an extent as to injure the timber. For house-building purposes it has been found to be very durable.

It has a wide range in this district from the Sara or Mitchell River on the south to Pheasant Creek on the north. I cannot find any of the same timber as far west as Emmaville. The Messmate of Emmaville and the Blackbutt of New England differ very much in quality, as the Emmaville timber is only used for temporary purposes as it is not durable, especially when it comes in contact with the ground, and it has too many gum-veins for house-building purposes. Blackbutt is never specified here for piles or in fencing contracts for obvious reasons, the principal one I think is that the Glen Innes people think there is no timber like stringybark or box for fencing purposes. I have examined piles of the New England Blackbutt in one building which I know has been erected twenty-four years, and they appear to be quite sound.

“Messmate,” Coolpi Mountains, near Ellenborough Falls, via Wingham (J. L. Boorman).

Mt. Lindsay Station, Nandewar Mt., 3,200 feet (R. H. Cambage, No. 2347).

“A Mountain Box” (an improper name, J.H.M.). Southern flanks of Gleniffer Range, Gleniffer. (E. H. F. Swain, Nos. 220, 223). “Blackbutt,” parish Vant, county Hawes. (E. H. F. Swain). “Stringybark,” Dividing Range, county Parry. (E. H. F. Swain). Parish Scott, county Parry (E. H. F. Swain). Usually hollow, timber regarded as useless; Dungowan Creek, county Parry. Swamp Oak, parish Vernon, county Parry (Forest Guard M. H. Simon). “Stringybark,” Nundle, county Parry (Forest Guard M. H. Simon, No. 9).

Fourteen feet in girth, parish Terregree, county Courallie, Moree district (E. H. F. Swain, Nos. 25, 38).

Timber valued for many purposes, Guy Fawkes (J. L. Boorman). “Woollybutt,” Armidale district (District Forester Stopford).

“Blackbutt,” State Forest No. 308, parish Robertson, county Gough, Glen Innes Forestry district (Forest Guard, specimen No. 20). See fig. 1, Plate 190. Pheasant Creek, Glen Elgin (J. L. Boorman).

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“Peppermint,” Marengo, counties of Gresham and Clarke (A. W. Deane, L.S.).

“Peppermint,” Gundamulda, Warialda district (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 5). “Woollybutt,” Linton, Warialda district (W. A. W. de Beuzeville).

Smoky Cape, via Kempsey (J. L. Boorman).

Eastern Dorrigo, slopes towards Coff's Harbour (W. Heron).

“Blackbutt,” Torrington (J. L. Boorman).

Summit of Beehive Mountain, Tooloom Station (Forest Guard W. Dunn, No. 369).

“Blackbutt,” Tenterfield to Sandy Flat (J.H.M.). Tenterfield (C. F. Laseron, J.H.M.). Wallangarra (J. L. Boorman). Boonoo Boonoo, north-east of Tenterfield (R. H. Cambage, No. 3790). “Messmate,” Wilson's Peak, Macpherson Range (J.H.M.).


Dalveen, near Stanthorpe (A. Sargent). “Stringybark,” Springbrook, Macpherson Range (C. T. White).


These are dealt with at Part VII, p. 196, but there may be added:—

1. E. gigantea Hook. f.

This species will be found dealt with at Part XX, p. 291, with Plate 85. As will be seen in comparing these illustrations with those in Plate 36, Part VII, and Plate 190, in both species we have very large juvenile leaves, although those of E. gigantea are the larger. Both are glaucous and exhale a delicious aroma from their leaves. The buds of the two species are not closely related, nor are the fruits, although those of fig. 2b, Plate 190, approximate to those of E. gigantea.