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Part 47




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CCLXV. E. Laseroni R. T. Baker.

In Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxvii, 585 (1912), with Plate LXIII.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbuscula usque ad 35' alta. Cortex fibrosus, tam in ramis quam in trunco persistens, viridis, et hinc “Bastard Stringybark.” Folia 3–5? longa, fere 1–2? lata, lanceolata, ovata, alternata subcoriacea, concoloria; venis patentibus, peripherica a margine remota, venulis obliquatis. Pedunculi ¼? longi, axillares, solitarii, 10–15 flori. Fructus ¼? longi, pilulares; margine convexo, valvis non exsertis. …

It is a small tree, 35 feet high and 1 foot in diameter, as far as seen. The fibrous bark covers the trunk, and decorticates in long strips from the main branches, which are otherwise smooth, but darker than in E. stellulata. The timber is yellowish-brown, and tough to cut, but brittle. … From the specimens seen, this is not a good timber. It is fairly close-grained, of a pale colour, but the presence of gum veins will militate against its general utilisation by the commercial world.

A small tree under 40 feet high, and about 1 foot in diameter, with a fibrous but hard stringy bark, in the general acceptation of the letter term.

Abnormal (juvenile) leaves ovate, lanceolate, slightly falcate in some instances, petiolate, attenuate, varying in size up to 5 inches long, and up to 2 inches broad. Normal leaves lanceolate, alternate, subcoriaceous, average leaves under 4 inches long and 1 inch wide, occasionally shining. Venation distinctly marked, the basal lateral veins sometimes running the whole length of the leaf, and well removed from the edge; the other lateral veins not so oblique, more transverse.

Buds in clusters, on axillary peduncles about ¼ inch long. Operculum sharply conical.

Fruits hemispherical, capitular, rim domed, valves scarcely or not exserted, ¼ inch in diameter, pedicel varying in length up to 2 lines long.

Range.

“This tree, so far, is known only from the Black Mountain district, where Mr. Laseron obtained material in July, 1907. He states in his field-notes that it is regarded locally as a cross between “Silvertop Stringybark,” E. lœvopinea, and “Sally,” E. stellulata. A few trees are to be found on a rough rocky basalt hillock, about half a mile south of Black Mountain railway station.” (Original description.)

The above locality is in the higher parts of New England, New South Wales. The railway station in question is 4,330 feet above sea-level, and between Armidale and Glen Innes. It is 380 miles north of Sydney.

“In 1903 I received from Mr. R. H. Cambage `a form of E. eugenioides Sieb.' from between Tingha and Guyra, and in the following year visited the tree. I labelled it on 1st April, 1905, and again on 30th March, 1906, `probably a eugenioides-stellulata hybrid,' and I put it with my collection of reputed hybrids to be dealt with collectively in my `Critical Revision.'

“During the present year, Mr. R. T. Baker has described it as a new species (E. Laseroni), and says it bears the local reputation of being a cross between E. lœvopinea and stellulata.” (Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 229, 1913.)




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I wrote as follows in Part VIII, p. 237, of the present work concerning the above and other specimens:—

Near cemetery, Tingha (R. H. Cambage); with fruits a little more sub-cylindrical and perhaps [?] more domed than the type. Specimens from the same locality with nearly pilular fruits and very [?] narrow juvenile foliage.

Near 11-mile post, Inverell to Tingha (R. H. Cambage). Form with even narrower leaves than the type (of E. eugenioides).

Tingha to Guyra, 19 miles from the latter place (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman). Juvenile leaves intermediate. Mature leaves broadish. Fruits (from same tree) flat-rimmed, domed; valves exsert and sunk; hemispherical and inclined to be sub-cylindrical.

I place this specimen under E. eugenioides, and it certainly seems to form a connecting link between the Tingha specimens and the supposed hybrid which follows.

Between Tingha and Guyra, 19 miles from the latter (J. L. Boorman). “Stringybark,” medium-sized trees growing in swampy ground in company with that of E. stellulata and E. nova-anglica. An interesting form; leaves broad, thickish. None of the fruits with exserted valves, which is unusual in northern specimens. I am of opinion that here we have a hybrid between E. eugenioides and E. stellulata.

I abstained from describing them as a new species, as I attributed them to a form of E. eugenioides or to a hybrid of the same. I concur, however, in Mr. Baker's action in describing them as a new species.

This material extends the range somewhat. The railway station of Guyra is 386 miles north of Sydney, and Tingha runs north-westerly. I have no doubt that the species will be found over a moderately wide area in these cold mountain districts.

Tree of 50 feet, evidently a Black Sally, but the fruits are smaller. Summit of Ben Lomond (William Dunn, 1908, No. 336). Ben Lomond railway station is 401 miles north of Sydney, and the summit of the mountain, only a few miles from the railway station, is over 5,000 feet high. This extends the range northerly, bringing it to a few miles south of Glen Innes.

Affinities.

1. With E. stellulata Sieb.

“The small stellate clusters of buds are larger than those of E. stellulata, but the colour of the upper branches, though fainter, is also suggestive of that species. The leaves are more inclined to lanceolate than ovate in shape, as obtains in E. stellulata, whilst the venation is distinct. The midrib is stronger, and the venation not so parallel as in E. stellulata. The bark, timber, and especially the fruits are also different. …

The oil of this species differs considerably from that of E. stellulata, in the presence of such a large amount of pinene, in a deficiency in phellandrene, and consequently a much less lævo-rotation, in the large amount of high boiling constituents, and in an increased ester-content. …

One or two trees were noticed in another locality, associated with E. stellulata, from which it is easily distinguished in the field. …

In a botanical sequence, it might be placed between the Stringybarks and the Gums or Smoothbarks, such as E. stellulata or E. coriacea.” (Original description.)

I have stated my former opinion that it is a stellulata hybrid. There is no doubt that the two species are very closely related. For E. stellulata see Plate 25, Part V.




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2. With E. coriacea A. Cunn.

“The venation somewhat resembles that of E. coriacea, but the fruits are different, and especially the buds and bark.” (Original description.)

E. coriacea has a close affinity to E. stellulata, so that E. Laseroni has affinity to E. coriacea, but far less than to E. stellulata. For E. coriacea see Plates 26 and 27, Part V.

3. With E. capitellata Sm.

“The fruits fairly well match those of E. capitellata, but this is the only resemblance to that species amongst Stringybarks.” (Original description.)

The Stringybark in question is E. eugenioides rather than E. capitellata, as will be seen from examination of fig. 17, Plate 40, Part VIII.

4. With E. eugenioides Sieb.

I have already stated that I looked upon E. Laseroni as a stellulata x eugenioides, which is an expression of opinion that an affinity is to E. eugenioides. The resemblance between E. oblonga DC., see fig. 6 (for Sieber's Fl. Nov. Holl. No. 583, the type), and fig. 7, Plate 40, Part VIII, “White Stringybark” of the Mudgee district, and E. Laseroni is obvious, and most people look upon E. oblonga as synonymous with E. eugenioides.

5. With E. dives Schauer.

“The venation (of E. Laseroni) seems to be intermediate between that of the typical Stringybarks and the Peppermint group, but more approaching that of E. dives.” (Original description.)




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CCLXVI. E. De Beuzevillei Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liv, 68 (1920).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor ampla plusve minusve glauca; cortice læve, lamellis longissimis decidua, trunci basi asperolamellosa, ligno pallido fere albo, gummi venis; foliis fragrantibus, foliis junioribus orbicularibus ad cordatis, venis secondariis patentibus vel sursum curvatis; foliis maturis lanceolatis, crassis, venis secondariis basi patentibus postquam longitudinalibus; alabastris angularibus fere alatis, operculo conoideo calycis tubo ca. dimidio aequilongo; fructibus polygonalibus, angularibus, piriformibus vel subglobosis, capsula depressa, sessile vel brevissime pedunculata.

A tree of medium or large size, up to 60 feet high, a “White Gum,” more or less glaucous, the young branchlets glandular. Bark smooth, but with usually more or less rough-flaky bark at the butt. Where the rough bark is present it usually ascends the trunk about 5 to 6 feet; the deciduous or smooth portion in long strips, not ribbons, some of the pieces being 30 feet long. Timber pale-coloured, almost white, with gum (kino) veins, with a general resemblance to that of E. coriacea. Foliage fragrant.

Juvenile leaves almost orbicular to cordate, thin, shortly petiolate, secondary veins spreading or curved upwards, no distinct intramarginal vein. Some leaves measured are 9 cm. long by 7 cm. broad.

Mature leaves lanceolate, slightly falcate, with a short blunt point, thick, slightly shining, the secondary veins spreading at the base, thence longitudinal and parallel to the midrib. An average leaf is about 13 cm. long and about 4 cm. in greatest width. There are leaves intermediate in shape, thickness and venation between the juvenile and mature leaves.

Buds remarkably angular by compression, the angles almost winged, peduncles about 1 cm. long, convex to flattened, expanded, especially at the top, pedicels absent or very short, the conoid operculum about half the length of the calyx-tube. Filaments cream-coloured, anthers renantherous.

Fruits polygonal and most of them angled, the angles or ribs persisting until maturity, pear-shaped to sub-globose, sessile or very shortly stalked, walls thick; capsule sunk, 3 or 4-celled.

Type from Jounama Peaks, New South Wales, Wilfrid Alexander Watt de Beuzeville, Assistant Forester, Forestry Commission, December, 1919.

Range.

So far it has only been found on peaks in the Mount Kosciusko district of New South Wales. “Near the summit of Mount Jounama, at an altitude of 5,400 feet almost. Jounama is one of what is known as the Bogong Peaks, in the parish of Jounama, county of Buccleuch, about 30 miles south of Tumut. There is a belt of


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these trees about 5 or 6 miles long by about half a mile wide, along the top of the Jounama Peaks. Its lowest level would be between 4,500 and 5,000 feet. The tree is one of the largest in the district. The buds mature in a few weeks, and the fruits set immediately; in other words, it flowers and fruits in the same year.” (de Beuzeville.) (A consequence of the severity of the climate during the greater part of the year.) This species and E. stellulata Sieb. in the same district carry buds and fruits in all stages of maturity during the year.

Affinities.

1. With E. coriacea A. Cunn., var. alpina.

It differs in being a much larger, and, as a rule, a freer growing plant. “Have never seen a form like it before. Tree much like the ordinary E. coriacea, except for it being much more spreading and gnarled, though this might be accounted for by its exposed position at a high altitude.” (de Beuzeville.) It has large, mostly oblique leaves and large angular buds. The fruits are also two or three times as large as those of var. alpina, and usually with two or three faint angles and a more convex rim.

Its affinity with the Tasmanian E. coccifera Hook. f., is more remote.

2. With E. gigantea Hook. f.

The affinity lies in the shape of the juvenile leaves (suckers) and more distantly in the fruits. The foliage of both species is fragrant, with the same kind of odour, but E. gigantea is a rough-barked species, while E. de Beuzevillei is a Gum.

3. With E. tetragona F.v.M.

There is similarity in the polygonal, often quadrangular fruits, which requires a word of caution in case fruits are the only material available.




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CCLXVII. E. Mitchelli Cambage.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 457 (1918), with Plates XXXVIII and XXXIX.

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor umbrosa in altum pedes quinquaginta crescens, trunci diametrum duorum pedum habens.

Folia matura.—Linearia lanceolata, a septem ad quatuor decim cm. longa, a septem mm. ad 1·4 cm. lata, cum apice directo vel falcato, utrobique aequaliter viridia, glabrosa et notabile nitida, aliquanto coriacea, costa media modice clara, venae laterales aliquanto obscurae et angulis 7–15° e costa media dispositae, margines quasi nervi sunt, olei glandulae numerosissimae petiolum 1–1·3 cm. longum.

Gemmae.—Sessiles, operculum acutum, longae circiter a tria ad quatuor mm. gemmae vix tam longae quam calycistubus, racemus stellatus, pedunculum longum circiter unum mm.

Flores.—In umbella tenus undecim antherae parvae, color ut lactis flos, versatiles, renantherosi.

Fructus.—Sessiles, globosi-truncati, fusci, nitidi quasi fuscati, interdum punctis parvis palladis clavati, longi a quinque ad sex mm. diametrum quinque sexve mm. habentes apud os restricti, labrum interius unum mm. crassus valve depressae.

Cortex—Levis et alba nisi quod squamus paucas asperes apud basem habet.

Habitat.—Summum jugum montis “Buffalo” prope casam ad provinciam “Victoria” pertinentem, in formationem siliceam graniteam quatuor millia et quadringenti pedes super mare nascens.

An umbrageous tree reaching 50 feet high, with stem diameter of 2 feet.

Seedlings.Hypocotyl erect, terete, red, glabrous, up to 2·3 cm. long.

Cotyledons obtusely quadrilateral to orbicular-reniform, entire, about 3 mm. long, 5 mm. broad, upper side green, under side red to reddish-green, glabrous; petiole about 3 mm. long.

Seedling foliage opposite, entire, glabrous, oblong-lanceolate to elliptical-lanceolate, petiole 1–2 mm. long; midrib prominent on underside, lateral veins fairly distinct, and arranged at angles of from 40–60 degrees with the midrib. On seedlings 5 inches high the second pair of leaves were elliptical-lanceolate, and up to 2 cm. long by 8 mm. broad, while the sixth pair were elliptical, and 2·5 cm. long by 1 cm. broad.

Mature leaves linear-lanceolate, from about 7–14 cm. long, 7 mm. to 1·4 cm. broad, with straight or hooked point, equally green on both sides, glabrous and remarkably shiny, somewhat coriaceous, midrib fairly distinct, lateral veins rather obscure, and arranged at angles of from seven to fifteen degrees with the midrib, margins nerve-like, oil glands very numerous, petiole 1–1·3 cm. long.

Buds sessile, operculum pointed, about 3–4 mm. long, scarcely as long as the calyx-tube, the cluster stellate, peduncle about 1 mm. long.

Flowers up to eleven in the umbel. Anthers small, creamy-white, versatile, renantherous.

Fruits sessile, globular-truncate, brown, shining as if varnished, sometimes studded with small pale dots, 5–6 mm. long, 5–6 mm. in diameter, restricted at the orifice, inner rim 1 mm. thick, valves sunk.

Bark smooth and white except for a few rough flakes at the base.

This species is named in honour of the late Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, Surveyor-General, who collected many native plants, and was the second explorer to pass Mount Buffalo.




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Range.

Summit of Mount Buffalo, Victoria, near the Government Chalet, growing in siliceous granite formation at 4,400 feet above sea-level, and known as Willow Gum. The species flowers in December.

So far as we know, it is confined to Victoria, but it is hardly reasonable to suppose that it will not be found on the adjacent high mountains (e.g., Mount Kosciusko) in New South Wales, and also in other elevated situations in Victoria.

Affinities.

1. With E. vitrea R. T. Baker.

From this it differs somewhat in its leaf venation, for the prominent, almost parallel veins of E. vitrea are not represented in this new species. The pedicellate hemispherical fruits of E. vitrea are also different; the operculum of that species is shorter and more obtuse, while the peduncle is very much larger. The bark of the new species is smooth and white, that of E. vitrea being fibrous over the greater part of the trunk.

2. With E. nitida Hook. f.

From this it differs in its more globular fruits, pointed instead of obtuse buds, and is an umbrageous tree, while E. nitida is only a tall shrubby plant.

3. With E. stellulata Sieb.

It resembles this species in its stellate buds and to some extent in the shape of its fruits, but differs in its leaf venation, colour of bark which is white, while that of E. stellulata is slate-coloured, and in its seedling foliage.

4. With E. Moorei Maiden and Cambage.

Its resemblances and differences are similar to those mentioned in the case of E. stellulata, and in addition E. Moorei only grows as a Mallee-like shrub of about 10–12 feet high.




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CCLXVIII. E. Brownii Maiden and Cambage.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 215 (1913).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Box tree mediocris, circiter 40' alta, erecta magis quam dependens. Cortex dura, lamellosa. Folia juvenilia lanceolata vel angusto lanceolata. Folia matura lanceolata, 10–15 cm. longa, 2–3 cm. lata, venis lateralibus angulo 30° ad costam mediam.

Alabastri parvi, clavati, operculum hæmisphæricum, umbella quaque 3–9 in capite. Fructus parvi, conoidei, circiter 3 cm. diametro.

We propose the name in honour of the great Robert Brown, who (amongst other parts) is closely identified with the botany of Northern Queensland.

A medium-sized Box-tree, about 40 feet high, erect rather than drooping.

Bark.—Hard thin flaky Box-bark, on the trunk and large branches, the ultimate branchlets smooth.

Juvenile leaves.—Lanceolate or narrow lanceolate. Generally long and narrow, petiolate, equally green on both sides, and slightly shiny, venation distinct, spreading, intramarginal vein distinct from the edge. Size say 20 by 2 cm.

Mature leaves.—Lanceolate; except as regards the size, the description of the juvenile leaves applies. Size say 10–15 by 2–3 cm. Lateral veins arranged at angle of about thirty degrees with the midrib.

Buds small, clavate, operculum hemispherical or slightly umbonate, and about half the length of the calyx-tube, which tapers gradually into the pedicel.

Flowers.—Inflorescence paniculate, the individual umbels three to nine in the head.

Anthers semi-terminal, nearly globular in shape, opening in small pores on each side near the top. Filament at the base, small gland on the top.

Fruits.—Fruits small, conoid, about 3 cm. in diameter and the calyx-tube about the same length, tapering, not perfectly gradually, into the pedicel, rim thin, tips of the valves flush with the orifice, which is not constricted.

Range.

It is confined to Northern Queensland, so far as we know at present.

Type from Reid River, near Townsville (N. Daley, Sept. and Dec., 1912).

Wirra Wirra, Almaden to Forsayth, North Queensland, growing on a somewhat sandy-conglomerate formation which furnishes a more siliceous soil than that usually selected by Box trees. (R. H. Cambage, No. 3895, August, 1913.)




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“After the 115th mile-post was passed, an undescribed species of Eucalyptus appeared (E. Brownii Maiden and Cambage, these Proceedings, 1913, p. 215). The note made in the train conveys a general description of the tree, and reads:—`A narrow-leaved Box, seems distinct species, rough bark on branches, green leaves.' These trees were growing on a contorted, micaceous slate formation showing quartz, but they continued intermittently to Wirra Wirra, where the rock is sandstone, possibly Upper Cretaceous. This Box tree averages about 40 feet high, with small fruits, and according to Mr. Thomas Keller, of Wirra Wirra, has dark-red timber.” (R. H. Cambage in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 413, 1915.)

Synonyms.

E. bicolor A. Cunn., var. parviflora F.v.M., Burdekin River (see B.Fl. iii, 215), E. populifolia F.v.M., non Hook.

Scrub Box tree of the Burdekin River, but not the Box tree of the Suttor River, labelled as above, which is E. populifolia Hook. All the above specimens were examined by Mueller, and apparently by Bentham also.

Affinities.

Its closest relations are with two species—E. populifolia Hook., and E. bicolor A. Cunn. Both are indicated by the labels of both Bentham and Mueller.

1. With E. populifolia Hook.

To the typical form of E. populifolia the resemblance is not close, but there is a narrow-leaved form of the species to which the resemblance is closer. The differences lie in the bark, which is less flaky in populifolia, in the more conical fruits of E. Brownii, and particularly in regard to the position of the intramarginal vein, which is much more removed from the leaf edge in E. Brownii.

2. With E. bicolor A. Cunn.

The differences appear to be the duller colour of the foliage of E. bicolor, that of the new species being a vivid green, its less spreading venation and less conoid fruits. E. Brownii has not the weeping habit of E. bicolor.

There is a specimen in the Melbourne Herbarium labelled “near Mount Elliott, Queensland, Fitzalan and Dallachy,” which appears to be E. Brownii. The late J. G. Luehmann has a note “Placed by Bentham with E. largiflorens (bicolor), seemingly with injustice. F. v. Mueller.”




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CCLXIX. E. Cambageana Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 91 (1913).

Arbor alta Blackbutt vocata, ramis longis pendulisque. Trunci, cortice cinerea et squamosa altitudini 3–4 pedes, a caule læve et albo ramisque distincte disjuncta. Lignum rubrum. Folia juvenia 15 cm. longa, 2.5 cm. lata, pallido-virentia utrinque, concoloria, ovata vel pyriforma, vena peripherica patente et a margine distincte remota. Umbellæ 3–8 in capite, paniculas plerumque terminales formantes. Alabastri clavati. Operculum ovoideum et calycis tubo circiter dimidio superante. Fructus parvi, conoidei, diametro circiter 7 mm. orificio.

“The young trees grow tall and fairly straight, but with age they become pipy and eventually simply a shell. Very liable to be attacked by white ants.” (Miss Zara Clark.)

“The trees range from 50–80 feet high, having long pendulous branches.

“They have scaly bark permanent up to 3–4 feet from the ground; this is hard and of an ironbark nature, jet black in colour, the remainder of the stem being milky-white, approaching bluish-white (glaucous); it is clear of any sign of ribbony bark beyond the butt. There is a distinct line of demarcation between the rough black and the white clean stem.

“The sapwood is exceptionally thin, the heart wood deep red or chocolate in colour, hard, heavy, long and tough in the grain, much resembling that of the Red Box (polyanthemos) of New South Wales.

“It is the most important timber in the Emerald district for all purposes, being sound, and yielding long, clean stems of many feet in length, hence exceptionally suitable for milling purposes.” (J. L. Boorman.)

Local name, “Blackbutt.” Type from Mirtna Station, Charters Towers, Queensland (Miss Zara Clark, January and December, 1912.)

Juvenile leaves.—Pale-coloured, equally green on both sides, rhomboid-ovate to pyriform and broadly lanceolate, petiolate, apex blunt, venation prominent, marginal vein at a considerable distance from the edge, the lateral veins spreading. Oil dots not obvious. Average size say 9 to 12 cm. by 5 or 6 broad.

Mature leaves.—Lanceolate, slightly curved, petiolate, thickish, shiny, pale-coloured, equally green on both sides, venation prominent, the intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge, the lateral veins spreading. Average length of mature leaves 15 by 2·5 cm.

Flowers.—Umbels 3 to 8 in the head, forming usually terminal panicles, buds clavate, the calyx-tube forming a defined raised border at its junction with the operculum, the calyx-tube tapering gradually into the pedicel, the operculum ovoid and about half the length of the calyx-tube.

Anthers belonging to the Porantheræ, pores small, opening at the side, the filament always at the base, and the small gland always at the top.

Fruits.—Small, conoid, the calyx-tube tapering with but slight abruptness into the pedicel; when young, with a well-defined grooved rim, which almost disappears on ripening, leaving a dark brown rim, tips of the valves sunk or rarely flush with the orifice. Size about 7 mm. diameter at the orifice and length the same.




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Range.

“Grows on hard clay soil, often stony, and always some distance from water. Generally in clumps and often in company of Gidgee and Brigalow in the Charters Towers district.” (Miss Zara Clark.)

Reid River, a few miles south of Townsville (N. Daley).

“The principal timber of the Emerald district, noted for its hardness and size, and for the good quality of its timber. Apparently local from Gin Gin to within 10–12 miles east of Alpha.” (J. L. Boorman.)

Some poor fruits collected by O'Shanesy from the Dawson and Mackenzie Rivers, labelled E. leptophleba by Mueller, are the present species. These were referred to by me in the present work, X, 333, where I doubted the naming of the specimen. It might be neglected altogether but for the reason that (op. cit., p. 333), it evidently formed the basis of the name E. leptophleba attached by O'Shanesy to a Blackbutt whose timber and bark he describes. He says “dispersed through the scrubby country westward from Goganjo.”

E. Cambageana, the Blackbutt of the Comet River and Coowarra districts, was first noticed between Jericho and Beta, thence onwards at intervals to Gogango, often growing with Acacia harpophylla (Brigalow).” (R. H. Cambage in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 445, 1915.)

It is therefore widely diffused in the warmer parts of Queensland, but we do not know its precise range yet.

Affinity.

It would appear to take the place, in Queensland, of the more southern E. polyanthemos Schauer, or rather of its narrow-leaved forms. The anthers, however, sharply separate them. The leaves also are different both in shape and venation. The rough bark is more scaly than that of E. polyanthemos, and the line of demarcation more clearly defined.

It is named in honour of Mr. Richard Hind Cambage, who has done valuable work in connection with this genus. I shall refer to this work more in detail in the epilogue. E. Cambagei Deane and Maiden is conspecific with E. elœophora F.v.M.




  ― 198 ―

CXXIII. E. miniata A. Cunn.

SEE Part XXII, p. 37, of the present work, where juvenile leaves collected by Mr. R. H. Cambage at Croydon, North Queensland, were described but not figured.

Juvenile leaves collected by Gerald F. Hill at Stapleton, south of Darwin, Northern Territory, are now figured. Following are some additional notes in regard to specimens collected by Mr. Hill:—

“809. 8-mile Spring, on to Tanumbirini, 26th March, 1912. Occurs near creeks and springs. Stem like Bloodwood.

“552. Top Spring. On Sandstone Range. This specimen, with one loose flower only, is probably this species.

“Pine Creek Railway, Brock's Creek (E. J. Dunn).

“ `Woolly Butt.' `I find that E. miniata grows on the deeper loams, while E. phœnicea takes its place on the more barren dry parts.' On granite country between Cullen River and Wandi. (Dr. Jensen.)

“Juvenile leaves of this species collected by Mr. R. H. Cambage at Croydon, North Queensland, with abundant stellate hairs, have been already described in Crit. Rev. Eucal. iii, 37.

“I have already figured juvenile leaves of this species at fig. 3a, Plate 95 of my Critical Revision, but Mr. Hill's specimens (below) are more satisfactory.

“I have received juvenile leaves, some in a strictly opposed state, from Darwin, collected in July, 1916. (G. F. Hill.) They vary from oval and ovate to nearly circular.

“Sometimes they are slightly emarginate, with a not very prominent mucro. A not uncommon size is 9 cm. (about 3¾ inches) long by up to 7·5 cm. (3 inches), with a petiole 1 cm. long.

“As a general rule the intramarginal vein is not far removed from the edge, but there is some variation in this respect.” (Maiden in Ewart and Davies' “Flora of the Northern Territory,” p. 312, 1917.)

E. miniata was observed at various points between Almaden and Normanton on siliceous soils, and is usually known as Woollybutt, although that name is also given to E. clavigera. It is sometimes spoken of as “Tobacco Pipe Gum,” from the resemblance of the large ribbed fruits to the bowl of a pipe, and is the “Melaleuca Gum” of Leichhardt. The lower portion of the trunk is covered with a remarkable yellow, scaly to papery bark, and the branches are smooth (Plate LIX, C.R.).” (R. H. Cambage in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 425, 1915.)

“A tree of 50–100 feet high, trunk to 40 feet, diameter to 3 feet; bark greyish to reddish, woolly-fibrous, rough and persistent on the lower half of the trunk sometimes covering the whole of it; limbs always white and smooth; timber red, very rough, hard; flowers at a height of 2 feet; an inhabitant of poor sandy soil.” (Fitzgerald MSS.) The above notes refer to the tree as it occurs in north West Australia. (Quoted by Maiden in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., li, 454, 1917.)

E. miniata is very abundant between the Gilbert and Little Rivers towards Croydon, North Queensland.” (Dr. H. I. Jensen, in a letter to me, June, 1920.)




  ― 199 ―

E. Woollsiana R. T. Baker.

In Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, 684, 1900, with Plate XLIII. (No serial number is given, as I do not admit E. Woollsiana as a valid species, but a synonym of E. odorata Behr and Schlecht., at least in part.)

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

A large tree up to 80 feet high, and more than 3 feet in diameter. Bark persistent half-way or more than half-way up the trunk; smooth, chiefly of a rich brown colour.

Sucker leaves lanceolate, alternate; 2–3 inches long, ½–¾ inch broad. Mature leaves under 6 inches long, on a petiole less than ½ inch; narrow-lanceolate, tapering to a fine recurved point, mostly of a thin texture, of a light yellowish-green, sometimes slightly shining; venation obscured, impressed on the upper surface; lateral veins few, intramarginal vein removed from the edge.

Peduncles axillary, from 2–12 lines long. Flowers few. Calyx about 1 line in diameter, tapering into a short stalk. Operculum hemispherical, acuminate, and often shorter and more obtuse than shown in the plate. Ovary flat-topped. Stamens all fertile; anthers parallel; connective large and long, attached at base to the filaments.

Fruits small, 1 line in diameter, hemispherical to slightly pear-shaped; rim thin, slightly contracted, valves not exserted.

Timber.—Hard, close-grained, interlocked, heavy, durable timber of a brownish colour. Useful for bridge-decking, posts, railway sleepers, and general building purposes. It is in great request at the Cobar mines for shoring the roofs.

Let us endeavour to interpret Mr. Baker's views of his species based on his own descriptions and figures.

Illustrations.—Mr. Baker figures E. Woollsiana at Plate XLIII, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. xxv, but gives no particulars as to locality of the specimen.

He figures the species in his and Mr. Smith's “Research on the Eucalypts,” and at Nos. 6 and 7 he adds very broad leaves to the details of his former plate.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. S.A., xl, 472, he states that Plate 29 (E. odorata) of J. E. Brown's “Forest Flora of South Australia” is E. Woollsiana. The illustrations are referred to with further detail in the descriptions of the illustrations at p. 223 of the present Part.

Let us consider the characters of E. Woollsiana, as stated by Mr. Baker, seriatim.

Habit.—“Large tree up to 80 feet high, and more than 3 feet in diameter.” (Original description.)




  ― 200 ―

Bark.—“Bark persistent half-way, or more than half-way, up the trunk; smooth, chiefly of a rich brown colour.” (Original description.) A specimen from Nyngan, W. Baeuerlen, given to me by Mr. Baker and labelled by him Mallee Box, E. Woollsiana, has bark whitish on the outside, thin, flaky, or with narrow furrows, Box-like (like E. odorata).

Timber.—“Hard, close-grained, interlocked, of a brownish colour.” (Original description.) I have received a specimen of a dark brown timber, bark rough, from Girilambone to Condobolin (W. Baeuerlen), sent by Mr. Baker as a specimen of the type.

Juvenile leaves.—“Lanceolate, alternate, 2–3 inches long, ½–¾ inch broad.” (Original description.) These were not figured when the type was figured, but are obviously those shown in Research plate, fig. 1. These can be matched by leaves of E. odorata, e.g., 16b, 16c, 19a, Plate 51, Part XI. They are less like those of E. bicolor, see fig. 5a, Plate 49, Part XI.

The introduction of the broad leaves (figs. 6 and 7, Research plate) introduces a new element. From the distance of the intramarginal vein to the edge, they are evidently juvenile or intermediate leaves. They are matched by the juvenile foliage of E. odorata, Wirrabarra Forest Reserve, South Australia (W. Gill, March, 1905), figured in 10b, Plate 51, Part XI, but there are larger leaves on the twigs.

Mature leaves.—“Under 6 inches long, on a petiole less than ½ inch, narrow lanceolate, tapering to a fine recurved point, mostly of a thin texture, of a light yellowish green; sometimes slightly shining; venation obscured, impressed on the upper surface; lateral veins few, intramarginal vein removed from the edge.” (Original description.)

What Mr. Baker intended by mature leaves is quite clear from fig. 1 (type plate), and also figures 2 and 3 (both type plate and Research, &c., plate). In fig. 5 (Research plate), he added a much longer, more petiolate leaf, which seems to me probably not different from 1–3. There is no difficulty in matching these with E. odorata.

Buds.—“Operculum hemispherical, acuminate, and often shorter and more obtuse than shown in the plate.” (Original description.) These buds, drawn too pointed, as stated, are figured at fig. 2 of the type plate, and fig. 2 of the Research plate. They are shown six in the head.

As shown in the figures, they a good deal resemble those of pointed buds of E. bicolor, see fig. 11a, Plate 49, Part XI. But I think the pointed buds are probably a mistake for E. Woollsiana, as hinted by Mr. Baker in the word “often.” I think the typical form of the species really has the “tip-cat” buds of E. odorata, as shown in J. E. Brown's figure of that species (fig. 3a, Plate 194) attributed by Mr. Baker to his E. Woollsiana, and which buds are the type form of E. odorata, see fig. 9b, Plate 51, Part XI.

Peduncles.—In the figures of the twig (leaves and flowers, not buds) (see fig. 3 of the type plate and fig. 3 of the Research, &c., plate), the peduncles are shown long and the pedicels distinct.

Fruits.—“Small, 1 line in diameter, hemispherical to slightly pear-shaped, rim thin, slightly contracted, valves not exserted.” (Original description.) They are


  ― 201 ―
figured in fig. 8, both of the type plate and the Research plate. It will be observed that they were not taken off the same tree as the buds (fig. 2), and the flowers (fig. 3), as they are nearly sessile, while the twigs of buds and flowers are pedicellate.

(Some of the very small fruits attributed to E. Woollsiana would probably have got larger, had not the growth been arrested from various causes.)

Under the heading of E. Woollsiana R. T. Baker, in Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., xl, 479 (1916), Mr. Baker writes:—“There appears to have been some confusion in the past between this species and its congeners, for that figured by J. E. Brown, `Forest Flora of South Australia' under E. odorata is this species. Specimens were received which match the type (? which type) collected in New South Wales.”

This is a narrow-leaved species. I show a tracing of the essential parts of the drawing (J. E. Brown's Plate 29) at figures 3a, 3b. This is, as Brown, then Conservator of South Australian forests, says, the South Australian E. odorata, and although Brown was not a botanist he knew this common South Australian species well. Brown's drawing is, in my view also, E. odorata, and will be referred to under E. odorata at p. 223. In other words, Mr. Baker synonymises his E. Woollsiana with E. odorata, and I think he is right.

Vernaculars.—“Mallee Box.” This was applied by Mr. Baker to his species, and I have known such a name to be applied in more than one district. It shares the name, however, with E. odorata. The name means that the tree sometimes is as small as Mallee, and that it has a Box-like bark, but that individual trees may grow quite large, and shoot up above the prevailing dwarfer (Mallee) vegetation. I never knew it to be a true Mallee. This name has been in actual use for this and allied species at Nymagee, Mount Boppy, Yagobie (towards Queensland border), Inglewood (South Queensland).

Vernaculars are often applied in ignorance, or at all events, without uniformity.

“Black Box” is a name less in use for this species, and most of the cases in which I have heard it used have been owing to confusion with E. odorata. At the same time, it has been applied to E. Woollsiana (so far as it was supposed to be recognised), and Mr. R. H. Cambage explains it as follows in 1900:—

“The tree which is best known in the western district as White Box is E. albens (E. hemiphloia var. albens), with pale bark and glaucous leaves, but its habitat is under the western fringe of the high mountain spurs running from the Great Dividing Range, avoiding the cold country, and extending westward along slight undulations to the low plain country proper. Here it ceases, but is met and overlapped by E. Woollsiana. All along, and near these points of contact, the latter is called Black Box, to distinguish it from E. albens. It is also a darker tree, having dark green and slightly glossy leaves. In times of drought sheep will eat the leaves of E. albens, especially after they have been cut a day or two, but they object to the leaves of E. Woollsiana.” (Cambage in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, 715, 1900.)

“Narrow-leaved Box.” In comparison with such a species as E. hemiphloia (vars. both albens and microcarpa) E. Woollsiana is undoubtedly narrow-leaved, but I think most of the references to the narrowness of the leaves really belong to E. Pilligaensis, see p. 210.




  ― 202 ―

Range.

It is unfortunate that a single specimen, and no other, has not been fixed as the type. The author of this species sins, in this respect, in very good company, but absence of definiteness of a type leads to the confusion we all desire to avoid.

Mr. Baker quotes the following localities:—Girilambone, Cobar, and Trangie (W. Baeuerlen); Nyngan and Murga (R. H. Cambage). (Original description.) These are all in western New South Wales.

It will be observed that no type locality is mentioned, neither is it stated, in the explanation of Plate XLIII, figuring E. Woollsiana (original description) where the specimens figured came from. I have received, in response to my request for types, specimens labelled by Mr. Baker, Condobolin and Girilambone to Condobolin.

Affinities.

Preliminary.—This tree is a half-barked “Box,” and allied in bark and timber to E. populifolia, E. albens, and other cognate Box-trees. [Of all the Box-trees described this species has probably the narrowest leaves]. … (These words in the square brackets are omitted from Research, &c., p. 132.)

The leaves have a shining surface, occasionally as pertains to E. populifolia F.v.M., or E. Behriana F.v.M. (Original description.)

1. With E. conica Deane and Maiden.

“It differs from E. conica Deane and Maiden, in height, bark, timber, oil and fruits. Although the two species are not easily separated on herbarium material, they are never confounded in the field.” (Original description.) References to E. conica are omitted from Research, &c., p. 132.

For E. conica see Part XIII, with Plate 60, and also p. 64 of Part XLII. See also Plate 219, Part LVIII of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.” E. conica has broader juvenile leaves in contradistinction to the usually narrower ones of E. Woollsiana; the fruits also are very different in shape and size, while the anthers of the two species are very different.

2. With E. microtheca F.v.M.

“It differs from E. microtheca in the valves of the fruit not being exserted, in the colour of the wood, and in the bark and chemical constituents.” (Original description.)

For E. microtheca see Part XI, figs. 16–22, Plate 52. There are no close affinities; the timber of E. microtheca is red, and the fruits sharply different.




  ― 203 ―

3. With E. viridis R. T. Baker.

“The fruits are small, and somewhat approach in shape those of the Green Mallee, E. viridis Baker; but the bark, timber, and chemical constituents of the kino and oil differentiate it from that species.” (Original description.) (This passage is omitted from Research, &c., p. 133.)

“By the casual observer, it is sometimes confused with the large form of E. viridis, which is also in places called Mallee Box, but with this tree it has no field affinities.” (R. H. Cambage in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, 714, 1900.)

For E. viridis (under the name E. acacioides), see figs. 9–12, Plate 52, Part XI. As a very general rule, this is a slender, graceful Mallee.

4. With E. bicolor A. Cunn. (E. pendula A. Cunn., see Part XI).

“.… from E. pendula A. Cunn., in the venation and shape of the leaves, the shape of the fruits and constituents of the oil, and particularly in its timber, and it has a more erect habit than this species.” (Original description.)

For E. bicolor see Part XI, with figs. 5–13 of Plate 49. I would be inclined to say that E. bicolor has a more pendulous habit than those trees which have been described as E. Woollsiana; it is a thick, rough-barked, pendulous, narrow-leaved species, while E. Woollsiana has a paler and less rugged bark; the colour of the timber of E. bicolor is a rich reddish brown.

5. With E. populifolia Hook.

E. populifolia has much wider leaves, but the bark of the species is very similar [but is not associated in any other respect with this species]. (These words in square brackets are omitted from Research, &c., p. 133.) Mr. W. Baeuerlen states `that it is usually associated with E. populifolia, the Green Mallee (E. viridis Baker), and the Grey Mallee (E. Morrisii Baker), on which account it is called `Mallee Box.' I have never seen it in Mallee form, and as a result of my enquiries it appears that it does not grow in that form.' ” (Original description.)

For E. populifolia see Part X, Plate 48. The two species are very dissimilar, the only approach (distant) being in the infrequent narrow-leaved form of E. populifolia, and in the small fruits, which are, however, different in shape.

6. With E. hemiphloia F.v.M.

“From E. hemiphloia it differs in the nature of its timber, oil, buds, and leaves. … Of described species it is most closely allied to E. hemiphloia and other `Boxes' in oil, kino, and botanical characters. (Original description.)

I agree that the closest affinity of certain specimens attributed to E. Woollsiana is to E. hemiphloia var. microcarpa, indeed that they cannot be separated. In this connection compare, for the former, the illustrations referred to at p. 223, with those of E. hemiphloia var. microcarpa at Plate 50, Part XI, figs. 7–17. In E. hemiphloia we have broad suckers and usually, almost invariably, coarser mature foliage; paniculate inflorescence, which often serves to separate it from its congeners; fruits usually larger and more ovoid. At the same time, in E. hemiphloia, through arrested growth and other causes, we may have very small fruits. Mr. Cambage was alive to that many years ago, for, in sending me twigs of E. hemiphloia var. microcarpa, from Mount


  ― 204 ―
McDonald, near Cowra, he sent twigs tied together with fruits varying in size from as small as ever seen in the figures of E. Woollsiana to as large as those seen in the variety of E. hemiphloia. The little bundle bore the label, “These three twigs are from the same branch.”

The differences between E. Woollsiana may be ascertained (if possible) by comparison of the figures, figs. 2b, 2c, Plate 194, of the specimens attributed by Mr. Baker to E. Woollsiana, and figs. 7–17, Plate 50, Part XI, of E. hemiphloia var. microcarpa. In addition, we must take cognisance of material distributed by Mr. Baker as co-types of his E. Woollsiana.

Speaking generally, it may be said that they gradually run into each other, and that there are times when it is difficult to separate them on herbarium material, especially if it be incomplete. The leaf characters do not appear to offer sufficient evidence to always discriminate between them, and the buds and fruits are subject to variation, both in shape and size, as already indicated. The suckers appear to be the strongest characters by which they can be separated, but everything depends on what we know as E. Woollsiana.




  ― 205 ―

XLIV. E. odorata Behr and Schlecht.

As I have stated that the mixed material described and sent out as E. Woollsiana is chiefly E. odorata, I refer to Part XI of the present work, and give some supplementary notes on the latter species.

Habit.—A shrub or medium-sized tree; rarely a very large tree. Sometimes Mallee-like, but not a true Mallee.

Bark.—Dark grey, rough, persistent (Mueller).

I see no difference between odorata and Woollsiana bark, except that I have more specimens of saplings and branches of South Australian odorata. These are smooth and ribbony on the branches.

Timber.—Pale-coloured to brown, hard, interlocked.

E. odorata would, if found in New South Wales, certainly be called a Box-tree, as it looks like a stunted form of E. Woollsiana, though its wood appears slightly browner. It is plentiful on the hills near Adelaide, and is known as Peppermint.” (R. H. Cambage, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxvi, 321, 1901.)

I see no difference between this and Woollsiana timber, except that the latter is perhaps a little darker in colour. The different views of Mr. Cambage and myself as regards the comparative colour of the timber of E. odorata and E. Woollsiana may be explained because of the fewness of the specimens seen, but the probable explanation is that there is no real difference at all.

Juvenile Leaves.—The comparison with those of E. Woollsiana seems to have been sufficiently dealt with under E. Woollsiana, see p. 200. The same remarks apply also to the mature leaves, the “tip-cat” buds, and the fruits.

The almost linear juvenile leaf shown at fig. 10a, Plate 51, is exceptional, though there are connecting forms with the normal. In the opposite direction, the very broad leaf shown at 16a seems exceptional, but both specimens came from a source which allows no doubt as to their botanical origin.

Range.

For South Australian and Victorian localities, see Part XI, pp. 33 and 34. The New South Wales localities given at p. 35 should be held in suspense, and the following substituted. When E. odorata is better understood, many more New South Wales localities will be found.




  ― 206 ―

“Mallee,” pale timber, but not mature. Minore (J. L. Boorman, June, 1901).

“From an old stump of tree, 3 feet or more in diameter, base appeared of a `boxy' nature.” Cobar (J. L. Boorman, July, 1903). Figured at Plate 152, Part XLI, “Forest Flora.”

Second growth of tree 2–3 feet in diameter. Mount Boppy (J. L. Boorman, August, 1903).

The note on E. odorata by myself, in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 329 (1915), probably refers to E. bicolor A. Cunn.

Range of E. odorata var., calcicultrix F.v.M.

To the South Australian localities given at Part XI, p. 35, may be added:—

“Water Mallee,” because the roots are used to drain water for human consumption in dry areas. Minnipa, Eyre's Peninsula (W. J. Spafford, No. 14). One foot in diameter. Timber and bark like odorata.

New South Wales.

The following specimen shows that it occurs in this State, and it should still further be looked for:—

“Tree of about 30 feet, growing in bed of creek in the same way as E. rostrata in these inland places.” Broken Hill (A. Morris, Nos. 84 and 102).

Affinities.

1. With E. Woollsiana R. T. Baker.

I have already, p. 201, stated that I do not think that E. odorata can be separated from E. Woollsiana, but perhaps the comments already given under Bark, &c., at p. 200 may be found useful.

E. odorata has broadish suckers and pale brown timber, with commonly dull foliage (at all events in New South Wales specimens), and a Cobar specimen (in the same general district as some specimens of E. Woollsiana) will be found figured in Plate 152, fig. E, Part XLI, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.” It shares with E. Woollsiana the name of “Mallee Box.”




  ― 207 ―

XLIII. E. hemiphloia F.v.M. var. microcarpa Maiden.

As, in my view, it is impossible to understand what is attributed to E. Woollsiana without comparison with E. hemiphloia var., microcarpa, I bring it forward under review at this place, with some additional localities. The variety is described at Part XI, p. 18, of the present work.

Illustrations.—Plate 50, figs. 7–17, Part XI of this work.

Synonym.

E. Woollsiana R. T. Baker, partim. “The Woollsiana No. 2” of J. H. Maiden in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxix, 764 (1904).

Range.

This is stated at Part XI, p. 18. The localities there given have been checked and confirmed, and I desire to give the following additional ones:—

New South Wales.

Deniliquin, rare, believed to be “Black Box” (O. Wilshire).

“Black Box,” flats near creek, Experiment Farm, Bomen (Dr. H. I. Jensen).

About 50 feet, with grey granulated bark. Extension of Barns' No. 8 Line, East Mirrool (W. D. Campbell, No. 33). Tree of 50 feet, timber pale. At 3,000 feet on Line 3, Parish of Yenda, East Mirrool (W. D. Campbell, No. 56). Grey Box, very common here. Temora to Morangarell (Rev. J. W. Dwyer, No. 137). Tree of 40 feet, Temora to Mirrool (Rev. J. W. Dwyer, No. 197).

“Narrow-leaved Box.” Mulyandey State Forest on the new Grenfell road, 16 miles from Forbes (Forest Guard C. O. Love).




  ― 208 ―

West Wyalong (F. W. Wakefield). Temora. The commonest Box about Temora to Wyalong (Rev. J. W. Dwyer). Cootamundra to Temora (Rev. J. W. Dwyer, No. 205). A tall Box. Ardlethan, Temora to Griffith Line (J. L. Boorman).

White or Grey Box, Condobolin (R. H. Cambage).

Wongoni near Dunedoo (Andrew Murphy).

Queensland.

Inglewood (J. L. Boorman).

Affinities.

The relations of E. hemiphloia (including this variety) and other species will be found stated at Part XI, p. 19. Its relations with what is stated to be E. Woollsiana will be found discussed at p. 203 of the present Part.




  ― 209 ―

XLII. E. bicolor A. Cunn

IN view of the fact that E. bicolor (on herbarium specimens) has been confused with E. odorata, and that the species is more diffused than was as one time supposed, the following notes may be useful:—

Bark.—The bark is dark coloured, very thick, and even furrowed like an Ironbark when old, though not so hard; flaky-fibrous, sometimes reminiscent of a Stringybark.

Timber.—The timber is red (or rarely reddish brown). The colour is referred to in this work, Part XI, p. 10. It is sometimes one of the most interlocked of timbers.

Range.

This is dealt with at Part XI, pp. 9–12, of the present work, fairly comprehensively.

In Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 329 (1915), will be found a note from my pen on the occurrence of E. odorata in New South Wales, but the timber is there erroneously described as reddish, because the specimens referred to (now to be enumerated) are really E. bicolor. They are:—

“Hybrid Box,” T.S.R., ½ mile from Girilambone Railway Station (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman, August, 1910).

“Mallee Box,” 4½ miles from Coolabah Railway Station on way to Coolabah Experiment Farm (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman, August, 1910).

Affinities.

See Part XI, p. 12.




  ― 210 ―

CCLXX. E. Pilligaensis Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liv, 163 (1920).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor mediocris, cortice cana E. hemiphloiae simile et in trunco ramisque persistente; ligno brunneo, fibris tortuosis; foliis junioribus lineari-lanceolatis ca 10 cm. longis et 1·25 cm. latis, utrinque obscuris, venis distinctis sed praeter costam non conspicuis, vena peripherica a margine paullo remota, venis patentibus; foliis maturis angusto-lanceolatis ca 10 cm. longis, 2·5 cm. latis, nitentibus vel obscuro-nitentibus utrinque, venis junioribus foliis similibus; alabastris non angularibus, operculo conico, calyce in pedicillum angustato; antheris E. odoratae similibus, stigma paullo dilata; fructibus parvis conoideis ad subcylindraceis ca 3 mm. longis in pedicellum paullo longiorem angustatis, pedunculo ca 9 mm.; margine distincta valvis plerumque 4, valde immersis.

A medium-sized tree.

Bark.—Whitish grey like that of E. hemiphloia, and persistent as in that species, on the trunk and main branches.

Timber.—Brown coloured and interlocked.

Juvenile leaves.—Linear-lanceolate, say 10 cm. (4 inches) long and say 1·25 cm. (¼ inch) broad, dull on both sides, venation distinct though not conspicuous, except as regards the midrib. Intramarginal vein a little distant from the edge, venation spreading.

Mature leaves.—Narrow lanceolate, say 10 cm. (4 inches) long, and up to say 2·5 cm. (½ inch) broad, shining or dull-shining (egg-shell lustre) on both sides; venation as in juvenile leaves.

Buds.—Not angular, with conical operculum, the calyx tapering into the pedicel.

Flowers.—Anthers very similar to those of E. odorata; the stigma slightly dilated.

Fruits.—Small, conoid to subcylindrical, say 3 mm. (? inch) long, tapering to a pedicel rather exceeding that length, into a common peduncle of 9 mm. (? inch); rim distinct, valves usually four, well sunk.

This tree has received both attention and neglect, because it has been by some looked upon as included in E. Woollsiana R. T. Baker. As I have now no hesitation in saying that it is not included in E. Woollsiana (compare Mr. Baker's figures of that species), and as I am of opinion that it has not been formally described as a species, I offer it as new. Inasmuch as it is so common in the Pilliga Scrub, New South Wales, that the district may be looked upon as a focus of it, the specific name chosen may be useful.

Illustrations.—See Part XI, Plate 51, figures 27–30 of the present work; also my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part XLI, Plate 152, figures B and C, for much larger and better figures. These were all drawn from a specimen collected by me at Narrabri, New South Wales, in November, 1899, and form the type. A photograph block of saplings at Gilgandra, New South Wales (R. H. Cambage) was backed by specimens referable to this new species. All the figures were labelled E. odorata var. Woollsiana.




  ― 211 ―

Synonym.

E. odorata Behr and Schlecht., var. Woollsiana Maiden, as described at p. 32, Part XI of the present work.

Range.

So far as I know, this species is confined to New South Wales and Queensland, but we have much to learn in regard to its range in these, and possibly in other States. It is represented by the following specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney. The localities quoted are all in the northern half of New South Wales, extending just into Queensland, the two quoted from that State marching with the northern New South Wales localities.

New South Wales.

Mount Boppy (J. L. Boorman, August, 1903). Four and a half miles from Coolabah Railway Station on the way to the old Experiment Farm (J. L. Boorman and J.H.M.). “Mallee Box,” Moondana, Parish Flinders, Nymagee district (Forest Guard E. F. Rogers).

Gilgandra (R. H. Cambage No. 1135, with photo. of a clump of saplings, already quoted). Large shrub or small tree, Dubbo–Gilgandra road, 18 miles from Dubbo (W. Forsyth, No. 2). “Narrow-leaved Box,” Coonamble (E. Taylor).

Castlereagh River (Rev. Dr. Woolls), labelled E. largiflorens by Mueller. “Narrow-leaved Box,” on the plains near Baradine (W. Forsyth, No. 5).

Very common in the Pilliga Scrub, as the following specimens will show:—

Box, slaty smooth bark on branches. Forest Reserve 1,263, Parish Leard, County Nandewar; 45 feet high, girth 54 inches (Forest Guard M. H. Simon). “Narrow-leaved Box.” Bark greyish in colour and rough on trunk, smooth on limbs and of darkish colour. Height 60 feet, diameter 3 to 4 feet. Wee Waa (Forest, Guard T. W. Taylor, No. 14). “White Box,” near Old Wongan Station, Dubbo Creek area (Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 56). “Gum-topped White Box.” Cuttabri (J. L. Boorman, Dr. H. I. Jensen, Nos. 2, 19). “Narrow-leaved Box.” A tree of 60 feet, fairly straight, Parish Kenebri, County White, Pilliga (E. H. F. Swain, No. 40). A Box, girth 7 feet, Pilliga (E. H. F. Swain, No. 29).

Narrabri, November, 1899 (J.H.M.). The narrow suckered tree defined by me as E. odorata var. Woollsiana. Type of E. Pilligaensis.

“A Box growing on flats, black soil plains, by side of river, medium-sized trees.” Narrabri West (J. L. Boorman). “Narrow-leaved Box. Bark whitish-grey, like that of E. hemiphloia, and persistent as in that species, on the trunk and main branches. I also saw it growing in the Forbes district.” Narrabri (Henry Deane). (I have not seen the Forbes specimens—J.H.M.)




  ― 212 ―

“Narrow-leaved Box.” Moree (W. S. Campbell). In flower only, and at one time considered by me to be E. odorata.

“Apple,” Bingara (E. H. F. Swain, No. 11). “Mallee Box,” Yagobie, between Gwydir and MacIntyre Rivers (E. H. F. Swain, No. 8).

Dark flaky bark. Denman, the most southerly locality known, at all events in the coastal districts (W. Heron, No. 24).

Queensland.

A medium-sized tree, known locally as “Mallee Box,” Inglewood, via Warwick (J. L. Boorman).

“Ribbon Box.” Same growth, size, and bark as Gum-topped Box (E. hemiphloia), but leaves narrow and fruit very small. Very abundant. Wyaga, Goondiwindi district (C. T. White, No. 26).

Affinities.

It is known as “Narrow-leaved Box,” and best deserves this name of all the Boxes. This, combined with the remarkably small fruit, readily separates it from such species. From E. Woollsiana R. T. Baker, E. odorata Behr and Schlecht., E. hemiphloia F.v.M. var. microcarpa, E. conica Maiden, all Boxes, like it, with pale timbers and similar bark, it is distinguished by its very narrow juvenile leaves and usually narrower mature leaves. From E. bicolor A. Cunn., which has narrow juvenile leaves, it is sharply separated by the thick, dark bark and red-brown timber.




  ― 213 ―

CCLXXI. E. Penrithensis Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 227 (1913).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor mediocris, “Bastard Stringybark” vocata. Cortex trunci dura et subfibrosa. Rami teretes. Folia matura crassiuscula, venis nitentibus, distinctis, patentibus, vena peripherica a margine remota. Alabastri stellulati, juvenes angulatiusculi, maturi clavatiores. Operculum conicum. Flores paniculati 4–10 in umbella quaque. Antherae reniformes. Fructus hemisphærici ad fere pilulares diametro circiter 5 mm. margine lævo et conspicuo. Fructus a pedicello filiforme acute disjuncti.

“Bastard Stringybark” or “Peppermint.” Two miles east of Penrith, New South Wales (J. L. Boorman, January, 1900). A tree of medium height and very scarce locally.

Bark hard fibrous on the trunk, branches smooth, intermediate in character between a “Stringybark” and a “Peppermint.”

Timber reddish brown and with concentric though not abundant gum-veins.

Intermediate leaves petiolate, falcate, acuminate, mostly unsymmetrical, rather coriaceous, equally green on both sides, venation prominent, spreading, intramarginal vein well removed from the edge. Average size say 13 cm. by 3 cm. broad.

Mature leaves much smaller, say 9 cm. by 1 cm. broad, rather thick, shiny, plentifully besprinkled with black dots, venation the same, resembling those of intermediate leaves.

Buds stellulate and somewhat angled when very young, more clavate as maturity approaches. Operculum conical, the calyx-tube tapering into a short pedicel.

Flowers paniculate, 4 to 10 in the individual umbel, which has a slightly flattened common peduncle under 1 cm. long. Anthers kidney-shaped.

Fruit hemispherical to nearly pilular, diameter about 5 mm. with a well-defined smooth rim, tips of the valves either sunk, or not protruding beyond the orifice. The fruit is sharply separated from the filiform pedicel.

Synonym.

E. Marsdeni C. Hall, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xliii, 747 (with a Plate).

I submit drawings of the types of both E. Penrithensis and E. Marsdeni. The material is not large in either case; the barks are the same; the fruit of E. Penrithensis is a little smaller, but I can find no botanical differences between them. Dr. Hall realises that the species is not a strong one, calling it “f. vel sp. nov.” He also says: “I have named this form or species tentatively E. Marsdeni, after the Rev. Samuel Marsden, the first incumbent of St. John's Church, Parramatta.”




  ― 214 ―

Following is the original description of E. Marsdeni:—

“Arbor 30–50' altitudine, cortice fibroso inferne superne lævi foliis petiolatis, lanceolatis, acuminatis, falcatis, obliquis, fere membraneis; cymis axillaribus; pedunculis 4?' longis, pedicellis 1½?'; operculo hemisphærico, umbonato; fructibus hemisphæricis, valvis parum exsertis.”

A tree, 30 feet high in specimen observed, and probably would attain a height of 60–80 feet when fully grown.

Seedling.—Cotyledons very small, orbicular-reniform, entire purplish on under-surface, glabrous. Leaves opposite, decussate, obtuse, shortly petiolate, lanceolate, venation pinnate, rather oblique, edges sinuate. Stem reddish, and both it and the leaves covered with fine, stellate hairs.

Juvenile leaves of a more advanced stage than in the small seedling are alternate, petiolate, narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous. Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, falcate, acuminate, oblique, greyish on drying, almost membranous, occasionally shiny, and having a pleasant, aromatic scent. Laminæ 6 inch-8 inch long by ¾ inch broad, petiole slender, ½ inch long. Lateral veins oblique, alternately fine, intramarginal vein fairly distant from the edge.

Inflorescence axillary, peduncles ½ inch long, with rather few flowers in head, six to nine; buds turbinate, 5 inches long, operculum hemispherical, shortly acuminate. Stamens all fertile, anthers kidney-shaped. Fruits hemispherical 3 lines in diameter, rim domed, valves small, slightly exserted.

Bark of an unusual character for a Eucalypt. While it falls in the group of the stringybarks, yet it is laminated, with a sort of ochreous deposit on the surface of each layer. Inner bark very hard and compact. But while the trunk and lower branches have such bark, that of the upper branches and branchlets is smooth and greyish, so that the tree is really a half bark.

Timber light brown in colour, fairly heavy, close, straight in the grain, annual rings prominent in the young stage, planes and dresses well, and should be useful for technical purposes; gum-veins few.

Range.

Confined to the County of Cumberland, New South Wales, so far as we know at present.

The type of E. Penrithensis came from two miles east of Penrith, New South Wales. Guided by Mr. Boorman I saw the tree a month or two afterwards, but it and a few others, believed to be the same, were cut down a short time subsequently, and others could not be traced.

Toongabbie, New South Wales, at the rear of the Public School, on the Wianamatta clay, is the only locality known of the type of E. Marsdeni, but I understand from Dr. Hall that his specimen cannot be found now, having probably shared the same fate as the type tree of E. Penrithensis.

See also notes at pp. 236 and 237 (under E. eugenioides) in Part VII of the present work.

It will probably turn out that E. Penrithensis is not as rare as was at once supposed. It has probably been passed over as a ragged, hard Stringybark, and looked upon as an anomalous E. eugenioides.




  ― 215 ―

The following two specimens probably belong to this species:—

  • 1. Field of Mars, Gladesville, two trees close together, pointed out by J. J. Fletcher to R. H. Cambage and myself in February, 1905, and Mr. Cambage and I collected specimens, while Mr. Cambage took admirable photographs of the trees, which will be reproduced when Barks in the genus are arrived at.
  • 2. Galston-road, about 1 mile from Hornsby, Mr. Sutton's property (W. F. Blakely, 21st October, 1918).

These two specimens apparently vary only in robustness from the type of E. Penrithensis, the Galston specimen being from a young, vigorous tree, which would account for this.

Affinities.

This is an anomalous, rare, and apparently local species, and one naturally looks upon it as a hybrid. At the same time, hybridism is difficult to prove. Of course it is not necessary to prove that the assumed parents are to be found, at the present time, in close juxtaposition to the individuals from which one obtained material in the present case. The parents may be some distance away, and the seed of the trees may have been conveyed in a number of ways. Possibly the parents are E. eugenioides Sieb. and E. hœmastoma Sm. var. micrantha Benth. Let us consider these in detail. (Original description.)

Dr. Hall was also of opinion that his species (E. Marsdeni) might be a hybrid, and he and I formed these opinions independently in regard to the practically solitary specimens of E. Penrithensis and E. Marsdeni referred to. It will be best to give his remarks from the original description litteratim:—

“As seen from the description, this form of Eucalypt, on a cortical classification, seems intermediate between the smooth-barks and stringy-barks. The timber has not the texture of that of the stringy-barks, but more nearly resembles that of E. viminalis in physical characters. The early buds resemble those of E. obliqua, but there is no resemblance in the mature stage. The mature leaves are generally markedly oblique. The fruit resembles that of E. eugenioides, but it tapers more into the pedicel, and is not so flat; nor are the fruits so clustered on the peduncle. The seedling is intermediate between those of E. eugenioides and E. Moorei; and, in its hairy seedling-leaves and reniform cotyledons, approximates strongly to the stringy-barks. The reniform anthers also place it in that category, but the bark, timber, and oil are quite distinct from those of this class. As, so far, only a single tree is known, one is strongly inclined to conclude that it is either a hybrid or a sport. Strong colour is lent to the hybrid theory by the fact of it possessing so many of the characters of the stringy-barks, especially in the seedling stage; yet differing from them in others in the mature stage, as, for instance, in the bark, oil, and timber. Since the only tree has, unfortunately, lately been cut down, further comparison is at present impossible. Now that a description has been published, search may reveal further specimens, and more definitely establish its status. The tree was a young one, about 12–15 years old, and growing on land that had been mostly cleared, but with a few well-grown trees of E. hœmastoma, E. resinifera, and E. siderophloia in proximity. Other trees near by were E. crebra, E. eugenioides, E. hemiphloia, E. punctata, and E. tereticornis.”




  ― 216 ―

1. With E. hœmastoma Sm. var. micrantha Benth. (A “White Gum.”)

The affinities lie in the smoothness of the branches, the fruits, and the young (intermediate) leaves. (Original description of E. Penrithensis.)

2. With E. eugenioides Sieb. (A “Stringybark.”)

The bark indicates some affinity to the Stringybark, and there is also affinity in the foliage (as also with the White Gum). There is some (not close) resemblance in the fruits, while the pedicellate fruit is seen in the White Gum. (Original description of E. Penrithensis.)

Some remarks on supposed hybridism in which E. eugenioides takes a part, will be found under E. Laseroni, p. 187.

3. With E. piperita Sm.

Penrith is not in E. stellulata country, and the relations of the proposed new species with E. piperita may be examined. The barks resemble each other a good deal. The pointedness and curvature of the young buds reminds one of those of E. piperita. The resemblance of the foliage and anthers would apply more or less to E. eugenioides, hœmastoma, and piperita. (Original description of E. Penrithensis.)




  ― 217 ―

CXII. E. micranthera F.v.M.

See the present work, Part XX, Plate 88, p. 308.

THIS excessively rare and imperfectly known Western Australian species has been sent to me (Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 506) by Mr. H. P. Turnbull, of the Alexander River, about half-way between Esperance and Israelite Bays, on the south coast.

Unfortunately he was unable to recognise the specimen, and so to say the exact spot where he collected it, and thus obtain more material, but he has obtained fruits (unfortunately the seed had all dropped out), and these, being new to science, may be described as follows:—They are hemispherical in shape, and about 7 mm. in diameter, shining, with one moderately prominent angle. The pedicels short and flattened, supported by a flattened peduncle of twice the length. The rim horizontal or slightly rounded, the teeth of the calyx flush with the rim or slightly exceeding it. They are figured at fig. 5b, Plate 195.

E. micranthera certainly resembles E. cneorifolia DC. in the narrowish leaves and sessile inflorescence. The peduncle of E. micranthera is broader and more compressed; the fruits are very similar in both species, but the anthers are smaller in E. micranthera and the filaments broader and more yellowish or yellowish-green. The leaves of E. micranthera have longer petioles and are somewhat broader.




  ― 218 ―

CCLXXII. E. notabilis Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liv, 169 (1920).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor mediocris pulchra umbrosa, cortice lamelloso-fibrosa “Mahogany” simile, ligno pallido rectis fibris duro. Ramulis quadrangulatis. Foliis juvenilibus lanceolatis, petiolatis, pallidis, inferiore pagina, venis secundariis fere parallelibus. Foliis maturis crassis, coriaceis, lanceolatis, rectis vel falcatis, penniveniis. Alabastris ad 9 capitulo, pedunculo lato fere sessile, calycis tubo hemispherico ad hemiellipsoides, angulis duobis prominulis. Fructibus fere hemisphericis, ca 7 mm. diametro angulis vel alis duobus, margine distincta, valvis valde exsertis.

A tree of moderate size, say about 50 feet, with a diameter of 4 to 5 feet. It has rich dark umbrageous foliage, and is a handsome species.

Bark flaky-stringy, or fibrous-flaky in young trees. It is rough to the tips of the branches, and the trunk does not display corrugations of the bark. Timber pale-coloured (of the palest brown when freshly cut), straight grained, a good splitter, and possessing a fair degree of tensile strength.

Juvenile leaves.—Young branchlets markedly quadrangular, leaves very thin, pale on the underside, punctate, lanceolate, petiolate (say 10 or 11 cm. long, 3 or 4 cm. broad, with petioles of 1 cm. and more), secondary veins thin, roughly parallel, rather spreading, making angles of 60–80 degrees with the midrib, a few nearly at right angles; intramarginal vein well removed from the edge.

Mature leaves thick, coriaceous, of egg-shell lustre on the upper, but dull on the lower surface, lanceolate, straight or falcate, tapering into a long apex, petiolate, up to 14 cm. long and more, up to 4 cm. in greatest width, with petioles of 2 cm. Venation inconspicuous, the secondary veins penniveined, nearly as parallel and commonly making scarcely a more acute angle with the midrib than the Corymbosæ; the intramarginal vein not far removed from the edge.

Buds up to nine in the head, on a broad strap-shaped peduncle of 1 cm. or less, sessile or on pedicels of ·5 cm., each commonly with a double operculum; calyx-tube hemispherical to hemiellipsoid, with two angles or ribs sometimes so prominent as to be winged; operculum hemispherical to conoid, up to 7 mm. in diameter and sometimes exceeding that of the calyx tube.

Anthers white, opening in parallel slits, the two cells usually cohering to the tips; versatile; large gland at the back.

Fruits almost hemispherical, about 7 mm. in diameter, often with two or more angles or wings; rim well defined; the calyx valves three or four, broad at the base, and the tips well exsert.

Type.—Glenbrook, Blue Mountains, New South Wales. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.)

Illustrations.—The new species is figured as intermediate between E. resinifera and E. pellita in the present work, Part XXX, Plate 125, figs. 7, 8, 9. We there have a juvenile leaf, mature leaf, buds with hemispherical and conoid opercula, anthers and fruits.




  ― 219 ―

Synonym.

Recorded as the Blue Mountains form of those intermediate between E. pellita F.v.M. and E. resinifera Sm. See present work, Part XXX, pp. 216, 217.

Range.

Confined to New South Wales so far as we know at present, and to the vicinity of the lower slopes of the Blue Mountains, but owing to wide-spread confusion with E. resinifera we have much to learn of its range. It has only been recorded so far from the Lower Kurrajong and Glenbrook to Faulconbridge.

Following are specific localities:—Lower Kurrajong, one of the lower slopes to the Blue Mountains (J.H.M.); Glenbrook (R. H. Cambage, J.H.M., J. L. Boorman); Lapstone Hill to Springwood (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.); Springwood (J. L. Boorman); North Springwood (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.); Faulconbridge (J.H.M.).

Affinities.

1. It is one of the few species, of which E. gomphocephala DC. is the most notable, which have an operculum of diameter greater than the calyx-tube, giving it an overhanging appearance.

2. The anthers of E. notabilis and E. canaliculata are to all intents and purposes alike. Affinity to each other is thus indicated, and also that they belong to the same group, which includes E. punctata, E. resinifera, and E. pellita.

3. With E. resinifera Sm. (and E. pellita F.v.M.).

The position of E. notabilis seems to be nearest to these two species, but closer to the former in some respects. The figures and remarks on this association have already been referred to. The bark is that of a “Mahogany,” but the paleness of the timber of E. notabilis at once separates it from these two species.




  ― 220 ―

CCLXXIII. E. canaliculata Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liv, 171 (1920).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

“Grey Gum” alta, in cortice læve maculis lenticularibus. Ligno pallido, fibris crassis, duro. Foliis juvenilibus petiolatis, lanceolatis, venis tenuibus. Foliis maturis, angusto-lanceolatis, paullo crassis, venis tenuibus fere parallelibus angulum ca 45° cum costa formantibus. Alabastris magnis, clavatis, umbellis ad 6 capitulo pedunculis applanatis; operculo hemiellipsoideo, mucrone breve. Fructibus magnis, conoideo-hemisphericis, pedicello breve applanato, calycis tubo duobus costis prominentibus margine paullo rotundata conspicua.

A tall Grey Gum, whose trunk usually averages scarcely 2 feet in diameter, but it may attain, exceptionally, twice that size (A. Rudder). It is a tall tree with a diameter of 4 feet, 70 feet to the lowest branches, the whole tree being 90–120 feet high (J. L. Boorman, also speaking of a Dungog tree). Bark smooth, but with lenticular patches in places, like that of a Grey Gum (E. punctata).

Timber pale coloured, somewhat coarse-fibred, interlocked and tough, resembling that of Spotted Gum (E. maculata) a good deal, and also that of Tallow-wood (E. microcorys). The colour of the timber approximates to pale snuff-brown, say, Dauthenay, Rep. de Couleurs, Plate 2, shade 303.

Juvenile leaves not seen in the earliest state, but some still opposite are lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate, equally green on both sides, with numerous fine, not prominent, roughly parallel veins, at an angle of about 45 degrees with the midrib. Leaves about 5 or 6 cm. long, and about half that width, with petioles of 2 cm.

Mature leaves of medium size, narrow-lanceolate, petiolate, say 1–2 dm. long and 2–3·5 cm. broad with petioles say 2–3 cm. long, dark green, moderately thick venation almost as in juvenile leaves.

Buds large, clavate, umbels up to six in the head on flattened expanding peduncles 2 cm. long and more, the calyx-tubes with one or two opposite sharp ridges, gradually tapering in short but distinct thick pedicels, the operculum hemi-ellipsoid with a short mucrone, each bud with a second deciduous operculum which leaves a sharp commissural edge.

Anthers white, opening in parallel slits, the cells cohering at their edges; versatile, gland at the back.

Fruits large, about 1·7 cm. in greatest width and about the same in depth, including the tips of the capsule. Conoid-hemispherical, the shiny calyx-tube with a short-flattened pedicel, the continuation of the edges of which forms two somewhat sharp ridges. The calyx-tube is surmounted by a slightly-domed conspicuous rim of about 3 mm. in width (which rim morphologically consists of a fusion of the disc and of the staminal ring). This again is surmounted by a pudding-basin rim barely 2 mm. wide. Valves triangular, moderately exsert.

Type.—Seven miles from Dungog on the Booral-road (Augustus Rudder, J. L. Boorman). The specific name is given in reference to the channelled appearance of the fruit.

Illustrations.—See my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” fig. D, Plate 37, Part X (fruits); the same drawing reproduced in the present work, Part XXIX, fig. 1, Plate 123. For mature leaf, buds and anther, see figs. 9ac, Plate 122 of the present


  ― 221 ―
work. The specimens “fruit rather globular, but not perfectly ripe,” Spit-road, Manly, Port Jackson (J. L. Boorman), figured at fig. 3, Plate 123, do not belong to E. punctata var. grandiflora (E. canaliculata); they belong to E. punctata, though they are rather larger than those of the type.

Synonym.

E. punctata DC., var. grandiflora Deane and Maiden, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxvi, 133 (1901).

Range.

It seems to be confined to New South Wales. “I have only observed the large-fruited Grey Gum in the counties of Gloucester and Durham. It seems, so far as I have seen, to occupy the intermediate country a little back from the coast to near the eastern slopes of the Dividing Range. I do not think it is very plentiful, but small patches of it are occasionally met with, besides isolated trees, and it often associates more or less with the small-fruited Grey Gum, E. propinqua.” (The late Augustus Rudder in a letter to the writer, dated 31st August, 1893.)

It grows in company with Ironbark (E. paniculata) and abundance of E. saligna. It is very scarce in the Dungog district (J. L. Boorman).

Affinities.

1. With E. saligna Sm.

The similarity of these trees is chiefly in their barks, but the differences between them in this respect have been already stated. Mr. Boorman says that, at Dungog, the direction of the branches in E. canaliculata is more horizontal and the shape less inclined to be pyramidal as in E. saligna. The floral organs and the timber, of course, sharply separate them. (See Plates 99 and 100, Part XXIII, of the present work, for E. saligna.)

2. With E. punctata DC.

The new species is nearer E. punctata (indeed, it has been regarded as a variety of it) than E. saligna, but the discovery that E. canaliculata has a pale timber at once showed that it must be removed from E. punctata and other species with red timbers. For drawings of details of E. punctata see the present work, Part XXIX, Plates 121 and 122, while that of E. canaliculata are in the same Part (as E. punctata var. grandiflora)


  ― 222 ―
in Plates 122 and 123. The anthers of the two species are alike. The outstanding difference shown there is in the smaller size of the buds and fruits of E. punctata, their less tendency to vertical angularity, and less marked commissural edges. The juvenile leaves are broader in E. punctata.

3. With E. maculata Hook.

We have undoubted affinities in the smooth, more or less blotched bark, and also in the timber, for both are remarkably alike in external characters. But E. maculata (Plate 178, Part XLIII) is a well defined member of the Corymbosæ, and the differences are very great, as regards the organs.

Explanation of Plates (192–195).

Plate 192.

Plate 192: EUCALYPTUS LASERONI R. T. Baker (1-3). EUCALYPTUS de BEUZEVILLEI Maiden (4). EUCALYPTUS MITCHELLI Cambage (5). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. Laseroni R. T. Baker.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaf; 1b, mature leaf; 1c, head of buds (fourteen); 1d, head of fruits, almost sessile. Black Mountain near Guyra, N.S.W. (C. F. Laseron.) The type.
  • 2. Mature buds and flowers. Summit of Ben Lomond, near Glen Innes, N.S.W. (William Dunn.)
  • 3. Front and back views of anther. 19 miles from Tingha, on the Guyra road, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman and J.H.M.)

E. de Beuzevillei Maiden.

  • 4a. Juvenile leaf; 4b, intermediate leaf; 4c, mature leaf; 4d, buds (note the ribs); 4e, front and back views of anther; 4f, fruits (note the ribs). Jounama Peaks, County Buccleuch, N.S.W. (W. A. W. de Beuzeville.) The type.

E. Mitchelli Cambage.

  • 5a. Buds; 5b, anther; 5c, pendent fruiting twig. Juvenile leaves not available. Mount Buffalo, Victoria, around the Chalet. (R. H. Cambage.) The type.

Plate 193.

Plate 193: EUCALYPTUS BROWNII Maiden and Cambage (1). EUCALYPTUS CAMBAGEANA Maiden (2). EUCALYPTUS MINIATA A. Cunn (3) [See also Plates 95 and 96.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. Brownii Maiden and Cambage.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaf; 1b, mature leaf, the venation scarcely visible; 1c, short panicle showing buds and flowers; 1d, front and back views of anther; 1e, mature fruits (observe the rims). Reid River, via Townsville, Queensland. (Nicholas Daley.) The type.

E. Cambageana Maiden.

  • 2a. Juvenile leaf; 2b, leaf a little further advanced; 2c, mature leaf; 2d, buds and flowers; 2e, front and back views of anther; 2f, mature fruits. Mirtna Station, Charters Towers, Northern Queensland. (Miss Zara Clark.) The type.

E. miniata A. Cunn.

  • 3. Juvenile leaves, almost in the opposite stage. They have not previously been figured in this stage. See Part XXII, Plates 95 and 96, where figures of this species are given. The figures on Plate 95 are in the intermediate stage and come nearest to the juvenile leaves at present figured, and which are described at p. 198 of the present Part. Stapleton, near Darwin, Northern Territory. (Gerald F. Hill.)




  ― 223 ―
Plate 194.

Plate 194: EUCALYPTUS WOOLLSIANA R. T. Baker. (A composite species, mainly consisting of E. odorata Behr and Schlecht. The drawings are all by Mr. Baker, or vouched for him, except No. 4). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. Woollsiana R. T. Baker.

The figures on this Plate are taken from three different sources, all certified to by Mr. Baker as E. Woollsiana. They are:—

A. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, 684, Plate XLIII (1900). This is the type.

(E. Woollsiana is mixed material in which E. odorata predominates. As this has been discussed at pp. 199 to 201, the facts will not be repeated here.)

Mr. Baker gives no particulars as to the locality of the specimen figured as his type. In Plate 194, 1a, is a reproduction of fig. 1 of Mr. Baker's drawing of the type. It is a broadish, mature leaf. 1b, mature leaf and pointed buds. Reproduction of fig. 2 of type. (This drawing is modified by the statement at p. 132 of the “Research,” “Operculum often more obtuse than shown in the Plate.”) 1c, twig with mature leaves, flowers, and immature fruit. Reproduction of fig. 3 of type. 1d, mature fruits. Reproduction of fig. 8 of type.

B. “Research on the Eucalypts,” Baker and Smith (1902).

In the Plate of E. Woollsiana in that work Messrs. Baker and Smith added 2a (Plate 194), which is a reproduction of fig. 1 of the “Research” Plate; 2b, 2c, which are broadish intermediate leaves, reproductions of Nos. 6 and 7 of the “Research” Plate.; 2d, a very long, narrowish, mature leaf, a reproduction of No. 5 of the “Research” Plate.

C. “Forest Flora of South Australia,” J. Ednie Brown, Plate 29. The figure of E. odorata in that work is in Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., xl, 479 (1916), attributed by Mr. Baker to E. Woollsiana.

  • 3a. Flowering twig; 3b, fruits (both reproduced from J. E. Brown's Plate); 4, anther, E. odorata. Murray Bridge, South Australia. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.)

Plate 195.

Plate 195: EUCALYPTUS PILLIGAENSIS Maiden (1, 2). EUCALYPTUS PENRITHENSIS Maiden (3), which = E. Marsdeni C. Hall (4). EUCALYPTUS MICRANTHERA F.v.M. (5) [See also Plate 88.]Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. Pilligaensis Maiden.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaves; 1b, mature leaves and immature buds; 1c, fruits. Narrabri, N.S.W. (J. H. Maiden.) The type.
  • 2a. Twig with almost ripe buds; 2b, anther. Bingara, N.S.W. (E. H. F. Swain.)

E. Penrithensis Maiden.

(Of which E. Marsdeni C. Hall is a synonym.)

  • 3a. Intermediate leaf; 3b, mature leaf; 3c, buds; 3d, front and back views of anther; 3e, fruits. Two miles east of Penrith, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman and J.H.M.) The type of E. Penrithensis.
  • 4a. Mature leaf; 4b, buds; 4c, front and back views of anther; 4d, fruits. Toongabbie, near Parramatta, N.S.W. (Cuthbert Hall.) This is the type of E. Marsdeni C. Hall, which, in my view, is identical with E. Penrithensis.

E. micranthera F.v.M.

(See also Part XX, Plate 88.) In the former Plate the fruit is not given, as it was then unknown.

  • 5a. Buds; 5b, fruits. Alexander River, Western Australia. (H. P. Turnbull.)
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