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  ― 51 ―

CCXXXIII. E. Kruseana F.v.M.

In The Australian Journal of Pharmacy (Melbourne), 20th August, 1895, p. 233.

IT was described under the heading of “Description of a new Eucalyptus from south Western Australia.” Following is the original description:—

Branchlets terete; leaves small, opposite, sessile, mostly cordate-orbicular, some verging into a renate form, on both sides as well as the branchlets, peduncles, pedicels and calyces whitish-grey, copiously glandular-dotted, the venules faint, the peripheric close to the edge of the leaves; peduncles compressed, axillary, 3–4 flowered, about half as long as the leaves; pedicels variously shorter than the whole calyx, sometimes quite abbreviated; flowers small; tube of the calyx at first almost hemiellipsoid; operculum semiovate-conical, slightly pointed, about as long as the calyx-tube; filaments yellowish-white, inflected before expansion; anthers somewhat longer than broad, opening by longitudinal slits; stigma hardly broader than the style; fruit-bearing calyx globular semi-ovate, devoid of angulation, contracted at the summit, the rim narrow; valvules enclosed, but nearly reaching the orifice, usually four. Height of the plant unrecorded, but probably of shrubby stature. Leaves firm, of ?–1? inch measurement. Calyces, inclusive of the lid, hardly above ? inch long. Fruit-calyx as broad as long, measuring fully ? inch. Matured seeds as yet unavailable.

It was named in honour of the late Mr. John Kruse, of Melbourne.

Synonym.

E. Morrisoni Maiden.

I described E. Morrisoni in the Journ. Nat. Hist. and Science Soc. of W.A., vol. iii, p. 44 (1910). I find that the two species are identical, and therefore E. Morrisoni must fall. I endeavoured to see Mueller's type many years ago, but it was detained by Mueller's trustees for a number of years, and was not seen by me until Prof. Ewart showed it to me in August, 1911. (Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 328, 1915.)

Inasmuch as the description of E. Morrisoni usefully supplements that of Mueller's in certain points, I give it here. E. Kruseana was described with 3–4 flowers, E. Morrisoni up to 7. There are lesser differences.

A straggling shrub, about 8 feet high. One patch seen 50–150 miles east of Kalgoorlie, Transcontinental Survey. Collected by Henry Deane, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., Consulting Engineer, May, 1909.

Frutex ramis sparsis circiter 2–5 m. altus. Folia glauca, coriacea, conferta, orbiculata, 1–2 cm. diametro, amplexicaula, inconspicue venosa.

Flores conferti in fine ramorum umbellis usque ad 7 in capitulo, brevissime pedicellati. Calyx subconicus, sine angulis, gradatim in pedicello, operculum simile forma magnitudineque.




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Filamenta sulphurea, antherea duabus cellis didymis, glandula magna.

Fructus subcylindricus, circiter 6 mm. longus 5 vel 6 mm. latus.

Capsula mersa sub orificio.

Videtur E. pulvigerœ forsan approximandus.

Juvenile leaves.—No very young leaves collected. Probably there is no difference between the juvenile and mature leaves.

Mature leaves.—Glaucous on both sides, coriaceous, crowded, the branchlets rounded. All nearly orbicular and varying in diameter from about 1 to 2 cm. slightly amplexicaul, apex usually absent or slightly emarginate. Midrib moderately conspicuous for the basal half of its length, lateral veins anastomosing. Incipient crenulations on the margin in some leaves.

Buds and Flowers.—Crowded at the ends of the branchlets in umbels up to seven in the head. Very shortly pedicellate, the common peduncle short also. Calyx conoid, not angular, tapering gradually into the pedicel; the operculum similar in shape and size, often bent or curved at the top.

Filaments yellow, the anthers with two parallel cells joined together for their whole length, and with a very large gland at the back.

Fruits.—In branchlets forming a compound panicle, the individual fruits subcylindrical, about 6 mm. long and 5 or 6 mm. broad, sharply separated from the pedicel. Capsule well sunk below the orifice, valves three or four.

In honour of Dr. Alexander Morrison, formerly Government Botanist of Western Australia, who has done so much to diffuse a knowledge of the vegetation of his State.

(The notes on the leaves will be seen under “Affinities” at p. 53.)

Range.

It is confined to Western Australia, so far as we know at present.

The type came from Fraser's Range (J. D. Batt), while Mueller's locality for the type is given in the description as “Fraser's Range, South Western Australia.” The specimen itself bears the inscription, “100 miles north of Israelite Bay,” and doubtless refers to the same locality. My locality for E. Morrisoni, “50–150 miles east of Kalgoorlie,” Transcontinental Railway Survey, is new, but is in the same general locality as the preceding. (Maiden in Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, 329.)

I have not seen a specimen from any other locality, and invite attention of collectors to this dainty-foliaged small species.




  ― 53 ―

Affinities.

1. With E. Perriniana F.v.M.

Related to Eucalyptus gamophylla, E. orbifolia, and E. Perriniana. The latter (last), however, is from cold mountain regions of Tasmania, and its leaves, free from each other only in the early stage of the young plants, become connate when the trees attain some height, they then resemble those of E. Risdoni (probably the Euc. perfoliata of Desfontaines), although the species belongs to the series of Parallelantheræ. (Original description.)

For E. Perriniana see Part XXVI and Plate 108. All the leaves of that species are not isoblastic; a lanceolate leaf is figured at 1d, Plate 108. The leaves of E. Kruseana are much smaller, and, so far as we know, the juvenile leaves are neither connate nor perfoliate. E. Perriniana is a larger plant (though not very large), with flowers apparently always in threes, and with larger, hemispherical fruits.

2. With E. gamophylla F.v.M.

E. gamophylla is likewise separated from the present new species by the concrescently paired leaves; moreover its pedicels are almost obliterated, the fruit-bearing calyces are much longer than broad, bearing the valvules at a higher insertion. (Original description.)

For E. gamophylla see Part XXXV, with Plate 147. This again is a perfoliate species, succeeded by narrower lanceolate leaves; the leaves are not orbicular. The inflorescence is more paniculate and the fruits more cylindroid, while it is a tree yielding timber at least 8 inches in diameter.

3. With E. orbifolia F.v.M.

The differences of E. orbifolia are obvious, consisting in scattered stalked leaves, larger flowers, semiglobular calyx-tube, proportionately longer operculum and exserted fruit valvules. (Original description.)

For E. orbifolia let us turn to Part XVII, with Plate 74. We know but little of the species, but it is sufficient to say that they are very different.

Following is an addendum I gave to my description of E. Morrisoni:—

A few additional notes will be found in square brackets. The general question of the comparative morphology of the leaves of all species remains to be presented when the subject of Morphology is reached.

E. Morrisoni belongs to the somewhat heterogeneous group (as regards affinities) of species with perfoliate or otherwise strictly opposite (sessile) leaves in the mature stage.

It would appear from B.Fl. iii, 187, that Bentham did not attach much importance to shape of sucker or juvenile leaves.

Nevertheless, he used these young leaves to some extent for classification purposes, e.g., “Leaves in the young saplings of many species and perhaps all in some species” [my italics] “horizontal, opposite, sessile and cordate.” (B.Fl. iii, 185.)




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Some species so included in Bentham's time are now known not to be sessile throughout life, and it is very possible that, as time goes on, it will be found that all Eucalypts are heteroblastic (blastos, a shoot), i.e, having juvenile leaves different from mature ones. This, if proved, will come about in two ways, by (a) the discovery of two kinds of leaves on existing isoblastic species, or (b) the discovery of two species (now accounted isoblastic), one with cordate, &c., leaves entirely, and the other with usual falcate, &c., leaves entirely to be conspecific.

We have much to learn in regard to the effect of changed environment on different species of Eucalyptus, and experiments in cultivation have thrown, and will continue to do so, much light upon variation in this direction.

So far as I know, the only species of Eucalyptus (in addition to the present one) which are isoblastic are:—

1. E. pulvigera A. Cunn. A rare New South Wales species. [By this E. pulverulenta Sims is meant. See Plate 91, Part XXI of the present work.]

2. E. cordata Labill. A Tasmanian species. [See Plate 84, Part XIX.]

3. E. macrocarpa Hook. A very coarse Western Australian species. [See Plate 77, Part XVIII. In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liii, 70 (1919), I have drawn attention to the fact that there is a tendency to heteroblasticity in this species.]

4. E. pruinosa Schauer. Indigenous to Western Australia, North Australia, North Queensland. (I have seedlings of this species raised from seed collected by Prof. Baldwin Spencer, at Whanalowra (?), Northern Territory, in 1903, which are distinctly pedicellate!) [See Plate 54, Part XII.]

5. E. ferruginea Schauer. With sessile, cordate, rusty pubescent leaves—an Angophoroid species from Western Australia and North Australia.

6. E. setosa Schauer. A sessile, cordate, Angophoroid species, with bristly branchlets, from Queensland and North Australia. [The figures on Plate 158, Part XXXVIII, show that E. setosa cannot be longer considered as isoblastic, and that Plate 159 shows that E. ferruginea is becoming heteroblastic, and that probably more active observation will produce additional evidence in that direction.]

Then we have, in a class by itself:—

7. E. perfoliata R.Br., with very large perfoliate, connate leaves and fruits. In this case two opposite leaves cohere into a single lamella, which is pierced by the stem. From Western Australia. [See Part XLIV.]

8. E. gamophylla F.v.M., as figured by Mueller in “Eucalyptographia,” shows no stalked leaves, but it becomes eventually lanceolate and very shortly stalked. See a specimen from Central Australia, collected by C. Winnecke about 1884 (Herb. Melb.), thus leaving E. perfoliata the only connate-leaved species to date. [See Plate 147, Part XXXV of the present work.]

9. E. peltata Benth. is worthy of special mention. Its leaves are alternate, peltately attached to the petiole above the base, and broadly ovate. This unique species is figured in “Eucalyptographia,” and morphologically it is an incipient


  ― 55 ―
form of the connate-petiolate leaf. [The “Eucalyptographia” plate is erroneous. The adult leaves are not peltate, but lanceolate, as is shown in the present Part. See p. 33 above.]

Therefore our new species presents affinities to E. pruinosa Schauer, E. pulvigera A. Cunn., E. cordata Labill., E. macrocarpa Hook., E. ferruginea Schauer, and E. setosa Schauer.

It differs from all of them in colour of the filaments, from E. macrocarpa it is sharply separated in the size and shape of the fruits, from E. ferruginea and E. setosa in the leaves, fruits, vestiture, &c.

Then there remain E. pulvigera, E. cordata, E. pruinosa.

From E. pulvigera it differs in the very much larger leaves of that species, in the shape of the buds, slightly in the anthers (see below), in the fruits in threes. The fruits are also very much larger, more hemispherical, with a defined rim, and are sessile on a common peduncle.

From E. cordata it differs in the foliage (larger even than E. pulvigera), in the fruits, which are large and almost hemispherical; the other characters are those of E. pulvigera.

The anthers of E. pulvigera and E. cordata are identical. They also very strongly resemble those of E. Morrisoni, but they appear to differ in having a smaller gland and in being more versatile.

From E. pruinosa it differs in the very much larger leaves (usually elliptical or tending to lanceolate), larger and more numerous flowers and fruits. The fruits also have a well-defined rim, and, like the branchlets and pedicels, are more or less angular. The two species are sharply different in the anthers, which, in the case of E. pruinosa, belong to a section with a small gland at the top and small openings of anthers.”

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