― 27 ―

CCXXVIII. E. eximia Schauer.

In Walpers' Repertorium ii, 925 (1843).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

Rigid, with firm lanceolate leaves narrowed into a petiole, long, acute, smooth on both sides and sub-opaque, covered with small black dots, imperforate, without veins; the terminal panicle composed of very many—about six-flowered heads with long peduncles; peduncles compressed, somewhat two-edged; operculum coriaceous, convex, umbonate, after expansion sometimes with the hinge of the operculum as if adherent to the obconical wrinkled-angular calyx-tube (and the remaining parts?) glaucous-hoary, finally smooth shining. Leaves half a foot long and longer, about an inch broad. Flowers showy, 6 lines long; stamens elongated, white. Collected in New Holland in former days by Ferd. Bauer.

It was described by Bentham in B.Fl. iii, 258, as follows:—

Leaves falcate-lanceolate, acuminate, mostly 4 to 6 inches long, with numerous veins, fine and parallel, but scarcely visible owing to the thick coriaceous texture. Flowers several together, closely sessile in heads, which are usually arranged on thick angular or flattened peduncles, in terminal corymbs or panicles. Calyx-tube thick, obconical, somewhat angular, much tapering at the base, 3 to 4 lines long. Operculum broadly conical or shortly acuminate, always much shorter than the calyx-tube, and double, as in E. maculata, but the inner one not readily separable in the dried specimens till the flower is ready to open. Stamens 3 to 4 lines long; anthers ovate-oblong, the cells parallel, opening longitudinally. Ovary short, flat-topped. Fruit urceolate, ¾ to 1 inch long, the rim thin, the capsule deeply sunk.

It is described and figured by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia.”

Caley, at the beginning of the 19th century, called it “Snuff-coloured Bark Eucalyptus,” which is descriptive, but, it seems to me, it gives an idea that the bark is browner than it really is. The colour of the bark is a dirty yellow.

By Sydney people this is variously known as “Mountain Bloodwood,” “Yellow Bloodwood,” and “Rusty Gum.” It is called “Bloodwood” partly because kino exudes in the concentric circles of the wood (which kino, by the way, cannot be mistaken for that of E. corymbosa). Baron von Mueller states (“Eucalyptographia”), following Dr. Woolls, I find, that it sometimes goes by the name of “Smooth-barked Bloodwood,” but I have not heard it so called.

The purple (plum violet) of the young foliage is a very conspicuous object, and it has long been known that it contains a small percentage of caoutchouc, as does that of the common Sydney Bloodwood (E. corymbosa).

Mr. W. F. Blakely noted that the young shoots in the Hornsby-Galston district (near Hawkesbury River) distinctly smell of oil of lemon (February, 1918).

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Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 258), speaking of the operculum, says “…double, as in E. maculata, but the inner one not readily separable in the dried specimens till the flower is ready to open.” Mueller follows the matter up in the “Eucalyptographia,” but I think it will be best to deal with the morphology of the opercula (which involves consideration of a number of species), when dealing with the morphology of the genus in the second portion of this work.

Doubtful Synonym.

E. elongata Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. ii, 30 (1822).

Following is a copy of the original:—

“223. E. elongata. Fol. lanceolatis attenuatis acumine subfiliformi reticulatim venosis. Hab. in Australia. T. Fol. pet. 8? longo lamina 4–5' lga. 10?–1' lata coriacea. Non floruit.” A specimen in the Vienna Herbarium labelled “Eucalyptus elongata Link, Ferd. Bauer, Herb. Bauer” is E. eximia Schauer.

On the other hand, we have the species rather more fully described in DC. Prod. iii, 222, as follows:—

“49. E. elongata (Link l.c.) foliis alternis lanceolatis attenuatis acumine subfiliformi reticulatim venosis coriaceis. In Nov. Hollandia. Folii petiolus 8 lin. longus, lamina 4–5 poll. longa 10–12 lin. lata. An forte eadem ac E. cornuta aut potius E. persicifolia? (v.s. sine fl. ex hort. Berol).

A single leaf, from the Prodromus Herbarium (from M. Casimir De Candolle) has the following label:—

(Manu Ottonis), “Eucalyptus elongata Lk. En.”

(Manu Seringei), “Jardin de Berlin Mr. Otto, 1826.”

(Manu DC. ii), “An cornuta? persicifolia?”

It is not E. eximia. I would not like to state its origin at present. E. elongata Link, in Otto's handwriting, was written by the collaborator of Link in much botanical work.


The collection of the type is credited to Ferdinand Bauer, as is the case with other specimens collected by Robert Brown, but forming part of a collection of Bauer's (who was Sir Joseph Banks's artist attached to Brown), which found its way to the Vienna Herbarium. Brown described it and gave it a name, but, like so many of Brown's descriptions of Eucalyptus, it never saw the light. The type came from the Grose River, New South Wales.

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Bentham gives “Banks of the River Grose, R. Brown, and (lower) Blue Mountains, Miss Atkinson.” Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) adds Bent's Basin (Woolls), which is on the Nepean, about 22 miles south of its junction with the Grose. The Dogwood Creek, Queensland, specimens, collected by Leichhardt and referred to in the “Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia, are E. peltata F.v.M.

It seems to be confined to the sandstone of eastern-central New South Wales, its most southerly recorded locality being Jervis Bay, and northerly one Howe's Valley, near Singleton, while the most westerly locality is Springwood, in the lower Blue Mountains (1,200 feet).

Southern localities.—A specimen in Herb. Cant., Ex herb. Lindl., labelled, “7 feet high, P. Jarvis, Fraser” (Jervis Bay, Fraser died in December, 1831) is E. eximia. Another specimen, labelled “Eucalyptus sp., height 50 feet, flowers in September, Port Jervis” (Jervis Bay) (Fraser), in Herb. Oxon. is this species.

The next most southerly locality recorded is Shoalhaven River (Badgery's Crossing to Nowra, W. Forsyth and A. A. Hamilton). It is remarkable that it has never been recorded from Jervis Bay since Fraser's time, nor between Jervis Bay and the Shoalhaven.

Yalwal, 18 miles from Nowra, Shoalhaven district (R. H. Cambage). Picton Lakes (R. H. Cambage). It is obvious that we want more collecting over southern localities for this species.

A large tree of this species used to be in Government House Grounds, just inside the gates. It was demolished during the widening of Macquarie-street, in 1913. It may have been an original specimen of the Sydney flora, still preserved to some extent in the Outer Domain, but I doubt it.

Western localities.—Very common about Glenbrook and Blaxland, but was not observed beyond Springwood. October is the usual flowering time for this species, but the evidence available on 12th November last went to show that, with but few exceptions, it did not flower last spring; and it is worthy of note that it flowered profusely in 1900 and 1902, but was almost destitute of flowers in 1901 (vide these Proceedings, 1902, p. 206). Many of the trees were rendered attractive in November by the display of purple foliage on the young shoots. (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. xxx, 199, 1905).

Mulgoa (R. H. Cambage, J.H.M.). “This is the `Mountain Bloodwood.' The bark is generally different in texture from the other. It is not so thick, and looks more like the bark of a Mahogany or Woolly Butt.” Near Bent's Basin (Rev. Dr. Woolls).

“Smooth-barked Bloodwood,” specimen from cliffs near Bent's Basin (W. Woolls). Bent's Basin, only on the sandstone ridge (J.H.M.). Bent's Basin is on the Nepean River, a few miles south of Penrith.

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Following are two historical specimens. They are co-types. “Banks of the Grose.” Robert Brown, 1802–5. (Presented by J. J. Bennett at the 1876 distribution from the British Museum, No. 4776.)

“Snuff-coloured bark Eucalyptus, Grose, September, 1804, F2.” (George Caley.) (Presented by British Museum through Dr. A. B. Rendle, No. 42.) (Grose Head on other specimens.)

Grose's Head was a name originally given by Caley himself. There is a reference to its use by Bligh on 31st October, 1807 (Hist. Rec. Aust. vi, 145), who speaks of it as “A high, commanding situation called Grose's Head.” The name is several times used by Blaxland in his “Journal of a Tour of Discovery Across the Blue Mountains in the year 1813.” One of the references is that at Glenbrook Lagoon, “the high land of Grose Head appeared before them at about 7 miles distance, bearing north by east.” Mr. Alexander Wilson told me that Grose Head is a bluff at the junction of Burralow Creek and Grose River (a few miles from the junction of the latter with the Nepean), parish of Burralow, county of Cook.

Mr. R. H. Cambage and I, in 1906, saw it when we ascended the Grose River from the Nepean. We could only progress about 5 miles from the Nepean junction to the head of navigation. We then came to large sandstone boulders, but could hardly progress a short distance over them, and continued progress was impossible. Looking up the stream, the fine bluff of Grose Head was the prominent feature of the landscape. It is easy to suppose that Caley saw it from this position.

Northern localities.—Between 17–19 mile-posts, Galston road, Hornsby (W. F. Blakely). At the Linnean Society's excursion of the 27th April, 1889, numerous individuals, including some very fine trees, of this species were found at the junction of the Berowra Creek with the Hawkesbury River. This was the most northerly locality known for a number of years. (Henry Deane and J.H.M.)

I am indebted to Mr. W. F. Blakely for the following notes on the occurrence of this species between Hornsby and Hawkesbury River, including its association with E. squamosa Deane and Maiden:—

There are several fine belts of this species on the eastern and north-eastern spurs of the rugged sandstone country along Berowra Creek, from the Galston Valley, on the Galston road between the 17–19 mile-posts, to Brooklyn on the Hawkesbury River; and also in similar situations in various places throughout the Kuring-gai Chase; namely, on the Gibberygong track, Kuring-gai Chase boundary line, 2 miles east of Hornsby; Bobbin Head (plentiful); along the Chase road to Mt. Colah (two patches); close to railway line at Kuring-gai, Berowra, Cowan and Hawkesbury River stations. It is also common at various points along Cowan Creek. For instance, fine specimens are to be seen at Windybanks and at Jerusalem Bay.

On the Pittwater side of the Chase there is a patch of it towards the head of Cowan Creek.

It is interesting to note that besides occupying the highest points in the strip of country between Manly and Brooklyn, E. eximia descends to the sea-level, attaining its greatest development on the lower levels, but some really good specimens are met with at considerably high elevations.

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E. eximia is often associated with E. corymbosa and E. squamosa, but to a limited extent. It usually prefers the well-drained rugged, often precipitous ridges, with a northerly or easterly aspect, as seen along the railway line near the Hawkesbury River station, while E. corymbosa prefers the better-class soils of the northern, eastern, and western slopes; also the medium soils interspersed with ironstone gravel of the flat, open forests, on the tops of ridges. On the other hand, E. squamosa is usually confined to the moist tops and somewhat sour, swampy, elevated southern depressions. When these species meet, they do not penetrate beyond their ecological boundaries. In any case, E. corymbosa is the most aggressive of the three, for it appears to have adapted itself to all sorts of environmental conditions.

We now cross to the northern bank of the Hawkesbury River.

Woy Woy and Hawkesbury River (Andrew Murphy).

“Pepper,” not Peppermint, is the Colo name, Hawkesbury River (a surveyor whose name I have forgotten).

Maitland (Sawyer's Gully), where it is known as Rock Apple. (R. H. Cambage.)


We are dealing in this Part with four Yellow-barks or Yellow-jackets. They all have palish timber (in contradistinction to reddish), viz., E. eximia, E. peltata, E. Watsoniana, and E. trachyphloia, and have some affinities for that reason. They are contrasted at p. 47.

E. eximia is a member of the Corymbosæ, and Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 199) places it nearest to E. maculata, giving the key.

Flowers pedicellate in 3-flowered umbels …E. maculata.

Flowers sessile, in heads … … … …E. eximia.

These are the only two species of the section he records as having a double operculum.

Mueller's views as to the affinities of E. eximia will be given in his own order.

1. With E. Watsoniana F.v.M.

E. eximia is closely related to E. Watsoniana, differing mainly in narrower leaves, in the smaller flowers without any stalklets, in the lid not exceeding the width of the calyx-tube, and in smaller fruits with not emerging or protruding disc. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia.)

This is the only other Yellow-jacket with which Mueller contrasts it, and I will refer to the affinity under table at p. 47.

2. With E. Abergiana F.v.M.

In its panicles it resembles E. Abergiana, but the leaves are almost sickle-shaped and not conspicuously darker above, the lid and calyx-tube are separated by a clear sutural line, and the seeds are not provided with a terminating membrane. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia.)

  ― 32 ―

For E. Abergiana, see Plate 170, Part XLI. The two species are sharply separated by the non-yellow bark, and the red timber of E. Abergiana. The mature foliage of that species is broader, the buds ovoid, and therefore the opercula non-conoid, the peduncles thicker and more distinctly articulate, the fruits larger and more woody. At the same time, we are not fully aware of the amount of variation in that species.

3. With E. maculata Hook. f.

E. eximia claims particularly close relationship to E. maculata; but its distinctness is vindicated by the persistency and peculiarity of the bark, by the still finer venation of the leaves, by the flowers being of larger size and devoid of stalklets, by the less ready separation of the outer and inner lid from each other, by the petaloid whitish not shining inner but smoother and more lustrous lid, and by the larger fruits; the seedling state may also be different. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia.)

Mr. W. F. Blakely informed me, in February, 1918, that young shoots of E. eximia in the Hornsby, Sydney, district, distinctly smelled of oil of lemon. This indicates affinity to E. maculata var. citriodora. I will postpone further consideration of the contrasts until E. maculata is reached in Part XLIII.

4. With E. corymbosa Sm.

Although called a Bloodwood tree, it differs widely from E. corymbosa, not only in some of the characteristics of its flowers and fruits, but also in foliage and bark, the latter being of more scaly texture and also smoother outside. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. eximia.)

For E. corymbosa see Part XXXIX, Plates 161, 162. The latter has a hard, scaly, non-yellow bark, with red timber. Its flush of young foliage is reddish rather than purple, and its very young leaves are non-petiolate. The two species differ in the shape of the fruits, which have pedicels in E. corymbosa, which also has its buds more clavate.