― 43 ―

CCXXXI. E. trachyphloia F.v.M.

In Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 90 (1859).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

A tree with angular branchlets, leaves alternate, moderately petiolate, narrow-lanceolate, subfalcate, narrowed into a fine point, opaque, faintly veined, with pellucid dots, intramarginal vein somewhat close to the edge. Umbels paniculate, 3–5 flowered, pedicels shorter than the peduncle, angled and the same length as the fruit. Fruit small, ecostate, truncate-ovate, three-celled, deltoid valves deeply included, seeds wingless.

On hills near the Burnett River (Queensland). Flowering September and October.

A medium sized tree, the bark persistent on the trunk and branches, ashy brown and rough, breaking into little pieces. Leaves 3–5 inches long, 5–8 lines broad, narrowed into a petiole of 6–9 lines, a little paler on the underside, fruit measuring about 3 lines, gradually contracted at the mouth.

Bentham then described it in B.Fl. iii, 221:—

A moderate-sized tree, with a dark grey rugged bark, persistent. Leaves long-lanceolate, often falcate, 4–6 inches long, with very numerous fine parallel almost transverse veins, the marginal one close to or very near the edge. Flowers not seen. Fruiting-umbels several together in terminal panicles or in the upper axils, each with 3 to 6 pedicellate fruits. Fruit ovoid-truncate, contracted towards the orifice, about 3 lines long, the rim thin, the capsule deeply sunk.

It was described and figured by Mueller in the “Eucalyptographia,” and he points out that while it attains a height of 80 feet, with a stem-diameter of 2 feet, “..... in exposed situations on the tops of hills dwarfed in growth and fruiting already in a shrubby state.”

The timber is pale-coloured, somewhat like Spotted Gum (E. maculata).

Dr. J. Shirley gives the aboriginal name as “Gou-unya” in use by the Koolaburra tribe, between Tarromeo and Nanango, South Queensland.

In constituting a forma fruticosa F. M. Bailey, Queensland Agric. Journ. XXV, July, 1910, p. 9, says:—

For many years may have been observed on the Glasshouse Mountain, a dwarf form of our “White Bloodwood.” It flowers and fruits when only about 5 feet high, and is certainly a worthy plant for garden culture, and if thus brought into use would require some name whereby it might be distinguished from the common form of the species, hence I have attached to it the above name fruticosa. We, however, so far have no proof of seedling plants retaining the dwarf habit, yet there is no reason to suppose otherwise, for this may be looked upon as a sport, like many other variations in the genus. Baron von Mueller notices in his “Eucalyptographia,” Decade 5, this mountain form, but does not mention any particular locality; it may, however, have been in this same place, for I believe that he and Walter Hill together did some collecting in that locality in the early days of Queensland.

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I do not think it is necessary to give this a formal name, unless it be desired to similarly treat the remainder of the numerous species which, while normally trees, flower in a shrubby state.


The type came from the Burnett River (near Bundaberg), in Queensland, and in the “Eucalyptographia” it was only recorded by the author from central and south Queensland localities, viz.:—“In poor, hilly country, hitherto traced from Moreton Bay (Bailey) to the Burnett River (Mueller) and the Mackenzie River (Bowman, O'Shanesy), chiefly in the sandstone formation.” In Queensland, however, it occurs as far north as Stannary Hills, west of Cairns, while since I now record it from Bathurst and Melville Islands, it will doubtless be found to occur on the Cape York peninsula, and in the Northern Territory generally.

Going south, it occurs in New South Wales, as far south as the Goulburn River and Denman district, occurring over a large area north and north-west, chiefly on poor sandy and rocky land, until Queensland is approached and the Queensland localities connected therewith.

New South Wales.

Murrumbo, 50 miles north of Rylstone, near the Goulburn River (R. T. Baker). On sandy conglomerate, probably Narrabeen beds, Baerami, 15 miles west of Denman (R. H. Cambage, 2636). “Plentiful all over the district on the sides and tops of the hills all over the district. The trees have the appearance as if recently rung, as the foliage is of a reddish-brown cast. Small trees 20–30 feet, 1–1½ feet, rough pale bark, timber brown, chippy, but hard. Locally known as Bloodwood.” Gungal, near Merriwa (J. L. Boorman). The above three localities are in the same general area.

We are now in the vicinity of the North-west Line and its branches. Bloodwood, 50 feet, 4 feet. Parish Brigalow, county Pottinger (Forest Guard M. H. Simon). “Bloodwood, about 10 miles from Coonabarabran-Gunnedah road” (Dr. Jensen, No. 127). Coonabarabran-Baradine road, near Coonabarabran (W. Forsyth). About 3½ miles east of Bugaldi-Coonabarabran road (Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 95). “Bloodwood. Bark lighter than E. corymbosa.” Warrumbungle Range (E. H. F. Swain, No. 35). Arrarownie, Borah Creek, Pilliga Scrub (Dr. Jensen, No. 152). South-east Pilliga (E. H. F. Swain, No. 22). Central Pilliga on a sterile ridge (E. H. F. Swain, No. 15). Pilliga East State Forest, county Baradine (Gordon Burrow). On Sandhills. Up to 2 feet diameter. Narrabri (J.H.M.). East Narrabri (J. L. Boorman).

“Bloodwood. About 30 feet high, 4 feet girth. Associated with E. crebra and Callitris calcarata.” Parish Terrergee, county Courallie, Moree district (E. H. F. Swain, No. 36). “Little Bloodwood,” Ticketty Well, between Wallangra and Yetman (Forest Assessor A. Julius).

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The following specimens were collected by Leichhardt.

  • 1. Debillipalah.
  • 2. Between Myall Creek and Byron's Plains (22nd May, 1843).
  • 3. … hills, scarce, a slender tree of 3 feet (?), with a scaly bark (4th June, 1843).

Dr. John Shirley, of Brisbane, has kindly favoured me with the following comments on these three localities (1, 2, 3):—

1. Dibillipah is evidently Didillibah, near Woombye, on our North Coast Line, 62 miles north of Brisbane.

2. Between Myall Creek and Byron's Plains, 22nd May, 1843. Myall Creek is a tributary of the Condamine on the Darling Downs, not far from Oakey, a township on our Western Line, 120 miles from Brisbane. Byron Plains has been searched for by officers of our Survey Department, but with no result. This was not his only visit to this neighbourhood, as Stuart Russell (“Genesis of Queensland,” p. 360) reports:—“On my return to Cecil Plains (38 miles from Oakey) alone, one afternoon in the middle of 1844 (just before Leichhardt left for Port Essington) I saw a surprising object … a veritable chimney-pot hat … 'twas Dr. Ludwig Leichhardt's.”

3. … Hills. Where was he 4th June, 1843?

No works to hand will solve this; but he collected mainly on the coastal country north of Brisbane in the early part of 1843, and on the Downs in the latter half.

4. Leichhardt's label on another specimen is “ `Gala' tree, very similar to the Bloodwoods in the Sandy Mountain Range, Archer's Station, 23rd September, 1843.” The Rev. Dr. Lang (“Cooksland,” p. 83), quotes a letter from Dr. Leichhardt, dated the 4th of the same month from “Archer's Station, Bunya Bunya.” I would suggest that Leichhardt named the tree because of the parrots called Galahs (Cacatua roseicapella) which frequent this and other Bloodwoods because of the profusion of honey-yielding flowers.

Following are some specimens by later collectors:—

“White Bloodwood, with broadish leaves,” South Queensland (Forest Inspector Board). Eight-mile Plains, just south of Brisbane (A. Murphy, J. L. Boorman). Brisbane (J.H.M.). Ipswich-road, near Brisbane, common (C. T. White).

Chinchilla (R. C. Beasley). (We want more localities on this railway line.)

“Bastard Bloodwood,” Taylor's Range (F. M. Bailey). The forma fruticosa of F. M. Bailey. Common on top of Mount Ngun Ngun, Glass House Mountains (C. T. White, J. Shirley).

Maryborough (W. H. Simon) “White Bloodwood.” “Fairly large trees of 40–60 feet, stems 2–4 feet. Bark whitish, flaky, or even of a Stringybark nature. Timber not much esteemed locally.” Bundaberg, close to the type locality. (J. L. Boorman, J.H.M.)

Near the Comet River (P. O'Shanesy).

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Rockhampton, with a spherical gall 1¼ inches in diameter, identical with or closely resembling Brachyscelis pomiformis, see Part XL, p. 318. (J.H.M.)

“Bloodwood,” Stannary Hills. (Dr. T. L. Bancroft.)

Percy Island, west of Mt. Armitage. “Small tree, 20 feet”; Middle Percy Island; low trees growing thickly together, south-east of Middle Percy Island (Henry Tryon).


“Large Bloodwood. This species grows in the open forest country with E. miniata and E. tetradonta on both Melville Island and Bathurst Island. Examples are found on the gentle slopes and along the little streams falling from the higher country to the main waterways, i.e., the tidal estuaries.” Bathurst Island (G. F. Hill, No. 465).

This is the first record, so far as I am aware, from the Northern Territory, and we must therefore connect this and the North Queensland localities.


1 and 2. With E. siderophloia Benth., and E. crebra F.v.M.

E. trachyphloia, placed by Bentham between E. siderophloia and E. crebra, is much nearer allied to E. terminalis and E. dichromophloia (as shown in the Fragm. Phytogr. Austr. xi, 43–44), along which species it was placed already in the Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 90.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. siderophloia).

In the same work, under E. trachyphloia, he also compares it with E. crebra in the following words:—

“… E. trachyphloia approaches E. crebra and some cognate Ironbark trees, all of which have the stomata isogenous and show a clear line of dehiscence, by which the lid is separated, while the difference of the anthers separate them even sectionally according to Bentham's system. Besides, in E. crebra the lid is not depressed, the fruit is not or less contracted at the summit, and the valves are almost terminal.”

For E. siderophloia turn to Plate 47, Part X of the present work, and for E. crebra to Plate 53, Part XII. But both these are Ironbarks, and it seems inadvisable at this place to stop to make comparisons between Ironbarks and a Bloodwood, the relationships being so distant.

3. With E. tessellaris F.v.M.

This species shares in some of the characteristics of E. trachyphloia, but irrespective of the discrepancies of the bark differs already in the uniform coloration of the leaves, which latter are also generally longer, are less pointed and show more distinctly the venation; moreover, the inflorescence is less expanded; the lid is larger and separates by a more sharply defined sutural line from the other portion of the calyx; the fruits are also of greater size, though less hard; the fertile seeds are much larger, comparatively more compressed and distinctly margined; but the last-mentioned characteristic is not well expressed in the lithographic illustration of E. tessellaris now offered, figure 9 having been drawn from unripe seeds. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. tessellaris.)

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For E. tessellaris, see Plate 156, Part XXXVIII. The juvenile leaves are narrow, the flower buds clavate and decurved. The chief similarity is in the fruits, which much resemble each other in size and outline, but they are otherwise very different. One can readily crush the fruits of E. tessellaris between the fingers, as their walls are papery like those of E. clavigera and its allies; those of E. trachyphloia are much more strongly built. The trees are very dissimilar in appearance, E. tessellaris having tessellated bark (and smooth upwards) as its name denotes, while that of E. trachyphloia has a flaky fibrous bark throughout, with a yellowish cast.

4. With E. dichromophloia F.v.M.

Its real systematic place should be next to E. dichromophloia, from which it can be distinguished in rougher bark, in thinner less elongated leaves of a darker green above, and dull paleness beneath (therefore not of equal colour on both sides), with recurved edge, in the want of stomata on the upper page of the leaves, in the calyces of less polished smoothness, in smaller fruits with perhaps never or only rarely four valves, and in the absence of any appendage to the fertile seeds. (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. trachyphloia.)

For E. dichromophloia, see Plate 165, Part XL. Its affínity to E. trachyphloia is not as close as Mueller thought it was. E. dichromophloia has a red timber, and a reddish, flaky bark. The juvenile foliage of E. dichromophloia is described at Part XLI, p. 3.

The affinity of E. trachyphloia is with the Yellow Barks. E. eximia, peltata, Watsoniana, and trachyphloia are Yellow-barks; all have barks fibrous-flaky and more or less yellow, and timbers palish in contrast to reddish, such as that of E. corymbosa. These Yellow-barks are more stringy than those of the generality of those of the Bloodwoods (which are more flaky); in this respect they display affinity to the Peppermints and even to the Stringybarks. The following table shows some of the characters contrasted, so far as it is possible to contrast species so closely related:—

eximia peltata Watsoniana trachyphloia
Juvenile leaves   Peltate … …  Peltate … …  Unknown … …  Peltate, more hirsute than the others. 
Mature leaves   Tendency to large size.  Medium size …  Medium size …  Tendency to small size. 
Buds … …  No pedicels; medium size; conical opercula.  Hardly any pedicels; smaller than E. eximia; conical opercula.  Short pedicels; rather large; nearly flat opercula.  Distinct and even moderately long pedicels; small; sub-conical opercula. 
Fruits… …  Medium size; ovoid, less rarely urceolate.  Small, ovoid …  Rather large; distinctly urceolate.  Small, slightly urceolate.