Part 44

  ― 103 ―

CCXLIII. E. perfoliata R. Brown.

In Bentham's “Flora Australiensis,” iii, 253 (1866).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

A large shrub of 10 feet or more (A. Cunningham). Leaves opposite, connate, 6 to 8 inches long and 3 to 4 inches broad, very obtuse, glaucous, with numerous parallel transverse veins. Flowers large, sessile in heads of four to six, on terete peduncles, forming a corymbose terminal panicle. Calyx-tube thick, broadly turbinate, smooth or nearly so, 7 to 8 lines long and as much in diameter. Operculum not seen. Stamens above ½ inch long, inflected in the bud; anthers small, ovate-oblong, with parallel distinct cells. Fruit urceolate, 1½ inch long and above 1 inch diameter, smooth, the rim concave, the capsule sunk. Seeds not seen.

It will be observed from the figures that the operculum is shorter than the calyx-tube; it is slightly conoid, but the process of drying accentuates its pointed character.

The anthers are certainly small (see fig. 2c, Plate 180) for a member of the Corymbosæ, and will be drawn attention to when anthers are treated of collectively, and also when the affinities of the Corymbosæ are dealt with.

W. V. Fitzgerald (MSS.) adds the following information:—

Tree from 20–40 feet; trunk, very crooked and frequently piped, to 15 feet, diameter 1 foot; bark persistent on stem and branches, dark-grey, rough, lamellar, and longitudinally fissured; timber very dark-red, tough and hard; filaments white to pale yellow; fertile seeds terminating in a long membranous appendage.

If Mr. Fitzgerald has made no mistake in his notes, it will be observed that the species attains the height of a medium-sized tree.


It is confined to Western Australia (the tropical north-west) so far as we know at present.

Bentham (original description) quotes it from “Barren Hills, Rae's River (should be Roe's), North West Coast, A. Cunningham.” On the specimen in the Kew Herbarium are the following notes: “Metrosideros, Roe's River, A. Cunningham,” and “Roe's River, 238/1820, Sept., N.-W. Australia,” A. Cunningham, which means that it was collected on Captain P. P. King's Expedition, and that it was specimen No. 238, collected in September, 1820.

  ― 104 ―

Roe's River runs into York Sound, and must not be confused with a river of similar name in the Northern Territory.

Bentham also records it from Surgeon Bynoe (Captain J. Lort Stokes' Expedition, 1838).

Western Australia.

I have seen the following north-west specimens:—

Leaves only (Harry Stockdale).

King's Sound, fruits and a leaf (W. W. Froggatt, seen by Mueller).

Leaves, buds, and fruits. Lennard River (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 333).

Native Well, 9 miles from Goody Goody, near Derby. (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 333 bis.)

Six miles north-east of Mt. Eliza. (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 707).

Mt. Anderson and Grant Range. (W. V. Fitzgerald).

Balmarringarra, not far from coast; Exmouth to King's Sound. (Dr. H. Basedow.)


E. perfoliata, as a member of the Corymbosæ, stands in a class by itself, because of its connate leaves and small anthers.

If fruits alone are available for comparison, they may be compared with those of E. terminalis (Plate 164, Part XL); E. pyrophora (Plate 166, Part XL); E. Foelscheana (Plate 169, Part XLI); E. Abergiana (Plate 170, Part XLI). If buds are alone available, they are most likely to be confused with those of E. pyrophora.

1. With E. gamophylla F.v.M.

“The concrescence of the leaves by pairs in all stages of growth occurs, so far as known, only in E. perfoliata, if even in that rare and little known congener this coalescence should prove also unexceptional….” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. gamophylla.)

A discussion on such leaves will be found at pages 53 to 55 of Part XLII of the present work. The number of species originally believed only to have connate leaves during all stages of growth has been gradually reduced, until, apparently, E. perfoliata alone remains, although in some, where a petiole has been found, it is exceedingly short. As regards E. gamophylla, see Plate 147, Part XXXV of the present work, it would appear to differ from E. perfoliata in almost every other character.

  ― 105 ―

CCXLIV. E. ptychocarpa F.v.M.

In Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, 90, (1859).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

A tree, with angular branchlets, leaves large, thick, alternate, obliquely lanceolate, drawn out to a point, moderately petiolate, rather shining on the upper side, paler beneath, penniveined, marginate, imperforate, peripheral vein close to the margin, umbels terminal, paniculate, few to seven-flowered, partial peduncles two or three times longer than the angled pedicels, calyx markedly 8-ribbed, operculum hemispherical, two or three times shorter than the tube. Capsules large, ovate-campanulate, deeply 8-ribbed, 4-celled, valves deeply included, fertile seeds with long wings on the upper side.

On woody creeks and on drying watercourses, near the sources of the Rivers Wentworth, Wickham, and Limmen Bight. Flowering in March and April.

A medium-sized or large tree with a dirty, greyish, wrinkled bark, somewhat fibrous within and everywhere persistent. Leaves 5–7 inches long, 1½–2 inches broad. Capsule 1–1½ inches long, contracted a little at the orifice, valves short. Seeds 2 lines long—that is, the fertile ones—bearing a membranous obovate wing 3 lines long, the numerous sterile ones smaller, and with narrow wings.

The trunk in the structure of the bark holds an intermediate place between the Stringybarks and Boxes.

Bentham (B. Fl. iii, 255) described it as follows:—

A middle-sized or tall tree, with a persistent bark, intermediate between that of the Stringybarks and the Box trees (F. Mueller). Leaves large, from broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes above a foot long, straight or falcate, with numerous fine, closely parallel, almost transverse veins. Flowers large, in umbels forming a terminal panicle, peduncles terete, ½ to 2 inches long, pedicels sometimes very short, sometimes 1 to 2 inches long. Calyx-tube turbinate, ½ to ¾ inch long, hard, with about 8 longitudinal ribs. Operculum not seen. Stamens above ½ inch long; filaments rigid, inflected in the bud; anthers small, ovate, with distinct parallel cells. Fruits ovoid or slightly urceolate, very thick and hard, 1 to 2 inches long, with about 8 prominent ribs, the rim thick, the capsule sunk. Seeds winged.

It is also figured in “Eucalyptographia.”

For notes on the bark, see p. 107.

Colour of filaments.—Leichhardt has a note (Paris Herbarium) on a Port Essington specimen, “Scarlet blossoms,” but he may have written the wrong colour in his imperfect English.

Mr. B. Gulliver, who saw the tree during Captain Cadell's voyage to Arnhem's Land, states the flowers (filaments) to be “scarlet” (“Eucalyptographia.”) Mueller is, however, in some doubt, for he goes on to say, “If really they persist in the bright colour of E. miniata and E. phœnicea,” &c. (I have shown under E. ficifolia that Mueller confused scarlet and crimson.)

  ― 106 ―

W. V. Fitzgerald says (MSS.): “Filaments white or occasionally tinged with pink, and not scarlet (vide “Eucalyptographia”).”

G. F. Hill's specimens confirm Fitzgerald's remarks. His filaments are cream-coloured and crimson. C. E. F. Allen later recorded “crimson.” It is obvious that we have here a confusion between scarlet and crimson, as is not infrequently the case. The colour, other than cream, is pink to crimson.


North Western Australia and Northern Territory.—Mueller (original description) found it in “Dry river beds and rocky streams at the sources of the Wentworth, Wickham, and Limmen Bight Rivers.”

Bentham adds, Melville Island, Fraser. (Fraser was never there, although specimens may have passed through his hands.) Port Essington, Gilbert.

Later on Mueller recorded it from a number of localities in North Western Australia, so that we have it for the most northerly portion of Australia, as far east as the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Western Australia.

The following record was made by Joseph Bradshaw's Expedition to the Regent's River, William Tucker Allen being botanical collector. “Welcome Creek, Roe's and Drysdale Rivers, chiefly on the banks of tributaries.” Mueller in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xvi, 469 (1891).

Then W. V. Fitzgerald noted, from his own collection in the Kimberley district, “Isdell and Charnley Rivers; Woollybutt and Synnott Creeks,” adding that it is always found in wet, boggy spots. On another occasion he says “chiefly growing along the banks of water-courses, but occasionally in rocky localities.” His Woollybutt Creek specimen, near Phillips' Range, is No. 950.

Northern Territory.

Liverpool River (Gulliver in Herb. Melb.). Has a large lanceolate leaf.

“Bark like E. terminalis to topmost branches (i.e., like a Bloodwood, J.H.M.). Trunk 15 inches diameter. Spreading, somewhat stunted growth, 28 feet high; only one tree seen.” Side of small ravine, Bathurst Island (G. F. Hill, No. 467).

Bud collected by Leichhardt on his Overland Journey to Port Essington (Herb. Paris).

“Large tree, crimson flowers.” Pine Creek (C. E. F. Allen, No. 116).

Powell's Creek (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer).

  ― 107 ―

“8 Mile Spring on to Tanumbirini (near creeks and springs). Crimson filaments. Stem like Bloodwood. (Appears to be same species as white-flowering form No. 810.)” (G. F. Hill, No. 809.)”

“No. 810. 8 Mile Creek on to Tanumbirini (tree similar to 809). Cream flowers. (G. F. Hill.)

Both were collected on the same day, 26th March, 1912, and are identical, except in regard to the colour of the filaments. E. ptychocarpa is therefore to be added to the list of species with filaments of two colours.


1. With E. miniata A. Cunn.

In the original description, Mueller says that the trunk of E. ptychocarpa, so far as the bark is concerned, holds an intermediate place between the Stringy-barks and the Boxes. He amplifies this in the following passage:—

“With a greyish, wrinkled, everywhere persistent, somewhat fibrous bark, thus fluctuating between the Stringybark and so-called Box trees, though in cortical characters perhaps nearest to E. hemiphloia and E. albens, but …….” (“Eucalyptographia.”) In his classification of barks he puts it with the Pachyphloiæ.

Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald (MSS.) says it is “a tree up to 40 feet, trunk 15 feet, diameter 2 feet, bark persistent on stem and branches, dark-coloured, rough, soft and flaky, timber red, soft and very porous.” On the evidence it is not proper to put E. ptychocarpa with the Pachyphloiæ (Stringybarks).

It is difficult, in exceptional cases, to describe clearly the bark of a Eucalypt. That of E. miniata I have tried to describe at p. 37, Part XXII. While I do not say that it is the same as that of E. ptychocarpa (a bark I have not seen, except in a very young tree), the fact that E. miniata is sometimes called (with others) “Woollybutt” and “Stringybark” shows that, at least as regards the barks of the trunks of mature trees, the two species have some resemblance to each other.

A character hitherto unrecorded is that some of the young or intermediate leaves are slightly peltate. This is consistent with the suggested Corymbosæ affinity.

Bentham says: “The fruit (of E. ptychocarpa) somewhat resembles that of E. miniata, but the venation of the leaves and the inflorescence are quite different.” (B. Fl. iii, 255.)

Mueller, later, observes: “From E. miniata it is far more distant (than E. Abergiana) in its not scaly-friable bark, which does not separate from the main branches, in the leaves being not of a pale and dull-green on both sides, besides of thicker consistence, much larger and proportionately also broader, without any translucent oil-dots, in the absence of stomata on the upper page of the leaves; further, in the umbels not solitary nor lateral nor axillary, in larger flowers and conspicuous development of flower-stalklets, in fruits often smaller (although similarly shaped and ridged), and in the seeds provided with a long appendage (those of E. miniata being quite exappendiculate). (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. ptychocarpa.)

  ― 108 ―

E. ptychocarpa is a species with ribbed fruits, the fruits being large individually. Such a species is also E. miniata A. Cunn.; see Plate 96, Part XXII. Those of E. miniata are sessile, often more elongate and narrow, sometimes hardly constricted at the orifice, but in other cases more constricted than in E. ptychocarpa, and with the ribs thicker. They differ also in the much smaller leaves of E. miniata and in the venation of them, but I know of no closer affinity for E. ptychocarpa.

2. With E. Abergiana F.v.M.

“Its affinity is with E. Abergiana and E. miniata; from the former it can be distinguished by its longer leaves, with a still paler lower page, by its also still larger flowers, which are provided with usually long stalklets (although Bentham describes the latter as occasionally also very short), and most particularly by the fruit longitudinally traversed by about eight narrow ridges.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. ptychocarpa.)

For E. Abergiana, see Plate 170, Part XLI, when it will be seen that the two species are not very closely related.

3. With E. Forrestiana Diels.

This is a ribbed, large-fruited species, but the fruits are only four-ribbed, while there are other differences (see Plate 95, Part XXII) which show that it is more removed from E. ptychocarpa than is E. miniata.

4. With E. Planchoniana F.v.M.

Although E. Planchoniana has been referred to in Part IX, I have not figured it, since Mueller had figured it in “Eucalyptographia,” and I had nothing of importance to add. I have, however, figured it in Plate 90, Part XXIV of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” to which I beg to refer my readers. It will be see that E. Planchoniana is a large-fruited species, with some ribbing of the buds and fruits, more marked in my plate than in Mueller's. E. Planchoniana is an Eastern Australian tree, whose affinities are not close to those of E. ptychocarpa.

  ― 109 ―

CCXLV. E. similis Maiden.

In Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 90, (1913).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor mediocris. Folia juvena tenua, glabra, pedunculata, ovato-acuminata. Folia matura angusto-lanceolata, flavo-virentia, concoloria, circiter 12 cm. longa, 2 cm. lata. Venae laterales, pinnatae distinctae, vena peripherica distincta et a margine remota. Umbellae confertae, multiflorae, plerumque in panicula terminale corymbosaque. Calycis tubus irregulariter costatus. Operculum hemisphæricum vel umbonatum. Fructus vix 1 cm. longi, truncato-ovoidei, in orificium sensim contracti.

A tree of medium size; notes on bark and timber uncertain.

Juvenile foliage.—Thin, parchment-like, perfectly glabrous, not seen strictly opposite, pedunculate, ovate-acuminate. Size of a specimen, 6 by 3 cm.

Mature foliage.—Narrow-lanceolate or slightly falcate, petiolate, the petioles flattened and twisted, length of blade up to 12 cm. and more, with a greatest width of about 2 cm. Equally yellowish-green on both sides, rather shiny, venation distinct, and nearly as prominent on the upper as on the lower side. Midrib very prominent, lateral veins pinnate and very distinct, the intramarginal vein distinct and removed from the edge.

Buds and Flowers.—Inflorescence profuse, in a loose umbel, several-flowered, mostly in a terminal corymbose panicle, the peduncles slightly compressed or angular, calyx-tube irregularly ribbed, shiny; opercula hemispherical or umbonate, shiny. Filaments yellow, anthers with long, narrow adnate cells, with a moderately large gland at the back, and the filament attached half-way up.

Fruits.—Sharply separated from the short pedicel, on a slightly flattened common peduncle of about 1·5 cm. Truncate-ovoid, gradually constricted towards the orifice, barely 1 cm. long and about 6 mm. at the orifice. Three-valved, the valves blunt, and these capsule teeth not adherent to the calyx-tube.

(In the above description two errors have crept in. The intramarginal vein is not removed from the edge, or, at most, only occasionally, and then only to a brief distance. The description of the calyx-tube as “irregularly ribbed” is a slip of the pen. The words should have been applied to the fruits. See figure 3e, Plate 182.)

The seeds are not winged.

  ― 110 ―


It is confined to rather dry country in Central Queensland, so far as we know at present. The type came from “Desert country west of Emerald,” so described by Mr. G. H. Carr, Crown Lands Agent, Clermont, through Mr. R. Simmonds (March, 1908).

Many years previously I had received it from Jericho (Henry Deane), with fruits larger and more elongated than those of the type.

I have received it since from Mr. W. Pagan (through Mr. C. T. White) from the vicinity of Alice, a railway station 328 miles west of Rockhampton, or 21 miles west of Jericho, at no great distance from the type locality. Publication of the drawings will enable our friends in Queensland to greatly extend its range, since there is no doubt that it has been confused in the past with other Yellow-barked Bloodwoods or Yellow Jackets.

Dr. H. I. Jensen calls it “Desert sandstone Yellow Jacket,” and describes it as between a Bloodwood and Stringybark, with a very yellow bark.


Its closest affinity (at the time of description), appeared to be E. Baileyana F.v.M. (See description amended by me in “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part XXXV, 71). Like that species, it is a member of the section Eudesmieæ, and appears to differ from E. Baileyana in the following characters:—

1. E. similis is a “Yellow Gum,” “Yellow Jack” or “Yellow Jacket,” while E. Baileyana is a “Black Stringybark.”

2. The mature leaves of E. similis have the same colour on both sides, and have shorter peduncles, while the juvenile leaves are glabrous, those of E. Baileyana being covered with stellate hairs.

3. The fruits of E. similis are, in comparison with those of E. Baileyana, almost spherical to cylindroid, those of E. Baileyana being almost spherical, darker, and much larger.

The specific name is given in view of the affinity of this species to E. Baileyana F.v.M. (Original description, slightly amended.)

Its relations to the other members of the Eudesmiæ will be further referred to in Part XLV when the Eudesmiæ are all figured. See also under E. lirata, p. 111.

  ― 111 ―

CCXLVI. E. lirata (W. V. Fitzgerald)' Maiden n.sp.

ARBOR ca. 30 m. alta, caulis diametro, 1 ad 1·5 m.; cortice aspera, cinerea sed molle et fere friable in trunco ramisque persistente, ligno brunneo; foliis aliquando oppositis, 8–10 cm. longis, petiolatis, flores, non vidi fructibus 3–5, breviter pedicellatis, ovoideo-oblongis, orificio paullo contractis; marginibus tenuibus capsulis depressis.

Arborescent; branchlets cylindrical; leaves opposite, subopposite, or alternate, lanceolate, straight or falcate, acuminate, petiolate, dull-greyish on both pages, oil-dots crowded, veins inconspicuous, ascending, the intramarginal one not far removed from the edge; fruits 3–5 together, shortly pedicellate, on terete lateral or axillary solitary peduncles, ovoid-oblong, obscurely contracted between the summits, the rims thin; capsule sunk; valves 3, somewhat triangular, semi-exserted; fertile seeds ovate, slightly compressed, dark-brown, punctate, the sterile ones very much smaller, narrow, and angular.

Height, 30–40 feet; trunk to 15 feet, diameter 1–1½ feet. Bark rough and greyish, but soft and almost friable, resembling that of some forms of E. amygdalina Labill., persistent on trunk and limbs. Timber brownish, fairly hard and rather free in the grain. Leaves 3–4 in. long, petioles ?–½ inch. Peduncles 3–5 lines. Flowers not seen. Fruits about 5 lines (1 cm.) long.


It is only known, at present, from the type locality in the Kimberleys, North West Australia, where it was collected by Mr. Fitzgerald, viz., summit of Bold Bluff, in sandy soil overlying quartzite.

(The closely allied E. similis is found in west Central Queensland. We want further collections between the localities recorded for the two species, not only that we may know more about them, but in order that this knowledge may enable us to say whether we are justified in keeping them apart, or whether they are forms of the same species.)


With E. similis Maiden.

The two species are so closely related that I regret that the material of E. lirata is so scanty that it is impossible to make a final pronouncement.

The colour and lustre (or absence of it) of the foliage of the two species resemble each other (as indeed does that of E. eudesmioides).

  ― 112 ―

Mr. Fitzgerald says nothing of the yellowness of the bark of E. lirata, which is obvious in E. similis; one is an eastern and the other a western species, but these points must not be urged too strongly.

Of the material available to me of E. lirata (a few leaves, fruits, and seeds), together with Mr. Fitzgerald's description, I have spoken of the leaves, and my readers may also consult the figures. The fruits are different in the types, but those of E. similis (as shown in figure 4, Plate 184) approximate to the shape of those of E. lirata (figure 5b), although the former are larger. The fruits of E. similis would appear to be more numerous than those of E. lirata. Compare figures 3e and 5b, but, as regards the latter, the description says “3 to 5.”

The seeds of E. lirata are wingless, like those of E. similis, but those of the former appear to be larger and rounder. At the same time I have not much of either before me.

  ― 113 ―

CCXLVII. E. Baileyana F.v.M.

In Fragm. xi, 37 (1878).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original:—

A tree, with angular branchlets, leaves scattered, papery, falcate-lanceolate, glaucous green, opaque, densely punctate, veins very fine, moderately spreading, peripheral vein rather distant from the margin, umbels axillary and lateral, solitary, 7–10 flowered, on a slightly compressed peduncle, calyx shortly pedicellate, the tube slightly longer than the semi-ovate or almost hemispherical, rather acute operculum, all the stamens fertile, anthers broadly cordate, fruit globose-urceolate, trilocular, margin of the orifice thin, valves deltoid, shortly exsert.

Moreton Bay, rare. Bailey.

Bark fibrous, persisting not only on the trunk but also on the branches, the inner bark tough and yellow. The timber, according to the discoverer, is yellowish. Leaves 3–5 inches long, ½–1 inch broad, the same colour on both sides, dull, thickly covered with slightly pellucid dots; veins inconspicuous, not closely pinnate. The flower-bearing peduncles about ½ inch long, the fruit-bearing ones double that length. Buds densely capitate, clavate-cylindrical; I have not seen fully developed flowers. Stamens inflexed before expansion. Fruit-bearing pedicels 2–4 lines long. Friut 5–7 lines long and broad, slightly wrinkled-striate, very obtuse at the base; the valves occasionally scarcely extending beyond the mouth of the calyx. Seeds not seen.

Mueller described the species in English in the “Eucalyptographia” with a figure, which, like the description, is erroneous in parts.

Mueller mixed up two trees under the one name. For example, in his “Eucalyptographia” figure, the lower part of the twig bearing the fruits is the true E. Baileyana. The rest of the figure, leaves, buds, and flowers, and of the details (again excluding the fruits and seeds) belong to a Stringybark nearest to E. eugenioides Sieb. The figure, therefore, is a composite one, the twig of E. eugenioides having been prolonged, and the fruits of E. Baileyana having been fitted on to it. In other words, no such plant exists as is figured.

I therefore re-described the species in the following words in my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part XXXV, p. 71:—

Bark.—The bark is hard, thick, rather interlocked, and contains much kino. It is not a typical Stringybark—that is to say, its bark is not soft and fibrous.

Timber.—Of a light-grey colour when fresh, interlocked in grain, very tough, inferior in quality to that of the other Stringybarks (J. L. Boorman.)

  ― 114 ―

Juvenile leaves.—Nearly ovate, not cordate at the base, tapering slightly at the apex to a blunt point or rounded. Common dimensions are 1½ inches broad and 3 inches long. The margin somewhat undulate, the intramarginal vein a considerable distance fom the edge. The under surface nearly white, densely besprinkled with stellate hairs, as also the rhachises. The upper surface bright green, in prominent contrast to the lower surface. This surface is very sparingly besprinkled with stellate hairs, or they may be entirely absent.

Mature leaves.—Lanceolate, symmetrical or falcate, gradually tapering to fine, though not rigid points. Five inches long, with a width in its broadest part of about ¾ of an inch, are common dimensions. The marginal vein close to the margin, or forming a thickening of the same; the lateral veins numerous and fine, parallel, and forming an angle of about 45 degrees with the midrib. Upper surface shiny, under surface paler and dull.

Flowers.—Umbels vary in number, but usually 5 to 7, the common flattened peduncle of about an inch; the flattened pedicels from ¼ to ½ an inch. Anthers small, versatile, with parallel cells and long narrow openings, with a relatively large gland at the back.

Buds.—Pear-shaped, the calyx irregularly toothed; the operculum nearly hemispherical, or with an umbo.

Fruits.—Rather large, globular-urn-shaped, 3-celled; margin of the orifice thinly compressed; valves deltoid, slightly exserted or hardly extending beyond the orifice; seeds without any appendage. (Mueller.) The largest fruits seen by me are about ? of an inch wide, and the same deep.


The type comes from “Moreton Bay.” More precisely, the locality from which the type was obtained is Eight Mile Plains, a few miles south of Brisbane.

It, however, is also found in northern New South Wales, and its known localities extend from 20 miles south of Grafton, New South Wales, in the south, to the Blackdown Tableland, about 100 miles west of Rockhampton, Queensland, in the north.

New South Wales.

Low, sandy country, about 20 miles south of Grafton. “Trees mostly hollow and ringy,” showing that, as regards this particular locality, it is dying out.

“I do not remember having mentioned to you my meeting with the tree E. Baileyana (Bastard Ironbark) on the Clarence. I found it on some low, sandy country, about 20 miles south of Grafton. The trees I saw were from about 20 inches to 3 feet in diameter, and of medium height—25 to 40 feet to first branch. Bark dark, fibrous, and transversely interlocked, and very hard and tough. Trees mostly hollow or ringy.” (Late Mr. Augustus Rudder.)

Copmanhurst, Clarence River (J. L. Boorman). “Fairly tall trees of 30–50 feet high, with girth measurements of 6–8 feet. The bole is free from branches up to 25–30 feet; is sound and heavy. The bark is thick-fibrous, but perhaps inferior for thatching purposes. The colour of the stem is a distinctive reddish colour, making it

  ― 115 ―
prominent above all other trees in the district. The soil where it grows is of a sandy nature, ridgy, and of a poor quality. It is known locally as Stringybark. The timber is much esteemed locally.”

Between Lawrence (Clarence River) and Casino (Richmond River). (W. Forsyth.)


Eight Mile Plains (F. M. Bailey and others). The type.

Between Sunnybank and Mt. Gravatt. (C. T. White.)

The next locality of which I have a record is approximately 500 miles to the north-west.

“Good development, distribution scattered. Elevation about 2,400 feet. Blackdown Tableland near Dingo, 100 miles west of Rockhampton.” (P. MacMahon, N. W. Jolly.)

It is quite evident that we have much to learn in regard to the range of this species, particularly in Queensland, and it is very probable that a careful investigation of the trees of the Blackdown Tableland would yield interesting and perhaps unexpected results.


1. With E. dichromophloia F.v.M.

The species in the fruit somewhat resembles E. dichromophloia, otherwise it is very different. The true affinity of this species will be better shown when expanded flowers are available. (Original description.)

2. With E. Bowmani F.v.M.

Mueller, “Eucalyptographia,” goes into the supposed differences of these two species at some length, but as (see the present work, Part X, p. 344) we do not know what E. Bowmani is, we may defer consideration of the comparisons until we do.

3. With E. trachyphloia F.v.M.

“… its leaves are paler beneath, and their veins very divergent and copious; the stalklets are thin; the lid is much smaller, and exceeded in width and still more so in length by the tube of the calyx, separating moreover by an irregular rupture and not a clearly defined circumcision; the anthers are ovate, whereas the fruit is much smaller, nearly twice as long as broad, with deeply enclosed valves.” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Baileyana.)

  ― 116 ―

4. With E. eugenioides Sieb.

“Finally it may be observed that E. Baileyana exhibits great resemblance to E. eugenioides both in leaves and flowers, although the fruits are so very decidedly different. …” (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. Baileyana.) The comparison with E. eugenioides more particularly arose through the confusion between the two species, as already detailed.

The comparisons with E. Baileyana already referred to for the most part fall to the ground because, in his original description, Mueller described portions of two species, as already explained.

E. Baileyana is a true member of the Eudesmieæ, and it is with species of that series that it can be most suitably compared. Its closest affinity appears to be with E. tetradonta. The matter will be further dealt with when the whole of the Eudesmieæ are passed under review. See Part XLV.

  ― 117 ―

CCXLVIII. E. Lane-Poolei Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liii, 107 (1919).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor mediocris, White Gum vocata; cortice crassa, pulvere alba tecta; ligno hepatico; foliis primariis lanceolatis vel lato-lanceolatis, ca 6 cm. longis 3 cm. latis, venis secondariis fere parallellis; foliis maturis breve petioliatis, lanceolatis, acuminatis subfalcatis, ca 10 vel 11 cm. longis, 2 cm. latis, venis inconspicuis; pedunculis teretibus, ca 1·5 cm. longis, plerumque 4–6 floris, pedicellis, teretibus 1 cm. longis; calycis tubo ca. 1 cm. diametro, fere hemispherico; operculo crassissimo, hemispherico; antheris grandis fissuris parallelis late dehiscentibus; fructibus hemisphericis, ca. 1 cm. diametro, margine lato, leniter convexo, valvis distincte exsertis.

A medium-sized tree, known as “White Gum,” and carrying a thick bark covered with a white powder. Sapwood pale-coloured and thick, the timber interlocked, and rich reddish-brown in colour, drying, in the course of years, to a deep purplish-brown.

Juvenile leaves shortly petiolate, lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate, about 6 cm. long by 3 cm. broad, of the same colour on both sides, the secondary veins moderately spreading, and tending to be parallel to each other. A vein more prominent than the other secondary veins, roughly following the outline of the leaf, but at a considerable distance from the margin, and giving the leaf a triplinerved appearance.

Mature leaves shortly petiolate, lanceolate, acuminate, slightly falcate, not large, usually about 10 or 11 cm. long, and up to 2 cm. broad, venation inconspicuous, the fine veins roughly parallel and making an angle of about 45 degrees with the midrib, intramarginal vein hardly removed from the edge.

Peduncles axillary or lateral, terete, about 1·5 cm. long, bearing usually 4 to 6 moderately large flowers on terete pedicels up to 1 cm. long. Buds shiny.

Calyx-tube nearly hemispherical, about 1 cm. in diameter, with two slightly raised ridges separated by 180 degrees; tapering rather abruptly into the pedicel.

Operculum very thick, hemispherical or terminating in a slight but sharp point when nearly ripe. When less ripe, slightly broader than the calyx-tube, and without a point.

Stamens about 9 mm. long, inflected in the bud, anthers large, opening widely in parallel slits. Gland long, faintly visible at the back. Filament at the base. The anthers belong to the Platyantheræ group.

Disc broadish, oblique, forming a prominent ring round the ovary, of which the obtusely conical centre protrudes slightly above the disc at the time of flowering.

Fruit hemispherical, about 1 cm. in diameter, the rim broad, slightly convex, the capsule not sunk, the valves conspicuously exsert.

Type from Beenup, W.A. (C. E. Lane-Poole, No. 465).

Named in honour of Charles E. Lane-Poole, Conservator of Forests of Western Australia, who collected this species, and who has done much to promote the study of this genus in his State.

  ― 118 ―


It is confined to Western Australia, and, so far as is known at present, to a strip of coast-land, more or less ascending the Darling Range, in the south-western portion of the State, on the Perth-Bunbury Railway Line, between Kelmscott 16, and Waroona, 70 miles south of Perth.

“Very clean White Gum, Kelmscott, foot of Darling Range, 16 miles south of Perth.” (Dr. J. B. Cleland, No. 4.) Figured at fig. 4a and 4b, Plate 74, of the present work.

“White Gum,” 40 feet high, 12 inches in diameter, near Beenup, S.W. Railway, on the Perth to Bunbury road, 24 miles south of Perth (C. E. Lane-Poole, No. 8, November, 1918, fruits only; No. 465, July, 1919, complete material).

“A White Gum, sandy scrub land, Serpentine River, W.A.” In Herb. Melb., and variously attributed by Mueller (on the label) to E. uncinata and to E. micranthera.note It is a very old specimen, and is figured at fig. 8a, 8b, 8c of Plate 74 of the present work. This and the following three localities are practically identical.

“Salmon-white Gum or Powder Bark Wandoo. Height to about 40 feet, to 3 feet in diameter.” Near Keysbrook (39 miles south of Perth), near the Belgobin School, on the Perth-Bunbury road. (Mr. Schock, through C. E. Lane-Poole, under the same number, 8, as given to some Beenup specimens.)

Tree of 40 feet, 3 feet in diameter. Keysbrook, Perth-Bunbury road (Mr. Schock, per Dr. F. W. Stoward, No. 1).

“Salmon Gum or Powder-bark Wandoo,” half a mile south of Serpentine River on Perth-Bunbury road. (Mr. Schock, per Dr. F. W. Stoward, No. 90.)

Sent as “Wandoo,” Waroona, January, 1903 (Forester J. J. Fitzgerald). Waroona is 70 miles south of Perth, and I could only obtain buds. Referred to at p. 224, Part XVII of the present work.


1. With E. redunca Schauer.

That officers of the Forest Department of Western Australia should, quite independently, in 1903 and 1918, speak of this as a Wandoo, shows that the general appearance of the tree, its bark and timber, must bear more than a superficial resemblance to the true Wandoo (E. redunca). But comparison of the figures 4 and 8, Plate 74 of this work, which partly depict E. Lane-Poolei, and Plate 140, which shows E. redunca, shows that the two species are botanically very dissimilar.

  ― 119 ―

2. With E. accedens W. V. Fitzgerald.

Mr. Schock, the Collector of the Forest Department of Western Australia, calls E. Lane-Poolei “Powder-bark Wandoo.” Both species are White Gums, with white, powdery barks, and the timbers have some external resemblance. The sylvicultural conditions of the two trees require to be worked out. As to the use of the term “Powder-bark,” Part XXXIV, p. 101, of this work may be referred to. If we turn to Plate 142 of the same Part, and compare it with figures 4 and 8 of Plate 74, which in part depict E. Lane-Poolei, it will be seen that the two species have no close botanical affinity.

3. With E. Oldfieldii F.v.M.

The affinity of this species is with E. Oldfieldii, which included E. Drummondii Benth., a species which in Part XVII of this work I erroneously followed Mueller in suppressing. I have shown, in Part XLI, how these two species differ. The affinity of E. Lane-Poolei is with E. Drummondii rather than with E. Oldfieldii sensu strictu. E. Oldfieldii is a Mallee with fruits in threes, while E. Lane-Poolei is a tree of considerable size, with fruits up to six in the head. The buds and leaves, both juvenile and mature, are very different.

4. With E. Drummondii Benth.

This species, of which but little is known in the field, is described from the York district as “a small tree of about 20 feet, with trunk and branches smooth, whitish-buff, with a few brown semi-detached scales of dead bark.” Additional field-notes are very desirable, but it would appear that E. Lane-Poolei is a different tree, and a Powder-bark.

Comparison, however, with figures 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 of Plate 74 (E. Drummondii), together with a good specimen of the type of this species, is sufficient to show that it and E. Lane-Poolei (figures 4 and 8 of Plate 74) are sufficiently different. The leaves of E. Drummondii are commonly, perhaps preponderatingly, ovate-lanceolate, the buds more ovoid, with the opercula longer than the calyx-tube; the fruits are smaller, and very different.

5. With E. Campaspe S. le M. Moore.

It is interesting to note a resemblance in the very thick, hemispherical operculum of E. Campaspe, but the anthers are different, and so are the fruits and other characters. But one so frequently receives, particularly from distant places, botanical specimens which are quite fragmentary, and a hint which may put one on one's guard may be useful.

6. With E. oleosa F.v.M.

In its anthers it belongs to the Platyantheræ, which includes E. oleosa and its allies. The species are, however, very different in many other respects, but endeavour will be made to discuss these relationships when the seedlings of all the species are brought into comparison.

  ― 120 ―

CCXLIX. E. Ewartiana Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liii, 111 (1919).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Frutex Mallee similis, 20' altus, multis caulibus 3? diametro; cortice decidua peculiariter striatis; foliis primariis crassiusculis, late ovato-lanceolatis vel fere orbicularibus, 7 cm. latis, 10 cm. longis; foliis maturis petiolatis, lanceolatis, 5–7·5 cm. longis, 1·5–2·25 cm. latis, petiolo 1–1·5 cm. longo, crassis, venis patentibus; pedunculis teretibus 2 cm. longis, 2–7 flores breve pedicellatos umbella gerentibus; alabastris clavatis, operculo hemispherico, ca. 8 mm. diametro, calycis tubo angustioribus; antheris, forma irregulare paralleliter aperientibus, filamentis brevibus; fructibus conoideo-globosis, ca. 12 mm. diametro, margine latissimo, truncato, conoideo; capsula non depressa, valvis leniter exsertis.

Many-stemmed, 10–15 or 20 feet high. Somewhat Mallee-like in habit. The stems 3 inches in diameter, and the timber tough and pale. The bark is peculiar, falling off in narrow, longitudinal pieces, giving it a striped appearance, which, if not unique, is certainly rare in Eucalyptus. Wood hard, the centre deep reddish-brown.

Juvenile leaves (described from Kunnunoppin, No. 146) with petiole of 1 cm., broadly ovatelanceolate to nearly orbicular, 7 cm. broad by 10 cm. long, very thick, venation spreading.

Mature leaves lanceolate, 5–7·5 cm., say, 2 to 3 inches long, and 1·5–2·25 cm., say three-quarters to 1 inch broad, with a petiole of half to three-quarters of an inch (say, 1–1·5 cm.) long. Dull yellowish-green on both sides, thick, venation spreading, the secondary veins not very prominent and meeting the midrib at about an angle of 45 degrees; the intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge.

Peduncles terete, long (say, 2 cm.), each supporting an umbel of 2–7 flowers on short but distinct terete pedicels.

Buds clavate, very yellow, with hemispherical operculum, about 8 mm. in diameter, and no mucro. The operculum less in diameter than the calyx-tube, and affording an excellent example of “egg-in-egg-cup,” i.e., showing the place at the commissural rim of a deciduous additional operculum.

Anthers most irregular in shape and opening in parallel slits. The gland sometimes seen on the top and sometimes at the base. The filament attached nearly half-way up at the back of the anther. It is included in the Macrantheræ. Filaments very short, the stigmas not dilated.

Disc forming a broad, conical, truncate band around the ovary, which becomes less truncate as the fruit develops. In its early stages it resembles a hat with a depressed crown.

Fruits conoid-globose, about 12 mm. in diameter, the rim very broad, truncate-conoid, at length almost conical, the capsule not depressed, the valves slightly exsert.

Named in honour of Alfred J. Ewart, D.Sc., Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology in the University of Melbourne, well known for his researches on the Australian flora.

Type, Pindar, W.A. (J.H.M., October, 1909).

  ― 121 ―


This is a species of dry country, mainly recorded, so far, from Western Australia, but, by the Elder Expedition, found first in South Australia and subsequently in the western State.

Western Australia

“Many-stemmed, 10–15 or 20 feet. Tough wood. Peculiar bark, falling off in narrow, longitudinal pieces, giving a striped appearance. The indurated stems are 3 inches in diameter. Several clumps seen. Very yellow buds, with hemispherical operculum, and absolutely no mucro. Operculum, which is distinctly smaller than the calyx, affording one of the best examples I remember of the “egg-in-egg-cup” bud. Leaves greenish-yellow, dull coloured. The material I have is figured at 11, Plate 74.” The above statement will be found at p. 225, Part XVII of the present work. (66¼ mile post, Pindar, Murchison Line, J.H.M., October, 1909.)

“Bark decorticating from 1 foot from the ground. Mallee, branching from the ground to a height of 15 feet and up to 6 inches in diameter. The bark at base grey, rough, decorticating in rolled up grey strips leaving the stem, which is red in colour, with a peculiar streaked appearance. On rubbing, the loose pieces of bark come off easily, leaving the stem more or less smooth.” Near Government Tank, Westonia. This is 6 miles north of Carrabin, a railway station 195 miles east of Perth. (C. E. Lane-Poole, Nos. 220, 463.)

Shrub 5–8 feet, several stems springing from base, 2–3 inches diameter, bark smooth above, inclined to be rough at base. Open flowers and young fruits. On iron stone gravel on high land. Best specimens always near the summit, Kunnunoppin district. (Dr. F. Stoward, No. 144.)

“Shrubby Mallee, 8–10 feet. Sucker leaves, flowers, mature fruits, and bark. Found on ironstone ridge, Kunnunoppin district.” (Dr. F. Stoward, No. 146). The bark precisely similar to that of the Pindar specimens, but the leaves of this specimen are broader than those of the type.

Eucalyptus Oldfieldii, mountain form.” Mount Cooper, Cavenagh Range, R. Helms, 31st July, 1891. “A dwarf state at 2,500 feet elevation.” This locality is in Western Australia, and the Camp No. 31, long. 128 degrees.

South Australia

Eucalyptus Oldfieldii,” Elder Expl. Exped., R. Helms, 15 feet high, 12th June, 1891. The Expedition was then in the vicinity of Yeelunginna Hill in South Australia, say, in lat. 27° 20? S., long. 131° 70? E.

  ― 122 ―


1. With E. Oldfieldii F.v.M.

There has been great confusion between E. Oldfieldii and E. Drummondii, and the present species, like E. Lane-Poolei, has been carved out of the aggregate. The affinity of E. Lane-Poolei inclines to E. Drummondii, and so does the present species in general characters, but both E. Ewartiana and E. Oldfieldii are dry-country Mallees. Mueller and Tate looked upon the Elder Expedition specimens as a mountain form of E. Oldfieldii. Both species have fruits with broad rims, though the sculpture is not the same in both. The fruits of E. Ewartiana are smaller, more numerous, have long peduncles, and are distinctly pedicellate. The operculum is very different to that of E. Oldfieldii; it is hemispherical, and shows a contraction with the calyx-tube which is not observable in E. Oldfieldii. The two species also differ in other characters.

2. With E. Drummondii Benth.

Compare fig. 11, Plate 74 (E. Ewartiana), with figs. 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 of the same Plate (E. Drummondii). The buds of E. Drummondii are more ovoid than those of E. Ewartiana; the former have much longer and slenderer pedicels. The shape of the fruit is different in the two species, that of E. Drummondii having a more convex rim, with the tips of the valves more exsert. The mature leaves of E. Drummondii are usually more or less ovate-lanceolate, a character not observed in those of E. Ewartiana. The juvenile leaves of E. Ewartiana are remarkably coriaceous, and so broadly lanceolate as to be almost orbicular.

3. With E. Lane-Poolei Maiden.

E. Lane-Poolei is a moderately large White Gum, found in coastal situations; E. Ewartiana is a Mallee frequenting regions of low rainfall. The foliage of the former is thin, lanceolate to narrow lanceolate; that of the latter much broader and thicker, with the juvenile foliage remarkably coriaceous and so broad as to be almost orbicular, and considerably larger than that of E. Lane-Poolei. While the texture of the operculum of E. Ewartiana is thinnish, that of E. Lane-Poolei is remarkably thick, while comparison of the figures on Plate 74, viz., 4 (E. Lane-Poolei) and 11 (E. Ewartiana) shows that they are widely different.

4. With E. accedens W. V. Fitzgerald.

In the size, paleness and extreme coriaceousness, I know only one species whose juvenile leaves resemble those of E. Ewartiana, and that is E. accedens. See fig. 8, Plate 141, of the present work. But in almost every other character the two species diverge.

  ― 123 ―

CCL. E. Bakeri Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 87 (1913).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Frutex altus similis Mallee, vel arbor parva 30–50' alta. Trunci cortex dura et squamosa. Ramuli laeves. Lignum durum, grave, rubrum. Folia juvena obscuro-virentia, concoloria, linearo-lanceolata, vix acuminata, 9 cm. longa, 1 cm. lata, oleosa, indistincte venosa, penniveniis, vena peripherica a margine remota. Umbellæ plerumque axillares, multifloræ, saepe 10–13 floræ. Operculum elongatum calycis tubo multo longiore, cujus diameter leniter latior est. Fructus diametro circiter 5 mm., truncato-spheroidei. Valvarum apices subulati, 2 mm. exserti.

A large shrub or small, pendulous, Willow-like tree, attaining a height of 30–50 feet, forming a single stem or stooling from the ground.

Bark dark, box-like, or hard and scaly up to its branches, falling away in long flakes, rough at the butt, branches clean, bluish-green or pale-yellow to white right up to the tips.

Wood hard and heavy, of a deep red when freshly cut, becoming browner with age, the grain of the timber fibrous, very tough, reputed to be an excellent timber for wheelwrights' work.

Juvenile leaves dull green on both sides, linear-lanceolate, hardly acuminate, about 6 or 7 cm. long, the venation not distinct, the intramarginal vein close to the edge, the lateral veins penniveined, plentifully besprinkled with oil-dots and the branchlets angular and glandular.

Mature leaves linear-lanceolate, petiolate, acuminate or with a hooked tip, bright-green, dull-shiny, richly covered with oil-dots, venation indistinct, the intramarginal vein distinct from the edge, the lateral veins penniveined. Average dimensions 9 by 1 cm.

(If the species were gregarious, it would probably be found to be a valuable oil-yielding species.)

Flowers.—Umbels mostly axillary and flowers numerous, often 10–13 in an umbel, which sometimes takes on a stellulate appearance. Operculum elongated, very much longer than the calyx-tube, which is of slightly increased diameter, and which tapers, somewhat abruptly, into the short pedicel. The common peduncle about 1 cm.

Anthers small, renantheroid, but the two cells more united than in the Renantheræ; spherical gland at top and back.

Fruits.—Small, about 5 mm. in diameter, truncate-spheroid, the tips of the valves awl-shaped, and protruding 2 mm. from the orifice.

Enclosing the valves, and torn by the tips of them as the fruit ripens is a thin, white membrane, which gives the rim and orifice a whitish appearance, and which, if present in all, is only obvious in a few species of this genus.

This is a specially interesting species, rich in oil, which I name in honour of Mr. Richard Thomas Baker, who has done very valuable work in connection with this genus.

  ― 124 ―


It extends from northern New South Wales to Central Queensland, so far as we know at present.

Following are specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney. I am satisfied that careful research will bring many new localities to light.


1. “Willowy Eucalypt,” Warialda, N.S.W. (W. A. W. de Beuzeville, No. 3).

2. Ticketty Well, Wallangra (E. H. F. Swain, July, 1911. The type. J. L. Boorman, December, 1912). “Tree-like Mallee,” 28 feet high and 5 inches in diameter, wood brown, bark grey up to 6 feet, then yellowish. Ticketty Well, locality of type. (Forest Guard A. Julius, Nos. 17 and 19). The leaves of these specimens are broader than those of the type (Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liii, 68, 1919).


3. “Small bush, grows up to 10 feet high, grows very thickly on the poorest soil, where there is no Ironbark cover.” Warwick (Forester W. E. Moore, through C. T. White).

4. Near Jericho (J. L. Boorman). It is a Mallee, and it would appear that Mallee is rare in the northern State. It grows in masses on red, stony ridges around the black soil of the flats, up to 10 feet high as seen. Gidgee (Acacia Cambagei R. T. Baker) and Gastrolobium grandiflorum F.v.M. grow in the immediate neighbourhood. (Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. xlvii, 235, 1913, as E. oleosa.)


It is a remarkable, narrow-leaved species, with narrow juvenile foliage, buds with long opercula of less diameter than the calyx-tube, and small fruits with well exserted awl-like tips to the capsules. It is not easy to indicate its closest affinity, showing that it is a strong species.

1. With E. uncinata Turcz.

It would appear to have affinity to E. uncinata Turcz., but Mr. Boorman, an experienced collector, is emphatic that the two species are very different in habit. E. Bakeri is a tree of 50 feet and even more, reminding one of a Willow; indeed, it was first sent in as “Willowy Eucalypt.” The foliage is narrow, and somewhat dull in appearance; the anthers are very similar, but not identical, while there is no kink in the filament in the stamens of E. Bakeri. (Original description.)

  ― 125 ―

For E. uncinata turn to Plate 62, Part XIV. E. Bakeri has narrower leaves (as a very general rule), and narrower juvenile leaves; the anthers are different, though not widely so. The buds of the two species sufficiently resemble each other to necessitate caution, but the fruits are different.

2. With E. viridis R. T. Baker.

Drawings of E. viridis (under E. acacioides A. Cunn.) may be seen at figs. 9–12, Plate 52, Part XI of this work, and a larger drawing at Plate 180 Part XLVIII of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales.” The latter has fruits with thin rims and non-exsert valves.

3. With E. salmonophloia F.v.M.

Its fruits remind one of those of the Western Australian E. salmonophloia F.v.M., but those of the latter species are smaller, more shiny, have thinner and more marked pedicels. (Original description.)

For E. salmonophloia see Part XVII, Plate 73. It may be added that the latter is a larger timber tree, with smooth bark, and different anthers.

4. With E. Seeana Maiden.

E. Seeana Maiden is another species with small fruits (which are, however, domed), and a long operculum (more tapering into the calyx-tube in E. Seeana), leaves different, and the bark of E. Seeana is smooth. (Original description.) For E. Seeana see Part XXXII, Plate 132.

5. With E. redunca Schauer.

E. redunca Schauer var. angustifolia Benth., is another narrow-leaved, long operculumed form. It is from south-western Australia, and has no close affinity to the present species.

Other narrow-leaved species are E. angustissima F.v.M. and E. apiculata Baker and Smith, but they have no special affinity to this species. (Original description.) For E. redunca var. angustifolia see Part XXXIV, Plate 140.

6. With E. oleosa F.v.M.

E. oleosa F.v.M. bears an obvious resemblance as far as the fruits are concerned, but those of the new species are smaller, and in leaves and in most other respects the affinities are not obvious. (Original description.) It is amusing that, nevertheless, I should have first recorded the Jericho specimen as E. oleosa. For E. oleosa see Part XV, Plate 65. The latter species has, however, broad juvenile foliage.

  ― 126 ―

CCLI. E. Jacksoni Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 219 (1913).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arbor magnifica sylvæ, altitudinem 200' attinens, et 15' diametro. “Red Tingle Tingle” vocata. Cortex “Stringybark” similis sed fragiliuscula. Lignum rubrum, durum. Folia juvenilia fere orbicularia vel lato-lanceolata. Folia matura petiolata, lato-lanceolata, acuminata, pleraque 9 cm. longa, 3–4 cm. lata. Venæ visibiles, non conspicuæ. Alabastros floresque non vidi. Fructus fere sphærici, plerique 8 mm. ad 1 cm. diametro. Orificium parvum, 3 mm. diametro. Valvarum apices sub orificio valde depressi.

A noble forest tree up to 200 feet high, erect in habit, with a long trunk, which attains a diameter of 15 feet (measured at 4 feet from the ground). Another measured tree was 7 feet 6 inches in diameter and 80 feet high (Mr. Saw). It reached a height of quite 200 feet; one tree measured was 45 feet round the base, 38 feet round 6 feet from the ground, and about 50 feet to the first branch (Mr. Brockman). Known locally as “Red Tingle Tingle.”

Bark fibrous, reddish, thick, of a stringybark character, but somewhat brittle, covering the trunk and branches.

Timber bright red, reminding one, in that respect, of the Forest Mahogany of New South Wales (E. resinifera Sm.). It is fissile and tough, and I believe it to be a most valuable timber for economic purposes.

Juvenile leaves.—Nearly orbicular to broadly lanceolate, somewhat oblique, paler on the under side, not specially thin, venation distinct but fine, lateral veins nearly parallel, intramarginal vein well removed from the edge. Oil-dots abundant. Average dimensions about 1 dm. long by 6 to 8 cm. wide.

Mature leaves.—Equally green on both sides, petiolate, broadly lanceolate, acuminate, slightly curved, slightly inequilateral, veins obvious, but not very conspicuous, lateral veins parallel, intramarginal vein well removed from the edge, well besprinkled with fine oil-dots, and apparently moderately rich in oil. Average size of leaves 9 by 3 to 4 cm.

Buds and flowers not seen.

Fruits.—Almost spherical, with an average diameter of 8 mm. to 1 cm., with a small orifice, of say, 3 mm. in diameter. Tips of valves well sunk below the orifice.

[Since the above was written I have received half-grown buds, as figured, fig. 7, Plate 183. They may be described as clavate, four or five in the head (as seen in very few specimens) with rather long peduncles and with distinct pedicels, tapering gradually into the calyx-tube. Operculum hemi-ellipsoid, about half the length of the calyx-tube.]

  ― 127 ―


So far as we know, this species is confined to South-western Australia.

Deep River, Nornalup Inlet, Bow River, Irwin's Inlet, South-west Australia. (The type collected by Sidney Wm. Jackson.) Found also on the hills along the Frankland River, where it predominates and extends about 10 miles up. (Inspecting Ranger H. S. Brockman, to the Inspector-General of Forests, W.A.)

As opportunities occur, no doubt the range of this species, and also the Yellow Tingle Tingle (E. Guilfoylei) will be carefully defined, as they yield valuable timbers.


1. With E. Guilfoylei Maiden.

Although there are precedents, I hesitate to describe a species in absence of inflorescence, and without this, the description must be incomplete. But I have no doubt as to the validity of the species. It is closely allied to the Yellow Tingle Tingle (E. Guilfoylei Maiden, Journ W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc., iii, 180; see also Part XX of the present work), the wood of which is pale, of a yellow colour and heavy, that of the present species being red, and lighter in weight.

The Red Tingle Tingle is a much larger and thicker tree than the Yellow Tingle Tingle, the latter having been observed only up to 5 feet in diameter.

As regards the adult leaves, those of E. Guilfoylei are always symmetrical, or nearly so; those of E. Jacksoni are more or less oblique, shorter, and broader.

The oil-dots in E. Guilfoylei are a greater distance apart than in the case of the new species, over the leaves of which they are evenly and abundantly diffused, while the secondary veins are further apart and ramify more in the case of the leaves of E. Guilfoylei. (Original description.)

2. With E. patens Benth.

Mr. H. S. Brockman says that “in general appearance the trees resemble very much the Blackbutt” (E. patens). Reference may be made to the original description of E. Guilfoylei, where there are some comparative references to E. patens.

  ― 128 ―

CCLII. E. eremophila Maiden.

In Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., liv. 71 (1920).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Frutex vel arbor mediocris, cortice læve, squamosa, ramulis glaucescentibus; foliis junioribus angusto-lanceolatis vel lanceolatis; foliis maturis lineari-lanceolatis ad lanceolatis, coriaceis, nitentibus venis secondariis tenuibus sed remotiusculis, non pennivenis, pedunculis elongatis, applanatis, pedicellis fere teretibus ca. 5 mm. longis, calycis tubo oblongo vel cylindroideo, turbinato, ca. 5 mm. longo; operculo cornuto calycis tubo ca. quinquies æquilongo, diametro distincte minore; filamentis antherisque cornutis similibus; fructibus cylindroideis vel sphæricis, calycis tubo crasso, capsulæ apice applanato fere margini aequante, fructu truncato.

A shrub or medium-sized tree, with smooth, scaly bark. Branchlets glaucescent.

Juvenile leaves (suckers) not available, in the earliest stage, but probably narrow. Those of the seedlings are narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate.

Mature leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, coriaceous, shiny, not glaucescent, the secondary veins fine but rather distant, and, at all events in the intermediate stage, spreading and roughly parallel, not feather-veined.

Peduncles elongate, flattened; pedicels nearly terete, distinct, about 5 mm. long.

Calyx-tube oblong or cylindroid turbinate, about 5 mm. long.

Operculum sometimes coloured (reddish), straight or horn-shaped, up to 5 times as long as the calyx-tube, and much less in diameter. Filaments yellowish, sometimes crimson, angular, glandular, and with anthers as in the Cornutæ.

Fruits cylindroid to spherical; top of the capsule nearly flush with the rim, giving the fruit, when not fully ripe, a characteristically truncate, flattish appearance. When the fruit is ripe its mouth becomes rounded and somewhat contracted.


E. occidentalis Endlicher, var. eremophila Diels, in Engler's Jahrb., xxxv, 442, 1905. See also Part XXXVI, p. 147, of the present work. Figured at Plate 149, figures 7–11.

The relations of E. occidentalis Endl. var. grandiflora Maiden (Part XXXVI, p. 149, and figures 1 and 2, Plate 150) to E. eremophila remain a matter for further consideration.

  ― 129 ―


It is confined to Western Australia, so far as we know at present, but it is quite possible that it may occur in western South Australia.

This is a dry country form, and its range may be stated as bounded by Watheroo, on the Midland Railway, to 140 miles east of Kalgoorlie, and north of Esperance and back again to the vicinity of the Great Southern Railway. It probably has a very extensive range in country of low rainfall.

“Shrub 4 metres high, flowers yellow, calyptra (opercula) reddish.” Near Coolgardie (Dr. L. Diels, No. 5,237). Coolgardie, or rather, Boorabbin (E. Pritzel, No. 917). I have also received it from Coolgardie (L. C. Webster).

The type comes from Coolgardie. Other localities are quoted, op. cit. p. 148.


It is a member of the Cornutæ.

1. With E. occidentalis Endl.

It is sharply separated from this species in its narrow juvenile foliage, that of E. occidentalis being broad. Those of the former are shiny, with more numerous oil-dots. Buds usually longer, hence with longer filaments; staminal disc broader. The fruit of E. occidentalis is campanulate, while that of E. eremophila is cylindroid or inclining to hemispherical.

2. With E. platypus Hook.

Here I invite attention to the similarities and dissimilarities I have brought forward at pages 151 and 152 of Part XXXVI of the present work.

Explanation of Plates (180–183).

Plate 180.

Plate 180: EUCALYPTUS PERFOLIATA R.Br. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. perfoliata R. Br.

  • 1a. Pair of young connate leaves; 1b, fruit with a very short stalk. Roe's River, York Sound, North-west Australia. (Allan Cunningham, No. 238, September, 1820.)
  • 2a. Portion of leaf, not in the perfoliate state; 2b, flowers; 2c, anthers. “North-west Coast, Australia” (Surgeon Bynoe). (Nos. 1 and 2 were drawn by Miss M. Smith, of Kew, from original specimens in the Kew Herbarium).
  • 3a. Pair of leaves, still in the “juvenile” stage, and yet the plant is bearing flower-buds; 3b, sessile fruit. Lennard River, Kimberleys (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 333.)
  • 4. Fruit, more urceolate than the type. King's Sound, North-west Australia (W. W. Froggatt, 1886).
  • 5. Buds. Mt. Anderson and Grant Range, Kimberleys. (W. V. Fitzgerald, August, 1906). The fruits of this specimen are similar to 3b, but with rather smaller orifice.

Plate 181.

Plate 181: EUCALYPTUS PTYCHOCARPA F.v.M. [See also Plate 182.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. ptychocarpa F.v.M.

(See also Plate 182.)

  • 1a. Juvenile leaf (as young as I have seen); 1b, fruit, the ribs not winged and the fruit more globular than in the type. In swamps, Northern Territory, north of 15° (W. S. Campbell).
  • 2a, Intermediate leaf; 2b, bud, with ribs; 2c, buds and flowers, the ribs almost winged; 2d, front and back views of anthers. Eight Mile Spring on to Tamburini, Northern Territory (G. F. Hill, No. 809).
  • 3. Fruit; Bathurst Island, Northern Territory (G. F. Hill, No. 469).

Plate 182.

Plate 182: EUCALYPTUS PTYCHOCARPA F.v.M. (1,2) [See also Plate 181.] E. SIMILIS Maiden. (3,4) E. LIRATA (W. V. Fitzgerald) Maiden. (5) E. BAILEYANA F.v.M. (6) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. ptychocarpa F.v.M. (See also Plate 181.)

  • 1. Buds and flower, with long peduncle, long pedicels, and long filaments. Pine Creek, Northern Territory (C. E. F. Allen, No. 116.)
  • 2a. Mature leaf; 2b, bud; 2c, fruits. Woollybutt Creek, near Phillips Range, North West Australia (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 950.)

E. similis Maiden.

  • 3a. Juvenile leaf; 3b, mature leaf; 3c, buds; 3d, front and back view of anthers; 3e, fruits. Desert country, west of Emerald, Queensland (G. H. Carr). The type.
  • 4. Fruits. Alice, 328 miles west of Rockhampton, Queensland (W. Pagan, through C. T. White).

E. lirata (W. V. Fitzgerald) Maiden.

  • 5a. Mature leaf; 5b, fruits. Summit of Bold Bluff, Kimberleys, North West Australia. (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 843). The type.

E. Baileyana (Maiden) F.v.M.

(See my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part XXXV, p. 71, Plate 132, where it will be seen that I have amended Mueller's original description and figure of the species.)

  • 6a. Two juvenile leaves, bearing stellate hairs; 6b, mature leaf; 6c, buds; 6d, front and back views of anther; 6e, calyx-tube; 6f, fruits. Eight Mile Plains, Brisbane, Queensland (A. Williams). The locality is that of the type, and the drawings are taken from the “Forest Flora” plate already quoted.

  ― 131 ―

Plate 183.

Plate 183: EUCALYPTUS LANE-POOLEI Maiden. (1) [See also Figs. 4 and 8, Plate 74.] E. EWARTIANA Maiden. (2,3) [See also Fig. 11, Plate 74.] E. BAKERI Maiden. (4,5) E. JACKSONI Maiden. (6,7) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. Lane-Poolei Maiden.

  • 1a. Mature leaf; 1b, buds; 1c, front and back view of anther. Beenup, Perth to Bunbury Railway Line (C. E. Lane-Poole). The type.
  • (This species was formerly figured as E. Oldfieldii F.v.M. in figures 4 and 8, Plate 74, Part XVII of the present work.)

E. Ewartiana Maiden.

  • 2. Fruits (larger than the type), Camp 4, vicinity of Yeelunginna Hill, say, in lat 27, 20 S., long. 131, 70 E., South Australia. Elder Exploring Expedition (recorded by Mueller and Tate as E. Oldfieldii). (R. Helms, 12th June, 1891.)
  • 3a. Juvenile leaf; 3b, anther, three views. Pindar, W.A. (J.H.M.).
  • (This species was formerly figured as E. Oldfieldii var. Drummondii in figure 11, Plate 74, Part XVII of the present work.)

E. Bakeri Maiden.

  • 4a. Juvenile leaves (the oil-glands as prominent as those of E. approximans Maiden, see Plate 179, Part XLIII); 4b, anther; 4c, twig, bearing mature leaves and fruits. Ticketty Well, between the Gwydir and McIntyre Rivers, northern New South Wales (E. H. F. Swain, No. 42). The type.
  • 5a. Broader, shorter leaf, from a fruiting twig; 5b, buds, seven in the head. Jericho, Queensland (J. L. Boorman.)

E. Jacksoni Maiden.

  • 6a. Juvenile leaf; 6b, juvenile leaf, a stage more advanced; 6c, mature leaf; 6d, fruits. Deep River, Nornalup Inlet, South West Australia (Sid. W. Jackson). The type.
  • 7. Twig with mature leaves and immature buds. Two miles from the Franklin River, on the Denmark, road, South West Australia (Dr. F. Stoward, No. 114).