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Part 42




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CCXXVIII. E. eximia Schauer.

In Walpers' Repertorium ii, 925 (1843).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

Rigid, with firm lanceolate leaves narrowed into a petiole, long, acute, smooth on both sides and sub-opaque, covered with small black dots, imperforate, without veins; the terminal panicle composed of very many—about six-flowered heads with long peduncles; peduncles compressed, somewhat two-edged; operculum coriaceous, convex, umbonate, after expansion sometimes with the hinge of the operculum as if adherent to the obconical wrinkled-angular calyx-tube (and the remaining parts?) glaucous-hoary, finally smooth shining. Leaves half a foot long and longer, about an inch broad. Flowers showy, 6 lines long; stamens elongated, white. Collected in New Holland in former days by Ferd. Bauer.

It was described by Bentham in B.Fl. iii, 258, as follows:—

Leaves falcate-lanceolate, acuminate, mostly 4 to 6 inches long, with numerous veins, fine and parallel, but scarcely visible owing to the thick coriaceous texture. Flowers several together, closely sessile in heads, which are usually arranged on thick angular or flattened peduncles, in terminal corymbs or panicles. Calyx-tube thick, obconical, somewhat angular, much tapering at the base, 3 to 4 lines long. Operculum broadly conical or shortly acuminate, always much shorter than the calyx-tube, and double, as in E. maculata, but the inner one not readily separable in the dried specimens till the flower is ready to open. Stamens 3 to 4 lines long; anthers ovate-oblong, the cells parallel, opening longitudinally. Ovary short, flat-topped. Fruit urceolate, ¾ to 1 inch long, the rim thin, the capsule deeply sunk.

It is described and figured by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia.”

Caley, at the beginning of the 19th century, called it “Snuff-coloured Bark Eucalyptus,” which is descriptive, but, it seems to me, it gives an idea that the bark is browner than it really is. The colour of the bark is a dirty yellow.

By Sydney people this is variously known as “Mountain Bloodwood,” “Yellow Bloodwood,” and “Rusty Gum.” It is called “Bloodwood” partly because kino exudes in the concentric circles of the wood (which kino, by the way, cannot be mistaken for that of E. corymbosa). Baron von Mueller states (“Eucalyptographia”), following Dr. Woolls, I find, that it sometimes goes by the name of “Smooth-barked Bloodwood,” but I have not heard it so called.

The purple (plum violet) of the young foliage is a very conspicuous object, and it has long been known that it contains a small percentage of caoutchouc, as does that of the common Sydney Bloodwood (E. corymbosa).

Mr. W. F. Blakely noted that the young shoots in the Hornsby-Galston district (near Hawkesbury River) distinctly smell of oil of lemon (February, 1918).




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Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 258), speaking of the operculum, says “…double, as in E. maculata, but the inner one not readily separable in the dried specimens till the flower is ready to open.” Mueller follows the matter up in the “Eucalyptographia,” but I think it will be best to deal with the morphology of the opercula (which involves consideration of a number of species), when dealing with the morphology of the genus in the second portion of this work.

Doubtful Synonym.

E. elongata Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. ii, 30 (1822).

Following is a copy of the original:—

“223. E. elongata. Fol. lanceolatis attenuatis acumine subfiliformi reticulatim venosis. Hab. in Australia. T. Fol. pet. 8? longo lamina 4–5' lga. 10?–1' lata coriacea. Non floruit.” A specimen in the Vienna Herbarium labelled “Eucalyptus elongata Link, Ferd. Bauer, Herb. Bauer” is E. eximia Schauer.

On the other hand, we have the species rather more fully described in DC. Prod. iii, 222, as follows:—

“49. E. elongata (Link l.c.) foliis alternis lanceolatis attenuatis acumine subfiliformi reticulatim venosis coriaceis. In Nov. Hollandia. Folii petiolus 8 lin. longus, lamina 4–5 poll. longa 10–12 lin. lata. An forte eadem ac E. cornuta aut potius E. persicifolia? (v.s. sine fl. ex hort. Berol).

A single leaf, from the Prodromus Herbarium (from M. Casimir De Candolle) has the following label:—

(Manu Ottonis), “Eucalyptus elongata Lk. En.”

(Manu Seringei), “Jardin de Berlin Mr. Otto, 1826.”

(Manu DC. ii), “An cornuta? persicifolia?”

It is not E. eximia. I would not like to state its origin at present. E. elongata Link, in Otto's handwriting, was written by the collaborator of Link in much botanical work.

Range.

The collection of the type is credited to Ferdinand Bauer, as is the case with other specimens collected by Robert Brown, but forming part of a collection of Bauer's (who was Sir Joseph Banks's artist attached to Brown), which found its way to the Vienna Herbarium. Brown described it and gave it a name, but, like so many of Brown's descriptions of Eucalyptus, it never saw the light. The type came from the Grose River, New South Wales.




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Bentham gives “Banks of the River Grose, R. Brown, and (lower) Blue Mountains, Miss Atkinson.” Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) adds Bent's Basin (Woolls), which is on the Nepean, about 22 miles south of its junction with the Grose. The Dogwood Creek, Queensland, specimens, collected by Leichhardt and referred to in the “Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia, are E. peltata F.v.M.

It seems to be confined to the sandstone of eastern-central New South Wales, its most southerly recorded locality being Jervis Bay, and northerly one Howe's Valley, near Singleton, while the most westerly locality is Springwood, in the lower Blue Mountains (1,200 feet).

Southern localities.—A specimen in Herb. Cant., Ex herb. Lindl., labelled, “7 feet high, P. Jarvis, Fraser” (Jervis Bay, Fraser died in December, 1831) is E. eximia. Another specimen, labelled “Eucalyptus sp., height 50 feet, flowers in September, Port Jervis” (Jervis Bay) (Fraser), in Herb. Oxon. is this species.

The next most southerly locality recorded is Shoalhaven River (Badgery's Crossing to Nowra, W. Forsyth and A. A. Hamilton). It is remarkable that it has never been recorded from Jervis Bay since Fraser's time, nor between Jervis Bay and the Shoalhaven.

Yalwal, 18 miles from Nowra, Shoalhaven district (R. H. Cambage). Picton Lakes (R. H. Cambage). It is obvious that we want more collecting over southern localities for this species.

A large tree of this species used to be in Government House Grounds, just inside the gates. It was demolished during the widening of Macquarie-street, in 1913. It may have been an original specimen of the Sydney flora, still preserved to some extent in the Outer Domain, but I doubt it.

Western localities.—Very common about Glenbrook and Blaxland, but was not observed beyond Springwood. October is the usual flowering time for this species, but the evidence available on 12th November last went to show that, with but few exceptions, it did not flower last spring; and it is worthy of note that it flowered profusely in 1900 and 1902, but was almost destitute of flowers in 1901 (vide these Proceedings, 1902, p. 206). Many of the trees were rendered attractive in November by the display of purple foliage on the young shoots. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. xxx, 199, 1905).

Mulgoa (R. H. Cambage, J.H.M.). “This is the `Mountain Bloodwood.' The bark is generally different in texture from the other. It is not so thick, and looks more like the bark of a Mahogany or Woolly Butt.” Near Bent's Basin (Rev. Dr. Woolls).

“Smooth-barked Bloodwood,” specimen from cliffs near Bent's Basin (W. Woolls). Bent's Basin, only on the sandstone ridge (J.H.M.). Bent's Basin is on the Nepean River, a few miles south of Penrith.




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Following are two historical specimens. They are co-types. “Banks of the Grose.” Robert Brown, 1802–5. (Presented by J. J. Bennett at the 1876 distribution from the British Museum, No. 4776.)

“Snuff-coloured bark Eucalyptus, Grose, September, 1804, F2.” (George Caley.) (Presented by British Museum through Dr. A. B. Rendle, No. 42.) (Grose Head on other specimens.)

Grose's Head was a name originally given by Caley himself. There is a reference to its use by Bligh on 31st October, 1807 (Hist. Rec. Aust. vi, 145), who speaks of it as “A high, commanding situation called Grose's Head.” The name is several times used by Blaxland in his “Journal of a Tour of Discovery Across the Blue Mountains in the year 1813.” One of the references is that at Glenbrook Lagoon, “the high land of Grose Head appeared before them at about 7 miles distance, bearing north by east.” Mr. Alexander Wilson told me that Grose Head is a bluff at the junction of Burralow Creek and Grose River (a few miles from the junction of the latter with the Nepean), parish of Burralow, county of Cook.

Mr. R. H. Cambage and I, in 1906, saw it when we ascended the Grose River from the Nepean. We could only progress about 5 miles from the Nepean junction to the head of navigation. We then came to large sandstone boulders, but could hardly progress a short distance over them, and continued progress was impossible. Looking up the stream, the fine bluff of Grose Head was the prominent feature of the landscape. It is easy to suppose that Caley saw it from this position.

Northern localities.—Between 17–19 mile-posts, Galston road, Hornsby (W. F. Blakely). At the Linnean Society's excursion of the 27th April, 1889, numerous individuals, including some very fine trees, of this species were found at the junction of the Berowra Creek with the Hawkesbury River. This was the most northerly locality known for a number of years. (Henry Deane and J.H.M.)

I am indebted to Mr. W. F. Blakely for the following notes on the occurrence of this species between Hornsby and Hawkesbury River, including its association with E. squamosa Deane and Maiden:—

There are several fine belts of this species on the eastern and north-eastern spurs of the rugged sandstone country along Berowra Creek, from the Galston Valley, on the Galston road between the 17–19 mile-posts, to Brooklyn on the Hawkesbury River; and also in similar situations in various places throughout the Kuring-gai Chase; namely, on the Gibberygong track, Kuring-gai Chase boundary line, 2 miles east of Hornsby; Bobbin Head (plentiful); along the Chase road to Mt. Colah (two patches); close to railway line at Kuring-gai, Berowra, Cowan and Hawkesbury River stations. It is also common at various points along Cowan Creek. For instance, fine specimens are to be seen at Windybanks and at Jerusalem Bay.

On the Pittwater side of the Chase there is a patch of it towards the head of Cowan Creek.

It is interesting to note that besides occupying the highest points in the strip of country between Manly and Brooklyn, E. eximia descends to the sea-level, attaining its greatest development on the lower levels, but some really good specimens are met with at considerably high elevations.




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ASSOCIATION WITH E. CORYMBOSA SM. AND E. SQUAMOSA DEANE AND MAIDEN.

E. eximia is often associated with E. corymbosa and E. squamosa, but to a limited extent. It usually prefers the well-drained rugged, often precipitous ridges, with a northerly or easterly aspect, as seen along the railway line near the Hawkesbury River station, while E. corymbosa prefers the better-class soils of the northern, eastern, and western slopes; also the medium soils interspersed with ironstone gravel of the flat, open forests, on the tops of ridges. On the other hand, E. squamosa is usually confined to the moist tops and somewhat sour, swampy, elevated southern depressions. When these species meet, they do not penetrate beyond their ecological boundaries. In any case, E. corymbosa is the most aggressive of the three, for it appears to have adapted itself to all sorts of environmental conditions.

We now cross to the northern bank of the Hawkesbury River.

Woy Woy and Hawkesbury River (Andrew Murphy).

“Pepper,” not Peppermint, is the Colo name, Hawkesbury River (a surveyor whose name I have forgotten).

Maitland (Sawyer's Gully), where it is known as Rock Apple. (R. H. Cambage.)

Affinities.

We are dealing in this Part with four Yellow-barks or Yellow-jackets. They all have palish timber (in contradistinction to reddish), viz., E. eximia, E. peltata, E. Watsoniana, and E. trachyphloia, and have some affinities for that reason. They are contrasted at p. 47.

E. eximia is a member of the Corymbosæ, and Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 199) places it nearest to E. maculata, giving the key.

Flowers pedicellate in 3-flowered umbels …E. maculata.

Flowers sessile, in heads … … … …E. eximia.

These are the only two species of the section he records as having a double operculum.

Mueller's views as to the affinities of E. eximia will be given in his own order.

1. With E. Watsoniana F.v.M.

E. eximia is closely related to E. Watsoniana, differing mainly in narrower leaves, in the smaller flowers without any stalklets, in the lid not exceeding the width of the calyx-tube, and in smaller fruits with not emerging or protruding disc. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia.)

This is the only other Yellow-jacket with which Mueller contrasts it, and I will refer to the affinity under table at p. 47.

2. With E. Abergiana F.v.M.

In its panicles it resembles E. Abergiana, but the leaves are almost sickle-shaped and not conspicuously darker above, the lid and calyx-tube are separated by a clear sutural line, and the seeds are not provided with a terminating membrane. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia.)




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For E. Abergiana, see Plate 170, Part XLI. The two species are sharply separated by the non-yellow bark, and the red timber of E. Abergiana. The mature foliage of that species is broader, the buds ovoid, and therefore the opercula non-conoid, the peduncles thicker and more distinctly articulate, the fruits larger and more woody. At the same time, we are not fully aware of the amount of variation in that species.

3. With E. maculata Hook. f.

E. eximia claims particularly close relationship to E. maculata; but its distinctness is vindicated by the persistency and peculiarity of the bark, by the still finer venation of the leaves, by the flowers being of larger size and devoid of stalklets, by the less ready separation of the outer and inner lid from each other, by the petaloid whitish not shining inner but smoother and more lustrous lid, and by the larger fruits; the seedling state may also be different. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia.)

Mr. W. F. Blakely informed me, in February, 1918, that young shoots of E. eximia in the Hornsby, Sydney, district, distinctly smelled of oil of lemon. This indicates affinity to E. maculata var. citriodora. I will postpone further consideration of the contrasts until E. maculata is reached in Part XLIII.

4. With E. corymbosa Sm.

Although called a Bloodwood tree, it differs widely from E. corymbosa, not only in some of the characteristics of its flowers and fruits, but also in foliage and bark, the latter being of more scaly texture and also smoother outside. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia.)

For E. corymbosa see Part XXXIX, Plates 161, 162. The latter has a hard, scaly, non-yellow bark, with red timber. Its flush of young foliage is reddish rather than purple, and its very young leaves are non-petiolate. The two species differ in the shape of the fruits, which have pedicels in E. corymbosa, which also has its buds more clavate.




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CCXXIX. E. peltata Bentham.

In B.Fl. iii, 254 (1866).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

A tree with a dark, shining, brittle, flaky, but persistent bark (F. Mueller).

Leaves from nearly orbicular to oblong-ovate, obtuse, rather large, peltately inserted on the petiole above their base, rusty-scabrous or glabrous or somewhat glaucous, with diverging but not close veins.

Flowers rather large, nearly sessile in the umbels, which are arranged in oblong (or corymbose) terminal panicles, but not seen expanded.

Calyx-tube obconical in the bud, about 3 lines long, smooth and shining.

Operculum much shorter, obtusely conical or hemispherical.

Anthers ovate-oblong, with parallel cells.

Fruit urceolate-globose, about 4 lines diameter, contracted above the deeply-sunk capsule, the rim thin, seeds (which I have not seen) smooth and not winged according to F. Mueller.

It was figured and further described by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia.”

A small or middle sized tree, with a straight trunk seldom above 15 feet long or more than 18 inches in diameter, with a spreading rather dense top (Johnson); foliage drooping, the greatest height of the whole tree about 30 feet (Tenison-Woods). Bark everywhere (all over the tree) persistent, lamellar, very brittle, somewhat shining and brownish or pale-yellowish, the colour of the bark having originated the curious vernacular of Yellow-jacket for this tree. (“Eucalyptographia.”)

In 1908, when I received a full suite of specimens from the Emerald District, misled by Bentham's description of the peltate juvenile leaves as mature ones, I thought it might be new, and carefully described it, but did not publish it.

Following is the description of the juvenile leaves, made at the time:—

Broadly lanceolate to orbicular, peltate (up to 10–15 cm. long and 3·5–4 cm. broad being common dimensions), symmetrical, the slightly flattened glaucous branchlets and the midribs sparsely besprinkled with weak brown hairs, the tips of the branchlets densely hairy. Equally green on both sides, or but slightly paler on the under side, thin, petiolate, midrib distinct and slightly channelled, lateral veins irregularly curved, rather distant from each other, passing through a more parallel stage until they become feather-veined in the adult stage; the intramarginal vein at a considerable distance from the edge. Mature leaves of the ordinary lanceolate shape.

I have since found that the peltate condition of leaves in Eucalyptus is more common than was at one time supposed, but a full discussion of this character may well be deferred until the Morphology portion of this work is reached.




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Following is an excellent account of the tree:—

Eucalyptus peltata is known around Alma-den as Yellow Jack, from the yellowish colour of the scaly bark, which is of much the same texture as that of the Bloodwood group, though perhaps a little more flaky. This rough scaly bark extends to the branchlets, the tips of which are angular, glabrous and yellowish. The timber is pale towards the outside of the tree, but dark brown near the centre. The fruits are slightly urceolate and the sessile buds are angular in dried specimens. The only peltate leaves seen were amongst the ovate, scabrous, “sucker” foliage. The adult leaves examined are glabrous and lanceolate, with a yellowish midrib, and are 5 to 6 inches long and one-quarter of an inch to 1 inch broad. The “sucker” stems are hispid. (R. H. Cambage in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 407, 1915.)

Synonyms.

  • 1. E. melissiodora F.v.M. in Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 95 (1859), but not of Lindley.
  • 2. E. Leichhardtii Bailey.
  • 3. E. eximia Schauer, var. Leichhardtii Ewart.

1. E. melissiodora F.v.M. in Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 95 (1859).

Following is a translation of the original:—

A tree, branchlets compressed-tetragonal, rough, leaves opposite or sub-opposite, ovate or sub-cordate, rarely oblong-lanceolate, petiolate and scabrous above the rounded somewhat inflexed base, opaque, covered with translucent dots, penniveined reticulately veined, peripheral vein unequally distant from the margin, umbels paniculate, 6–7 flowered, peduncles scabrous, angled and longer than the calyx-tube, buds ovate, smooth, ecostate shortly pedicellate, the calyx-tube half as long again as the interior conical-hemispherical operculum, the outer operculum imperfect, fruits campanulate, three-celled, smooth at the vertex, valves included, seeds smooth, winged. Habitat in the porphyritic mountains of Newcastle Range. Flowered October and November. A small or medium sized tree, trunk straight, bark adhering all over, shining with brittle dirty yellow flakes. Branchlets and peduncles grown over with an ash-coloured and rusty roughness. Leaves with a petiole ½–1 inch long, semiterete, for the most part, adhering above the base, rarely to the margin, generally 2–3 inches long, 1½–2½ inches broad, in the abnormal specimen collected by Mitchellnote up to 5 inches long and 1 inch only broad, sometimes acute, sometimes obtuse or rather emarginate. Calyx-tube shining obconical, semi-ovate, 2–3 lines long narrowed into a very short pedicel. Operculum double, the exterior one chestnut brown, slowly coming away in pieces, grown to the interior one; the interior one 1½ lines long. Fruit about 4 lines long, perfectly campanulate, green, somewhat smooth at the vertex, valves inserted above the middle of the tube. Seeds brown, shining. The species is remarkable for the double operculum.

Mueller (“Eucalyptographia” under E. peltata) concurs in Bentham's opinion that E. melissiodora, “might merely constitute the young state of E. citriodora, and this has been confirmed through local observation by Dr. E. Wuth, whose attention I directed to this subject.” He goes on to point out that, in dealing with E. maculata in “Eucalyptographia,” he added E. peltata as a synonym by a slip of the pen.




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2. E. Leichhardtii Bailey, in Queensland Agric. Journ. xvi, 493 (May, 1906).

The original description is as follows:—

“Yellow Jack” or “Yellow Jacket.” A tree of small size, the timber not considered durable. Bark on the trunk thick, spongy, and somewhat lamellar; colour a light yellowish-brown; deciduous on the smaller branches. Leaves 3 to 6 inches long, falcate-lanceolate, the apex often elongated and filiform, the base somewhat oblique, tapering to a petiole of about 1 inch; transverse parallel veins very numerous, but not very distinct owing to the coriaceous texture of the leaf, the intramarginal one rather distant from the edge. Flowers several together, nearly or quite sessile, in heads which are arranged on thickish (more or less angular) branches of a terminal panicle from 4 to 8 inches long. Calyx-tube thick, angular-rugose, much tapering towards the base in the flower, about 4 lines long and 3 lines broad at the top. Operculum broadly conical or shortly acuminate, considerably shorter than the calyx-tube, usually in the fresh state of a glossy-purple, texture thin and tough; from the centre a descending tube is formed by the petaloid portion or inner membrane which encloses the summit of the style and stigma before the flower expands, similar to what Mueller points out as occurring in E. eximia. Stamens 3 to 4 lines long; anthers oblong; cells parallel, opening longitudinally. Ovary flat-topped. Fruit urceolate, about 6 lines long, rim rather thin; capsule deeply sunk, 3-celled. Seeds oblong, about 3 lines long, 1½ lines broad, smooth, flat and glossy-brown.

Hab.:—Near Alice, Central Railway (received from Mr. Wm. Pagan, Chief Engineer for Railways).

The above species seems only to have once previously been brought under notice, and then by Baron Mueller when describing E. eximia, in his grand work, “The Eucalyptographia,” where he says: “Imperfect specimens, collected by Dr. Leichhardt on Dogwood Creek, in Queensland, and designated `Rusty Gum-tree,' seem referable to E. eximia.”

3. In a paper in Vict. Nat., p. 56 (July, 1907), Prof. Ewart deals with E. Leichhardtii, which he reduces to E. eximia Schauer, var. Leichhardtii Bailey [this should be var. Leichhardtii Ewart, according to a letter from Prof. Ewart.—J.H.M.], and incidentally refers to the fact that Mueller has referred similar specimens, presumably including “imperfect specimens, collected by Dr. Leichhardt on Dogwood Creek in Queensland, and designated `Rusty Gum-tree,' seem referable to E. eximia.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia.)

“A point apparently overlooked by Bailey is that the internal ledge just within the rim is nearly horizontal, instead of sloping inwards and downwards as in E. eximia type, so that the outer chamber of the fruit is saucer-shaped instead of cup-shaped. In this respect, as well as in the size of the fruit, the capsules show an approach to E. maculata, but in the bark, and in other features, the two trees differ considerably.” (Ewart, loc. cit.)

Range.

The type came from Newcastle Range, Queensland, which is east of the Etheridge and the Gilbert, in Northern Queensland, and of the township of Georgetown. It was collected by Mueller during Gregory's Northern Territory Expedition of 1856.




  ― 36 ―

In the “Eucalyptographia,” Mueller extends the localities as follows: “On porphyritic mountains at the sources of the Burdekin, Lynd, and Gilbert Rivers (Mueller); on granite hills near Charters Towers, on auriferous formation (Tenison-Woods); at Ravenswood, near the Burdekin River (S. Johnson).”

These are the most northerly localities (see also some mentioned by Leichhardt for “Rusty Gum” below). Then we have a group of localities around Emerald, Central Railway, while the most southerly locality is that of Leichhardt, on Dogwood Creek, near Dulacca Railway Station. Leichhardt's specimens are fragmentary, but I have no doubt as to their identity.

It will thus be seen that E. peltata has a very extensive range in Queensland, occurring in rather dry situations, and on somewhat sterile soil.

I have a specimen from the Melbourne Herbarium, “E. peltata Benth., E. mellissiodora Lindl. Newcastle Range (Mueller).” This is Mueller's label. It has a nearly orbicular leaf, a sucker leaf, as figured in “Eucalyptographia.”

Cape River (Stephen Johnson) in Herb. Melb. Mueller also quotes Charters Towers and Ravenswood, which are in about the same latitude. (Ravenswood is by Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods.)

“Yellow Jack.” “Rough, scaly yellow bark to branches, wood pale, light brown centre. 30–40 feet high. On granite at 1,600 feet.” Alma-den (R. H. Cambage, Nos. 3884, 3885).

“This species occurs plentifully between Einasleigh and Wirra Wirra, near Forsayth. Exactly similar trees, as regards appearance and habit, were seen from the train in the Desert near Jericho, to the east of Barcaldine, but as these trees were not examined, their identification is doubtful, though it is understood they are known as Eucalyptus Leichhardtii Bailey.” (R. H. Cambage in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 407, 1915.)

All the above localities are in the same general area, viz., the southern part of Cape York Peninsula, and east of the southern part of the Gulf of Carpentaria. This general area includes the localities for the species as quoted by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia.”

Going south, we have a Bloodwood, Washpool Creek, Eidsvold (sent by Dr. T. L. Bancroft as E. eximia).

Coming further south, we have “Yellow Jack,” Chinchilla State Forest. (Forest Ranger George Singleton, C. T. White's No. 12.) This is on the South-Western line. Note also Leichhardt's locality of Dogwood Creek, near the modern Dulacca. See below, p. 37.

Further north still, we have a group of localities on the Central Railway.

“Yellow Jacket,” Desert Country, west of Emerald (R. Simmonds). From the same locality Mr. J. L. Boorman reports, “Tree of medium size (trunks 18 inches to 2 feet in diameter being common), bark of a Bloodwood character, and of a light or yellow colour.”




  ― 37 ―

“Yellow Jacket. Medium-sized trees of 30–40 feet. Stems of 1–4 feet in diameter, but never more than 15 feet or so of milling timber, it being generally difficult to obtain more than posts and rails, its principal use. Wood dark brown in centre, pale yellow sapwood. Flaky bark, from base of stem up to branches, having a yellowish appearance.” Beta (J. L. Boorman).

Still a little further, on the same line, viz., at 328 miles from Rockhampton, we have a specimen of the type of E. Leichhardtii, which came from Alice, Central Railway (W. Pagan, through F. M. Bailey).

In considering the range of the species, it is necessary to study the notes on Leichhardt's Rusty Gum, which follow.

The Rusty Gum of Leichhardt:

Not a mile further on [from his Acacia Creek] we came on a second creek, with running water, which from the number of Dogwood shrubs (Jacksonia), in the full glory of their golden blossoms, I called Dogwood Creek. The creek came from north and north-east, and flowed to the south-west to join the Condamine. The rock of Dogwood Creek is a fine-grained porous Psammite (clayey sandstone) with veins and nodules of iron, like that of Hodgson's Creek. A new gum-tree, with a rusty-coloured scaly bark, the texture of which, as well as the seed-vessel and the leaf, resembled Bloodwood, but specifically different…(Leichhardt's “Overland Expedition to Port Essington,” p. 20.)

These are the specimens of Leichhardt referred to by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia, as probably referable to that species, but they belong to E. peltata. Dogwood Creek is a little to the south of Dulacca Railway Station on the Western Railway.

If we peruse Leichhardt's work we find other references to Rusty Gum. Perhaps the following are the whole of them.

At the junction of the Suttor and Cape Rivers, he says, “The country back from the river is formed by flats alternating with undulations, and is lightly timbered with Silver-leaved Ironbark, Rusty Gum, Moreton Bay Ash and Water-box. The trees are generally stunted and unfit for building …” (p. 195).

At p. 208, approximate latitude 20° 8' 26?, which would bring us to, say, the Charters Towers group of localities, “The ridges were covered with Rusty Gum and Narrow-leaved Ironbark.”

Then we have, “A new Eucalyptus with a glaucous suborbicular subcordate leaf, and the bark of the Rusty Gum; a stunted or middle-sized tree, which grew in great abundance on the ranges” (p. 230). Mr. Cambage tells me that the locality referred to is on the Burdekin River, below Grey Creek, but above the Perry and Clarke Rivers. Roughly 100 miles north-west of Charters Towers, or 100 miles south-east of Einasleigh, or 50 miles south-west of Stone River. The suborbicular, subcordate leaves may, of course, refer to peltate leaves, which are more abundant on some trees than on others. On the other hand, Leichhardt calls it a “new Eucalyptus,” and he therefore probably thought it different from the trees he usually calls Rusty Gum. On the other hand, it may represent trees with an inordinate proportion of juvenile leaves. The species of Leichhardt's, p. 230, is therefore doubtful.




  ― 38 ―

At p. 304, “We travelled … over a succession of plains separated by belts of forest, consisting of Bloodwood, Box, Apple Gum, and Rusty Gum.” This was near the Lynd River.

At p. 355, “Some of the ridges were openly timbered with a rather stunted White Gum tree, and were well grassed, but the grass was wiry and stiff. At the end of our stage, about 16 miles distant from our last camp, we crossed some Rusty Gum forest …”

At p. 356, “In a patch of Rusty Gum forest we found Acacia equisetifolia and the dwarf Grevillea of the Upper Lynd in blossom. The thyrsi of scarlet flowers of the latter were particularly beautiful.” Here they were a little south of the Albert River of Captain Lort Stokes.

Affinities.

1. With E. latifolia F.v.M.

Possibly a variety or state of some species allied to E. latifolia without the peltate leaves. The specimens are very imperfect. (B.Fl. iii, 254.)

In many of its characteristics, especially the form of its fruits, E. peltata approaches to E. latifolia, but the latter is smooth-barked, its leaves are partly almost opposite and always attenuated, with an acute base into their stalk, the lateral veins less prominent, the reticulation of the veinlets also less visible, while the marginal vein is almost confluent with the edge of the leaves, the stalklets of the flowers are of conspicuous length, the lid is single and separates by a less regularly marked dehiscence, and the brownish roughness of the branchlets and foliage is absent, in which latter respects an approach of E. peltata to E. ferruginea, E. aspera, E. setosa, and E. clavigera is established. (“Eucalyptographia” under E. peltata.)

The mistake that E. peltata has peltate leaves in the full-grown state also misled L. Diels, who, in his “Jugendformen und Blutenreife,” says that, except in these (assumed) adult leaves, “otherwise it shows in many characters, especially in the very important shape of the fruit, great approach to E. latifolia. It is more than probable that the two species are closely connected; indeed, also in their geographical distribution they belong to the same region, i.e., North-eastern Australia. Unfortunately the ontogeny of E. latifolia is not perfectly known. I could nowhere find a description of the juvenile leaves.”

For E. latifolia, see Plate 168, Part XLI, where it will be seen that the two species are not closely allied. The juvenile leaves of E. latifolia are larger, glabrous, and not peltate. The mature leaves are broad. The inflorescence is very different. The flowers are more numerous and, like the fruits, have comparatively long pedicels. The fruits are, for the most part, larger, and have thicker walls; while after the falling of the outer strips of bark the inner bark is yellowish. The bark is not yellowish as a whole, and the timber is red. E. peltata is a Queensland species, while E. latifolia belongs to the Northern Territory.




  ― 39 ―

2 and 3. With E. miniata A. Cunn., and E. phœnicea F.v.M.

E. peltata is, however, well marked, as noticed by myself in 1856 on the sources of the south-eastern rivers of Carpentaria, by the remarkable texture and structure of the bark, in which respect it bears resemblance only to E. phœnicea and E. miniata, constituting with them the section of Lepidophloiæ in the cortical system. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. peltata.)

For E. miniata and E. phœnicea see Plate 96, Part XXII, with the juvenile leaves of the former described at p. 37. The juvenile leaves of E. miniata are not petiolate; those of E. phœnicea are not known. The buds and fruits are very different from those of E. peltata, those of E. miniata being very large and ribbed, the ribbing being less marked in E. phœnicea. There are other differences that comparison of the figures will readily disclose. The filaments of E. miniata and E. phœnicea are orange to scarlet, while the barks are more lamellar and friable.

4. With E. Torelliana F.v.M.

Perhaps E. peltata will require to be placed nearest to E. Torelliana, álthough the latter stands on record as one of the tallest forest trees near Rockingham Bay, with a “bark smooth as glass”; moreover, the hairiness of its branchlets and leaf-stalks is more conspicuous, all its leaves are of completely basal insertion and evidently paler beneath, therefore their stomata are not isogenous, but (as tabulated before) heterogeneous; the flowers and fruits may also prove different, the former being only as yet known in an unexpanded state and the latter having never yet been collected at all.

For E. Torelliana see Part XXXIX, Plate 160. It will be at once seen that the two species have much in common—the broad-leaved, hirsute, peltate juvenile leaves, succeeded by narrow-lanceolate leaves, the venation being less fine and feather-like in E. peltata. The difference in the aspect of the trees has already been referred to, the size, bark, and timber being all dissimilar. The buds are different, but the markedly urceolate fruits of E. Torelliana are more markedly so. The latter species is a coastal species with high rainfall. The other is a comparatively dry-country species.




  ― 40 ―

CCXXX. E. Watsoniana F.v.M.

In Fragmenta x, 98 (1876).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

A tree with somewhat terete branchlets, leaves sparse, ovate or narrow-lanceolate, slightly falcate, the same colour on both sides, with rather long petioles, imperforate, veins very divergent, faint and abundant, the two longitudinal veins close to the margin, panicles terminal, few or many flowered, the last peduncles 2–4 flowered, the rather large campanulate-turbinate almost ecostate calyx-tube the same length as the quadrangular pedicel, the very thick flattish shortly umbonate operculum broader than the smooth calyx-tube, stamens yellowish, all fertile, anthers linear-oblong, dehiscing near the margin, style short, stigma scarcely dilated, fruits large urceolate-campanulate, the sulcate annulate rim slightly descending and broadly encircling the orifice, valves 3–4, deltoid, entirely included, fertile seeds winged, greatly exceeding in size the sterile ones.

In the mountains near Wigton (Queensland) Th. Wentworth Watson.

A tree attaining a height of at least 60 feet. Bark (according to the discoverer) persistent, wrinkled and sometimes scaly, red-brownish. Mature leaves 4–5 inches long, 1–1½ inches broad, opaque, papery-coriaceous. Peduncles, with pedicels in twos or fours, fairly strong. Calyx-tube (flowering) almost ½ inch long, often covered with little excrescences. Operculum distinctly broader than the calyx-tube, attaining at least ½ an inch in breadth, shining, sometimes very depressed and with a rather long umbo, sometimes rather convex and terminating gradually in a short point. The longer of the stamens measuring ? inch, greatly exceeding the style. Anthers at least ½ a line long. Calyx-tube (fruit) an inch long, slightly contracted below the terminating margin. Vertex of the capsule smooth before dehiscing. Seeds brownish, shining; the fertile ones very much compressed, smooth, 2–3 lines long, margin acute. The species is called “Bloodwood” in its native place.

In our cultivated specimen the opercula are flat, as shown in the drawing. I do not think I have seen an umbo on them. The only cultivated specimen known to me is in the north-eastern part of the Botanic Gardens, growing with a westerly aspect and on rather shallow soil, overlying sandstone. It is about 40 years old, and was raised from seed of the type received by Baron von Mueller. It is about 50 feet in height, and at 3 feet from the ground the stem is 3 ft. 3 in. in circumference, or 13 inches in diameter. The trunk is single and erect, with an umbrageous canopy; the bark is of a dirty pale yellow colour, thick, not furrowed, scaly-fibrous, in thinnish layers. The superficial layers of the bark are deciduous, as in the case of the Yellow-barks. I have not seen a characteristic piece of the timber, and hesitate to damage our tree, but it is not a dark-coloured timber so far as we can see from small branches. The very young foliage is broadish and triplinerved, sparingly hairy, and not peltate.




  ― 41 ―

Range.

This species is only recorded from “near Wigton, on a tributary of the Boyne River, in the Burnett district” of Queensland, according to “Eucalyptographia.” We know little as to its distribution. The original description says, “In the mountains near Wigton,” and I suggest, at a guess, that its home is in the Craig's Range.

I have received it from near Eidsvold (Dr. T. L. Bancroft), and also from Boondooma, Burnett district, 70 miles north-west of Wondai (S. J. Higgins, through C. T. White), and would suggest that our Queensland friends be on the lookout for it.

Affinities.

1. With E. urnigera Hook.

“It is to be easily distinguished from E. urnigera by its very fine and abundant venation, by its paniculate flowers and distinctly larger fruits.” (Translation of original.)

The principal resemblance between E. Watsoniana and E. urnigera arises from the fact that the fruits of both are urceolate. But reference to Plate 80, Part XVIII (for E. urnigera) shows that the detailed resemblance is not very strong. There is some resemblance in the buds, which is accentuated after shrinkage; the number of buds is fewer in E. urnigera. The foliage is different (although E. Watsoniana rarely suckers in Sydney, and my specimens are unsatisfactory). E. urnigera is a White Gum, and a native of a cold climate, wood pale, not Bloodwood-like, and the affinities of the species are with the E. Gunnii group and not with the Bloodwoods.

2. With E. gomphocephala DC.

“… further as it is plainly different from all other species except E. gomphocephala on account of the breadth of the operculum, it is to be placed in the series of E. corymbosa.” (Translation of original.)

Examination of Plate 92, Part XXI (for E. gomphocephala) shows that the two species are not closely related, although there are some general resemblances of buds and fruits. The venation of the leaves is different, E. gomphocephala is a Western Australian tree, E. Watsoniana is from Queensland. The former is a very large tree, strongly calciphile, and with short, fibrous bark like a shorn sheep; the timber is pale and interlocked.




  ― 42 ―

3. With E. maculata Hook.

The relationship of this tree is with E. maculata, but the bark is totally persistent, the leaves are frequently a good deal broader, while their veins are finer and not quite so close, the flowers are often fewer and always conspicuously larger, the lid is ampler than the summit of the calyx-tube and seems to be simple from the commencement, although it exhibits considerable thickness; the fruits are of much larger size, rather expanded than contracted at the summit, with a flatter not suddenly quite descending rim, which latter is separated by a conspicuous circular channel from the tube of the fruit-calyx, while the seeds are larger and the fertile of these more angular. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Watsoniana.)

This will be referred to when E. maculata is reached, in Part XLIII.

4. With E. eximia Schauer.

“Nearer still (than E. maculata) is the affinity to E. eximia which has likewise persistent and structurally similar bark, also a subtle venation of the leaves and comparatively large fruits” … (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Watsoniana.)

The affinities of these two species will be found dealt with in tabular form at p. 47.

5. With E. corymbosa Sm.

“… the fruit bears close resemblance to that of E. corymbosa, a species otherwise very different, belonging to the series with hypogenous stomata and having smaller flowers with neither dilated nor polished lid.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Watsoniana.)

For E. corymbosa see Plates 161 and 162, Part XXXIX. It has a deep red timber, while its bark is hard-flaky and darker in colour than that of E. Watsoniana. The buds are very different, while the fruits of E. Watsoniana are larger, and have a very different rim.

6. With E. Abergiana F.v M.

E. Watsoniana recedes (from E. Abergiana) in narrower leaves equally coloured on either side, calyces with a varnish lustre and fixed to distinct stalklets, a widely dilated lid, which overreaches the orifice of the calyx-tube, longer stamens, fruits wider at the summit with a furrowed broader rim and unappendiculated seeds. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Abergiana.)

E. Abergiana might in these comparisons be left out of consideration as it has stomata only on the lower page of the leaves, no flower-stalklets, and the lid separating from the tube of the calyx by irregular rupture, a narrower fruit-rim and appendiculated seeds. (Op. cit. under E. Watsoniana.)

For E. Abergiana see Plate 170, Part XLI. It has a non-yellow bark and a red timber. The buds are very different in shape, the fruits more sessile, less urceolate and with a different rim.




  ― 43 ―

CCXXXI. E. trachyphloia F.v.M.

In Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 90 (1859).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

A tree with angular branchlets, leaves alternate, moderately petiolate, narrow-lanceolate, subfalcate, narrowed into a fine point, opaque, faintly veined, with pellucid dots, intramarginal vein somewhat close to the edge. Umbels paniculate, 3–5 flowered, pedicels shorter than the peduncle, angled and the same length as the fruit. Fruit small, ecostate, truncate-ovate, three-celled, deltoid valves deeply included, seeds wingless.

On hills near the Burnett River (Queensland). Flowering September and October.

A medium sized tree, the bark persistent on the trunk and branches, ashy brown and rough, breaking into little pieces. Leaves 3–5 inches long, 5–8 lines broad, narrowed into a petiole of 6–9 lines, a little paler on the underside, fruit measuring about 3 lines, gradually contracted at the mouth.

Bentham then described it in B.Fl. iii, 221:—

A moderate-sized tree, with a dark grey rugged bark, persistent. Leaves long-lanceolate, often falcate, 4–6 inches long, with very numerous fine parallel almost transverse veins, the marginal one close to or very near the edge. Flowers not seen. Fruiting-umbels several together in terminal panicles or in the upper axils, each with 3 to 6 pedicellate fruits. Fruit ovoid-truncate, contracted towards the orifice, about 3 lines long, the rim thin, the capsule deeply sunk.

It was described and figured by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia,” and he points out that while it attains a height of 80 feet, with a stem-diameter of 2 feet, “..... in exposed situations on the tops of hills dwarfed in growth and fruiting already in a shrubby state.”

The timber is pale-coloured, somewhat like Spotted Gum (E. maculata).

Dr. J. Shirley gives the aboriginal name as “Gou-unya” in use by the Koolaburra tribe, between Tarromeo and Nanango, South Queensland.

In constituting a forma fruticosa F. M. Bailey, Queensland Agric. Journ. XXV, July, 1910, p. 9, says:—

For many years may have been observed on the Glasshouse Mountain, a dwarf form of our “White Bloodwood.” It flowers and fruits when only about 5 feet high, and is certainly a worthy plant for garden culture, and if thus brought into use would require some name whereby it might be distinguished from the common form of the species, hence I have attached to it the above name fruticosa. We, however, so far have no proof of seedling plants retaining the dwarf habit, yet there is no reason to suppose otherwise, for this may be looked upon as a sport, like many other variations in the genus. Baron von Mueller notices in his “Eucalyptographia,” Decade 5, this mountain form, but does not mention any particular locality; it may, however, have been in this same place, for I believe that he and Walter Hill together did some collecting in that locality in the early days of Queensland.




  ― 44 ―

I do not think it is necessary to give this a formal name, unless it be desired to similarly treat the remainder of the numerous species which, while normally trees, flower in a shrubby state.

Range.

The type came from the Burnett River (near Bundaberg), in Queensland, and in the “Eucalyptographia” it was only recorded by the author from central and south Queensland localities, viz.:—“In poor, hilly country, hitherto traced from Moreton Bay (Bailey) to the Burnett River (Mueller) and the Mackenzie River (Bowman, O'Shanesy), chiefly in the sandstone formation.” In Queensland, however, it occurs as far north as Stannary Hills, west of Cairns, while since I now record it from Bathurst and Melville Islands, it will doubtless be found to occur on the Cape York peninsula, and in the Northern Territory generally.

Going south, it occurs in New South Wales, as far south as the Goulburn River and Denman district, occurring over a large area north and north-west, chiefly on poor sandy and rocky land, until Queensland is approached and the Queensland localities connected therewith.

New South Wales.

Murrumbo, 50 miles north of Rylstone, near the Goulburn River (R. T. Baker). On sandy conglomerate, probably Narrabeen beds, Baerami, 15 miles west of Denman (R. H. Cambage, 2636). “Plentiful all over the district on the sides and tops of the hills all over the district. The trees have the appearance as if recently rung, as the foliage is of a reddish-brown cast. Small trees 20–30 feet, 1–1½ feet, rough pale bark, timber brown, chippy, but hard. Locally known as Bloodwood.” Gungal, near Merriwa (J. L. Boorman). The above three localities are in the same general area.

We are now in the vicinity of the North-west Line and its branches. Bloodwood, 50 feet, 4 feet. Parish Brigalow, county Pottinger (Forest Guard M. H. Simon). “Bloodwood, about 10 miles from Coonabarabran-Gunnedah road” (Dr. Jensen, No. 127). Coonabarabran-Baradine road, near Coonabarabran (W. Forsyth). About 3½ miles east of Bugaldi-Coonabarabran road (Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 95). “Bloodwood. Bark lighter than E. corymbosa.” Warrumbungle Range (E. H. F. Swain, No. 35). Arrarownie, Borah Creek, Pilliga Scrub (Dr. Jensen, No. 152). South-east Pilliga (E. H. F. Swain, No. 22). Central Pilliga on a sterile ridge (E. H. F. Swain, No. 15). Pilliga East State Forest, county Baradine (Gordon Burrow). On Sandhills. Up to 2 feet diameter. Narrabri (J.H.M.). East Narrabri (J. L. Boorman).

“Bloodwood. About 30 feet high, 4 feet girth. Associated with E. crebra and Callitris calcarata.” Parish Terrergee, county Courallie, Moree district (E. H. F. Swain, No. 36). “Little Bloodwood,” Ticketty Well, between Wallangra and Yetman (Forest Assessor A. Julius).




  ― 45 ―

Queensland.

The following specimens were collected by Leichhardt.

  • 1. Debillipalah.
  • 2. Between Myall Creek and Byron's Plains (22nd May, 1843).
  • 3. … hills, scarce, a slender tree of 3 feet (?), with a scaly bark (4th June, 1843).

Dr. John Shirley, of Brisbane, has kindly favoured me with the following comments on these three localities (1, 2, 3):—

1. Dibillipah is evidently Didillibah, near Woombye, on our North Coast Line, 62 miles north of Brisbane.

2. Between Myall Creek and Byron's Plains, 22nd May, 1843. Myall Creek is a tributary of the Condamine on the Darling Downs, not far from Oakey, a township on our Western Line, 120 miles from Brisbane. Byron Plains has been searched for by officers of our Survey Department, but with no result. This was not his only visit to this neighbourhood, as Stuart Russell (“Genesis of Queensland,” p. 360) reports:—“On my return to Cecil Plains (38 miles from Oakey) alone, one afternoon in the middle of 1844 (just before Leichhardt left for Port Essington) I saw a surprising object … a veritable chimney-pot hat … 'twas Dr. Ludwig Leichhardt's.”

3. … Hills. Where was he 4th June, 1843?

No works to hand will solve this; but he collected mainly on the coastal country north of Brisbane in the early part of 1843, and on the Downs in the latter half.

4. Leichhardt's label on another specimen is “ `Gala' tree, very similar to the Bloodwoods in the Sandy Mountain Range, Archer's Station, 23rd September, 1843.” The Rev. Dr. Lang (“Cooksland,” p. 83), quotes a letter from Dr. Leichhardt, dated the 4th of the same month from “Archer's Station, Bunya Bunya.” I would suggest that Leichhardt named the tree because of the parrots called Galahs (Cacatua roseicapella) which frequent this and other Bloodwoods because of the profusion of honey-yielding flowers.

Following are some specimens by later collectors:—

“White Bloodwood, with broadish leaves,” South Queensland (Forest Inspector Board). Eight-mile Plains, just south of Brisbane (A. Murphy, J. L. Boorman). Brisbane (J.H.M.). Ipswich-road, near Brisbane, common (C. T. White).

Chinchilla (R. C. Beasley). (We want more localities on this railway line.)

“Bastard Bloodwood,” Taylor's Range (F. M. Bailey). The forma fruticosa of F. M. Bailey. Common on top of Mount Ngun Ngun, Glass House Mountains (C. T. White, J. Shirley).

Maryborough (W. H. Simon) “White Bloodwood.” “Fairly large trees of 40–60 feet, stems 2–4 feet. Bark whitish, flaky, or even of a Stringybark nature. Timber not much esteemed locally.” Bundaberg, close to the type locality. (J. L. Boorman, J.H.M.)

Near the Comet River (P. O'Shanesy).




  ― 46 ―

Rockhampton, with a spherical gall 1¼ inches in diameter, identical with or closely resembling Brachyscelis pomiformis, see Part XL, p. 318. (J.H.M.)

“Bloodwood,” Stannary Hills. (Dr. T. L. Bancroft.)

Percy Island, west of Mt. Armitage. “Small tree, 20 feet”; Middle Percy Island; low trees growing thickly together, south-east of Middle Percy Island (Henry Tryon).

NORTHERN TERRITORY.

“Large Bloodwood. This species grows in the open forest country with E. miniata and E. tetradonta on both Melville Island and Bathurst Island. Examples are found on the gentle slopes and along the little streams falling from the higher country to the main waterways, i.e., the tidal estuaries.” Bathurst Island (G. F. Hill, No. 465).

This is the first record, so far as I am aware, from the Northern Territory, and we must therefore connect this and the North Queensland localities.

Affinities.

1 and 2. With E. siderophloia Benth., and E. crebra F.v.M.

E. trachyphloia, placed by Bentham between E. siderophloia and E. crebra, is much nearer allied to E. terminalis and E. dichromophloia (as shown in the Fragm. Phytogr. Austr. xi, 43–44), along which species it was placed already in the Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 90.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. siderophloia).

In the same work, under E. trachyphloia, he also compares it with E. crebra in the following words:—

“… E. trachyphloia approaches E. crebra and some cognate Ironbark trees, all of which have the stomata isogenous and show a clear line of dehiscence, by which the lid is separated, while the difference of the anthers separate them even sectionally according to Bentham's system. Besides, in E. crebra the lid is not depressed, the fruit is not or less contracted at the summit, and the valves are almost terminal.”

For E. siderophloia turn to Plate 47, Part X of the present work, and for E. crebra to Plate 53, Part XII. But both these are Ironbarks, and it seems inadvisable at this place to stop to make comparisons between Ironbarks and a Bloodwood, the relationships being so distant.

3. With E. tessellaris F.v.M.

This species shares in some of the characteristics of E. trachyphloia, but irrespective of the discrepancies of the bark differs already in the uniform coloration of the leaves, which latter are also generally longer, are less pointed and show more distinctly the venation; moreover, the inflorescence is less expanded; the lid is larger and separates by a more sharply defined sutural line from the other portion of the calyx; the fruits are also of greater size, though less hard; the fertile seeds are much larger, comparatively more compressed and distinctly margined; but the last-mentioned characteristic is not well expressed in the lithographic illustration of E. tessellaris now offered, figure 9 having been drawn from unripe seeds. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. tessellaris.)




  ― 47 ―

For E. tessellaris, see Plate 156, Part XXXVIII. The juvenile leaves are narrow, the flower buds clavate and decurved. The chief similarity is in the fruits, which much resemble each other in size and outline, but they are otherwise very different. One can readily crush the fruits of E. tessellaris between the fingers, as their walls are papery like those of E. clavigera and its allies; those of E. trachyphloia are much more strongly built. The trees are very dissimilar in appearance, E. tessellaris having tessellated bark (and smooth upwards) as its name denotes, while that of E. trachyphloia has a flaky fibrous bark throughout, with a yellowish cast.

4. With E. dichromophloia F.v.M.

Its real systematic place should be next to E. dichromophloia, from which it can be distinguished in rougher bark, in thinner less elongated leaves of a darker green above, and dull paleness beneath (therefore not of equal colour on both sides), with recurved edge, in the want of stomata on the upper page of the leaves, in the calyces of less polished smoothness, in smaller fruits with perhaps never or only rarely four valves, and in the absence of any appendage to the fertile seeds. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. trachyphloia.)

For E. dichromophloia, see Plate 165, Part XL. Its affínity to E. trachyphloia is not as close as Mueller thought it was. E. dichromophloia has a red timber, and a reddish, flaky bark. The juvenile foliage of E. dichromophloia is described at Part XLI, p. 3.

The affinity of E. trachyphloia is with the Yellow Barks. E. eximia, peltata, Watsoniana, and trachyphloia are Yellow-barks; all have barks fibrous-flaky and more or less yellow, and timbers palish in contrast to reddish, such as that of E. corymbosa. These Yellow-barks are more stringy than those of the generality of those of the Bloodwoods (which are more flaky); in this respect they display affinity to the Peppermints and even to the Stringybarks. The following table shows some of the characters contrasted, so far as it is possible to contrast species so closely related:—

         
eximia peltata Watsoniana trachyphloia
Juvenile leaves   Peltate … …  Peltate … …  Unknown … …  Peltate, more hirsute than the others. 
Mature leaves   Tendency to large size.  Medium size …  Medium size …  Tendency to small size. 
Buds … …  No pedicels; medium size; conical opercula.  Hardly any pedicels; smaller than E. eximia; conical opercula.  Short pedicels; rather large; nearly flat opercula.  Distinct and even moderately long pedicels; small; sub-conical opercula. 
Fruits… …  Medium size; ovoid, less rarely urceolate.  Small, ovoid …  Rather large; distinctly urceolate.  Small, slightly urceolate. 




  ― 48 ―

CCXXXII. E. hybrida Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 85 (1913).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor erecta, altitudine circiter 50 pedes. Cortex cinerea, laevis, corrugata. Lignum pallidum durum. Folia matura lanceolata vel late lanceolata, pallida virentia, tenuiora, circiter 8–12 cm. longa, vena peripherica margini approximata, venis lateralibus patentibus. Flores in breve panicula corymbosa, quaque plerumque 3–6 flora. Calycis tubus conoideus. Operculum acuminatum, calcis tubo aequilongum. Fructus cylindrico-conoidei, circiter 6 mm. lati, in orificium leniter contracti, margine tenui. Valvarum apices plusve minusve depressi, orificium rare tangentes.

An erect tree of about 50 feet high, the tips of the branches smooth, the butt with a sub-fibrous (peppermint-like) or flaky-fibrous and more or less flat-corrugated bark, greyish or blackish externally, hence some trees have been described as “Black Box.”

Timber pale-coloured, hard, interlocked, and probably valuable.

Juvenile foliage not seen in the strictly opposite state, but as seen, not different from the mature foliage except in width.

Mature foliage.—Lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, slightly falcate, acuminate, commonly 8 to 12 cm. long. Dull green, the same colour on both sides, rather thin and tough, lateral veins spreading, fine, the intramarginal vein not far removed from the edge of the leaf, oil dots not numerous.

Flowers.—Peduncles of moderate length, angular, usually in a short corymbose panicle, each with about three to six or sometimes more flowers. Calyx-tube conoid, 5 cm. diameter, often angular, tapering into a short pedicel. Operculum pointed and as long as the calyx-tube. Stamens inflected in the bud, anthers, small, yellow, opening in small slits near the top, filaments at base, and small gland at back, indubitably showing intermediate characters between the anthers of E. paniculata and E. hemiphloia.

Fruit.—When immature cylindrical, with a rim round the orifice; when ripe cylindrical to almost conoid, about 6 mm. in diameter, hardly constricted at the orifice, rim thin, tips of valves more or less sunk and rarely flush with the orifice.

Range.

Type from Concord, Sydney, N.S.W. (Rev. Dr. Woolls, 1890; R. H. Cambage, 10th February, 1901). It was originally found in Bray's Paddock, Concord, near Sydney, where I knew of six trees until recently, but building operations may soon exterminate these particular specimens.

Dr. J. B. Cleland has drawn my attention to a tree on Milson Island, Hawkesbury River (a short distance west of the Railway Bridge), which appears to be identical with that from Concord. E. paniculata Sm. is common on the island, but there is no E. hemiphloia. This suggests that the hybrid originated elsewhere than on Milson Island.




  ― 49 ―

Affinities.

The affinities of this species are almost intermediate between E. paniculata Sm., the Grey Ironbark, and E. hemiphloia F.v.M., the Grey Box.

This is the first species of this genus which has been named with especial reference to its hybrid character. I have a large number of instances of apparently indubitable hybrids. In most cases a pictorial illustration is necessary to make the hybridism clear, and I propose to describe them in this work when dealing with hybridism as a special subject.

Following is the first passage referring to this particular tree. The Cabramatta tree is the plant afterwards described as E. Boormani Deane and Maiden (see Part X, p. 330 of the present work). Its affinity is with E. siderophloia Benth. rather than with E. paniculata Sm. The Ironbark in Mr. Bray's paddock at Concord is E. hybrida.

The Ironbark group (Schizophloiæ) is less liable to variation in the nature of its bark than any of the preceding sections; and yet in some forms of E. paniculata the bark is less rough and deeply furrowed than in its allies, whilst in exceptional cases, when it goes under the popular names of “Ironbark Box” and “Bastard Ironbark,” the wood and fruit are those of Ironbark, but the bark less rugged. Some years ago, when the late Mr. Thomas Shepherd was residing with Mr. Bell, at Cabramatta, he called my attention to a tree which, so far as its general characters were concerned, appeared to be an Ironbark, the shape of the buds, flowers and fruit being similar to those of E. paniculata, and the wood being, in the opinion of the workmen, like the ordinary Ironbark of the neighbourhood. Mr. Shepherd called the tree “Black Box” and “Ironbark Box,” and entertained an idea that it might be an undescribed species. Although I have had specimens of this tree for some years, it is only of late that I have come to the conclusion that the tree in question is really an Ironbark, for on Mr. H. Bray's property at Concord a similar one has been pointed out to me. This the workmen called “Bastard Ironbark,” as the wood resembles that of Ironbark, whilst the bark is not furrowed as Ironbarks usually are, but is more like that of Box or Woollybutt. Having examined the fruit and leaves of this tree, and having ascertained that the wood is similar to that of Ironbark, I am now convinced that the tree which puzzled Mr. T. Shepherd and that growing in Mr. Bray's paddock are identical, both of them being varieties of E. paniculata. If hybridisation were possible in the genus, one would think that the “Ironbark Box” is a cross between Ironbark and Box, but according to the opinion of the late eminent naturalist W. S. Macleay, F.L.S., the impregnation of the flowers takes place before the operculum falls off, and hence in such a case crossing cannot be effected. As this matter has never been carefully investigated by any observer, nothing like certainty can be affirmed of the probability or improbability of hybridisation. (Rev. Dr. W. Woolls in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xvi, 60–61, 1891.)

Ten years later Mr. Henry Deane and I drew attention to a Eucalypt which we had received from Mr. R. H. Cambage, and which we thought presented an instance of hybridism. This was the identical tree from Mr. Bray's paddock at Concord.

We are indebted to specimens of a species from Concord from Mr. R. H. Cambage, and the examination of the specimens from the point of view of hybridisation is so instructive that we relate it in detail. Mr. Cambage stated that his tree was growing among E. paniculata Sm. (another of the Ironbarks), with E. hemiphloia near. He added: “The fruits look like those of E. paniculata, but the bark is not that of an Ironbark. The bark is as smooth as that of E. hemiphloia, and continues right up among the branches.” Reference to the herbarium of the late Dr. Woolls showed that he had, many years previously, obtained specimens from the same locality, and following is a copy of his label: “E. paniculata, Bastard Ironbark. Bark something like Woolly Butt or Box.” The immature fruits have rims which remind one


  ― 50 ―
of those of E. melliodora, and while seized of its affinities to E. paniculata, E. siderophloia and E. hemiphloia, there was certainly evidence to look upon it as an aberrant form of E. melliodora and also of Bosistoana, an affinity which (as regards the latter species) had already been arrived at by Mueller (though in a different way) as regards the Cabramatta specimens. The fruits are a shade smaller than those of some specimens in our possession, and we have from time to time looked upon the tree as a possible hybrid between E. paniculata and E. hemiphloia, and E. paniculata and E. melliodora respectively. We have examined the trees referred to by Dr. Woolls and Mr. Cambage, and are of opinion that, while they may be properly described as “Black Box” and “Ironbark Box,” there are certain points of difference between them and the Cabramatta trees (E. Boormani) which make us hesitate in referring them to the same species. The foliage and fruits are less coarse than those of Cabramatta, and this circumstance, coupled with the fact that the trees grow amongst E. paniculata, may cause some observers who may be inclined to look upon the Concord trees as hybrids to consider that E. paniculata is one of the parents. Bearing in mind that cases of hybridisation amongst Eucalypts usually break down under fuller examination, we hesitate to believe that we have a case of hybridisation here, and will revert to the subject at some future time.

Four years later I stated that I had no doubt as to its hybrid nature. I had had the tree under observation in the meantime, and was of opinion that it was a form sufficiently distinct to receive a name.

E. paniculata Sm. × hemiphloia F.v.M. In these Proceedings (1901, p. 340) Mr. Deane and I referred, though with some doubt, to a “Black Box” or “Ironbark Box” from Concord, near Sydney. I desire to say that, having kept these trees under observation, I have no doubt as to their being hybrids of the species named. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxx, 498, 1905.)

Eight years later still, I described the tree under the name E. hybrida.




  ― 51 ―

CCXXXIII. E. Kruseana F.v.M.

In The Australian Journal of Pharmacy (Melbourne), 20th August, 1895, p. 233.

IT was described under the heading of “Description of a new Eucalyptus from south Western Australia.” Following is the original description:—

Branchlets terete; leaves small, opposite, sessile, mostly cordate-orbicular, some verging into a renate form, on both sides as well as the branchlets, peduncles, pedicels and calyces whitish-grey, copiously glandular-dotted, the venules faint, the peripheric close to the edge of the leaves; peduncles compressed, axillary, 3–4 flowered, about half as long as the leaves; pedicels variously shorter than the whole calyx, sometimes quite abbreviated; flowers small; tube of the calyx at first almost hemiellipsoid; operculum semiovate-conical, slightly pointed, about as long as the calyx-tube; filaments yellowish-white, inflected before expansion; anthers somewhat longer than broad, opening by longitudinal slits; stigma hardly broader than the style; fruit-bearing calyx globular semi-ovate, devoid of angulation, contracted at the summit, the rim narrow; valvules enclosed, but nearly reaching the orifice, usually four. Height of the plant unrecorded, but probably of shrubby stature. Leaves firm, of ?–1? inch measurement. Calyces, inclusive of the lid, hardly above ? inch long. Fruit-calyx as broad as long, measuring fully ? inch. Matured seeds as yet unavailable.

It was named in honour of the late Mr. John Kruse, of Melbourne.

Synonym.

E. Morrisoni Maiden.

I described E. Morrisoni in the Journ. Nat. Hist. and Science Soc. of W.A., vol. iii, p. 44 (1910). I find that the two species are identical, and therefore E. Morrisoni must fall. I endeavoured to see Mueller's type many years ago, but it was detained by Mueller's trustees for a number of years, and was not seen by me until Prof. Ewart showed it to me in August, 1911. (Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 328, 1915.)

Inasmuch as the description of E. Morrisoni usefully supplements that of Mueller's in certain points, I give it here. E. Kruseana was described with 3–4 flowers, E. Morrisoni up to 7. There are lesser differences.

A straggling shrub, about 8 feet high. One patch seen 50–150 miles east of Kalgoorlie, Transcontinental Survey. Collected by Henry Deane, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., Consulting Engineer, May, 1909.

Frutex ramis sparsis circiter 2–5 m. altus. Folia glauca, coriacea, conferta, orbiculata, 1–2 cm. diametro, amplexicaula, inconspicue venosa.

Flores conferti in fine ramorum umbellis usque ad 7 in capitulo, brevissime pedicellati. Calyx subconicus, sine angulis, gradatim in pedicello, operculum simile forma magnitudineque.




  ― 52 ―

Filamenta sulphurea, antherea duabus cellis didymis, glandula magna.

Fructus subcylindricus, circiter 6 mm. longus 5 vel 6 mm. latus.

Capsula mersa sub orificio.

Videtur E. pulvigerœ forsan approximandus.

Juvenile leaves.—No very young leaves collected. Probably there is no difference between the juvenile and mature leaves.

Mature leaves.—Glaucous on both sides, coriaceous, crowded, the branchlets rounded. All nearly orbicular and varying in diameter from about 1 to 2 cm. slightly amplexicaul, apex usually absent or slightly emarginate. Midrib moderately conspicuous for the basal half of its length, lateral veins anastomosing. Incipient crenulations on the margin in some leaves.

Buds and Flowers.—Crowded at the ends of the branchlets in umbels up to seven in the head. Very shortly pedicellate, the common peduncle short also. Calyx conoid, not angular, tapering gradually into the pedicel; the operculum similar in shape and size, often bent or curved at the top.

Filaments yellow, the anthers with two parallel cells joined together for their whole length, and with a very large gland at the back.

Fruits.—In branchlets forming a compound panicle, the individual fruits subcylindrical, about 6 mm. long and 5 or 6 mm. broad, sharply separated from the pedicel. Capsule well sunk below the orifice, valves three or four.

In honour of Dr. Alexander Morrison, formerly Government Botanist of Western Australia, who has done so much to diffuse a knowledge of the vegetation of his State.

(The notes on the leaves will be seen under “Affinities” at p. 53.)

Range.

It is confined to Western Australia, so far as we know at present.

The type came from Fraser's Range (J. D. Batt), while Mueller's locality for the type is given in the description as “Fraser's Range, South Western Australia.” The specimen itself bears the inscription, “100 miles north of Israelite Bay,” and doubtless refers to the same locality. My locality for E. Morrisoni, “50–150 miles east of Kalgoorlie,” Transcontinental Railway Survey, is new, but is in the same general locality as the preceding. (Maiden in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 329.)

I have not seen a specimen from any other locality, and invite attention of collectors to this dainty-foliaged small species.




  ― 53 ―

Affinities.

1. With E. Perriniana F.v.M.

Related to Eucalyptus gamophylla, E. orbifolia, and E. Perriniana. The latter (last), however, is from cold mountain regions of Tasmania, and its leaves, free from each other only in the early stage of the young plants, become connate when the trees attain some height, they then resemble those of E. Risdoni (probably the Euc. perfoliata of Desfontaines), although the species belongs to the series of Parallelantheræ. (Original description.)

For E. Perriniana see Part XXVI and Plate 108. All the leaves of that species are not isoblastic; a lanceolate leaf is figured at 1d, Plate 108. The leaves of E. Kruseana are much smaller, and, so far as we know, the juvenile leaves are neither connate nor perfoliate. E. Perriniana is a larger plant (though not very large), with flowers apparently always in threes, and with larger, hemispherical fruits.

2. With E. gamophylla F.v.M.

E. gamophylla is likewise separated from the present new species by the concrescently paired leaves; moreover its pedicels are almost obliterated, the fruit-bearing calyces are much longer than broad, bearing the valvules at a higher insertion. (Original description.)

For E. gamophylla see Part XXXV, with Plate 147. This again is a perfoliate species, succeeded by narrower lanceolate leaves; the leaves are not orbicular. The inflorescence is more paniculate and the fruits more cylindroid, while it is a tree yielding timber at least 8 inches in diameter.

3. With E. orbifolia F.v.M.

The differences of E. orbifolia are obvious, consisting in scattered stalked leaves, larger flowers, semiglobular calyx-tube, proportionately longer operculum and exserted fruit valvules. (Original description.)

For E. orbifolia let us turn to Part XVII, with Plate 74. We know but little of the species, but it is sufficient to say that they are very different.

Following is an addendum I gave to my description of E. Morrisoni:—

A few additional notes will be found in square brackets. The general question of the comparative morphology of the leaves of all species remains to be presented when the subject of Morphology is reached.

E. Morrisoni belongs to the somewhat heterogeneous group (as regards affinities) of species with perfoliate or otherwise strictly opposite (sessile) leaves in the mature stage.

It would appear from B.Fl. iii, 187, that Bentham did not attach much importance to shape of sucker or juvenile leaves.

Nevertheless, he used these young leaves to some extent for classification purposes, e.g., “Leaves in the young saplings of many species and perhaps all in some species” [my italics] “horizontal, opposite, sessile and cordate.” (B.Fl. iii, 185.)




  ― 54 ―

Some species so included in Bentham's time are now known not to be sessile throughout life, and it is very possible that, as time goes on, it will be found that all Eucalypts are heteroblastic (blastos, a shoot), i.e, having juvenile leaves different from mature ones. This, if proved, will come about in two ways, by (a) the discovery of two kinds of leaves on existing isoblastic species, or (b) the discovery of two species (now accounted isoblastic), one with cordate, &c., leaves entirely, and the other with usual falcate, &c., leaves entirely to be conspecific.

We have much to learn in regard to the effect of changed environment on different species of Eucalyptus, and experiments in cultivation have thrown, and will continue to do so, much light upon variation in this direction.

So far as I know, the only species of Eucalyptus (in addition to the present one) which are isoblastic are:—

1. E. pulvigera A. Cunn. A rare New South Wales species. [By this E. pulverulenta Sims is meant. See Plate 91, Part XXI of the present work.]

2. E. cordata Labill. A Tasmanian species. [See Plate 84, Part XIX.]

3. E. macrocarpa Hook. A very coarse Western Australian species. [See Plate 77, Part XVIII. In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liii, 70 (1919), I have drawn attention to the fact that there is a tendency to heteroblasticity in this species.]

4. E. pruinosa Schauer. Indigenous to Western Australia, North Australia, North Queensland. (I have seedlings of this species raised from seed collected by Prof. Baldwin Spencer, at Whanalowra (?), Northern Territory, in 1903, which are distinctly pedicellate!) [See Plate 54, Part XII.]

5. E. ferruginea Schauer. With sessile, cordate, rusty pubescent leaves—an Angophoroid species from Western Australia and North Australia.

6. E. setosa Schauer. A sessile, cordate, Angophoroid species, with bristly branchlets, from Queensland and North Australia. [The figures on Plate 158, Part XXXVIII, show that E. setosa cannot be longer considered as isoblastic, and that Plate 159 shows that E. ferruginea is becoming heteroblastic, and that probably more active observation will produce additional evidence in that direction.]

Then we have, in a class by itself:—

7. E. perfoliata R.Br., with very large perfoliate, connate leaves and fruits. In this case two opposite leaves cohere into a single lamella, which is pierced by the stem. From Western Australia. [See Part XLIV.]

8. E. gamophylla F.v.M., as figured by Mueller in “Eucalyptographia,” shows no stalked leaves, but it becomes eventually lanceolate and very shortly stalked. See a specimen from Central Australia, collected by C. Winnecke about 1884 (Herb. Melb.), thus leaving E. perfoliata the only connate-leaved species to date. [See Plate 147, Part XXXV of the present work.]

9. E. peltata Benth. is worthy of special mention. Its leaves are alternate, peltately attached to the petiole above the base, and broadly ovate. This unique species is figured in “Eucalyptographia,” and morphologically it is an incipient


  ― 55 ―
form of the connate-petiolate leaf. [The “Eucalyptographia” plate is erroneous. The adult leaves are not peltate, but lanceolate, as is shown in the present Part. See p. 33 above.]

Therefore our new species presents affinities to E. pruinosa Schauer, E. pulvigera A. Cunn., E. cordata Labill., E. macrocarpa Hook., E. ferruginea Schauer, and E. setosa Schauer.

It differs from all of them in colour of the filaments, from E. macrocarpa it is sharply separated in the size and shape of the fruits, from E. ferruginea and E. setosa in the leaves, fruits, vestiture, &c.

Then there remain E. pulvigera, E. cordata, E. pruinosa.

From E. pulvigera it differs in the very much larger leaves of that species, in the shape of the buds, slightly in the anthers (see below), in the fruits in threes. The fruits are also very much larger, more hemispherical, with a defined rim, and are sessile on a common peduncle.

From E. cordata it differs in the foliage (larger even than E. pulvigera), in the fruits, which are large and almost hemispherical; the other characters are those of E. pulvigera.

The anthers of E. pulvigera and E. cordata are identical. They also very strongly resemble those of E. Morrisoni, but they appear to differ in having a smaller gland and in being more versatile.

From E. pruinosa it differs in the very much larger leaves (usually elliptical or tending to lanceolate), larger and more numerous flowers and fruits. The fruits also have a well-defined rim, and, like the branchlets and pedicels, are more or less angular. The two species are sharply different in the anthers, which, in the case of E. pruinosa, belong to a section with a small gland at the top and small openings of anthers.”




  ― 56 ―

CCXXXIV. E. Dawsoni R. T. Baker.

In Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxiv, 295 (1899), with a Plate (XXI).

E. Dawsoni is referred to at Part XIII, p. 109 of the present work (1911), but is there looked upon as a synonym of E. polyanthemos. In Part LIX, p. 242, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales” (1916) I was inclined to recognise E. Dawsoni as a separate species, but hesitated, for reasons stated. I have now come to the conclusion that E. Dawsoni is sufficiently distinct.

Following is the original description:—

A tall tree with a smooth bark, the foliage, branchlets, buds and fruits glaucous. Young leaves broadly lanceolate 6 inches long and over 3 inches wide, on a petiole over an inch long, very obtuse, glaucous on both sides, venation distinct. Mature leaves mostly short, oblong-lanceolate, very obtuse, rarely acuminate, occasionally reddish in colour, venation fairly distinct, lateral veins not distant, intramarginal vein close to the edge. Peduncles axillary but mostly in large terminal corymbs, exceeding the leaves. Buds on young trees 3 lines long, 1½ lines in diameter, sessile or on short pedicels; operculum hemispherical, obtuse; on mature trees 4 to 5 lines long, 1 line in diameter, the calyx tapering into a filiform pedicel, operculum conical, acute. Ovary domed at the summit. Stamens all fertile, inflexed in the bud, filaments thick in proportion to the diameter of the anthers. Anthers very small, cylindrical, rounded at the base and truncate at the top, opening by terminal pores. Fruit small, turbinate, pedicel almost filiform, mostly a line in diameter and under 2 lines long, rim thin, capsule sunken, valves not exserted.

Illustrations.

It is figured (as E. polyanthemos) in Plate 58 (Part XIII) of the present work, under the following figures:—4, 9, 10, 11. With the figures now submitted (5–8, Plate 175) it is suggested that the characters of the species are clear.

Synonym.

None, but hitherto included by me in E. polyanthemos. It is undoubtedly a geminate species.

Range.

The species is confined to New South Wales as far as we know. In the original description we have the following localities. “Ridges on the watershed of the Goulburn River (R. T. Baker); across the main Divide at Cassilis, and north-west to Pilliga (Prof. W. H. Warren).”




  ― 57 ―

To which may be added the following, some of which are supplementary localities.

Bylong, 32 miles from Rylstone (R. T. Baker). The type. Also Murrumbo. “Red Box, Slaty Gum,” Gulgong (J. L. Boorman and J.H.M.).

Cobborah (between Dubbo and Dunedoo) (District Forester Marriott). Dunedoo (Forest Guard C. H. Gardner).

“Red Gum Nos. 1 and 2.” Murrurundi (Forester L. A. Macqueen, 1913). Baerami, Denman (R. H. Cambage, Nos. 2710, 2711).

The following specimens of E. Dawsoni in the National Herbarium, Melbourne, were looked upon by Mueller as E. polyanthemos. “Ridges near Mudgee” (Rev. Dr. Woolls, October, 1886); Mudgee road (Woolls), under E. polyanthemos in B.Fl. iii. 214.

Affinities.

With E. polyanthemos Schauer.

I think that Part XIII, p. 114, &c., of this work, and Part LIX, p. 214, &c., of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales” are eloquent as to the affinities of the two species.

Mr. Baker, in his original description of the species (op. cit., p. 296) does not clearly contrast it with others. Speaking of it and E. polyanthemos he says:—“The sucker and mature leaves of both species are different as well as the venation. The leaves of E. Dawsoni are almost always glaucous, as well as the buds and fruits, a feature rarely found in E. polyanthemos.”

The describer speaks of E. Dawsoni as a tree with a smooth bark—growing “to a great height with a splendidly straight, branchless trunk, and always occurs under the ridges, never being found on the summit nor at the base.” It seems to me that the most outstanding differences between the two species consist in the larger size, the more erect habit, and the smoother bark of E. Dawsoni.

I cannot satisfy myself that there are important differences in the juvenile leaves of the two species; the mature leaves are more commonly orbicular, or comparatively broad, in E. polyanthemos, the foliage of E. Dawsoni being more commonly lanceolate.

The fruits of E. Dawsoni appear to have thinner walls, and to be more conical than those of E. polyanthemos; the latter are usually more pear-shaped. At the same time the fruits are often so similar that they are not easily separated.

The staminal ring (fig. 7a, Plate 175) seems more deciduous, with the stamens attached, in E. Dawsoni than in E. polyanthemos, but this is a matter for investigation with additional material.




  ― 58 ―

LXII. E. polyanthemos Schauer.

FOR a description of this species, see p. 109, Part XIII of this work. It will be observed that, at p. 56 of the present Part, E. Dawsoni R. T. Baker has been recognised as a species distinct from E. polyanthemos.

Illustrations.

In Plate 223, Part LIX of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” I figured the type specimen of E. polyanthemos Schauer.

Most of the leaves are orbicular, and I find that the plate is incomplete to the extent that I did not also figure the lanceolate leaves which are often found on trees bearing orbicular and broadly lanceolate leaves as on the type.

If, however, Plate 58 of Part XIII of the “Critical Revision” be turned to, it will be found that (as explained at p. 56) while figures 4, 9, 10, 11 are E. Dawsoni, and show lanceolate leaves, Nos. 3, 5, 8 also show lanceolate leaves, and are true E. polyanthemos.

The Bark.

The “North of Bathurst” tree (the type of E. polyanthemos) has a more or less rough, flaky bark, but it varies, within limits, as to the amount of fibre and the distance the roughness reaches up the bole. See also Cudal (W. F. Blakely), Hill End (R. H. Cambage), p. 61, for local descriptions more or less full.

The north-east of Victoria and the southern New South Wales tree was described by the late Dr. A. W. Howitt as having a “gnarled, greyish boxy bark” and “bark grey, persistent, and looks often scaly.” “At first sight the tree resembles somewhat E. hemiphloia variety albens in its bark.” Mr. Baeuerlen, speaking of trees near Bombala, N.S.W., says, “bark light or yellow-grey, fibrous, persistent except on the topmost smallest branchlets.”

Speaking of the Tumberumba district, N.S.W., Mr. R. H. Cambage says:—“In comparing these trees with the Victorian and Bathurst Red Box, they appear to more nearly resemble the former, but this is chiefly owing to their having Box bark covering the trunk and limbs. The fruit might belong to either, while, from a cursory examination, the red timber of all three appears the same. In foliage, however, the Kyeamba trees closely resemble the Bathurst Red Box, which has been described by R.T. Baker under the name E. ovalifolia (these Proceedings, 1900, p. 680). (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxix, 687.)




  ― 59 ―

See also the description of the bark under Wyndham (J. L. Boorman); near Albury (Bishop J. W. Dwyer); Canberra (R. H. Cambage).

The use of the term Box as applied to this tree has caused some confusion. The earliest settlers probably applied the name to a half-barked sub-fibrous barked tree, which Sydney people know as Box (E. hemiphloia). Later settlers, in the drier parts, refer to a bark which is often less fibrous and more flaky, e.g., as is often seen in E. melliodora. I have seen the trees over much of the range of the species in New South Wales and Victoria, and am satisfied that the “north of Bathurst” (the type) and the Southern Tableland (and Victorian) trees do not really differ in bark. There are, of course, differences in the barks as regards individual trees, particularly in localities far apart, as one would naturally expect.

E. polyanthemos has lanceolate leaves.

The following specimens were seen by Mueller and labelled by him E. polyanthemos; all have lanceolate leaves, which indeed are often seen on the upper branches of the species. It is, indeed, a matter of common observation that towards the top of an adult tree the leaves become smaller or more lanceolate. This has been already referred to under “Illustrations.”

Mr. R. H. Cambage (op. cit.) points out the variation in the leaves of this species. Besides the examples to be immediately cited, see the references under “Range” to the Federal Territory leaves (Weston, Cambage), and Hill End (Cambage).

1. “Den.” Narrow-leaved Grey Box. The young saplings have round blue leaves, the old trees as within [i.e., lanceolate leaves.—J.H.M.]. Bark grey, persistent, and looks often scaly. The smallest branches are smooth. This tree when young often grows as a number of saplings from the same root. The trunk has often swellings and knobs, and is frequently largest just where it springs from the ground (Iguana Creek, Gippsland, A. W. Howitt, No. 10).

As to the use of the name Den, see the present work XIII, p. 109. These specimens show that, even if this aboriginal name is given to another species, it is certainly applied to E. polyanthemos.

2. In “E. polyanthemos, Snowy River, Gippsland (R. Rowe per Charles Walter),” the leaves vary from broadly lanceolate to lanceolate and even narrow-lanceolate. There are no orbicular leaves amongst them.

3. Mudgee road, N.S.W. The specimen is identical with Schauer's, but the sender [not named.—J.H.M.] writes:—“In the larger trees the leaves are ovatelanceolate.”

Other specimens in the Melbourne Herbarium including lanceolate leaves are:—Daylesford (J. R. Tovey); County of Talbot (F. M. Reader). Both Victoria.




  ― 60 ―

Range.

This has already been described at pages 112–115 of Part XIII. In view of the confusion that has gathered about some specimens, I give the following labels of specimens in the Melbourne Herbarium seen by Mueller, which have been sent to me by Professor Ewart. I have excluded those specimens of E. Dawsoni and E. Baueriana which Mueller attributed to E. polyanthemos. The labels of these specimens are, in some cases, referred to at p. 113, sometimes with some change in the verbiage. In most cases the leaves are orbicular to broad- or oblong-lanceolate.

Victoria (seen by Mueller).

McAllister River (Mueller, 1858). Seen by Bentham.

“Hill Box, Red Wood,” Mt. Kosciusko Range (Findlay, January, 1880). Wangaratta. Also timber No. B2, from same locality.

Beechworth and near Chiltern (A. W. Howitt). Ovens River (Mueller, January, 1853). Seen by Bentham.

Bindi (?). Gippsland (Mr. O'Rourke, A. W. Howitt).

Heyfield and Euroa (A. W. Howitt).

Upper Avoca and Loddon Rivers (A. C. Purdie, 1894).

With lanceolate leaves, Ravenswood (Walter K. Bissill).

Red Box. Wood red, close-grained, durable and very useful. Warrandyte, July, 1874 (? Walter).

“Walter's timber specimen from Anderson's Creek.”

New South Wales (seen by Mueller).

Delegate district (W. Baeuerlen, March, 1885, No. 124). Flowering as a shrub about 8 or 10 feet high, very spreading. Occurring only once on a hill here. Quiedong, near Bombala (W. Baeuerlen, March, 1887, No. 419). Bark light or yellow-grey, fibrous, persistent except on the topmost smallest branchlets. Trunk 2–3 feet, low, soon dividing. Branches wide-spreading. 50–60 feet high (do. No. 418).

“White Box. Upright tree 50–70 feet high. 2–3 feet diameter. Common in Lachlan and Murrumbidgee districts.” (J. Duff, 1883, No. 44.)

New South Wales.

Following are some additional specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney:—

“Small to medium-sized trees up to 40 or 50 feet. Bark ribbony or coming away in flakes, leaving a mottled patchy stem of red and grey. Foliage varying in size and shape; a most variable tree. Timber spoken of locally as first-class, but seldom reaches mill-size in the district.” Wyndham (J. L. Boorman).




  ― 61 ―

“Has a persistent, rather rough bark; spreading and rarely tall. Locally called `Black Box' (?) near Bega.” (W. D. Francis).

“Bark fibrous, persistent up to the branches, then whitish. About 50 feet high. Flowers creamy white, buds ashy.” Albury (Rev., now Bishop J. W. Dwyer, No. 111). Albury (A. V. Frauenfelder).

Gundaroo (Rev. J. W. Dwyer). Mt. Stromlo, Federal Territory (C. J. Weston). With cylindroid fruits and lanceolate leaves. Malcolmvale, Majura, Federal Territory (C. J. Weston, No. 48). Smooth bark, almost to ground; some of the leaves lanceolate. Towards Murrumbidgee from Canberra (R. H. Cambage, No. 2974).

Very common throughout the district and known as “Red Box.” It occasionally produces a straight, workable timber, which is said to be excellent for all purposes, but usually it is a small much-branched tree. It suckers freely, and is a good honey plant. Trunkey (J. L. Boorman).

“Red Box; gum bark, except at base.” With lanceolate leaves, Hill End (R. H. Cambage, No. 2751).

Bumbery (J. L. Boorman).

“Rather low, well-branched trees. The bark white or greyish. Timber chiefly used for fencing, height 40–50 feet, girth 3 to 4 feet.” Box from the ranges, Mount Esk, Bowan Park, near Cudal (W. F. Blakely).

Affinities.

These are dealt with at p. 116 of Part XIII, and it is only necessary to add E. Dawsoni to the species there enumerated. The differences between E. polyanthemos and this species are dealt with at p. 57 of the present Part.




  ― 62 ―

LXIV. E. Baueriana Schauer.

FIGURED and described at p. 120, Plate 59, Part XIII, of this work. See also p. 149, Plate 215, Part LVII of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”

Range.

The following specimens from the Melbourne Herbarium have been lent to me by Professor Ewart. They were all labelled E. polyanthemos by Mueller and are very interesting on that account, since they help to interpret his own and Bentham's writings on that species. They usefully supplement the list of localities given at pages 122–3 of Part XIII of the present work.

Victoria (seen by Mueller).

Australia Felix (J. Dallachy, 1852).

“Beyond Mount Disappointment” with narrow- to broad-lanceolate leaves (Mueller); about Station Peak (Mueller; both early fifties).

Lake Wellington, Lake Tyers, Mitchell's River and Tambo. (Mueller.)

Upper Genoa River; Rhytiphloiæ (Mueller, September, 1860).

New South Wales (seen by Mueller).

1. “Poplar leaf Box,” Round leaf or Poplar Box. No attributes of “Gum” about it. Very ornamental. Hard to kill. Flowers most abundant. Rich in honey. Candelo, damp gullies and river banks near the sea.

2. Bark rugose, reticulately wrinkled, dull olive green or ash grey, smaller branches smooth, green. Barrel 20–40 feet. Diameter 18 inches—3 feet. Murrah River to Towamba, along the coast, and a path at Wolumla Camping Reserve. (Both 1 and 2, Tyrone White, 1885.)

“Round-leaved Box, Ulladulla (J. S. Allan, No. 8B). (The above are South Coast.)

“Bark slightly furrowed and grey. Spreading tree 40 feet high, stem 2 feet diameter. Liverpool (John Duff).




  ― 63 ―

The following were collected by Rev. Dr. Woolls, and the labels bear some of his remarks, which explain some of his writings:—

1. “Hemiphloiæ. Bastard Box. Very like the `true Box' in appearance (E. hemiphloia). May be E. populnea or E. (c) gneorifolia.” This specimen was labelled E. polyanthemos by both Mueller and Bentham. Fairfield. (E. populnea is a synonym of E. populifolia. See Part X, p. 340.)

2. “Poplar-leaved Gum. Rhytiphloiæ. Bark persistent. Small tree on the Nepean called Lignum Vitæ. Heart wood very hard. E. populnea? See Hooker.” Labelled E. polyanthema Schauer by Mueller, and Bentham concurred.

3. “E. populnea. On the banks of the Nepean. Bark like Stringybark, but not so fibrous. Sometimes called Bastard Box. I think this must be E. populnea. Wood very hard, used for rough furniture. Small tree called Lignum Vitæ.”

Following are specimens additional to those seen by Mueller or recorded by myself, op. cit.:—

Southern New South Wales.—“Small trees or large shrubs, leafy from the ground upwards. Locally known as Bastard Box.” Eden-Towamba (J. L. Boorman). “Blue Box,” near Cobargo (W. Dunn). Moruya (E. Breakwell).

“Exceedingly large trees, having large and round stems, of a Box-like scaly appearance. Yield a large amount of good, sound timber for use in fencing and such-like purposes. Has yielded most of the fencing on the Bodalla Estate. Fairly common. Nerrigundah (J. L. Boorman).

Cobbitty, near Camden, on the river Nepean banks (J.H.M.).

Northern New South Wales.—Enmore, 18 miles east of Uralla, head waters of the Macleay River. “On Silurian (?) slate formation, 3,300 feet above sea level. Greatest elevation known to me for this species.” (R. H. Cambage.)




  ― 64 ―

CCXXXV. E. conica Deane and Maiden.

In Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxiv, 612 (1899), with a Plate.

THE description will be found at p. 123, Part XIII, of the present work, and figures at Plate 60. It is also figured at Plate 219, Part LVIII of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”

Synonym.

E. Baueriana Schauer var. conica Maiden, in this work, p. 123, Part XIII.

In certain cases (of which this is one), it is a matter of honest opinion as to whether a plant may be looked upon as a variety of a certain species or not. It is a geminate species with E. Baueriana, and I think that convenience will be better served by looking upon E. conica as distinct.

Range.

It is confined to New South Wales and Queensland so far as we know, and many localities are cited at p. 124, Part XIII of the present work. The following are additional:—

NEW SOUTH WALES.

“Large fuzzy Box-trees, 40–60 feet. It grows in a low moist place, subject to occasional floods.” Yalgogrin (J. L. Boorman).

“A White Box. Has a rough white bark almost to tips of limbs; practically no bole; of a spreading and gnarled appearance, and useless.” Cumbijowa State Forest, 12 miles east of Forbes (Forest Guard K. Walker).

“Like Peppermint, 24 inches diameter, 30 feet high. Rough grey bark, clean at tips of branches; growing on high country.” (Harvey Range State Forest.)




  ― 65 ―

“Yamble Box.” Near Yamble, via Mudgee (A. Murphy).

Near Tingha (Gordon Burrow; I have not specimens, but do not dispute the record).

“White Peppermint. A huge tree, in appearance like E. Stuartiana; a rough white bark. Parish Nangarah, County Darling, near Barraba (W. A. W. de Beuzeville).

“Fairly large tree, branches somewhat pendulous. Rough and fibrous bark on trunk and large branches, clean upper branches. Growing on alluvial flats at Arrarownie, head of Bohena Creek, Pilliga Scrub, 35 miles south of Narrabri (Forest Guard T. W. Taylor, No. 82). “A White Box, rather smooth white bark.” Baradine and Bohena Creeks, Pilliga Scrub (W. A. W. de Beuzeville). “Bastard Box,” Baradine district (Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 75). “Box, rough bark to top. 40 feet high, 40 inches in girth.” Parish Bomera, County Pottinger (Forest Guard M. H. Simon). “Narrow blue-leaf Box. 60 feet high, branching low.” Pilliga (E. H. F. Swain); Pilliga Forest (Gordon Burrow).

Queensland.

Stanthorpe (J. L. Boorman); Warwick (Dr. J. Shirley); “Box,” Gowrie, Little Plain (W. F. Gray).




  ― 66 ―

LXX. E. concolor Schauer.

The Type. The concolor confusion.

THE type of this species comes from limestone hills near Fremantle, Western Australia, as stated at p. 153, Part XIV of this work. A good deal of confusion has gathered around it, partly because the incomplete material available could not be interpreted at the time.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 249) quotes, in addition to the type, only specimens which come from the south coast, hundreds of miles from the type locality.

In Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 231 (1913), I have drawn attention to two specimens of the type lent to me by Dr. Fischer von Waldheim, then of the St. Petersburg Herbarium. Careful drawings were made of the specimens before returning them, but one was in leaf only and the other was in flower, but without opercula. With additional experience gained since then, and comparison of all material obtained from the Fremantle district (including Claremont), I find that figures 7 a-d, Plate 63, are practically identical with the type of E. concolor.

Fremantle material has, by Bentham, local botanists and myself, been included in three species in all, viz., E. decipiens, uncinata, and falcata. Following are references which will help to elucidate this:—

1. Under E. decipiens Endl. See Part XIV, last paragraph of p. 151, also Plate 63, figs. 7 a-d. Near Claremont Asylum, Perth, “practically a type locality of E. concolor.” In other words, I figured practically a typical specimen of E. concolor as E. decipiens.

Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald, a well-informed Western Australian botanist, wrote, “E. decipiens Endl. The Fremantle form consists of small thickets of erect shrubs, 8–12 feet high, growing on tertiary limestone.”

Bentham (B.Fl. iii) kept E. decipiens and E. concolor very far apart in his classification. Both under E. decipiens (p. 218) and under E. concolor (p. 247) he recognises shrubby and tree forms, but although he gives a far larger ultimate size to the former, he, speaking of the latter, says, “larger and more rigid (than E. decipiens) in all its parts.” To what extent the shrubby and tree forms are to be divided amongst E. decipiens and E. concolor begs the question as to whether the two species are really different.

In Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 231 (1913) I express the opinion that E. decipiens and E. concolor are not specifically different, in which case E. decipiens, being the older name, would stand. In view of the fact that inquiry is still


  ― 67 ―
proceeding as to the relations of shrubs and trees from, say, the Swan River to King George's Sound, hitherto variously attributed to E. concolor and to E. decipiens, the matter may well stand over for a reasonable time.

It may turn out that—

  • (a) E. concolor is the Fremantle form of E. decipiens.
  • (b) E. decipiens var. angustifolia (see Part XIV, p. 149) is an even narrower-leaved form of E. decipiens than is typical E. concolor.

2. Under E. uncinata Turcz. See Part XIV, and at p. 145 we have Subiaco Beach near Fremantle (Dr. J. B. Cleland) and 3 miles south of Fremantle (W. V. Fitzgerald). I have also received specimens from “near Fremantle, Limestone” (C. Andrews). Not only did Mr. Fitzgerald, but also Mr. Andrews, another competent botanist, label them E. uncinata. They had not seen the type of E. uncinata, the forms of which have not even yet been fully worked out, and it is useful to point out that the view above indicated was held near the type locality of E. concolor itself.

It will be seen that Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 218) points out the similarity of the fruit in E. decipiens and E. uncinata.

3. Under E. falcata Turcz. var. ecostata Maiden. See Part XV, p. 181. On limestone, near Fremantle. (Cecil Andrews and W. V. Fitzgerald). These specimens are discussed in their relations to E. concolor lower down the page and on page 182. Placing these Fremantle specimens under E. falcata is an act for which I am alone responsible, but the Fremantle plant has the buds sometimes so ribbed as to resemble E. falcata somewhat.

Drummond's No. 77 is not E. concolor.

Bentham's citation of Drummond's 4th Coll. No. 77 under E. concolor, a very thick-leaved specimen, only seen in mature leaf and fruit, and figured at fig. 11, Plate 63 (Part XIV) is important inasmuch as it was the only specimen, named E. concolor by high authority, which was available for the guidance of Australian botanists for very many years. At fig. 12 I have matched Dr. Diels' Cape Riche specimen with it, and still think that this view is probably correct.

I have referred at length to Dr. Diels' specimens at p. 155, Part XIV. Some further collecting is required, in connection with the general decipiens-concolor investigation already referred to, when the position of these specimens can again be referred to, but at present it can be said that none of them are typical for E. concolor, and I have made a slip of the pen in the lettering under fig. 11 (page 163) in saying that Drummond's specimen is typical for E. concolor.




  ― 68 ―

Affinities.

At pages 66 and 67 I have already gone into the relations of E. concolor to E. decipiens, E. uncinata and E. falcata, and I have little to add.

1. With E. decipiens Endl.

Dr. Stoward, under No. 122, sent me a specimen of “White Gum, height 30–40, diameter of trunk 15–18 inches. Grows on limestone country in the Tuart belt along the coast. Spot near Newmarket Hotel, Coogee Road. April–May, 1917.” This is from the neighbourhood of typical E. concolor, and although these specimens lack juvenile leaves, they seem to answer to the description of E. decipiens. If E. concolor, as I surmise, then the tree is the largest recorded for that species.

2. With E. uncinata Turcz.

For this species I would invite attention to Plate 62, Part XIV, and would say that the species is, as regards some of the Western Australian specimens, under revision.

3. With E. falcata Turcz. var. ecostata Maiden.

For this species see Plate 68, Part XV.

Explanation of Plates (172–5).

Plate 172.

Plate 172: EUCALYPTUS EXIMIA Schauer. [See also Plate 173.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. eximia Schauer.

  • 1a. Peltate juvenile leaf, with curved venation; 1b, peltate juvenile leaf, the venation advanced a stage towards the pinnate; 1c, intermediate leaf, the venation still further advanced, but not yet completely pinnate, as the mature leaf depicted at fig. 1, Plate 173. Glenbrook, Blue Mountains, N.S.W. (J.H.M.)
  • 2. Broad, short, intermediate leaf, not in the juvenile stage. Note the glandular appearance of the young shoots. Springwood, Blue Mountains. (J. L. Boorman.)
  • 3a. Elongated petiolate juvenile leaf; 3b, 3c, 3d, different shapes and sizes of juvenile leaves, all with auriculate bases. 3d is almost hastate in shape. The secondary veins of 3c and 3d at a smaller angle to the midrib than those of 3a and 3b. These specimens are accompanied, at the lower parts of the branchlets, by small, early leaves, arrested in their growth, similar in shape, and only differing from the other leaves in size. These remarks apply to other species also. Hornsby Valley, Galston Road, Sydney district. (W. F. Blakely.)
  • 4. Buds showing shrinking of the calyx-tube in drying and thus the operculum takes on a mushroom shape. Cultivated plant, Inner Domain, Sydney. (J.H.M.)

Compare E. Watsoniana, fig. 1b, Plate 174.




  ― 69 ―
  • 5. Buds, with ridges on calyx-tube. Grose River, N.S.W. (George Caley, September, 1804.) (From the British Museum.)
  • 6a. Buds with the ordinary conical opercula; 6b, buds with opercula almost hemispherical; 6c, back and front views of anther. Berowra to Peat's Ferry, Hawkesbury River. (J.H.M. October, 1895.)
  • 7. Fruits, scarcely urceolate in shape. Woy Woy, Hawkesbury River. (A. Murphy.)
  • 8. Fruits unusually urceolate in shape. Badgery's Crossing to Nowra, Shoalhaven River. (W. Forsyth and A. A. Hamilton.) From same tree as fig. 1, Plate 173.

Plate 173.

Plate 173: EUCALYPTUS EXIMIA Schauer. (1) [See also Plate 172.] E. PELTATA F.v.M. (2) E. WATSONIANA F.v.M. (3-5) [See also Plate 174.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. eximia Schauer. (See also Plate 172.)

  • 1. Rather long, mature leaf. Badgery's Crossing to Nowra, Shoalhaven River, N.S.W. (W. Forsyth and A. A. Hamilton.)

E. peltata Benth.

  • 2a. Juvenile leaf, nearly orbicular, peltate; 2b, juvenile leaf, a stage further advanced, broadly lanceolate, peltate, venation making a smaller angle with the midrib; 2c, mature leaf, of the ordinary lanceolate shape (Mueller never saw mature leaves of his own species,—see “Eucalyptographia” plate); 2d, umbel of young buds, with bracteoles still attached; 2e, buds; 2f, buds, further advanced, and with conoid opercula; 2g, front and back views of anther. Alma-den, Northern Queensland. (R. H. Cambage, No. 3884.)

E. Watsoniana F.v.M. (See also Plate 174.)

  • 3a. Portion of mature leaf; 3b, bud; 3c, front and back views of anthers; 3d, fruit. Wigton Creek. Queensland. (T. Wentworth Watson.) From a portion of the type in the Melbourne Herbarium, Note that the bud is more wrinkled than that collected from a cultivated tree in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney (see figs. 5a, Plate 173, and 1, Plate 174.)
  • 4. A comparatively long, narrow, mature leaf with long petiole. Parish of Boondooma, Queensland. (S. J. Higgins, through C. T. White.)
  • 5. Buds; note their nearly flat tops, and absence of wrinkles; 5b, youngish fruit, also free from wrinkles; drawn from fresh specimens in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney, raised from a seed obtained from the type.

Plate 174.

Plate 174: EUCALYPTUS WATSONIANA F.v.M. (1) [See also Plate 173.] E. TRACHYPHLOIA F.v.M. (2-7) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. Watsoniana F.v.M. (See also Plate 173.)

  • 1a. Mature leaf; 1b, buds. This shrinking of the calyx-tube and ribbing, owing to the vascular bundles standing out, together with the “overhanging” appearance of the operculum, is seen also in E. eximia (fig. 4, Plate 172), and in some other species. It is the effect of drying. Cultivated in Botanic Gardens, Sydney.

E. trachyphloia F.v.M.

  • 2a. Small juvenile leaf, peltate; 2b, juvenile leaf, a stage further advanced; 2c, fruits. Arrarownie, Borah Creek, Pilliga Scrub, N.S.W. (H. I. Jensen, No. 152.)
  • 3. Mature leaf. Pilliga Scrub. (E. H. F. Swain.)
  • 4. Narrow mature leaf. Coolabah, N.S.W. (W. W. Froggatt.)
  • 5. Intermediate or nearly mature leaf. South Queensland. (Forest Inspector J. Board.)



  ― 70 ―
  • 6a, 6b, Juvenile leaves, not in the earliest stage; 6c, mature leaf; 6d, twig with buds; 6e, front and back views of anther; 6f, fruits. Bundaberg, Queensland. (J.H.M.) N.B.—This is the type locality of the species.
  • 7a. Juvenile leaf in an early, though not the earliest stage; 7b, the same, but a little further advanced. Note the glandular hairs round the edges of these two leaves. 7c, intermediate leaf; 7d, fruits. N.B.—The mature leaves from Bathurst Island are so similar to that of fig. 3 of the present plate that they have not been depicted. Bathurst Island, Northern Territory. (G. F. Hill No. 465.) It is to be observed that the Bathurst Island foliage in its younger stages is coarser than any that has so far been recorded from the mainland.

Plate 175.

Plate 175: EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDA Maiden. (1,2) E. KRUSEANA F.v.M. (3,4) E. DAWSONI R. T. Baker. (5-8) [See also Plate 58, figs. 4, 9-11.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.



E. hybrida Maiden.

  • 1a. Mature leaf (juvenile leaf not available); 1b, buds; 1c, views of two anthers; 1d, 1e, fruits in two stages, i.e., the less advanced showing a rim. Concord, near Sydney. (R. H. Cambage, J. L. Boorman, J.H.M.) The type.
  • 2a, 2b, Mature leaves; 2c, buds; 2d, views of two anthers. Milson Island, Hawkesbury River. (Dr. J. B. Cleland.)

E. Kruseana F.v.M.

  • 3a. Twig bearing fruits; 3b, different views of anthers; 3c, flowers; 3d, a solitary bud (all on the specimen) and a fruit. 100 miles north of Israelite Bay, W.A. (J. D. Batt.) The type.
  • 4a. A leafy shoot, some of the leaves younger than those depicted at 3a; 4b, buds; 4c, fruits. 50–100 miles east of Kalgoorlie (Transcontinental Railway Survey), W.A. (Henry Deane.) Type of E. Morrisoni Maiden.

E. Dawsoni R. T. Baker.

  • 5. Buds of the type as depicted in Vol. XXIV, Plate XXI, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W.
  • 6a. Juvenile leaf; 6b, three views of anthers; 8a, fruits; 8b, the same, end on. Denman, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage No. 2711.)
  • 7a. A flower; 7b, the deciduous collar or staminal ring referred to at p. 57. Cobborah, N.S.W. (District Forester Marriott.)
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