no previous

Part 41

  ― 1 ―

CCXXIII. E. latifolia F.v.M.

Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 94 (1859).

FOLLOWING IS a translation of the original:—

A tree with somewhat terete branchlets, leaves sub-opposite or scattered, with rather long petioles, broad or orbicular-ovate, obtuse, glaucescent, opaque, imperforate, thinly penniveined, intramarginal vein very close to the edge, umbels terminal, paniculate, few flowered, peduncles and pedicels angular, these twice as long as the former (E. melanophloia, &c.). Fruits sub-campanulate, ecostate, 3–4 celled, flat at the vertex, valves touching at the rim.

Growing in riparian level ground, at the upper part of the Roper River, 8th July, 1856. Flowered in the summer.

A small or medium-sized tree, the bark, after the falling of the last ashy-coloured strips, is smooth and yellowish. Leaves 2–3, rarely 4 inches long, often 2 inches broad, with a petiole of almost an inch long, thickly and faintly penniveined as those of E. bigalerita (E. alba Reinw., see Part XXV, p. 96, of the present work). Umbels simply and compositely paniculate. Fruit about 3 lines long, the margin slightly bent back at the mouth. Valves included. I have not found the flowers.

In habit similar to E. bigalerita, but in its characters rather resembling E. dichromophloia.

In spite of his reference to the inflorescence, it was either not seen by Mueller, or he had lost it (see under E. Foelscheana, p. 8). At all events, it has been figured (fig. 2b, Plate 168) for the first time. The individual umbels have six to twelve flowers. The colour of the timber is red.

Then Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 255) described it in English as follows:—

A small or middle-sized tree, with a smooth ash-grey bark, tardily separating from the inner brownish bark, also smooth (F. Mueller). Leaves alternate, or here and there almost opposite, petiolate, ovate, obtuse, with transverse parallel veins, rather more prominent and not so close as in the allied narrow-leaved species. Flowers rather large, four to six in each umbel, in a large terminal corymbose panicle. Peduncles terete; pedicels terete, shorter than the calyx-tube. Calyx-tube broadly turbinate, four to five lines in diameter, rather thick. Operculum very short, slightly convex. Anthers ovate-oblong, with parallel distinct cells. Fruits globose-truncate or urceolate-globose, with a very short neck, smooth, and not ribbed, 3 to 4 lines in diameter, the rim thin; the capsule deeply sunk. Seeds winged.

  ― 2 ―


The type came from the upper part of the Roper River, and Bentham adds “Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria,” whence it was collected by Robert Brown about 1802, but what I have seen collected by that botanist on the islands belongs to E. Foelscheana. So far I have only seen specimens of E. latifolia from the Northern Territory and the big islands north of it. The Roper River, of course, flows into the western side of the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Following are notes on Northern Territory specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney:—

“Grows on heavy soil and is associated with E. papuana and E. terminalis. The wood is soft.” Has the ordinary friable Bloodwood bark, Bathurst Island (G. F. Hill, No. 464). Mr. Hill kindly sent a photograph of this tree. Bathurst Island (G. F. Hill, No. 469). In flower, which is fragrant.

“White bark, flaking off in places in strips. Conical fruits” (perhaps a reference to the narrow mouths). McKinlay River flats (Dr. Jensen, No. 388). “Bloodwood,” McKinlay River flats (Dr. Jensen, No. 390).

Pine and Horseshoe Creeks (E. J. Dunn and R. J. Winters).

“Bloodwood,” fairly large tree, near Pine Creek (C. E. F. Allen, No. 107).

Note (a). “Bastard Bloodwood.” “Similar in habit to the Bastard Bloodwoods and Cabbage Gums identified as E. grandifolia and E. Foelscheana (narrow leaf tall form). The leaf is always stout and untwisted, but in the roughish bark, with red gummy splashes, and the crooked habit of the tree, it resembles the other two.” (Jensen, No. 385).

Note (b). “Crooked limbed small tree, growing however in other places up to 40 feet high. Roughish bark except on branches where it is white and smooth. Stem up to 12 inches in diameter. Capsules in small terminal racemes. Leaves ovate.” Pine Creek (Dr. Jensen, No. 357).

“Cabbage Gum,” near Wandi (Dr. Jensen, No. 383). “Bastard Bloodwood.” Roughish bark over most of the stem, branches often smooth. Near Wandi (Dr. Jensen, No. 385).

“Timber pale red in colour.” Woolgni (Dr. Jensen, No. 401). “Broad leaf type.” Umbrawarra (Dr. Jensen, No. 411). “Stem like E. papuana.” Cullen River, Woolgni and Umbrawarra (Dr. Jensen, No. 418). The leaves with insect markings, like E. brachyandra F.v.M. Artesian Range, North-Western Australia (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 1358).

Between Bull Oak and Crescent Lagoon, track Cullen Creek (Prof. Baldwin Spencer); track to Cullen Creek, Katharine River, &c. (Prof. Baldwin Spencer) (with insect markings).

  ― 3 ―


1. With E. dichromophloia F.v.M.

The original description says that E. latifolia in its characters rather resembles E. dichromophloia, and they appear to be closest related. Both are Bloodwoods, but E. dichromophloia has bark of a redder cast. Both have red timbers.

The foliage of the two trees is usually very different,—that of E. latifolia being broad, while that of E. dichromophloia is narrow. Compare Plate 168 with Plate 165 of Part XL. The buds and fruits are sufficiently approximate to require care.

(Reference omitted from p. 319, Part XL) (E. dichromophloia and E. corymbosa).

It has been already observed that the large-fruited forms of E. dichromophloia display a good deal of similarity to E. corymbosa. The juvenile leaves enable us to emphasise points of difference. If we turn to Plate 161, Part XXXIX (E. corymbosa) we have juvenile leaves figured at 5, 6, 7a, and an intermediate leaf figured at 7b. The juvenile leaves of E. corymbosa are pedunculate, glabrous or with weak hairs; those of E. dichromophloia are sessile, stem-clasping, and scabrous. The intermediate leaves are a good deal alike, those of E. corymbosa being longer in proportion to the width, but the corresponding material of E. dichromophloia is not sufficiently abundant to speak finally.

The juvenile leaves of E. dichromophloia (Old Battery, Eidsvold, Q., Dr. T. L. Bancroft, September, 1919) came too late to be figured on Plate 165. They are the first I have seen, to my knowledge. I cannot do better than say that I cannot distinguish them from some of the figures of E. setosa on Plate 158, Part XXXVIII. They seem replicas of figs. 5 and 8, and almost as scabrous. The mature leaves of the two species are, of course, very different, but the intermediate leaves of this specimen of E. dichromophloia are very broad and lanceolate, as broad as those of the juvenile leaves.

2. With E. Foelscheana F.v.M. See p. 8.

3. With E. corymbosa Sm.

E. latifolia has very broad even roundish leaves, and belongs, on account of its smooth bark, to the section Leiophloiæ, unless this be subject to exceptions.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. corymbosa.) It is not correct to say that E. latifolia is a member of the Leiophloiæ, although there are Bloodwoods with barks more scaly. We do not know the extent to which some of these tropical Bloodwoods vary in regard to the roughness of their barks.

  ― 4 ―

CCXXIV. E. Foelscheana F.v.M.

In The Chemist and Druggist of Australasia, November, 1882.

A DWARF tree, or only of shrubby growth; branchlets robust, not angular; leaves scattered or exceptionally opposite, on rather short stalks, ovate or verging into a roundish form, sometimes very large, always of firm consistence, blunt or at the summit slightly pointed, greyish-green on both sides, not much paler beneath; their primary veins very divergent or almost horizontally spreading, numerous and thus closely approximated, but subtle and therefore not prominent; the circumferential vein contiguous to the margin of the leaf; oil-dots concealed or obliterated; umbels four to six-flowered or rarely three-flowered, forming a terminal panicle; calyces pear-shaped, on longish or rarely short stalks, faintly angular, not shining; lid not so broad as the tube of the calyx, very depressed or sometimes conspicuously raised towards the centre, tearing off in an irregular transverse line, long retained and soon reflexed from the last point of adherence; stamens all fertile, bent inward before expansion; filaments yellowish-white, some of the outer dilated towards the base; anthers (when fresh) almost cuneateovate or the inner more oblong and the outer slightly cordate, all bursting anteriorly by longitudinal slits; connective reddish, with a slight dorsal turgidity towards the summit; style much exceeded in length by the stamens; stigma not dilated; fruit large, urceolar, not angular; valves generally four, nearly deltoid, inserted much below the narrow edge of the fruit, at last deeply enclosed; fertile seeds large, terminated by a conspicuous membrane; sterile seeds very slender.

The species, above defined, is flowering already at the height of 18 inches (as is the case also with E. cordata and E. vernicosa), therefore, when still quite young, producing then a comparatively large cluster of blossoms; the full-grown tree seldom exceeds a height of 20 feet, and always remains of cripply stature. Stem-diameter to 9 inches, or rarely more; bark, dark grey, rough; leaves of young plants often twice, or even thrice, the size of those of old trees. (Original description.)

Mueller again described it, with slightly different verbiage, and also figured it in the “Eucalyptographia.” The “Eucalyptographia” figure and description can be taken as referring to the type; they were put in hand within a few weeks after the publication of the original description.

I have measured a juvenile leaf 15 by 11 inches, and was informed that larger ones could have been collected.

It will be observed that Mueller speaks of the species as rarely exceeding a height of 20 feet, and that it “always remains of a cripply nature.” In the “Eucalyptographia” he speaks of “the greatest height attained about 20 feet. Stem diameter only to 12 inches as a maximum.” It attains the height of “30 feet or more” at Burrundie.

It would appear that there are variations as regards bark and leaves in this species. Until more field observations are available, let us refer to them as Form 1 and Form 2. It is probable that the two forms may be reconcilable as belonging to the same species.

Form 1. (The bark.) Description of type bark 445. (Typical of, say, 24 miles around Darwin, and therefore presumably typical of the species.)

Hard-scaly, about 1 cm. thick, in longitudinal furrows, and cracking less deeply transversely, so as to form tesseræ longer than wide, but the precise sizes of each tessera variable.

  ― 5 ―

Form 2. (The bark.) Description of type bark 450. (Typical of the Stapleton district.)

This bark is thin-scaly, simply peeling off in irregular flakes of the thickness of brown paper. As compared with the bark of No. 445, that of 450 appears to be from a young, or a stunted tree.

Form 1. (The leaves.) Common in the species within, say, 24 miles of Darwin.

“Those about Darwin have smaller, thinner, and narrower leaves.” (G. F. Hill.) Mr. Hill is apparently referring to leaves of the shape of fig. 4a, Plate 169, and he is perhaps emphasising his Nos. 344 and 445 (Darwin) too much. At the same time we must remember that those of the type are described as “ovate or verging on a roundish form.” Around Darwin most of the leaves would be from second-growth plants.

The form from Darwin and near Darwin is usually found on dry, shotty ironstone or sandy loam (well drained) or on stony land (about Darwin), usually associated with E. tetradonta, grandifolia, miniata, and my No. 398 (“Smooth-stemmed Bloodwood”). (G. F. Hill.)

Form 2. (The leaves.) Further down the railway line, say from 34 miles to 69 miles, and probably much further. The Stapleton form (69 miles from Darwin).

“The foliage of the Stapleton specimens is denser, leaves more `fleshy' and generally more rounded.” (G. F. Hill.) This is a fair description of the typical form. Mr. Hill says that the Stapleton form grows on the flats or on the foothills very near flats, sometimes on stony country, sometimes on alluvial soil. “The Stapleton form is generally associated with the sp. represented by my 448, 449, E. papuana, E. grandifolia, and E. terminalis.

The bark of the two forms is very distinct, as will be seen by comparing 445 and 450.” (G. F. Hill.)

Lanceolar-leaved form.

We must recognise that lanceolar leaves occur in this species.

“Specimens without fruit, brought by R. Brown in 1802, during Captain Flinders' Expedition from Carpentaria, may also belong to E. Foelscheana, although the leaves pass into a lanceolar form.” (Original description.)

Mueller amplifies these remarks in the following:—

“Some specimens without fruit, brought by Robert Brown already during Capt. Flinders' Expedition from Carpentaria, and presented to the Melbourne Botanic Museum by Sir Joseph Hooker, may belong to an extreme form of E. Foelscheana, although the leaves pass into a lanceolar form, and the flower-stalklets are of lesser length.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Foelscheana.)

Brown's specimen is figured at fig. 1, Plate 170. It does not seem useful to give this lanceolar form a variety name, as it is a transition form, as will be seen from examination of the other figures.

  ― 6 ―


Confined to the Northern Territory, so far as we know.

“Near Port Darwin, on sandy soil; Mr. Paul Foelsche. Found also in other northern portions of Arnhem's Land, by Mr. J. McKinlay.” (Original description.) In the “Eucalyptographia,” Bridge Creek, which is near Darwin (Burkitt), was added. It will be observed that I have added a number of other Territory localities, all within the tropics. It has still to be searched for in the Cape York Peninsula (Queensland) and in the Kimberley country (North-west Australia).

Western Australia.

Small fruits, broadly lanceolate leaves. Derby (C. H. Ostenfeld). I quote this specimen doubtfully, as although it simulates a small-fruited E. Foelscheana, the material is so imperfect that it may be a coarse form of E. dichromophloia. At the same time our Western Australian friends should be on the lookout for E. Foelscheana in the tropical portion of their State.

Northern Territory.

Huge juvenile foliage, very urceolate fruits. Near Darwin (Prof. Baldwin Spencer, W. S. Campbell. N. Holtze).

“On stony foothills and on flats at foot of hills. Associated with E. setosa, E. miniata, and Coolabah, No. 448. Timber sent, also bark, bark of trunk and branches similar throughout. Buds, flowers, fruit.” Stapleton (G. F. Hill, No. 450). Inflorescence forming an open panicle. “From tree indistinguishable from 450.” Stapleton (G. F. Hill, No. 452). “Tree indistinguishable from 450.” Stapleton (G. F. Hill, No. 455).

“Bloodwood, rough bark on trunk and branches, narrow-leaved form. Small tree (see bark from trunk). Flowers about July, fruits 25th October, 1915.” Darwin (G. F. Hill, No. 344). A form with unusually narrow leaves.

E. Foelscheana. Typical of E. Foelscheana in vicinity of Darwin, and 20 miles south of Darwin. (Note my specimen No. 344 determined as above by you.) Sample of timber, bark, and fruit with seed.” 20 miles S.E. of Darwin (G. F. Hill, No. 445). Pedicellate, broad lanceolate leaves.

The following is an interesting note made by Dr. H. I. Jensen, in 1916, referring to some of the above specimens:—

“344. E. Foelscheana, also 358, 367, 368.

“A further specimen of the broad-leaved type 368 with fruits was collected by me in December last. It was rather surprising to find that the narrow-leaved trees 344 and 358 were the same as 368, as the tree in “Eucalyptographia” was described as low, shrubby, and broad-leaved, and I know it well at Brook's Creek and Bridge Creek where I believe Inspector Foelsche collected his type material. In those localities it is

  ― 7 ―
never, to my present knowledge, seen more than 15 feet high. It is a low scrub, found principally on clayey clay-slate and schist-flats, leaves very fleshy, flowers in huge bunches at end of branches, flowers very fleshy; pods large. The specimens at Burrundie, however, grow to a height of 30 feet or more—both broad leaf and narrow leaf form, and the tree has the appearance of the Cabbage Gum. The leaves are not as large as usual in the scrubby form. Wood white ant proof.”

“Bastard Bloodwood. Now in flower, has rough bark to top of branches, narrow-leaved form. Another variety has bark like Moreton Bay Ash. Both have reddish resinous splashes on bark. Leaves similar in both.” Burrundie, November, 1915 (Dr. Jensen, No. 358).

Leaves variable in size and shape, Brook's Creek; Pine and Horseshoe Creeks; Pine Creek Railway (E. J. Dunn, R. J. Winters). “Large tree.” Near Pine Creek (C. E. F. Allen, No. 108). Narrowish leaves, open panicle.

“Tree similar to 365, 366. Terminal branches erect; leaves more rounded.” 30 miles south-east of Darwin (G. F. Hill, No. 367).

Broad-leaved form. Medium-sized tree; trunk covered with rough scaly bark; branches smooth, large sucker leaf.” Batchelor, about 60 miles south of Darwin (Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 368).

Mature and immature fruits. Umbrawarra (Dr. Jensen, No. 416). “On hornfels country, north of Umbrawarra, and on blocky schist country at Woolgni occurs a Bloodwood-like gum with broad leaves like E. Foelscheana, bark mostly smooth, but a little fine scaly bark at base like E. papuana, seed pods larger and urn-shaped, having a more marked rim than those of E. Foelscheana. Leaves, sucker leaves, wood, sent under Nos. 417, 418, 419, and 420. This tree grows on both ridges and flats, and seems variable in size and shape of pod. E. Foelscheana collected in same locality on a small flat, has bark all rough. Seeds without rim, otherwise similar (No. 416).” Umbrawarra (Dr. Jensen, No. 417). Fruits somewhat elongated.

“Rough bark almost to top, large fruits.” McKinlay River flats (Dr. Jensen, No. 387).

Edith Creek; also Track to Katharine River, widely spread; also coarse foliage, fruits not large and hardly urceolate, near Katharine River (Prof. Baldwin Spencer).

“Leaf like E. Foelscheana, bark like E. papuana. Associated with E. setosa. Pedicellate juvenile leaves (? intermediate form). Woolgni (Dr. Jensen, No. 420). Thin juvenile leaves. Woolgni, Cullen River (Dr. Jensen, 415); thin pedicellate juvenile leaves, Cullen River, on banks (Dr. Jensen, No. 419).

Robert Brown's specimens, collected 1802–5, and distributed from the British Museum in 1876 under the labels—

  • (a) (Islands of) Gulf of Carpentaria;
  • (b) No. 4779, E. latifolia F.M. (E. compacta R.Br.), North Coast;

are E. Foelscheana. They are the lanceolate leaved form of the species.

  ― 8 ―


1. With E. terminalis F.v.M.

E. Foelscheana belongs to the series exemplified by E. terminalis..…If it was not for the great diversity of habit, E. Foelscheana might be approximated very closely to E. terminalis.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Foelscheana.)

Compare Plates 164 and 165 (Part XL) for E. terminalis, with Plates 169 and 170, this Part, for E. Foelscheana. E. Foelscheana is a smaller, more gnarled tree, with very much coarser foliage. The fruits of E. terminalis are longer and narrower, usually less urceolate, or, if urceolate, more high-shouldered. Those of both species may be very large. Both have red timbers.

2. With E. latifolia F.v.M.

In some respects it is allied to E. latifolia; the leaves, however, are larger and not decurrent at the base; the petioles are comparatively shorter and, as well as the branchlets, less slender; the peduncles and pedicels are thicker and less angular; the calyces larger, not roundish-blunt at the base, and therefore not passing suddenly into a pedicel of upwards unincreased thickness; the fruit is much larger, at least twice as long as broad; and considerably contracted towards the summit, thus not almost semi-ovate; the flowers of the real E. latifolia are as yet unknown, and may prove different from those of the E. Foelscheana, though their anthers, seen as remnants, show the same form.” (Original description.)

He repeats these observations in almost the same words, and adds “A few adherent anthers of E. latifolia do, however, exhibit the same form. These two species hold almost the same relation to each other as E. urnigera to E. cordata” (“Eucalyptographia” under E. Foelscheana).

Compare Plates 168 and 169. E. Foelscheana is a very much coarser species than E. latifolia, as regards its inflorescence and fructification. The former species shows greater extremes of size in leaves than does the latter; I have not seen huge leaves nor lanceolar ones in E. latifolia. The fruit of that species is smaller, less urceolate, the orifice smaller, and has slenderer peduncles and pedicels.

3. With E. setosa Schauer.

The affinities with this species are less close. Compare Plate 158, Part XXXVIII, for fruits of E. setosa, which are large, and frequently of the same shape as those of E. Foelscheana, but those of the latter are always glabrous. The leaves of the two species are very different, while E. setosa is often a moderately large, umbrageous tree.

  ― 9 ―

CCXXV. E. Abergiana F.v.M.

In Fragm. xi, 41 (1878).

SHORTLY afterwards Mueller redescribed it in English in the “Eucalyptographia” with a Plate. The “Eucalyptographia” description so nearly follows the original that it may be stated here as equivalent to it.

Finally very tall; leaves scattered, of thick consistence, oval or elongated-lanceolar, hardly inequilateral, shining above, opaque beneath; the lateral veins copious subtle and very spreading, the longitudinal vein almost contiguous to the margin of the leaves, or but slightly removed from the edge; panicles terminal; flower-stalks thick, almost cylindrical, the ultimates bearing 2–6 flowers on exceedingly short or without stalklets; calyces pale, their tube truncate-ovate, nearly twice as long as the almost hemispheric lid, not angular; stamens all or nearly all fertile, inflexed before expansion; anthers oval, with nearly longitudinal dehiscence; stigma very slightly dilated; fruits large, oval-urnshaped, smooth, with a thin margin and with four enclosed at first horizontal valves; fertile seeds expanding from their summit into a long membrane, much longer than the slender sterile seeds.

On the mountains, near Rockingham Bay; Dallachy.

A lofty tree, with persistent bark and very expanding branches. Heart-wood very hard, reddish. Branchlets in some instances slender and somewhat angular, in other cases thick and cylindrical. Leaf-stalks ¾–1½ inches long. Leaves measuring 2½–4 inches in length or occasionally longer, rarely shortened to an almost oval form, 1–2 inches broad, often very gradually narrowed upwards, blunt at the base. Panicle almost corymbous; its ultimate flower-stalks generally about 1 inch long, as well as the branchlets, pale, not shining. The unopened calyces egg-shaped, their very blunt and rather thick lid rather separating by a horizontal rupture than by a well-defined suture of circumcision; the tube in flowering state about ½ an inch long; sometimes subsequently slightly turbinate. A few of the outer stamens occasionally devoid of anthers; filaments, according to the note of the collector, whitish in a fresh state, but reddish-yellow when dry; the longer filaments 4–5 lines long. Anthers hardly ½ a line long; their cells separated by a broad connective. Style half-included within the calyx, exceeded by the stamens. Fruit 1 inch long, or somewhat longer, not angular; the valves deltoid-sha ped, hardly ? inch long. Fertile seeds very compressed, terminated by a semi-oval membrane, giving a length of about ? inch for the whole seed, including the appendage.

In the “Eucalyptographia” it is stated to be “a lofty tree with persistent bark and very expanding branches,” and with reddish timber. I do not know of any tree belonging to this species which may be called “lofty” or “stately” (loc. cit.), but the species is very little known, and should be further investigated.

  ― 10 ―


The type came from the Coast Range near Rockingham Bay, Queensland, near 18 deg. south latitude, and we do not certainly know it from any other locality.


“Tree 15 or 20 feet high, rough bark.” Coast Range, Rockingham Bay (J. Dallachy). The type.


1. With E. ptychocarpa F.v.M.

“Approaches to E. ptychocarpa, with which it agrees in the size and shape of its fruit, but the latter is in no way lined with prominent longitudinal ridges, nor are the flowers provided with conspicuous stalklets.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Abergiana.)

These ridges sharply separate the two species, which will be further compared when E. ptychocarpa is dealt with.

2. With E. miniata A. Cunn.

“This species differs from E. Abergiana in narrower leaves, opaque on both sides, axillary solitary flower stalks, longitudinally angular calyces, longer anthers, larger fruits and seeds without any appendage.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Abergiana.)

For E. miniata, see Plate 96, Part XXII. The obvious differences are elongated ribbed fruits of E. miniata rarely urceolate as in E. Abergiana. The ribbing extends to the buds. The coarse inflorescence is sessile as to pedicels in both species.

3. With E. Watsoniana F.v.M.

E. Watsoniana again recedes in narrower leaves, equally coloured on other side, calyces with a varnish lustre and fixed to distinct stalklets, a widely dilated lid which over-reaches the orifice of the calyxtube, longer stamens, fruits wider at the summit with a furrowed broader rim and unappendiculated seeds.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Abergiana.)

The differences of these two species will be dealt with in the next Part (under E. Watsoniana).

4. With E. corymbosa Sm.

E. corymbosa, which likewise occurs as far north as Rockingham Bay, is separated from E. Abergiana by its narrower leaves, acute at the base, angular and more slender flower-stalks, smaller calyces provided with stalklets and not pale-coloured, a thinner and not obtuse lid, which separates by a distinct suture of the calyx, smaller fruits, more contracted upwards, and the lesser appendage of the seeds.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Abergiana.)

  ― 11 ―

And again “If it were necessary to point out any differences of E. corymbosa and E. Abergiana, we need only allude again to the colour of the stamens;—besides E. corymbosa has its flowers and fruits smaller, the seeds wholly or nearly destitute of any appendage, and the seedlings purplish-hispid, with short-stalked elliptic opposite leaves; while E. Abergiana is still further removed by the want of stalklets of its flowers and by the larger and wider lid, although the seeds are here again conspicuously appendiculated.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. ficifolia.)

For E. corymbosa see Plates 161 and 162 in Part XXXIX. In that species, pedicels are present and the peduncles more slender. The buds and fruits are smaller and less coarse; the fruits of E. Abergiana are less urceolate and the rims thicker. The foliage of E. Abergiana is coarser.

5. With E. terminalis F.v.M.

E. terminalis is distinguished in a similar manner from E. Abergiana as E. corymbosa, except the seeds, but besides in the paler foliage, the leaves being of equal colour on both sides, necessitating stomata on each, and not merely on the underside as in E. Abergiana; thus also the latter, like all the species with only hypogenous stomata, forms a more shady tree, its leaves expanding more horizontally, whereas E. terminalis, like the majority of its congeners, turns its leaves more vertically.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Abergiana.)

Let us turn to Plate 164, Part XL, as regards figures of E. terminalis. E. terminalis (so far as we know) is the larger tree; E. Abergiana is stockier, and with thicker, coarser foliage. E. Abergiana has very short pedicels or none, while the fruits of E. terminalis are cylindroid rather than urceolate.

6. With E. calophylla R.Br.

E. Abergiana can be separated from E. calophylla and E. terminalis by the want of stalklets of its calyces, and from the latter besides by the broader and above dark-green leaves.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. corymbosa).

This will be referred to when E. calophylla is reached.

  ― 12 ―

CCXXVI. E. pachyphylla F.v.M.

In Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 98 (1859).

THE description may be translated in the following words:—

Shrubby, with angular young branches, and alternate leaves on moderately long petioles, thickly coriaceous, ovate, or lanceolate-ovate, acuminate, hardly unequal-sided, not perforate, finely penniveined, the peripheral vein remote from the margin; with axillary umbels irregularly 3-flowered, the peduncles and pedicels very short. Flowers not known. The tube of the fruiting-calyx depressed-hemispherical, with four distinct ribs and more indistinct ones, with raised margins, the capsules 4- to 5-celled, convex at the top, with somewhat exserted valves, the fertile seeds with narrow wings, rather light-coloured.

Hab. In a sandy desert at Hooker's Creek (Northern Territory). Flowering time, autumn.

Shrub of the height of a fathom or slightly higher. Leaves mostly 1½ to 2½ inches long, opaque in dry specimens. Flowers not known. Fruits 6 to 8 lines in diameter, the margin just produced above the valves. Fertile seeds with the wings added 1½ lines long. Near to E. alpina.

It will be observed that the flowers were unknown to the original describer, and that the “peduncles and pedicels (are) very short.”

It was then described by Bentham in B.Fl. iii, 237. Inter alia the fruits are described as nearly sessile.

Then Mueller figured it in “Eucalyptographia,” but the plate, as regards the flowering and fruiting twig, is made up of more than one plant; in other words it is in part an accidental fake. The material of this species in the Melbourne Herbarium had in course of years, from Mueller's time onwards, become a good deal mixed up. Recently Prof. Ewart forwarded the whole of it to me for examination. I am satisfied that in the “Eucalyptographia” plate the leaves and fruits belong to the type, although a peduncle is not shown and the pedicels are shown too long (see figs. 1 and 2, Plate 171, of the present work).

The buds and flowers in the “Eucalyptographia” plate do not belong to the type. They really came from Glen of Palms, Macdonnell Range (E. Giles).

Then come my notes on the species in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 507 (1918), from which the following notes are extracted:—

In Ewart and Davies' “Flora of the Northern Territory,” p. 306 (1917), I indicated that I believe this is a valid species, and that my E. pyriformis Turcz., var. minor (present work, Part XVII, pages 232 and 235) should merge in it. I desire to draw attention to this species, which is in some confusion.

  ― 13 ―

Bentham, as stated, described the species, but he pointed out the inadequacy of the material, and even doubted if it should be given specific rank. In Fragm. x, 5 (1876), Mueller recorded it from Glen of Palms, Macdonnell Range, Northern Territory (E. Giles), and described the flowers (5–7 and nearly sessile) for the first time. He indicated its true affinity to E. pyriformis.

Mueller then figured the species in his “Eucalyptographia,” and as usual he missed the opportunity of figuring the type.

From Tanami, western Northern Territory (Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 206, 1914), I have received both E. pachyphylla (resembling No. 371) and a small-flowered E. pyriformis under the same number, and undoubtedly the species are closely related.

Mueller's “Eucalyptographia” plate of this rare species is misleading to the extent that it will cause most people to think that it correctly depicts his E. pachyphylla. As a matter of fact, it shows a multiflowered, pedicellate form. To put botanists on their guard, I considered it at one time desirable to indicate the plant figured by Mueller as var. pedicellata.


  • 1. E. pyriformis Turcz., var. minor Maiden (in part).
  • 2. E. pachyphylla F.v.M., var. pedicellata Maiden.

1. E. pyriformis Turcz., var. minor Maiden in part. This work, Part XVII, p. 230, also Plate 75, figs. 5 and 6 (figs. 7a and 7b are E. Oldfieldii F.v.M.).

There was an unfortunate mix-up of material in the Melbourne Herbarium shortly after Mueller's death, referred to at p. 12.

2. E. pachyphylla F.v.M., var. pedicellata Maiden in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 508 (1918).

Misled by the original description (a) of the peduncles and pedicels as very short, (b) of Bentham's description of the fruits as “nearly sessile,” (c) by Mueller's description of the flowers of the Glen of Palm specimens as “nearly sessile” (having seen them I would call them “sessile”), but particularly by (d) the upper part of the “Eucalyptographia” plate, where Mueller shows two clusters of buds and flowers sessile (the cluster of fruits has exaggerated pedicels), I looked upon the normal form as sessile, and, therefore, a form with pedicels as worthy of a varietal name, pedicellata. I now find that the normal state of the species is pedicellate, so that the variety pedicellata must fall, while a variety sessilis has been proposed at p. 14.

  ― 14 ―


Var. sessilis var. nov.

I have already shown that confusion has arisen in regard to the presence or absence of pedicels in this species. The pedicellate (normal) and non-pedicellate forms should, however, be distinguished by a name, and therefore I propose the name sessilis for the latter. The specimens, Glen of Palms, Macdonnell Range, Northern Territory (E. Giles), may be taken as the type of the proposed variety (see figs. 4a to c, Plate 171).


(Of normal form, i.e., with pedicellate inflorescence.)

Northern Territory.

The sheet in Herb. Melb. labelled “E. pachyphylla Ferd. Mueller, Hooker's Creek, Dr. M.” and which refers to the type, consists of two leaves, together with loose pedicellate fruits, evidently the same as those figured in the “Eucalyptographia” plate, but with shorter pedicels than figured therein. See figs. 1a, 1b, Plate 171. They belong to the type. (I would again remind my readers that the buds and flowers shown on the “Eucalyptographia” plate do not belong to the type.)

Small tree of 10 feet. Tanami, western Northern Territory, collected by Dr. H. I. Jensen (C. E. F. Allen, No. 206). Flowers only, shortly pedicellate. It is difficult, and perhaps impossible, to separate these flowers from those labelled “Sources of the Georgina River.”


E. pachyphylla, F.v.M.,” Pituri Creek, a tributary of the Georgina River, Western Queensland (Alfred Henry, 1889). A few fruits only. See fig. 2, Plate 171. The fruit is a little smaller than that of the type.

Linda Creek. [I cannot trace this. Can it be the same as Lander Creek, a few lines below?] One fruit only. Shortly pedicellate; fig. 3, Plate 171. As compared with the type, this is of greater diameter and with more ribs on the calyx-tube.

The following in fruit only:—

A. “Interior of S.A.” (doubtless Northern Territory). Figured at 5a and 5b, Plate 75.

B. 60 miles west of Camp IV, Lander Creek, Northern Territory, 22nd June, 1911 (G. F. Hill, No. 371).

  ― 15 ―

Sessile, single, large-fruited form. A specimen in leaf and flower only, labelled by Mueller “E. pachyphylla F.v.M. (Strongylantheræ), W. H. Cornish, 1885,” precisely matches the flowering specimen (Glen of Palms, E. Giles) in the “Eucalyptographia” plate. Figured at 6a-6d, Plate 75. This is the plant referred to as from the Mulligan River, Western Queensland, this work, Part XVII, p. 235.

Range. (of var. sessilis var. nov.).

Northern Territory.

“W. Austral. Expedition, Glen of Palms, E. Giles, 1872,” in Luehmann's writing. “E. pachyphylla F.M.” in Mueller's writing.

These specimens are in flower and bud only, are sessile, and are interesting because in Fragm. x, 5 (1876), Mueller first described the flowers (5–7 and nearly sessile) from them. I look upon them as quite sessile, and they are depicted in Mueller's “Eucalyptographia” plate (flowers and buds only).

Glen of Palms is on the Finke River, just south of the Krichauff Range. It formed Camp 44, Horn Expedition. In the report of this Expedition, Botany, by Prof. R. Tate, at p. 158, he records Giles' specimen, and also Krichauff Range (Kempe), a specimen to be presently referred to; also gorge of Reedy Creek, ravine on south side of Mt. Tate, on Mt. Sonder, all localities in the Macdonnell Ranges.

The Rev. H. Kempe, the collector above referred to, was located at the Moravian Mission Station, Hermannsburg, on the northern side of the Finke River, and about 1 mile north of the Krichauff Range. It was abandoned as a Mission Station in the early “nineties.” See Report, Horn Exped., p. 48. There is a survey of the Station and its surroundings in Mr. C. Winnecke's Report of the Expedition.

Immature (some slightly glaucous) fruits, Finke River (Kempe, 1880), are, as regards some of them, very fairly represented by 6b, Plate 75; fruits immature, but a little more advanced are figured herewith.

Here we have a small fruited form. Leaves and ripe fruits, Finke River (Revd. W. Schwarz, 1886) are figured herewith. Mueller does not appear to have referred to these specimens anywhere.

15 miles west of Hugh River (a tributary of the Finke River), Macdonnell Ranges, N.T., 6th May, 1911 (G. F. Hill, No. 147). Glaucous early fruits, 40 miles west of Camp IV, Lander Creek, N.T. 21st June, 1911 (G. F. Hill, No. 361). Flowers with most of the stamens dropped.

Still in the Macdonnell Ranges, at p. 35 of the Horn Expedition Report, we have “June 17, 1894, Horn Exped., Camp 33, Deering Creek, height 2,210 feet. Travelled over sandridges covered with.…and Mallee (Eucalyptus pachyphylla).”

“Bush, 8–12 feet high, on sand plain 9 miles N.E. of the permanent water of Winnecke's on the Marshall.” (Lieut. Dittrich.)

  ― 16 ―

Luehmann's label is “N. of McDonnell Range, Plenty River, Marshall River, Milne River, Lake Nash (Lieut. Dittrich, 1886).” Mueller labelled it E. pachyphylla.

Plenty River near S. lat. 23, unites with the Sandover River to form the Marshall or Hay River (N.T.). The Milne River runs into the Herbert River near the Northern Territory—Queensland boundary in 21° S. lat. Lake Nash is near the Northern Territory—Queensland border near 21° S. lat. 138° long. The material consists of a few loose buds and fruits, buds with pedicels on short peduncles, and with sharply pointed opercula and sharp, almost winged ribs, sharper than figured in Plate 75 or in the “Eucalyptographia.” The fruits (fig. 6, Plate 171) sessile. (These fruits very well match the sessile flowers figured in the “Eucalyptographia.”)


Labelled pachyphylla by F.v.M.:—

  • 1. Sources of the Georgina River (Lieut. Dittrich, 1886). Flowers and buds only.
  • 2. Dense bushes, 10–15 feet high, Spinifex sand plains, 27 miles west of the Rankin River, lat. 20° 27' 24?:—
    • (a) Flowers with short pedicels and moderately ribbed opercula very pointed.
    • (b) Buds, with label (as above), but buds rather more pedicellate.

Both (a) and (b) show how difficult it is to frame a character on the length of the pedicel. They certainly connect with the Tanami specimens.

The Georgina River of Western Queensland has its principal source in the Barkly Tableland, and receives the Lorne and Rankin's Creeks from the Northern Territory. In the “New Atlas of Australia” (1886), the Rankin and the Lorne are shown as the same stream, in 20–21° S. lat., near the Queensland border.

These Queensland specimens collected by Lieut. Dittrich in 1886, for Mueller, were obtained near the Northern Territory—Queensland border, and on the same trip as those collected by the same traveller and recorded under Northern Territory. Arranging them geographically under two States is merely a matter of convenience.


1. With E. alpina Lindl.

“Near to E. alpina” (original description). (See Part IX, Plate 41, for E. alpina.) The anthers of the two species are totally different. E. alpina is a rather broad-leaved small tree of mountain tops of a restricted range in Victoria. The buds and fruits of E. alpina may be described as warted; the ridges, where present, are not as well defined as in E. pachyphylla. The fruits are different, though sometimes possessing a resemblance.

  ― 17 ―

2. E. cosmophylla F.v.M.

“In some respects they” (the imperfect specimens of E. pachyphylla) “resemble E. cosmophylla and its allies, but the fruit, the seeds, and perhaps the inflorescence are different (B.Fl. iii, 237). Let us turn to Part XXI, Plate 91, for E. cosmophylla. In E. cosmophylla the flowers are usually in threes, and the calyx-tubes have usually one rib and the opercula none at all. The fruits differ a good deal, and the anthers still more. E. cosmophylla attains the size of a fairly large tree.

3. With E. pyriformis Turcz.

This was first indicated by Mueller in Fragm. x, 5.

E. pachyphylla approaches the variety pruinosa of E. pyriformis [such a variety has never been technically defined.—J.H.M.], but its flowers and fruits are much smaller, almost devoid of a general flower stalk (peduncle), and crowded to the number of about seven together (“Eucalyptographia” under E. pyriformis). For E. pruinosa Turcz., see this work, Part XVII, pp. 230–1. I have not seen the species, but Mueller says E. pachyphylla only “approaches” it.

There seems no doubt that both Mueller and I are correct in pointing out the affinity of E. pachyphylla to E. pyriformis, and I went so far as to make the former a variety of the latter. Compare figures 5 and 6 (E. pachyphylla) with the rest of the figures on Plates 75 and 76 (E. pyriformis). The anthers are similar, and the chief differences lie in the size of the fruits and in the length of calyx-tube or at least pedicel.

4. With E. pyriformis Turcz., var. Kingsmilli Maiden.

The affinity of E. pachyphylla is, however, closer to this variety, but they differ, as regards the larger buds and fruits; the longer petioles and pedicels; the more pointed opercula; the ribs deeper, almost winged and more numerous, of var. Kingsmilli.

5. With E. Oldfieldii F.v.M.

E. Oldfieldii is under revision, but Part XVII, p. 223, may be turned to, and figs. 11, Plate 73, and figs. 1 and 2, Plate 74, consulted. All these are close to the type. Both species are Mallees, but in E. Oldfieldii the fruits are in threes, with no ribbing on either calyx-tube or operculum, and the rim of the fruit is domed.

Fig. 7, Plate 75 (Burracoppin), which I attributed to E. pyriformis var. minor (and specifically identical with E. pachyphylla), of which fruits and a few leaves are alone available, is a form of E. Oldfieldii, with comparatively long stout pedicels. I have a note on it in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., li, 455.

  ― 18 ―

CXIV. E. pyriformis Turczaninow.

THE following new variety, originally published in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lii, 508 (1918), is figured in the present work for the first time (see also p. 229, Part XVII).

E. pyriformis Turcz., var. Kingsmilli Maiden.

A shrub, or small tree attaining a height of about 20 feet, with rough bark on the trunk, the upper branches being smooth. The crimson flower-buds give the tree a most ornamental appearance.

Juvenile leaves (not seen in their earliest stage, i.e., not quite opposite, but earlier than I have ever seen them in any form of E. pyriformis) narrow-lanceolate, say 4–6 cm. long and 1 cm. in the widest part, with petioles of about 1 cm. Equally pale green on both sides, venation not conspicuous, the secondary veins at an angle of about 45° with the midrib.

Mature leaves apparently not different from those of the normal form of E. pyriformis.

Flowers in an umbel usually of three, with a rounded or flattened peduncle of about 4 cm., with pedicels of half that length. Anthers as in E. pyriformis. Buds with calyx-tubes nearly hemispherical and about 2 cm. in diameter. The operculum continued into an almost pungent point. Both calyx-tube and operculum covered with about eight thin prominent wings, about 4 mm. deep, giving the buds a remarkable appearance. The style about 1·5 cm. long, persistent, with the stigma of scarcely increased diameter.

Disc at first concave, with a sharp raised inner ring flush with the top of the calyx-tube, which continues to grow upward, and at the same time expanding outwards, completely absorbing the concave cavity (noted in the early stages of its growth), until it reaches a height of 3–4 mm. above the level of the truncate calyx rim.

Fruit nearly hemispherical, 2·5 cm. in diameter, with eight prominent wings; these and the remainder of the calyx-tube (calycine rim) raised about the staminal ring.

This bizarre and showy variety, which promises to be an interesting addition to gardens in semi-tropical districts of low rainfall, is named in honour of the Hon. William Kingsmill, M.L.C., who has for many years taken a most active interest in forestry matters in Western Australia, and who has frequently assisted my botanical work for that State.

  ― 19 ―


Confined to Western Australia as far as we know.

From the East Murchison to Lake Way. The type from close to a mining camp called Mount Keith, about 160 miles north of Leonora (W. Kingsmill, July, 1918).

I subsequently received the following specimen from the National Herbarium, Melbourne (Prof. Ewart). “Bush of 10 feet.” Upper Ashburton River (W. Cuthbertson, 1888). This is the variety Kingsmilli but with peduncles and pedicels shorter and fruits smaller than in the type.


With E. pachyphylla F.v.M. (see p. 17).

  ― 20 ―

XCII. E. Oldfieldii F.v.M.

In Fragm. ii, 37 (1860).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

A shrub, leaves alternate with rather long petioles, ovate or narrow lanceolate, thick, coriaceous the same colour on both sides, slightly curved, imperforate, faintly and spreadingly veined, peripheral vein fairly distant from the edge, umbels shortly pedunculate, 2- or 3-flowered, the almost hemispherical operculum narrowed into a short umbo slightly longer than the semi-globular tube of the subsessile calyx, the very convex top of the fruit broadly encircling the capsule, calyx-tube exangular, hemispherical, the vertex of the 3- or 4-celled capsule pyramidal and exsert, seeds without wings.

In sandy plains near the Murchison River—A. Oldfield.

A shrub 4–5 feet high. Bark red, with loose flakes. Branchlets angled, the older ones terete. Leaves shining, 2½–5 inches long, ½–1½ inches broad at the lower part. Peduncles 1½ up to a few lines long, thickened at the base. Buds 4–5 lines long, wrinkled. Fruits not broader than ½ inch; tube hemispherical, margin 2 lines broad. Valves or either the exsert part of the capsule itself 1½ lines long, almost deltoid. Seeds sterile, ?–1 line long; the fertile ones hardly more than a line long and blackish.

It was described in English by Bentham in B.Fl. iii, 237, and figured and described by Mueller in his “Eucalyptographia.”

Notes supplementary to the description.

It has an ovoid operculum usually more or less rostrate. Its juvenile foliage is petiolate and ovate, not broad, with the intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge. I have not seen it in its earliest stage.

It is a stiff shrub of 8 or 10 feet, with many thin stems close together, forming an impenetrable scrub, but not a true Mallee. It is not a timber tree.

The anther will be found figured at fig. 9, Plate 171. It will be seen that it is practically identical with that of E. pyriformis (fig. 9, Plate 171), belonging to a group named by Mueller Strongylantheræ.

  ― 21 ―


It is confined to Western and South Australia. Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) gives its range as from Champion Bay to the Murchison River in Western Australia, but the localities about to be quoted show that it extends to the Eastern gold-fields and to the South Australian border.

For a number of Western Australian localities, see Part XVII, p. 223, of the present work. It is a species often obviously passed over as “Mallee,” and we require additional localities in order to properly map out its distribution.

Western Australia (Additional Localities).

About 4 miles north of Menzies (C. E. Lane Poole, No. 282).

Bruce Rock to Merriden (Dr. F. Stoward, Nos. 16, 36). “Mallee,” Tammin (C. H. Ostenfeld, No. 512). Comet Vale (J. T. Jutson, Nos. 242, 250).

South Australia.

“Camp 10, S.A., Elder Exploring Expedition. 27th June, 1891. 15 feet high.” (R. Helms.) On the official map it is stated that some Mallee was found in the vicinity of this camp, which is in South Australia, in, say, 27° 60' S. lat. and 131° long. E.


1. With E. Drummondii F.v.M.

“The close affinity of E. Oldfieldii to E. Drummondii remains to be noted. So far as I can judge from Drummond's specimen No. 86, no other discrepancies of the latter exist than the smaller size of the leaves, flowers and young fruits, and the comparatively greater length of the flower-stalks and stalklets; but such differences are not in every other case of specific value, and as the bud and ripe fruit remained hitherto unknown, the final settling of this question is not yet possible. If E. Drummondii should prove a mere variety, as seems likely.…” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Oldfieldii.)

E. Oldfieldii differs from E. Drummondii in the sessile inflorescence which is arranged in triads (or when pedicellate), the pedicels are very stout and shorter than those of E. Drummondii) and in different shaped buds and fruits, as will be seen by comparing Plate 73 (fig. 11) and Plate 74 (figs. 1 and 2) for E. Oldfieldii with Plate 74 (figs. 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10) for E. Drummondii. The former is a Mallee, and the latter a small tree.

2. With E. Ewartiana Maiden, in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. liii, p. 111 (1919).

This will be dealt with when E. Ewartiana is reached.

Additional affinities have been dealt with in Part XVII, p. 225.

  ― 22 ―

CCXXVII. E. Drummondii Bentham.

In B.Fl. iii, 237 (1866).

Leaves from ovate oblong to lanceolate, obtuse or acuminate, under 3 inches long, very thick, with very fine close parallel veins, very diverging or almost transverse, but scarcely conspicuous, the intramarginal one close to the edge. Peduncles axillary or lateral, ½ to 1½ inches long, terete or nearly so, each bearing an umbel of 3 to 6 rather large flowers on terete pedicels often ½ inch long. Calyx-tube broadly hemispherical, hard and smooth, 4 to 5 lines diameter. Operculum conical, rather broader and considerably longer than the calyx-tube. Stamens about ½ inch long, inflected in the bud; anthers rather small, ovate, with distinct parallel cells. Disk very broad, nearly flat, forming a prominent ring round the ovary, of which the obtusely conical centre protrudes about 1 or 1½ lines above the disk at the time of flowering. Fruit unknown.

The fruit was unknown to Bentham when he described E. Drummondii in B.Fl. iii, 237, and apparently Mueller only saw the young fruits. They will be found at fig. 7, Plate 74. Juvenile foliage petiolate, ovate, intramarginal vein close to edge (specimens of O. H. Sargent, near York, W.A.), but neither it nor the anthers figured until figs. 10–12, Plate 171, of the present part.


E. Oldfieldii F.v.M., var. Drummondii Maiden, at Part XVII, p. 223, of the present work.

Mueller, in “Eucalyptographia,” under E. Oldfieldii, uses the following words:—

So far as I can judge from Drummond's specimen No. 86, no other discrepancies of the latter (as regards E. Oldfieldii) exist than the smaller size of the leaves, flowers and young fruits, and the comparatively greater length of the flower stalks and stalklets, but such differences are not in every case of specific value, and as the bud and ripe fruit remained hitherto unknown the final settling of this question is not yet possible. If E. Drummondii should prove a mere variety, as seems likely.…

Mueller continued to hold the opinion that E. Drummondii was not distinct from E. Oldfieldii, for he omitted it from his Census. Luehmann (Proc. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, vii, 532, 1898) writes: “E. Drummondii seems a variety of this (E. Oldfieldii), being smaller in all its parts.”

  ― 23 ―

After consideration, in Part XVII of the present work, I constituted E. Drummondii as a variety of E. Oldfieldii as already stated, adopting Drummond's No. 86 (the type of E. Drummondii) as the type for the variety. I am now of opinion that E. Drummondii is a valid species.


It is confined to Western Australia. As in the case of so many other of Drummond's specimens, we do not know precisely their localities, but inasmuch as it has only been certainly found since from the York district, we have an indication of Drummond's locality, and I would urge systematic search for the species. Local observers are now aware that it has long been confused with E. Lane-Poolei (a species to which it is more closely related than E. Oldfieldii), and this should facilitate search.

Drummond's No. 86. The inflorescence varies in size somewhat in various specimens. Figured at 3 and 6, Plate 74.

The following specimen matches the type absolutely:—

Small tree of about 20 feet. Trunk and branches smooth, whitish buff, with a few brown semi-detached scales of dead bark. Leaves dull green. Growing in light, humous soil, mixed with ironstone gravel. Cut Hill, York (O. H. Sargent, No. 266). (Figured at 5 and 7, Plate 74.)

Also St. Ronan's Well, near York (C. E. Lane Poole).

The following specimens have been examined:—

No. 86 (Drummond). Herb. Cant. and Herb. Oxon. The former in bud (one), but mostly early fruit. The latter mostly in bud and flower, and a little early fruit.


  • 1. With E. Oldfieldii F.v.M. See p. 21.
  • 2. With E. Lane-Poolei Maiden, in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. liii, p. 107, (1919). This is its closest affinity, and will be dealt with when E. Lane-Poolei is reached.

  ― 24 ―

Explanation of Plates (168–171).

Plate 168.

Plate 168: EUCALYPTUS LATIFOLIA F.v.M. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. latifolia F.v.M.

  • 1. Juvenile orbicular leaf. Not quite in the alternate stage, but the youngest leaf I have seen. Bathurst Island, Northern Territory. (G. F. Hill, No. 464.)
  • 2a. Mature leaf; 2b, large corymbose panicle, showing buds, flowers, and very young fruits; 2c, front and back views of anther; 2d, fruits of varying size and shape. Bathurst Island. (G. F. Hill, No. 469.)
  • 3. Immature fruit, markedly urceolate. Pine Creek, Northern Territory. (Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 357.)
  • 4. Mature and starved fruits. Between Bull Oak and Crescent Lagoon, Darwin to Katharine River. (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer.)
  • 5. Mature fruits with remarkably slender peduncles and pedicels; the leaves comparatively small. Darwin to Roper River. (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer.)
  • 6a. Mature leaf; 6b, immature fruits. McKinlay Flats, Northern Territory. (Dr. H. I. Jensen.)

Plate 169.

Plate 169: EUCALYPTUS FOELSCHEANA F.v.M. [See also Plate 170.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. Foelscheana F.v.M. (See also Plate 170.)

  • 1. (At back), portion of a large juvenile leaf (the original is 15 by 11 inches, and even larger were seen). Katharine River, Northern Territory. (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer.)
  • 2. Small, scarcely urceolate fruits, attached to a mature leaf 20 to 16 cm. Katharine River. (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer.)
  • 3a. Mature leaf; 3b, immature buds; 3c, immature fruit. McKinlay River Flats. (Dr. H. I. Jensen.)
  • 4a. Twig, bearing buds and flowers; 4b, front and back views of anthers; 4c and 4d, fruits, views end-on and in elevation. Darwin (correspondent of Mueller).
  • 5. Mature fruits of the large or typical form, near Darwin. (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer.)
  • 6a. Mature leaf; 6b, unusually oblong leaf; 6c, small, mature fruit. Track to Katharine River. (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer.)

Plate 170.

Plate 170: EUCALYPTUS FOELSCHEANA F.v.M. (1-3) [See also Plate 169.] (The lanceolar-leaved form.) E. ABERGIANA F.v.M. (4,5) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. Foelscheana F.v.M. (See Plate 169.)

(The lanceolar-leaved form.)

  • 1. Twig with long lanceolar leaf and flat-topped opercula (compare fig. 4a, Plate 169). “North Coast” (Northern Territory). Robert Brown, “Iter Australiense, 1802–5.”
  • 2a. Twig with shorter lanceolar leaf and fruits; 2b, fruit, end view. Darwin (correspondent of Mueller, by whom the specimen was sent to the Calcutta Herbarium).
  • 3a. Small lanceolar leaf, comparable in size and shape with that of 6a, Plate 169. (Note the straight insect markings, parallel to the secondary veins. They have also been observed in Eucalyptus brachyandra F.v.M., but apparently not previously recorded); 3b, small fruits; 3c, winged seeds. Between Cullen River and Woolgni, Northern Territory. (Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 418.)
  • The lanceolar-leaved form of this species is referred to at pp. 5 and 6. It would appear that a variety name for this form would not be justified in the present state of our knowledge, for comparing Plates 170 and 169, it will be observed that there is much variation in the shape of the leaves of the species. Further, if the fruits be compared, e.g., the small fruits, fig. 3b (Plate 170) with the small fruits 2 (Plate 169), and the large fruits, fig. 2a and 2b (Plate 170) with the large fruits of fig. 5 (Plate 169), it will be seen that small and large fruits occur in both the typical and lanceolar-leaved forms.

  ― 25 ―

E. Abergiana F.v.M.

  • 4a. Twig with leaf, buds, and flowers; 4b, fruit, with a very short pedicel, from the drawing of the type in Mueller's “Eucalyptographia.”
  • 5a. Mature leaf (rather broader than any leaf depicted by Mueller's artist); 5b, immature bud; 5c, anthers in different positions; 5d, fruit (rather more sessile than depicted by Mueller's artist). Rockingham Bay, Queensland. (J. Dallachy.) Both 4 and 5 drawn from the type.

Plate 171.

Plate 171: EUCALYPTUS PACHYPHYLLA F.v.M. (1-3) var. sessilis. (4-7). E. PYRIFORMIS TURCZ var. Kingsmilli Maiden. (8). E. OLDFIELDII F.v.M. (9). [See also Plate 73, fig. II, and Plate 74, figs. 1 and 2.] F. DRUMMONDII Benth. (10-12). [See also Plate 74, figs. 3,5,6,7,9,10.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. pachyphylla F.v.M.

  • 1a. Leaf; 1b, fruit. Hooker's Creek, Northern Territory. (Mueller.) Type of the species (N.B., the fruits drawn in “Eucalyptographia” have the pedicels too long and the peduncle is not shown).
  • 2. Fruit from Pituri Creek, see p. 14. (A. Henry, 1889). From the Melbourne Herbarium. Not far removed from the type. Note the pedicels in both cases.
  • 3. Fruit, Linda Creek (see p. 14). From Melbourne Herbarium. Note the articulation of the peduncle to the single pedicel.

Var. sessilis var. nov.

  • 4a. Sessile head of buds; 4b, underside view of the same, showing an annulus or disc; 4c, side-view of disc. The disc represents morphologically a fusion of pedicels, seated on a scarcely perceptible peduncle; 4d, views of anther. Glen of Palms, Macdonnell Ranges, “W.A. Expedition, 1872” (E. Giles).
  • These are the same buds as those figured in the E. pachyphylla plate in the “Eucalyptographia.”
  • 5a. Ripe fruits (showing annulus); 5b, immature fruit. Dalhousie Springs (Finke River, 1880). (Rev. H. Kempe). From Melbourne Herbarium.
  • 6. Leaf and fruits. North of Macdonnell Ranges (Plenty River district). (Lieut. Dittrich.) From Melbourne Herbarium. See p. 16.
  • 7. Fruits. Finke River. (Rev. W. Schwarz, 1886.) From Melbourne Herbarium. See p. 15.

E. pyriformis Turcz., var. Kingsmilli Maiden.

  • 8a. Mature leaf; 8b, the broadest leaf I have seen, but not in the juvenile stage; 8c, flowers, showing the slender peduncles and pedicels; 8d, anthers; 8e, side-view of operculum. Note the dark spot which represents the aperture into the apex of the operculum into which the style and stigma are inserted as into a sheath or case; 8f, flower-bud, showing the shortest operculum and pedicel seen; 8g, immature fruit; 8h, perfectly ripe fruit. All from New England to Mt. Keith (about 160 miles north of Leonora, W.A. (Hon. W. Kingsmill, M.L.C.) The type.

E. Oldfieldii F.v.M.

  • 9. Anthers. Mingenew, W.A. (J.H.M.)
  • For the remainder of the drawings of E. Oldfieldii, see Plate 73, Part XVII. fig. 11, and Plate 74, figs. 1 and 2.

E. Drummondii Benth.

  • 10. Juvenile leaf. Near York, W.A. (O. H. Sargent.)
  • 11. Front and back view of anther. Cut Hill, York. (O. H. Sargent.)
  • 12. Front and back view of anther. Cut Hill, York. (O. H. Sargent.)
  • Note some variation in Nos. 11 and 12.
  • For the remainder of the drawings of E. Drummondii, see Plate 74, Part XVII, figs. 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10.
no previous