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Part 71

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CCCLXXXIII. E. Bucknelli Cambage

In Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., li (1926), 325, with Plate 22.

FOLIA MATURA lanceolata, longa circa 6–15 cm., lata 1–3 cm., cum punctus rectis aut uncis, viridia prope cinerea, interdum glauca in utramque partem, glabra, costa media distincta, venæ laterales aliquanto prominentes, dispositæ ex costa media cum angulo circa 45–55 graduum, cum venularum tenuiorum reticulo interveniente, vena intra marginem aliquanto procul margine, glandulæ olei parvæ sed multæ, petiolus longus 2 mm. ad 1 cm.

Gemmæ clavatæ, in breve pedicellatæ, acutæ leviter glaucæ calycis tubus aliquanto campanulatus longus 3–4 mm., staminis annulus parvus sed distinctus, directus, operculum in coni forma longum 2–3 mm.

Fructus in piri aut ovi forma, truncati, longi 4–5 mm., diametros 3–6 mm. valvæ fere exsertæ, pedunculi longi 5 mm. ad 1·4 cm.

A tree about 40 feet high, with stem-diameter of 18 inches to 2 feet.

Branchlets terete, brown to glaucous.

Mature leaves lanceolate, from about 6 to 15 cm. long, 1–3 cm. broad, with straight or hooked points, greyish-green to sometimes glaucous on both sides, glabrous, midrib distinct, lateral veins fairly prominent, arranged at an angle of from about 45 to 55 degrees with the midrib, with a network of finer veinlets between, intramarginal vein fairly distant from the edge, oil glands small but numerous, petiole 2 mm. to 1 cm. long.

Buds clavate, shortly pedicellate, acute, slightly glaucous, calyx-tube somewhat campanulate, 3 4 mm. long, staminal ring small but distinct, vertical, operculum conical, 2–3 mm. long.

Flowers pedicellate, umbels chiefly in terminal panicles, with three to seven flowers, anthers semiterminal, broad, somewhat like those of E. crebra, gland at back, filament nearly at the base.

Fruits pyriform to ovoid, truncate, 4–5 mm. long, 3–6 mm. in diameter, valves usually exserted, peduncles 5 mm. to 1·4 cm. long.

Bark shortly fibrous to slightly furrowed.

Timber reddish-brown, very hard, heavy and interlocked.

Habitat.—About 20 miles north of Mungindi (type), Mookoo, and at Bumble in Queensland. About 15 miles south-east of Moree (Forest Guard W. M. Brennan).

This species is named in honour of Adrian Wentworth Bucknell, Licensed Surveyor of Mookoo, who is much interested in the local plants, and has supplied many native names.

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Its closest affinity appears to be with E. melanophloia and E. microtheca, but it seems to be more closely associated with the former in the forest, the two species often growing together, while E. microtheca may be a quarter of a mile away. E. populifolia and E. bicolor may be also growing near. Its bark on the trunk and branches may be described as being between that of a box tree and an ironbark, while the fruits somewhat resemble those of E. microtheca, although the valves of the latter are more exserted. In shape, the fruits are not unlike those of E. melanophloia, especially those from about 20 miles north of Mungindi (No. 4,462).

The small-fruited form of E. Bucknelli (No. 4,389) from the south of Mungindi somewhat resembles E. populifolia and E. bicolor so far as the fruits are concerned, but the leaves and venation are different.

From E. Yagobiei Maiden it differs mainly in the shape of the fruits and to some extent in the bark. The fruits of E. Yagobiei have strongly exserted valves.

If it could be shown that this tree originated as a hybrid, then its parents would appear to be E. melanophloia and E. microtheca, but the trees are so numerous that it seems evident the species now reproduces itself, whatever may have been its origin. It is remarkable that where natural Eucalyptus hybrids are suspected, one of the supposed parents often belongs to the group of trees popularly known as Ironbark, while the other belongs to the Box group.

Seedlings (No. 4,402 from Bumble). Plate 22, fig. 1. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W.)

Hypocotyl terete, red, glabrous, 6 mm. to 1·5 cm. long.

Cotyledons obtusely oblong to slightly reniform, entire, 2 to 2·5 mm. long, 3 to 5·5 mm. broad, upperside green, underside pale green; petiole 2 to 3 mm., reddish near base.

Stem terete, red. First and second internodes, 3 to 5 mm.; third, 4 to 6 mm.

Seedling foliage opposite for at least four or five pairs,note entire, glabrous, linear-lanceolate, upperside green, underside pale green, petiole 1 to 1·5 mm. First pair 5 to 8 mm. long, 1·5 to 2·5 mm. broad; second pair, 9 mm. to 1·3 cm. long, 1·5 to 3 mm. broad; third pair, 1 to 1·4 cm. long, 2 to 3 mm. broad.

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CCCLXXXIV. E. perplexa Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

IRONBARK mediocris; cortice obscuro, valde sulcatis; foliis junioribus oblongis; foliis maturis oblongis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, tenuibus, inconspicue venosis, petiolatis, 4–8 cm. longis, 1–2·5 cm. latis; fructu globoso, pedicellato, truncato vel valvis exsertis, 4–5 mm.

A medium-sized ironbark; bark dark-coloured, deeply furrowed.

Juvenile leaves, not seen in the earliest stage, oblong, obtuse. Young twigs slightly pruinose.

Intermediate leaves, also imperfect, alternate, broadly oblong to oblong-lanceolate, usually emarginate, 4–9 cm. long, 2–3 cm. broad, shortly petiolate.

Adult leaves alternate, petiolate, oblong to lanceolate, often somewhat obtuse or minutely apiculate, 4–8 cm. long, 1·5–2·5 cm. broad. Venation obscure, the midrib slightly raised beneath, flat or very faintly furrowed above; lateral veins very fine, diverging at an angle of 35–45° with the midrib; intramarginal vein very close to the revolute margin, or confluent with it.

Inflorescence forming small axillary or terminal panicles. Buds not seen.

Fruit sub-globose, 4×5 mm., truncate, pedicellate, the very small valves sometimes exsert.


It seems to be confined to tropical Western Australia and the Northern Territory. The following are the localities:—

Western Australia: Between Erskine Range and Mount Marrion, August, 1906. “On gravelly plains between Isdell River and Scented Knob occurs, of a few square miles in extent, an open forest of Ironbark” (W. V. Fitzgerald, June, 1905); Isdell River, near Mount Barnett Homestead, also at Barnett River (W. V. Fitzgerald, June, 1905).

Northern Territory: Roper River Crossing (Professor Baldwin Spencer, and others, July-August, 1911). This specimen is not quite so glaucous as the previous specimens.

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1. With E. crebra F.v.M.

The similarity as regards the leaves is obvious, but those of E. perplexa are more oblong and glaucous than those' of E. crebra. The small fruits of E. perplexa are undoubtedly somewhat similar to those of E. crebra, but the fruits of the former are more spherical and more glaucous than those of the latter.

2. With E. Culleni Cambage.

This is also a tropical Ironbark, but the leaves are greener, the fruits, although somewhat spherical, are distinct in shape and size from the fruits of E. perplexa.

3. With E. melanophloia F.v.M.

This appears to be its closest affinity as regards glaucousness and the shape of the fruit. In fact, it was regarded as a lanceolate-leaved form of E. melanophloia, but we now think that it is a species distinct from E. melanophloia.

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CCCLXXXV. E. conglomerata Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR parva, stringybark; cortice aspero, fibroso, sulcato; foliis junioribus, lineari-lanceolatis, stellatopilosis; foliis maturis lanceolatis vel obliquo-lanceolatis, 6–12 cm. longis, 1½–3 cm. latis; alabastris parvis, numerosis confertis in capitulis densis; fructu urceolato vel globoso, sessili in capitulis parvis globoso.

A small Stringybark, 12–20 feet high; bark rough, thick, fibrous, deeply furrowed.

Juvenile Leaves not seen in the earliest stage, alternate, sessile to very shortly petiolate, narrow-lanceolate somewhat scabrous, with minutely denticulate, slightly revolute margins and when very young stellate-hairy, 1·5–4 cm. long, 4–8 mm. broad. Venation obscure.

Intermediate Leaves alternate, very shortly petiolate, narrow-lanceolate to obliquely lanceolate, thick, light green, 4–8 cm. long, 1·5–3·5 cm. broad; venation obscure, lateral veins diverging at an angle of 40–50° to the midrib; intramarginal vein close to the edge.

Mature Leaves alternate, lanceolate to obliquely lanceolate or falcate-lanceolate, thick, coriaceous, somewhat glossy, 6–12 cm. long, 1·5–4 cm. broad; venation rather fine and somewhat obscure; lateral veins spreading at an angle of 25–30° to the midrib; intramarginal vein close to the edge.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels of 10–18 small, sessile flowers. Buds slender, cylindrical, scarcely acute, about 5 mm. long; the peduncle 8–10 mm. long, usually strap-shaped. Anthers reniform, with a small terminal gland.

Fruit sessile or nearly so, congested in dense, globular heads, pilular to slightly urceolate, with a broad orifice and a small oblique disc, about 5×5 mm., 3–4 celled, the very short deciduous valves enclosed.


It seems to be confined to Southern Queensland and the northern parts of New South Wales. In the latter State it has been found at Denman (W. Heron), Armidale district (A. W. Howitt. March, 1903). Queensland—Small trees, 12–20 feet high; bark stringy; ultimate branches naked. Sandy country on edge of peat swamps, Beerwah, Southern Queensland (W. D. Francis and C. T. White, No. 24, September, 1919). The type.


1. With E. eugenioides Sieb.

It is readily distinguished from this species by its narrower suckers, densely packed buds and small globular fruits. It appears also to be a smaller tree than E. eugenioides.

2. With E. globoidea Blakely.

Both species are typical stringybarks, and they resemble each other a great deal in the compact, more or less conglomerate fruits, but the juvenile leaves of E. conglomerata are much narrower than those of E. globoidea.

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CCCLXXXVI. E. tropica Cambage

In Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 1915, 49 p. 425, ibid 1927, 61.

ARBOR alta 30 ad 40 pedes cortex in trunco et ramis magnis albidus et breviter fibratus.

Floia —Folium adultorum textura densa, ovata-lanceolata ad lanceolata, interdum falcats, longa 2 ad 5 unciæ, lata unciæ ¾ ad 1 unciam, albida aliquanto viridia, quum sicca colorem subflamum habentia, venæ laterales cum angulo circà 50 ad 65 graduum ex costamedia, vena intra marginem prope vero in margine, petioli longi circa 1·5 ad 2 cm.

Fructus abconicales, longa 4 ad 6 mm., diametros 6 ad 7 mm., valvæ exsertæ.

A tree 30 to 40 feet high with greyish, shortly-fibrous, box-bark on trunk and large branches.

Adult leaves thick in texture, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, sometimes falcate, from 2 to 5 inches long, ¾ to 1 inch broad, greyish-green, with yellowish tint when dry, lateral veins at angle of about 50 to 65 degrees with midrib, intramarginal vein practically on the edge, petioles from about 1·5 to 2 cm. long.

Fruits obconical, 4 to 6 mm. long, 6 to 7 mm. in diameter, valves exserted.

Buds or flowers not seen.note

Habitat.—Near the Corella River, about 30 miles north of Cloncurry, on the road to Granada, No. 4,163. (Type.) It is known as White Box. Also probably seen from the train just east of Cloncurry, but not collected. Both localities are in the tropics.


This species has some affinities with E. microtheca, (Coolabah) but its fruits are more conoid than those of the latter species, the pedicels and leaves much thicker, and the venation different. Moreover the Coolabah grows on the Black soil plains, a situation which this White Box seems to avoid.

In the forest this species closely resembles E. microneura, (No. 4,162) and in August, 1913, with only scant material available, was regarded as probably the same species, but on production of further specimens collected by Mr. C. T. White in February, 1922, and after consultation with Messrs. Maiden and Blakely, it was considered these two trees were separate species. The fruits of E. tropica are larger, the valves more exserted, and the leaves thicker in texture than those of E. microneura.

The juvenile leaves described in 1915 are from the Croydon plant.note

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The fruits of E. siderophloia Benth. somewhat resemble those of E. tropica, but in other respects the trees are quite dissimilar, the former being an Ironbark while the latter is a box-tree.

E. Bowmani F.v.M., from Queensland, has never been identified as the fruits are unknown, but the marginal vein of the leaf is described as being “at a distance from the edge,” while that of E. tropica is close to the edge.

Seedlings (No. 4,163 from Corella River).

Hypocotyl terete, reddish-pink to brownish-red, glabrous, 7 mm. to 1·2 cm. long.

Cotyledons reniform, up to 4 mm. long, 5 to 7·5 mm. broad, upperside green, underside reddish to brownish-red, petiole about 3 mm. Two opposite nodules form in axils of cotyledons.

Stem at first slightly angular, becoming terete, reddish near the base. First internode 5 mm. to 1·3 cm.; second 6 mm. to 1 cm.; third 8 mm. to 1·3 cm.; fourth to eighth 1 to 1·7 cm.

Seedling foliage opposite for at least eight or nine pairs, entire, glabrous, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, tapering at both ends, upperside greyish-green, underside paler or in the first two pairs sometimes reddish, midrib prominent underneath, lateral veins arranged at angles of 40 to 60 degrees with midrib in the case of No. 2, and from 50 to 65 degrees in subsequent pairs. First pair 1·2 to 2·5 cm. long, 2–4 mm. broad; second and third pairs 2·2 to 3·8 cm. long, 3 to 8 mm. broad; fourth to seventh 3 to 5 cm. long, 5 mm. to 1 cm. broad.

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CCCLXXXVII. E. pseudo-piperita Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR 20–40 pedes alta; cortex caulinus persistens, sub-fibrosus; cortex ramorum glaber; folia juvenilia ovato-lanceolata, alternata, breviter petiolata, pallide viridia; folia matura alternata, petiolata, lanceolata vel oblique-lanceolata, 5–10×1·3–4·7 cm.; gemmæ clavatæ, acutæ, pedicellatæ; umbellæ florum axillares; antheræ reniformes; capsulæ globulares, sessiles vel breviter pedicellatæ, 6–7×6–7 mm.

A tree 20 to over 40 feet high; bark persistent on trunk, and intermediate between a Stringybark and the Peppermint type, smooth and ribbony on the branches; branchlets quadrangular, but soon becoming terete.

Juvenile leaves not seen in the earliest stage, shortly petiolate, alternate, ovate to broadly-lanceolate, light green on both sides, 6×4 cm.; venation penninerved, moderately distinct; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 30–40° to the midrib; intramarginal vein distant from the edge.

Intermediate leaves alternate, petiolate, broadly lanceolate to obliquely lanceolate, 11×5 cm., light green on both surfaces; lateral veins distinct, diverging at an angle of 40–45° to the midrib; intramarginal vein distant from the edge.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, lanceolate to obliquely lanceolate, somewhat thick, not very aromatic, 5–10 cm. long, 1·3–4·7 cm. broad. Venation penninerved, the midrib somewhat obscure above, distinct beneath; lateral veins spreading at an angle of 40–45° with the midrib; intramarginal vein usually close to the edge.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels, but sometimes forming short panicles; peduncles compressed, 6–10 mm. long, about 1·5 mm. broad. Buds up to 14 in the head, somewhat clavate, acute, very shortly pedicellate, 5–6 mm. long, the pedicels somewhat variable in length and thickness. Calyx funnel-shaped, rather thick; operculum acutely conoid, about as long as the calyx-tube. Filaments very slender; anthers reniform, white, with broad cells and a small terminal gland.

Fruit globular or nearly so, sessile, or very shortly pedicellate, truncate, thick, 6–7×6–7 mm.; the disc small, forming a flat ring around the top of the orifice, 4-celled, the partitions extending nearly to the disc; valves small, enclosed.


In the present state of our knowledge it appears to be confined to a small coastal strip between Sydney and Oatley. The following are the localities:—Oatley (J. H. Camfield, April, 1901); Hurstville (same collector, July, 1897). The fruits are depicted on Plate 45, fig. 7c. The bark is more fibrous than that of the typical E. piperita, and is more like the Stringybark type. In part X, p. 305, the above specimen is referred to as follows:—“At Oatley, George's River, near Sydney (J. H. Camfield), we have a form apparently normal piperita in every respect, except that the fruits are very coarse and large, thick-rimmed, and nearly pilular. They certainly show affinity to E. pilularis, for which the fruits can be readily mistaken. I would call them an intermediate form.” Taronga Park (A. S. Le Souef, D. W. C. Shiress). Co-type. La Perouse (J. L. Boorman). The fruits are thinner than the above specimen, but they are not fully matured.

  ― 9 ―


1. With E. pilularis Sm.

The mature leaves, buds, and fruits of E. pseudo-piperita resemble some specimens of E. pilularis, but the juvenile leaves are much broader, more aromatic, and of a darker green than those of E. pilularis.

2. With E. piperita Sm.

The leaves have almost the same aromatic perfume as those of E. piperita, but the buds, fruits and juvenile leaves are coarser. The bark is also different; it is more of a Stringybark than a Peppermint bark.

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CCCLXXXVIII. E. ureeolaris Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR recta 50–80 pedes alta; cortice sub-fibroso in trunco; ramulis levibus; foliis junioribus sub-glaucis elliptico-lanceolatis; foliis maturis falcato-lanceolatis, crassis, coriaceous, alabastris pedicellatis.

An erect tree 50–80 feet high, up to 4 feet in diameter; bark rough, sub-fibrous on trunk and main branches, smooth and ribbony on the small branches.

Juvenile leaves sessile, ovate, cordate, or elliptical-lanceolate, thick, coriaceous, dark-green above, pale beneath, 4–8 cm.×2–4·5 cm.; venation rather prominent on both sides; lateral veins few and distant, diverging at an angle of 40–45° with the midrib; intramarginal vein fairly close to the edge.

Intermediate leaves not seen in a fully developed state, petiolate, thick, coriaceous, elliptical to obliquely lanceolate, slightly glaucous, 7–9×5 cm.; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 30–40° to the midrib; intramarginal vein distant from the edge.

Mature leaves petiolate, lanceolate to obliquely-lanceolate, fairly thick, 8×20 cm., conspicuously veined on both surfaces, and with somewhat prominent revolute margins, the midrib scarcely prominent; lateral veins rising at an angle of 35–40° to the midrib. The venation is irregular, in some leaves a few of the veins are somewhat longitudinal.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels or forming short panicles, or the umbels bifurcate and sometimes deflexed; peduncles slender, semi-terete, up to 12 mm. long. Buds pedicellate, up to fifteen in the umbel, cylindroid-rostrate. Calyx-tube urceolate to campanulate, the rim slightly reflexed, 4–5×3 mm.; operculum rostrate, up to 6 mm. long. Filaments white, all antheriferous. Anthers small, reniform; style subulate, rather long.

Fruit pedicellate, urceolate, with a short, or elongated narrow neck, 7–9×6–7 mm., valves usually deeply enclosed. The distinctly urceolate fruits readily separate it from its congeners.

Timber pale pink, moderately light and fissile, and somewhat similar in texture to the timber of E. Sieberiana. It planes well and should make excellent furniture. According to Mr. A. Murphy, it is considered a good timber for heavy work and is used for sleepers

In Part X, p. 302, attention is drawn to the urceolate fruits as follows:— “Messmate.” Wood of a yellowish colour; when fresh much inclined to ring. Urceolate, shape of fruit very pronounced, reminding one a good deal of those of E. trachyphloia, from which it differs in almost every other respect. See fig. 8, Plate 45, Wingello (J. L. Boorman). The type. The reference to fig. 8, Plate 45, is an error, fig. 6 was intended. Fig. 8 is discussed at p. 304, and is again referred to in the Explanation of Plates, p. 345.

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So far it appears to be confined to the Wingello, Mittagong, and Moss Vale districts, New South Wales. Paddy's River, Wingello (J. L. Boorman). “Trees 40–80 feet high and 4 feet in diameter; timber used in the mills for battens, palings and building purposes.” A co-type. (A. and P. Murphy). “Large trees, timber pale pink, used for milling purposes.” Cut-away Hill, off Sandy Flat, Mittagong district (D. W. C. Shiress). Co-type. Belmore Falls, Moss Vale (W. Forsyth, October, 1900). Burrawang (H. Deane).


1. With E. Bottii Blakely.

Both species are moderately large trees, producing a light-coloured serviceable timber, but the timber of E. urceolaris appears to be superior to that of E. Bottii. On botanical characters the former may be readily distinguished from the latter by its urceolate buds and fruits. The venation of the leaves is also different.

2. With E. piperita Sm.

E. urceolaris is a superior tree in every way to E. piperita, and it also differs from it in the shape of the buds and fruits, as well as in the juvenile and adult leaves.

  ― 12 ―

CCCLXXXIX. E. Callanii Blakely

In Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., lxi, 1927, p. 160.

STRINGYBARK gracilis, 20–50 pedes alta; folia juvenilia lata, oblique-ovata, breviter, petiolata, venulosa; folia matura nitida, angusta vel lato-lanceolata, venulosa; gemmæ ovoido-clavata, operculo conico, tubo calycis obconico; antheræ reniformes; capsulæ pedicellatæ, hemisphæricæ, 5×5 mm., valvis brevissimis deltoideis in apertura inclusis.

A slender Stringybark, 20–50 feet high; juvenile leaves broad, obliquely-ovate, shortly petiolate, venulose; adult leaves glossy, narrow to broad-lanceolate, venulose; buds ovoid-clavate, operculum conical, calyx-tube obconical; anthers reniform; fruit pedicellate, hemispherical, 5×5 mm., the very short deltoid valves enclosed in the orifice

A slender Stringybark, with a rather flat, flaky-fibrous bark on the trunk, and a moderately smooth bark on the branches.

Juvenile leaves not seen in the very earliest stage, glabrous, and not stellate-hairy as in E. eugenioides, obliquely ovate, shortly petiolate, coriaceous, light green and somewhat rough, with prominent veins and veinlets, 4–8 cm. long, 2·5–5 cm. broad, lateral veins somewhat irregular and bifurcate, diverging at an angle of about 50–60° with the midrib. Intramarginal vein undulate and usually distant from the edge.

Intermediate leaves alternate, broad-lanceolate to obliquely lanceolate on rather slender, channelled petioles, 6–16 cm. long, 3–5 cm. broad. Venation prominently raised on the lower surface, the lateral veins few and distant, the lower veins usually somewhat semi-longitudinal and sometimes uniting with the intramarginal vein about half-way up the lamina, diverging at an angle of 20–30° with the midrib; intramarginal vein 3–5 mm. from the edge, the intervening space usually strengthened by a secondary marginal nerve.

Adult leaves alternate, petiolate, lanceolate, aequilateral or nearly so, slightly viscid and glossy on both surfaces, rather flat, 4–15 cm. long, 1–3·5 cm. broad, distinctly veined on the lower surface, obscure. veined on the upper; lateral veins radiating at an angle of 10–20° with the midrib. Petioles slender moderately long and usually twisted.

Inflorescence in small axillary umbels, the common peduncle subteretc, 8–12 mm. long, supporting 5–12 shortly pedicellate flowers Buds ovoid-clavate, acute or the operculum acutely conical, 5 mm. long; calyx-tube short, obconical. Anthers reniform, the short filament adnate at the base, the broad cells crowned with a large globular gland.

Fruit pedicellate, hemispherical to copular, the disc flat or slightly convex, darker than the calycine portion, 3 or 4 celled, 5×5 mm. or sometimes larger, the very short deltoid valves scarcely exsert. Timber white, inclining to be gummy, fissile.

I have pleasure in associating this uncommon species with the name of Mr. and Mrs. Albert Philip Callan, of “Grantham,” Mittagong, whose kind hospitality led to its discovery, as also to another new species.

  ― 13 ―


Up to the present it has been collected between Mittagong and Wombeyan Caves, and at Marrangaroo, New South Wales. The following are the definite localities:—

Back of Chalybeate Spring, near the Gib, Mittagong (D. W. C. Shiress, January, 1922).

Bowral-Berrima road, about 3½ miles from Mittagong (same collector, April, 1920).

Bowral-Wombeyan Caves road, near the junction of the old Mittagong and Joadja roads (D.W.C.S., April, 1922). In April, 1923, I visited the same locality accompanied by Mr. Shiress and obtained specimens, which constitute the type. The trees were growing in poor white pipeclay-like soil, and resembled E. eugenioides in general appearance except that the bark is flatter and in broad strips, extending nearly to the branches, and not rough and fibrous throughout like E. eugenioides.

One mile west of Wingello, small patches on poor clay soil (W. Murphy, August, 1924).

“Three miles south of Marulan on the side of a gravelly ridge. Bark smooth except on trunk, black flaky bark.” (Andrew Murphy, March, 1905.)

Eighteen miles from Wombeyan Caves, Bullio to Wombeyan (J. H. Maiden, October, 1905).

Marrangaroo, 102 miles west of Sydney (Dr. E. C. Chisholm, October, 1922). The leaves and buds are identical with those of E. Callanii, but the bark appears to be less fibrous, except at the base. It is a young tree, and therefore the bark is not mature.


1. With E. Laseroni R. T. Baker.

Both species are small Stringybarks with almost the same cortical characters, but the branches of E. Laseroni are usually smooth and gum-like, and the leaves are broader and have a different venation to those of E. Callanii. There are also essential distinctions in the buds and fruits of both species. The half developed buds of E. Laseroni are narrower and more stellate, and when mature are more clavate than the buds of E. Callanii. The fruits of the former are more depressed than the fruits of the latter, while the timber of E. Laseroni is yellowish-brown, that of E. Callanii white.

Geographically the species are widely separated. E. Laseroni is found nearly 400 miles north of Sydney, and it appears to prefer a better class of soil to E. Callanii.

  ― 14 ―

2. With E. eugenioides Sieb.

E. Callanii is a smaller tree than the typical E. eugenioides, and it has a more compressed flaky-fibrous bark on the trunk only, which does not stand out in longitudinal ridges like the bark of E. eugenioides. The timber is also dissimilar and inferior to that of E. eugenioides. The buds and fruits of both species are, however, almost dentical, but there is considerable diversity between the juvenile leaves of both species. Those of E. eugenioides are narrow, crinkled and stellate, whilst the juvenile leaves of E. Callanii are broad and comparatively smooth.

3. With E. vitrea R. T. Baker.

The similarity of these trees is chiefly in the venation of their leaves, but the lateral veins of E. vitrea are even more longitudinal than those of E. Callanii. The floral organs, bark, and juvenile leaves, of course, sharply separate them.

The “Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus” was commenced by the late J. H. Maiden in 1903. At the time of his death there were still several parts to be published—concerning some species he had left full notes, concerning others he had left fragmentary notes only, while other species which had not been described, had, in some cases, been under discussion with one or both of us. In editing those parts of the “Revision” unpublished at the time of Mr. Maiden's death we have, in accordance with his wishes, and in order to make the whole work as complete as possible, included species not described during Mr. Maiden's lifetime.

  ― 15 ―

CCCXC. E. pachycalyx Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

GUM tree parva; cortice levi, E. maculatæ similii; foliis maturis lanceolato-falcatis, crassiusculis et obscuris, venis obscuris, 6–12 cm. longis, 1½–2½ cm. latis; alabastris pedicellatis, cylindraceis vel concideis; operculo calyce crasso levi longiore; antheris latis oblongis (Platyantheræ), loculis latis, lateralibus glandula parva, terminale; fructu non viso.

A small Gum tree, with a smooth, spotted bark like that of E. maculata.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves alternate, on long slender petioles, narrow-lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, or somewhat acuminate, 6–12 cm. long, 1–2·5 cm. broad, with a very fine and obscure venation; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 35–40° to the midrib, intramarginal vein confluent with the margin.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels of 5–7 pedicellate flowers. Buds moderately large, cylindrical to conoidal, 10–11×6 mm.; operculum concial, longer than the smooth, thick calyx. Anthers broadly oblong, adnate at the base and terminating in a small terminal gland. Fruit not seen.


“A kind of Spotted Gum growing on the ranges at the back of Cairns, Queensland. Stunted trees, bluish bark with black spots.” (H. W. Mocatta, No. 13, December, 1915). This is the only locality known to us.


1. With E. oleosa F.v.M.

It resembles this species mainly in the anthers, which belong to Section Platyantherae.

2. With E. leptophleba F.v.M.

The anthers of both species are somewhat alike, but those of E. pachycalyx are somewhat broader than those of E. leptophleba F.v.M. The leaves of the former and also the buds are different from those of the later.

3. With E. Bowmani F.v.M.

This is also indigenous to tropical Queensland, and up to the present is imperfectly known, but it appears to have broader leaves and different shaped anthers to those of E. pachycalyx.

  ― 16 ―

CCCXCI. E. subviridis Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR mediocris; cortice crasso, fibroso in trunco; ramulis levibus; foliis junioribus ovatis vel lato-lanceolatis, subviridibus; foliis maturis subviridibus, oblongo-lanceolatis; alabastris ovoideis, levibus, pedicellatis, 3–7 in umbella; fructu globoso; valvis exsertis, 7–9×8–10 mm.

A medium-sized tree; bark thick, matted-fibrous on trunk, smooth on branches.

Juvenile leaves only seen in the alternate stage, shortly petiolate, ovate to broad-lanceolate, subviridis, thin, slightly undulate, 4–8×3–5 cm.; venation somewhat prominent on both sides; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 40–50° to the midrib, intramarginal vein distant from the edge.

Intermediate leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, lanceolate to broadly and obliquely lanceolate, undulate, somewhat thick, subglaucous, 8–13×4–8 cm.; venation conspicuous; lateral veins very irregular and often furcate, radiating at an angle of 50–55° to the midrib; intramarginal vein sometimes 5 mm. from the margin.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, oblong to narrow-lanceolate, with a more obscure venation than the juvenile and intermediate leaves, diverging at an angle of 40–50° to the midrib; intramarginal vein somewhat distant from the edge.

Inflorescence usually in axillary umbels of 3–7, shortly pedicellate, medium-sized flowers on short peduncles. Buds pedicellate, ovoid, smooth, scarcely acute, 7–8×5–6 mm. Calyx somewhat broadly campanulate, very shallow; operculum broadly conoid, 3–4 mm. long; filaments white, not very numerous; anthers rather large, versatile, with broad parallel cells and a large dorsal gland.

Fruit pedicellate, somewhat globose to pilular, 7–9×8–10 mm.; disc rather prominent, with a distinct calycine ring and shortly exsert valves.

Timber reddish, soft and gummy, inferior to its congeners.


So far it has only been found near the Pound Yard at Marulan, and along Jounama Creek, half a mile from Marulan, New South Wales (A. and P. Murphy, December, 1921).


1. With E. cinerea F.v.M.

It has the cortical characters of E. cinerea, but the foliage is greener, the buds are more numerous and not angular or acute, while the fruits are larger, more globular, and more numerous in the head. The seedlings of E. subviridis are slightly broader and greener, with reddish stem, than those of the typical E. cinerea.

2. With E. cinerea F.v.M. var. multiflora Maiden.

The trees are much alike in the field, but the greener foliage of E. subviridis is readily distinguished from that of var. multiflora, which is decidedly more glaucous. The buds and fruits of the former are larger and of a different shape to those of the latter.

  ― 17 ―

CCCXCII. x E. McClatchie Kinney

Described in “Eucalyptus.” p. 188 (1895) by Abbott Kinney, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. (with one half-tone photograph).

LEAVES long-stalked, scattered, lanceolar or sickle-shaped, rather narrow, equally dull green; umbels solitary, axillary; stalk compressed, about as long as calyx-tube, stalklets short; calyx-tube truncate with two edges and tendency to be somewhat flattened or a little out of a true circle; buds very angular, ridges showing almost as wings; lid hemispheric, acuminate, central point of lid blunt and prominent valves enclosed, bark sheds in long strips; general appearance of tree suggests Eucalyptus globulus or Eucalyptus goniocalyx; anthers oblong, dorsal gland prominent; stamens all fertile, inflexed in bud; stigma not or scarcely broader than style.


Los Angeles, California (Abbott Kinney, 28th December, 1903). It is not known whether this tree is still in existence.


1. With E. Mortoniana Kinney.

The buds of McClatchie have longer pedicels and shorter operculum than those of E. Mortoniana. The common peduncle of the former is longer and thinner than that of the latter.

2. With E. pseudo-globulus (Hort.) Naudin.

E. McClatchie is somewhat like E. pseudo-globulus in the leaves, but differs from it in the shape of the operculum and in the fruit. It is perhaps nearer to this species than any other known to me.

  ― 18 ―

CCCXCIII. x E. Mortoniana Kinney

Described in “Eucalyptus,” p. 192 (1895), by Abbott Kinney, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

LEAVES long-stalked, scattered, lanceolar or sickle-shaped, long and rather broad; equally dull green; stalk compressed; about the length of calyx-tube; stalklet distinct; calyx-tube rough, often slightly ridged, top-shaped or truncate-ovate; border of a tube has the appearance of a pot of some thick fluid boiling over; lid hemispheric-acuminate, the point or beak of the lid is thick and long; buds flattened and angular; valves exserted, generally four, or rarely three; bark sheds in long strips. General appearance suggests E. globulus; anthers oblong, opening by parallel slits, dorsal gland prominent, style spotted, somewhat dilated towards top, stigma not dilated.

Grown at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. It is No. 237,908 in the United States National Herbarium. I have figured leaf, bud and fruits in Part XVIII, Plate 80, fig. 8.

In the above part, p. 256, I have placed it as a synonym of E. Maideni, and I regarded it as one of the large-fruited forms of that species. I now think it is distinct from E. Maideni, and it seems to me to be more closely allied to E. McClatchie and E. pseudo-globulus than to E. Maideni.


Besides the Los Angeles locality quoted above, I have received two specimens from Miss Alice Eastwood, collected by herself and Eric Walther from Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, July, 1921, and February, 1922, which appear to be as near the type of E. Mortoniana as we are likely to get. Miss Eastwood in a letter to me refers to this species as follows:—“We had a specimen of E. Mortoniana sent us in a collection made at the Forestry Station in Santa Monica (? the original tree of E. Mortoniana, J.H.M.), and I have identified two trees in Golden Gate Park by means of it. The two trees grow close together and are tall and handsome in general appearance, like E. globulus for which they might be mistaken. The bark, especially at the base of the trunk, is more persistent, and the young stems are brown instead of pale grey as in E. globulus. The seedling leaves are not known.”

Under E. Cordieri Trabut, Part LII, Plate 213, figs. 3a and 3b, buds and fruit of this species are depicted, and were attributed to E. Cordieri by mistake. They are from No. 237, Herb. d'Algerie (Dr. Trabut), and were collected by M. Cordier, who determined it as a hybrid of E. globulus. Dr. Trabut wrote across the label “x Eucalyptus Cordieri, prob.” thus indicating that he was uncertain of the determination.

  ― 19 ―


1. With E. McClatchie Kinney and E. pseudo-globulus (Hort.) Naudin see pp. 17 and 28.

2. With E. bicostata Maiden, Blakely and Simmonds.

It seems to have the cortical characters of this species, but the buds and fruits are quite different. They are strictly sessile in E. bicostata, and vary considerably in shape and thickness from those of E. Mortoniana.

3. With E. unialata Baker and Smith.

E. Mortoniana appears to be closely allied to E. unialata in the buds and fruits, and also in the mature leaves, but the former characters have longer pedicels and the fruits are a size larger.

  ― 20 ―

CCCXCIV. E. Dixsoni Wakefield, n.sp

ARBOR parva 30–50 pedes alta; cortice persistente, fibroso usque ad ramos parvos; foliis junioribus heteromorphicis, oppositis pallido-viridibus vel glaucis, angusto vel lato-lanceolatis; foliis maturis gracilibus, clavatis, operculo obtuso; fructu campanulato vel cupulare, 7×6 cm.

“Usually a small tree, rarely exceeding 50 feet in height and 2 feet in diameter at the butt; the bark persistent to the finer branchlets; the texture of the bark is fibrous, being almost intermediate between the Peppermint type and the Stringybark type.

Leaves heteromorphic; mature leaves lanceolate-falcate, disposed vertically and drooping from the branchlets; intermediate leaves lanceolate, and some pale glaucous. Sucker leaves, two distinct forms to be found on the one plant—a small form very similar to the sucker leaves of E. radiata, but more ovate and pale green, not glaucous; the larger form closely resembles the suckers of E. dives, white glaucous, sessile and opposite, but usually more acutely acuminated ovate.

Fruit resemble E. dives, in clusters of six to fifteen.

Range.—Found in the Yambulla district, and specimens from which the type is described were collected 3½ miles east from Yambulla Mountain, where a belt of considerable size is to be found.

“It is found in ecological association with E. Consideniana and E. eugenioides. There can be little doubt of its origin, as E. radiata x E. Consideniana, both of which occur widely distributed in the district. Occasional trees have also been observed near Timbilica and Yambulla and along the South Coast, south from Moruya, and it is probable, therefore, that its range may be considerably extended.

“The most remarkable feature is the great diversity of form exhibited in the sucker leaves. A clump of suckers at the butt of the tree will usually be found to have the large glaucous leaves approaching E. dives. Suckers produced from adventitious buds higher, as the result of fire or other accident, are usually closely approaching E. radiata. Suckers about midway in character are also to be found. (The intermediate-leaved stage in nearly all species is very interesting.—J.H.M.)

Heteromorphic Leaves and Ancestral Characters.—There appears to be considerable evidence in support of the view that ‘suckers’ produced from adventitious buds exhibit characters approximating the ancestral form of the species. In the development of an individual from such adventitious buds there appears to some degree to be a recapitulation of phylogeny. How far such characters may be justly so interpreted, and how far such forms are evidence of adaptations to new environmental conditions it is difficult to estimate.

“The development of adventitious buds in the case of E. Dixsoni is of considerable interest from this Point of view. The adult species is perhaps more closely allied to E. Consideniana than to any other species. Only on very close examination of the bark is it possible to discriminate between the two species in the absence of leaves and fruits. These latter indicate affinities with E. radiata, and the leaves are almost intermediate in character. There can be little doubt that the new species is a product of these two widely different species.

“A study of the development of ‘suckers’ from an adventitious bud in E. Dixsoni is most instructive. The young shoots develop thin green lanceolate leaves almost identical with those of E. radiata, thus indicating its phylogenetic relationship. Such suckers may persist for some time, and several have been measured exceeding 2 feet in length. Eventually, however, these delicate green leaves are replaced by large, coarse, glaucous leaves, very similar to the familiar sucker leaves of E. dives. Indeed, when the species was first observed the following note was made on the spot:—‘A belt of a curious form exhibiting relationships with E. Consideniana and E. dives occurs about 1 mile north from the eastern end of Captain's Swamp.’ Subsequent examination, however, clearly indicated its relationship with E. radiata and not with E. dives, as the secondary suckers would suggest.

  ― 21 ―

“Now the delicate green primary suckers are to be regarded as indicating the true phylogenetic relationship, whilst the coarse, glaucous secondary suckers suggest an adaptation of such sucker growth, by the development of xerophytic structure, to environmental conditions unsuitable for the existence of thin green leaves of the E. Dixsoni type. The distribution of E. Dixsoni seems to be determined by its water requirements, and that it is restricted to zones of critical soil humidity. E. Dixsoni is found at higher altitudes on drier soils. The conclusion, therefore, that the E. dives-like sucker is but a structural adaptation in response to the impress of more xerophytic conditions seems not unreasonable.”

Named in honor of the late Sir Hugh Dixson, Abergeldie, Ashfield, New South Wales. (End of Mr. Wakefield's remarks.)


Besides the affinities already discussed by Mr. Wakefield, it appears to me (W.F.B.) that E. Robertsoni bears a rather close relationship to E. Dixsoni in the shape and colour of the juvenile and adult leaves, and also in the shape of the buds and fruits. The latter characters are so much alike that it is sometimes difficult to discriminate between them. The much broader juvenile leaves of E. Dixsoni, however, separate it from E. Robertsoni. The arboreal characters of both species are also dissimilar, and also the timbers. E. Dixsoni may be regarded as a far inferior timber tree to E. Robertsoni.

With E. dives Schauer.

It is quite obvious that E. Dixsoni is more closely allied to E. dives in all its botanical characters than to any other species, and in imperfect specimens one would say they are conspecific. It is interesting to note, also, according to Mr. Wakefield, that the oil of E. Dixsoni is nearly of the same constituent as that of E. dives. It contains a large quantity of phellandrene. And, on the other hand, according to the same authority there are no plants of E. dives associated with E. Dixsoni.

With E. radiata Sieb. var. latifolia Baker.

I have not had the opportunity of closely examining this variety, and from the very imperfect description it would appear to be closely allied to it in the broad leaves, in fact, it may be conspecific with it.

  ― 22 ―

XCVIII. E. globulus Labill

Investigations have shown that this is a very composite species so far as the Victorian and New South Wales plants are concerned, which should never have been united with the Tasmanian plant.

For a number of years I have been puzzled with what I regarded as transit forms between E. globulus and E. Maideni, and often discussed them with my assistant, Mr. W. F. Blakely, and referred to them as the E. globulus—E. Maideni puzzle. And in 1921–22 we critically examined the whole of the material of both species in the National Herbarium as well as the fruiting specimens in the Melbourne Herbarium. The results of our investigations will be seen presently, as also those of the Rev. J. H. Simmonds of New Zealand. It is mainly due to the latter gentlemen's close association with the cultivated forms of E. globulus in New Zealand that led to the discovery that the Tasmanian and Mainland trees were distinct species.

In Part XVIII, p. 249, of the present work, E. globulus is fully described and figured at Plate 79, whilst in Part LXV, p. 218, the juvenile leaves were described, which were omitted from the former part.

In Part XVIII, Plate 79, the following figures are referable to E. globulus :

  • 1. Juvenile leaf (Coll. Labillardiere, in Herb., Kew). (Tasmania.)
  • 2a. Juvenile leaf; 2b, mature leaf. Adventure Bay, Tasmania (J.H.M.).
  • 3. Bud. Hobart, Tasmania (L. Rodway).
  • 4a. Front and back view of anther; 4b, typical form of ripe fruits. Port Arthur, Tasmania (J.H.M.).
  • 5a. Bud; 5b, fruit (R. Gunn, Flinders' Island, 1842, No. 1070).


It seems to be confined to Tasmania and Flinders' Island. The Victorian and New South Wales references to its range in Part XVIII, p. 251, are mainly referable to E. bicostata.

  ― 23 ―

Var. compacla, n. var

Juvenile leaves the same as in E. globulus in shape, but smaller.

Mature leaves alternate, lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, dark green to slightly glaucous, 10 to above 20 cm. long, 1–3 or more cm. broad; venation the same as in the species.

Buds glaucous, single or in pairs, occasionally the well-developed peduncle supporting three closely sessile, broadly turbinate to almost hemispherical, glandular-warty, buds; operculum rather small, abruptly apiculate, and, like the calyx-tube, tuberculate.

Fruit not seen in a fully ripe state; hemispherical with a rather prominent disc and somewhat deeply sunk valves, usually bicostate, 13×15 mm., but when fully developed much larger.

The fruit on the whole is much smoother than that of E. globulus, and it is not unlike the fruit of E. bicostata, except that it appears broader at the base, but it may even be found to be narrow-turbinate in fully developed specimens.

The name var. compacta appears in list of Eucalyptus cultivated in America, but it does not appear to have been described.


The only specimens I have seen are those from Golden Gate Park, San Francisco (Miss Alice Eastwood, July, 1921).

  ― 24 ―

CCCXCV. E. bicostata Maiden, Blakely and Simmonds

In Trees from other Lands in New Zealand, Eucalypts, by J. H. Simmonds (1927) p. 133, Botanic Plate, 48, Figs. A, B, C, F, G.

ARBOR altitudinem usque ad 150 pedes attinens. Cortice laevo atque nonnihil glauco; non autem persistente sed inaequaliter decidente. Foliis juvenilibus magnis, insigniter glaucis, in diversum positis, sessilibusque. Foliis adultis et lanceolatis et falcatis, saepe viridissimis, nonnunquam longissimis. Umbellis plerumque tripartitis; calycibus sessilibus et rugosis. Fructibus turbinatis vel globosis; valde bicostatis. Matura cupula amplitudine circiter 12–17×14–20 mm. Fructus disco convexo latoque. Ligno pallido, firmo, durabili.

A Blue Gum, 40–150 feet high; bark smooth, decorticating annually in thin strips or flakes; juvenile leaves large, very glaucous, opposite, sessile, ovate-cordate to oblong-lanceolate; adult leaves green, falcate-lanceolate, 1–7 dm. long; buds sessile, usually in three, warty-glandular, bicostate, subtended by broad, thin, connate, deciduous bracts; fruit turbinate to globular, with a conspicuous thick disc, 12–17×14–20 mm.; timber pale-coloured, close-grained, hard and durable.

A moderately large tree with the general appearance of E. globulus and E. Maideni. The bark persists on the lower portion of the trunk of large trees for a short distance, and is usually very rough, dark grey or brown, coarse-fibred, the upper portion and branches smooth, blue-green, shading to grey-green, or rarely of a uniform colour, except perhaps when the old bark peels off during the flowering season. Juvenile leaves similar to those of E. globulus; adult leaves light to dark-green, pendent, usually falcate-lanceolate, on long petioles 4–28 inches long. See figure of the leaves of E. globulus, Critical Revision, Part XVIII, Plate 79, figs. 1a, 2a, 2b. Buds 1–3, usually 3, axillary, glaucous, sessile, on a very short peduncle, or the peduncle totally obliterated, bicostate, or the calyx of the two lateral buds convexed on the outer surface, smooth or usually more or less warty-glandular, 7–13 mm. long, 6–12 mm. broad at the top. Operculum thick, depressed hemispherical to somewhat-cap-shaped, usually very warty, gradually or abruptly pointed or sometimes rostrate, and when the latter much longer than the calyx-tube. Bracts deciduous, but sometimes remaining attached until the buds develop, thin, connate, broad, and obtuse, rarely as long as the calyx-tube. Mueller appears to have been the first to observe the bracts and they are figured by him in the “Eucalyptographia”.

Fruit turbinate to globular, sessile, bicostate, usually slightly warty between the ribs, 4–5 celled, the rim broad, moderately smooth and thick, sometimes concealing the short, thick valves. The fruits are depicted on Plate 79, figs. 6, 8, 9a, 9b, 9c, 12, all of which are unripe, and therefore immature; dead ripe and mature fruits were not available at the time.

Timber.—In the southern districts of New South Wales it is known as “Eurabbie” and is a tall tree, 40–80 feet high, with thick straight stems 20–40 feet to the first branch. The timber is pale-coloured, is valued highly and largely used in tail-races for mining purposes, also for bridge decking and girders when well seasoned. It is tough and valuable for coach and cabinet material; it also makes excellent fuel.

  ― 25 ―

Specimens from Mundaroo State Forest, Tumbarumba district, New South Wales (W. A. W. de Beuzeville) constitute the type. They are almost identical with specimens from Burrinjuck (J. L. Boorman, R. H. Cambage), which may be regarded as co-types. They are not unlike some specimens from Jenolan Caves (W. F. Blakely) and one from Parish of Otway, Victoria, at an elevation of 500 feet, 1 mile from the sea (A.V. Galbraith). The fruits of the latter are more fully developed than any of the above specimens, and are slightly larger and more globular. In the majority of specimens that have been examined, the so-called small fruited forms are really fruits which have not reached maturity.


E. globulus F.v.M., Benth., and others, non Labill.


So far it appears to be confined to the coastal and cool mountain districts of New South Wales and Victoria.

In New South Wales it is common on the Upper Murray and Tumut Rivers, and in the counties of Selwyn, Wynyard, Buccleuch, and Cowley generally. Further north, it occurs at Burrinjuck, Jenolan Caves, &c. Going still further north, it is found on Nulla Mountain, Rylstone (Mudgee) districts, and in New England (Nundle and Walcha districts).

In Victoria it is confined chiefly to Gippsland, and is said to reach a height of at least 200 feet.


1. With E. globulus Labill.

It is closely allied to E. globulus, with which it had been confused for many years, and from which it differs in the more numerous and smaller flowers in the head, smaller and usually two-ribbed fruits, and in the semi-persistent floral bracts. In E. globulus the buds are usually solitary, large and four-ribbed or four-angled and very warty. The fruits are also four-ribbed, and sometimes with smaller ribs between the prominent ones. There does not appear to be any essential difference between the juvenile and adult leaves of both species, and in a young state the plants are very similar. E. bicostata does not appear to be as adaptable as E. globulus, and is unable to make the same rate of growth under cultivation as E. globulus. Its timber is also inferior to that of the last-named species.

  ― 26 ―

2. With E. Maideni F.v.M.

It resembles this species mainly in cortical characters, and in the juvenile leaves and timber.

3. With E. paradoxa Maiden and Blakely.

There appears to be but little difference between the bark, juvenile leaves and timber of E. paradoxa and E. bicostata, but the buds and fruits of the former are more numerous in the head and the pedicels are well developed. The fruit is also larger.

  ― 27 ―

CCCXCVI. E. St. Johni R. T. Baker

Journ. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, xiv (January, 1913); Vict. Nat., xxx, 127 (November, 1913).

The description is also given in Part XLVIII, p. 240 of the present work, and need not be repeated. The fruits are depicted on Plate 79, fig. 10, the type. Figs. 7a, 7b, are also referable to E. St. Johni. The fruits of both specimens are almost smooth, or with a very faint rib. In the above Part it was discussed as a synonym of E. globulus, but it has since been found to be distinct from that species.


It is confined to Victoria, so far as we know at present. On the banks of the Lerderberg River, Bacchus Marsh district, 5th November, 1903 (P. R. H. St. John). The type. Toongabbie (H. Hopkins, May, 1911).


1. With E. bicostata Maiden, Blakely and Simmonds.

It is a smaller and inferior tree to E. bicostata, but much field work is required to work out the affinities of both species. It is however, readily separated from E. bicostata by the much smaller buds and fruits, and also by the longer common peduncle.

2. With E. globulus Labill.

Its affinity with E. globulus is discussed in the original description, vide Part XLVIII, p. 240.

  ― 28 ―

CCXCVIII. x E. pseudo-globulus (Hort.), Naudin

FOR a brief description and figure see Part LII, p. 78, Plate 214, fig. 6.

On p. 106 of the above Part I stated:—“It is an undoubted hybrid, but has apparently not yet been formally described.” Having satisfied myself that it is a natural hybrid, I now proceed to describe it more fully.

A medium-sized Gum tree, with the general appearance of E. globulus or E. bicostata. Bark smooth and blotched, except for a few feet at the base of the trunk; branches smooth, but sometimes with a few ribbony flakes of dead bark adhering to them; branchlets angular.

Juvenile leaves glaucous, particularly on the lower surface, opposite for an indefinite number of pairs, ovate to lanceolate, apiculate or acute, sessile to stem-clasping, or somewhat similar to those of E. globulus, 6–10 cm. long, 3–5 cm. broad; venation obscure, the lateral veins rather fine and distant, diverging at an angle of 60–70° with the midrib; intramarginal vein distant from the minutely subcrenulated margin. Internodes quadrangular, glaucous.

Intermediate leaves opposite to alternate, sessile to shortly petiolate, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, apiculate to acuminate, very glaucous on the lower surface, and usually of a dark-green colour on the upper surface, 10–16 cm.×6–10 cm.; venation somewhat distant and more or less distinct, the lateral veins very irregular and much branched upwards, usually diverging at an angle of 50–60° with the midrib; intramarginal vein distant from the edge. Internodes quadrangular, glaucous.

Mature leaves alternate, lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, usually acuminate, 10–35 cm. long, 2–5 cm. broad, or broader; venation moderately distinct, the lateral veins rather fine, radiating at an angle of 35–40° with the midrib; intramarginal veins usually distant from the margin.

Inflorescence in axillary triads, the common peduncle compressed 10–12 mm. long, 5 mm. broad at the top, bearing three moderately large pedicellate flowers. Buds clavate, slightly angular, subglaucous, the short, verrucose operculum umbonate to apiculate. Calyx turbinate, tri or quadrangular, smooth, usually longer than the operculum; filaments white; anthers versatile, the cells rather long and with a large dorsal gland. Pedicels usually quadrangular, as long as or longer than the calyx-tube.

Fruit pedicellate, turbinate, moderately thick, smooth or with 1–2 short ribs, 10–12 mm. long and about as broad across the top; disc prominent, usually fused to the well exserted valves and often concealing them.


As already stated in Part LII, p. 78, this species was first noticed in Algiers and was regarded by Naudin as a hybrid of E. globulus. I am now convinced that it is a natural hybrid, and in the present state of our knowledge it appears to be confined to Metung, Victoria, and was collected by Dr. A. W. Howitt, January, 1906; J.H.M., July 1908, and J. L. King, August, 1909. In Part XVIII, p. 258, I referred to the above specimens as abberrant forms of E. Maideni. I have also received a cultivated specimen from New Zealand, collected by the Rev. J. H. Simmonds, which seems to come very close to this species, and at the same time it shows affinity to E. McClatchie Kinney.

  ― 29 ―


1. With E. Maideni F.v.M.

The buds are warty, like those of E. Maideni, but they are invariably in threes, and larger than those of E. Maideni. The fruit is also larger, and it seems to be intermediate between the fruits of E. Maideni and E. McClatchie.

2. With E. McClatchie Kinney.

It differs from this species in the warty buds and larger fruits; it is also more glaucous than E. McClatchie.

3. With E. Mortoniana Kinney.

It seems to differ from E. Mortoniana in the longer pedicels, verrucose buds and different shaped fruits, particularly as regards the sculpture of the disc.

4. With E. paradoxa Maiden and Blakely.

It is readily distinguished from this species by the warty operculm and in the turbinate fruits. The buds of E. paradoxa are smooth and exceed more than three in the umbel, while the fruits are mallet-shaped.

5. With E. bicostata Maiden, Blakely and Simmonds.

It appears that both trees are somewhat alike as regards the bark, juvenile and mature leaves, but the buds and fruits of E. pseudo-globulus are conspicuously pedicellate, while those of E. bicostata are sessile; there is also marked variation in the shape of the buds and fruits of both species.

  ― 30 ―

CCCXCVII. E. paradoxa Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

GUM altiuscula; cortice levi, maculoso praeter basin trunci; foliis junioribus glaucis, ovato vel lato-lanceolatis; foliis maturis atro-viridibus, falcato-lanceolatis; alabastris 3–7 in umbellis axillaribus, levibus; operculo lato-conico; fructu sub-globoso; disco prominente; valvis crassis, exsertis, 10×11 mm.

A moderately large Gum tree; bark smooth, except at the base.

Juvenile leaves broad, glaucous, somewhat similar to those of E. Maideni.

Adult leaves lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, coriaceous, with long petioles, 10 to over 20 cm. long, 1·5–5 cm. broad; venation distinct, the midrib raised on the lower surface, forming a shallow channel above; lateral veins very irregular, usually wavy or rarely straight, somewhat numerous, spreading at an angle of 35–45° with the midrib; intramarginal vein usually conspicuous and well removed from the margin, which gives the leaf a somewhat triplinerved appearance.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels of 3–7 pedicellate flowers, the centre one on longer pedicels than the lateral ones. Common peduncle compressed-angular, up to 20 mm. long, 3–4 mm. broad. Buds shortly clavate, acute, or the operculum sharply conical, minutely glandular-rugose, but not warty, 10–12×6 mm. Calyx goblet-shaped, thin, about the same length as the operculum; pedicels quadrangular 4–5 mm. long.

Fruit mallet-shaped to sub-globose, rather thick, pedicellate, 10×11 mm., the rim somewhat sharp and oblique, with a rather large capsular disc which extends nearly halfway over the strong, deltoid, slightly exsert, valves; the calycine portion smooth, or sometimes unicostate.

Timber.—“Has a yellowish, inclining to light-brown chip, very much like E. globulus” (J. L. King). Probably a good timber.

Illustrations.—Buds and fruits are depicted on Plate 80, figs. 10a, 10b, and 11, under E. Maideni.


So far it is known only from Metung, Victoria. “A large tree, has a bark like E. globulus (E. bicostata), but not so light in colour, in fact it seems half way between E. tereticornis and E. globulus,” Metung (J. L. King). Tree by the Waterhole at the 60 acres, Metung (A. W. Howitt).


1. With E. Maideni F.v.M., from which it differs in the shape of the buds, which are more angular with a sharp calycine rim.

The operculum is also conoid, not dome-shaped and apiculate and warty like E. Maideni. The fruit is also less truncate and more subglobose, and abruptly tapers into a long, quadrangular pedicel. It is also non-glaucous, except the juvenile leaves.

  ― 31 ―

2. With E. bicostata Maiden, Blakely and Simmonds.

It seems to have almost the same habit and cortical characters as the above, but it is readily distinguished from it in the more numerous pedicellate buds and fruits, which also differ in size and shape, and they are non-glaucous.

2. With E. oviformis Maiden and Blakely.

It has the field characters of E. oviformis, and it also resembles it in the shape of the buds, but the fruits are distinct.

  ― 32 ―

CCCXCVIII. E. oviformis Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR altiuscula; cortice levi, maculoso; foliis maturis crassiusculis, prominente venosis, lato-lanceolatis; alabastris pedicellatis, 5–7 in umbella; operculo conico, calyce tubo longiore; fructu ovoideo, disco prominente, valvis exsertis, 12×11 mm.

A moderately large tree; bark smooth like E. tereticornis, but lighter and with reddish patches and black blotches. (J. L. King.)

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, rather thick, coriaceous, broad-lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, acuminate, 7–20×2–3·5 cm.; venation somewhat distinct, rather fine and distant, diverging at an angle of 40–50° to the midrib; intramarginal vein distant from the edge.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels of 5–7 pedicellate, medium-sized flowers. Peduncle compressed, strap-shaped, broader at the top, up to 17 mm. long. Buds cylindrical, scarcely acute, 10 mm. long; operculum somewhat sharply conical to slightly rostrate, somewhat glandular-rugose, longer than the small, slightly angular, calyx-tube. Pedicels quadrangular, 5–7 mm. long. Anthers versatile, opening in long parallel slits, and with a large dorsal gland.

Fruit nearly ovoid or mallet-shaped, 12×11 mm., with a broad, thick disc extending well over the short exsert, deltoid, valves, and with a clearly defined calycine ring; the rather long pedicel more or less quadrangular.

Timber reddish, but not so deep a red as E. tereticornis. It appears to be close-grained, hard and interlocked.


It is known only from Metung, Victoria (J. L. King, August, 1909). Only one tree observed by Mr. King. When I received the specimen I made the following note:—“I think a Eucalyptus hybrid in which probably the small-fruited globulus plays a part.” In 1912 I was of the opinion that it was a transit form of E. Maideni, and depicted it as such in Crit. Rev., Part XVIII, Plate 80, figs. 12a, 12b. We now agree that it is more closely allied to E. tereticornis than any other species known to us, and that it may be a natural hybrid between E. tereticornis and E. paradoxa.

  ― 33 ―


1. With E. tereticornis Sm.

It is closely allied to E. tereticornis, from which it may be distinguished by the lighter coloured timber, coarser peduncles, larger and different shaped glandular buds, and much larger ovoid fruits. It is very distinct from specimens of E. tereticornis from the same locality.

2. With E. Maideni F.v.M.

It has the cortical characters of E. Maideni, and also resembles it somewhat in the shape of the fruits.

3. With E. paradoxa Maiden and Blakely.

It resembles that species in cortical characters and to a limited extent in the buds and fruits. We have not seen the juvenile leaves of E. oviformis, and therefore cannot say whether they are glaucous or not.

  ― 34 ―

CCCXCIX. E. niphophila Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR parva alpina, vel arbustum, caulibus curvatus 3–20 pedes altis; cortex glaber, albus; ramuli per-glauci; folia juvenilia opposita vel alternautia, sessilia vel breviter petiolata, ovata vel orbicularia, pallide viridia, 2·3–4×1·5–2·5 cm.; folia matura alternata, petiolata, lanceolata, acuminata nonnuquam uncinata, crassa, coriacea, nitentia, 3–8×1·7–2·5 cm.; umbellae brevissimae, axillares, 3–7 floribus; gemmae valde glaucae, sessiles, clavatae, acutae, rugosae, 5–7×5 mm.; antherae reniformes; capsulae globosae vel turbinatae, truncatae, valde glaucae, 7–10×9–11 mm.

A small, crooked, alpine tree or mallee, with several whip-stick-like stems springing from a large woody rootstock, 3–20 feet high; bark usually smooth and white. Branchlets, inflorescence, and fruit very glaucous.

Juvenile leaves not seen in a fully developed state, the first two or three pairs opposite, sessile to very shortly petiolate, ovate to orbicular, apiculate, light green, not glaucous, 2–3·4 cm. long, 1·5–2·5 cm. broad. Venation very fine, distinct on both sides, the lateral veins often branched, diverging at an angle of 30–40° with the midrib, the secondary veins very numerous and reticulate, the intramarginal vein distant from the slightly revolute margin. Stems and internodes compressed reddish-brown, without any trace of glaucousness, the internodes up to 8 cm. long.

Intermediate leaves not seen.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, lanceolate to lanceolate-falcate, somewhat aequilateral with acuminate or uncinate points, thick, coriaceous, shining on both surfaces, 3–8 cm. long, 1·7–2·5 cm. broad. Venation somewhat longitudinal, distinct or sometimes totally obscure owing to the thickness of the leaves, the median nerve almost indistinguishable from the very fine lateral veins which sometimes extend the whole length of the leaf, but which usually diverge at an angle of 5–15° with the midrib; intramarginal vein usually close to the thick nerve-like margin. Petioles compressed-terete, glandular-rugose, up to 15 mm. long.

Inflorescence in short axillary umbels of 3–7 flowers. Peduncles rather thick, terete, usually much shorter than the buds. Buds very glaucous, sessile to very shortly pedicellate, clavate, with a somewhat acute, slightly rugose, operculum, 5–7 mm. long, 5 mm. in diameter. Calyx thick, broadly funnel-shaped, rather shallow, longer than the operculum. Filaments white, filiform, numerous, inflected, with perfect and rudimentary anthers. Anthers reniform, the broad, white, papery cells more or less lateral and terminating in a small gland. Style slender; stigma very small.

Fruit globose to turbinate, truncate, sessile or shortly pedicellate, usually very glaucous like the branchlets, glandular-rugose, the flat disc broad and thin, and usually partly concealing the very short enclosed valves, 7–10 mm. long, 9–11 mm. in diameter, invariably three-celled.

It is depicted in this work, Part V, Plate 26, fig. 6 (leaves and fruits), Plate 27, fig. 3 (juvenile leaves). All from Mount Kosciusko. There are also photographs of this species in “The Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part XV, Plate 58, facing pages 114 and 115, also a reproduction of fig. 6 above.


E. coriacea A. Cunn. var. alpina F.v.M.

  ― 35 ―


It is common in the alpine regions of New South Wales and Victoria. It does not appear to extend into Tasmania.

Victoria.—Mount Hotham, Victorian Alps (J. H. Maiden); Buffalo Mountains (Mr. West, per C. Walter).

New South Wales.—Pretty Point, Mount Kosciusko, also at the “tree-line,” about 6,500 feet elevation (J. H. Maiden and W. Forsyth, January, 1899). The type. Upper Cotter, Canberra, top of Bimberi Peak near Trig. Station, 6,264 feet, “the only Eucalypt on the summit, 10–20 feet high” (R. H. Cambage, No. 3470). “Small trees with a smooth bark and gnarled, bent and twisted stems,” top of Mount Tabletop, about 6,000 feet (E. Betche, February, 1887).


1. With E. coriacea A. Cunn.

It is readily separated from E. coriacea by the glaucousness of its characters, much smaller juvenile and adult leaves, fewer flowers in the umbels, and in the smaller fruits.

2. With E. de Beuzevillei Maiden.

This is another alpine species which displays glaucousness in the young shoots, buds, and fruits, but on the whole it is a much larger tree, while the buds and fruits are markedly more angular and coarser than those of E. niphophila.

  ― 36 ―

CD. E. congener Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR recta 40–60 alta, cortice aspero in trunco, levi in ramis; foliis junioribus leniter glaucis, lanceolatis, foliis maturis alternatis, petiolatis, lanceolatis, acuminatis, nitentibus; venis obscuris; inflorescentia in umbellis axillaribus 7–12 floris; alabastris gracilibus, conoideo-clavatis; operculo conico calycis tubo breviore; antheris adnatis, reniformibus; fructu pedicellato, ovoideo vel fere globoso, 8×7 mm.

A tree 40–60 feet high, stems straight, 2–4 feet in diameter. Bark on trunk rough, intermediate between a Box and a Peppermint bark, smooth on the branches, which decorticates in short, thin ribbons.

Juvenile leaves not seen in the earliest stage, opposite, lanceolate, shortly petiolate and slightly glaucous, 6 cm. long, 3 cm. in diameter. Venation indistinct, the lateral veins diverging at an angle of 40–50° with the midrib.

Intermediate leaves somewhat glaucous when fresh, broadly and obliquely lanceolate, on long petioles, thin, coriaceous, 8–15 cm. long, 3–7 cm. broad; venation fairly distinct, the median nerve rather small, compressed beneath, slightly channelled above; lateral veins radiating at an angle of 20–40° with the midrib, the intramarginal vein distant from the edge.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, narrow-lanceolate to obliquely falcate-lanceolate, acuminate, the long slender apex often uncinate, rather thin and shining on both surfaces, with very obscure veins, 7–21 cm. long, 1·5–2·5 cm. broad, median nerve very slender, slightly raised beneath, faintly channelled above, usually excentric and closer to the lower margin; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 25–30° with the midrib; intramarginal vein close to the edge.

Inflorescence axillary, the peduncle compressed and slightly angular, 10–20 mm. long, bearing an umbel of 7–12 slender conoid-clavate buds; operculum conical, shorter than the calyx-tube. Anthers adnate, reniform, with broad cells and a minute terminal gland.

Fruit pedicellate, ovoid to nearly globular, truncate, rather thick, with a distinct flat or slightly oblique dark-coloured, thick disc; valves four, minute, enclosed below the lower edge of the disc, 6–7×8–9 mm.

Illustrations.—It is depicted in the present work, Part X, Plate 45, figs. 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, under E. piperita, and at p. 304 it is referred to as follows:—“At Wingello, New South Wales, there is an interesting tree known as ‘Messmate,’ one of two or three local trees which display variation. This particular ‘Messmate’ has fruits with rather thicker rim than the normal piperita, and some fruits even display a rim like eugenioides. It would be difficult, from fruits and leaves alone, to say whether this specimen is eugenioides or piperita, under which species I have accordingly arranged it. See fig. 8, Plate 45.”


So far, it appears to be confined to the Wingello district, New South Wales. “There are several trees of this species growing in the vicinity of Wingello township. In general appearance they look like E. pilularis, by reason of their rough stems and smooth-barked branches.” (J. L. Boorman and Andrew Murphy).

  ― 37 ―


1. With E. piperita Sm.

E. congener resembles E. piperita somewhat in the leaves, buds and to a certain extent in the fruits. The latter vary from pyriform to semi-pyriform, and are considerably thicker, with a prominent red rim, and a broader orifice than the typical E. piperita. Mr. J. L. Boorman suggests that it may be a natural hybrid between E. piperita and E. Sieberiana. The fruits and the juvenile leaves approach those of E. Sieberiana somewhat.

2. With E. Bottii Blakely.

This appears to be its closest affinity, from which it differs in being a smaller tree with leaves of a slightly different venation, and in the juvenile branches being reddish, not pruinose, in the fewer buds in the umbel, with their relatively shorter opercula, and in the thicker and different shaped fruits with their reddish, thick disc. The leaves also are less aromatic than those of E. Bottii, and the timber appears to be paler and inferior to the timber of the latter species.

3. With E. urceolaris Maiden and Blakely.

It would appear that both species have the same general appearance in the field, but the conoid-clavate buds and the pilular fruits of E. congener readily separate it from E. urceolaris, which has urceolate-rostrate buds, and distinctly urceolate fruits. Both species are said to yield a good durable timber, superior to that of the typical E. piperita.

  ― 38 ―

CDI. E. nubilis Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

IRONBARK parva, glauca; foliis junioribus ovatis vel lato-lanceolatis, 7–14 cm. longis, 4–8 cm. latis; foliis maturis lanceolatis, glaucis, 6–16 cm. longis, 1·5–3 cm. latis; alabastris cylindraceis vel conoideis, obtusis; antheris reniformibus; fructu pyriformi; pedicellis gracilibus.

A small to medium-sized Ironbark, with a rugged, dark, fibrous bark throughout, and with slightly glaucous branchlets, leaves, buds and fruits.

Juvenile leaves not seen in the earliest stage, some of the lower leaves opposite for 3–4 pairs, petiolate, ovate to broad-lanceolate, slightly glaucous, coriaceous, 7–14×4–8 cm.; venation not very distinct, the lateral veins somewhat distant, diverging at an angle of 45–50° to the midrib; intramarginal vein usually distant from the edge.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, narrow-lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate or acuminate, coriaceous, rather dull and subglaucous, 6–16×1·5–3 cm.; venation obscure, the lateral veins usually spreading at an angle of 40° to the midrib; intramarginal vein close to the edge.

Inflorencence in axillary umbels or forming short terminal paniculate racemes. Buds 5–12 in the head, usually on slender, slightly angular, pedicels, ovoid to cylindrical, obtuse or rarely very acute, 10–12×5 mm., the campanulate calyx-tube usually shorter than the obtuse, conical operculum. Anthers reniform, with very broad lateral cells and a small terminal gland.

Fruit pedicellate, clavate to pyriform, 7×6 mm., or even smaller, slightly constricted at the top with a very small, scarcely visible ring and 3–4 very small, slightly exsert, valves.

Timber.—“Blue-leaf Ironbark.” Mr. J. V. de Coque recently drew attention to this tree, and pointed out that its timber is inferior to that of the other Ironbarks of the Dubbo district. Its timber is of an inferior quality, both as regards “ringing” and “splitting” (cracking), so much so that the timber-getters never cut it except for rails. Mr. Boorman points out that it grows on slightly elevated lands, and is confined to such situations only. When growing in the forest it can readily be noted by its glaucous appearance. (Original description.)

Illustrations.—It is depicted at Plate 47, Part X, as E. siderophloia var. glauca, figs. 29–33.


E. siderophloia Benth., var. glauca Deane and Maiden, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., XXIV, 461 (1899).


It is not plentiful and seems to be confined to moderately dry areas both in New South Wales and south-western Queensland.

New South Wales.—Between Murrumbidgerie and Mudgee, also 8 miles from Dunedoo (Andrew Murphy); Peak Hill (R. H. Cambage). Not quite typical, but it is nearer to this species than to E. siderophloia. Minore (J. L. Boorman); 6 miles

  ― 39 ―
rom Dubbo (H. Deane, J. L. Boorman. Type locality); Midway, near Dubbo (J. L. Boorman); Melleroi, Pilliga district (E. H. F. Swain); Gungal and Emmaville (J. L. Boorman).

Queensland.—A Box, similar to Gum-topped, occurs only on hard, elevated country, Inglewood (C. J. Smith, per C. T. White); Chinchilla State Forest (G. Singleton, per C. T. White).


1. With E. siderophloia Benth.

It is readily separated from this species by the narrow, glaucous leaves, smaller buds and fruits. The latter have not the quadrangular pedicels of the typical E. siderophloia, and the juvenile leaves of E. nubilis are also smaller than those of E. siderophloia. It is also a much smaller tree, and although it has a moderately wide range, it is more restricted in its distribution than is E. siderophloia.

2. With E. Murphyi Maiden and Blakely.

The narrow mature leaves and the small fruits of E. nubilis are somewhat like those of E. Murphyi, but the latter species is not quite so glaucous, while the timber appears to be far superior to that of the former.

  ― 40 ―

CDII. E. Grasbyi Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR 30–40 pedes alta, ad 20 uncias diametro; truncus sursum asper ad 6 pedes, deinceps glaber; folia juvenilia nondum visa; folia matura alternata petiolata, angusto-lanceolata, acuminata, uncinata, crassa, nitentia, 4–10 cm. longa, 5–14 mm. lata; venatio penninervia; inflorescentia umbellis axillaribus 4–8 parvorum florum; gemmae pedicellatae conicae, 6–25 mm.; operculum glabrums esquilongius calyci cyathiformi; filamenta gemmis longiora; antherae cellis latis; fructus adhuc non visus.

A tree, 30–40 feet high, up to 20 inches in diameter; trunk rough for about 6 feet, then smooth (Fitzgerald Fraser).

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, uncinate, thick, pale-green, gossy on both sides, 4–10 cm. long, 5–14 mm. broad; venation penninerved, the median nerve distinct on both surfaces; lateral veins very fine, somewhat obscure, radiating at an angle of 30–35° with the midrib; intramarginal vein close to the edge. Oil glands very numerous.

Inflorescence in small axillary umbels of 4–8 small, white flowers. Peduncle slender, terete or nearly so. Buds pedicellate, conical, scarcely acute, 6 mm. long, the smooth conical operculum about one and a half times longer than the small cupular calyx; pedicels slender, scarcely as long as the buds. Filaments exceeding the buds, all antheriferous, with broad-celled anthers. Style slender, almost terete; stigma very small. Floral disc forming a small, dark, carnose lining around the calyx-tube, but free from the ovary.

Fruit not seen,

Named in honour of William Catton Grasby, Agricultural Editor of “The Western Mail,” who for a number of years has taken a keen interest in the flora of Western Australia.


It is known only from Lake Barlee, Western Australia (Fitzgerald Fraser, through W. C. Grasby, September, 1919).


1. With E. Kochii Maiden and Blakely.

It is a small slender tree like E. Kochii, with narrow-lanceolate leaves, and small slender buds. The leaves, however, are broader than those of E. Kochii, and although the buds are about the same size in both species, the operculum is more elongated in E. Grasbyi, and the calyx is relatively shorter.

2. With E. longicornis F.v.M.

It has the same shaped buds as E. longicornis, but they are considerably smaller, while the peduncle and pedicels are more filiform. When the fruit is obtained it will probably be much smaller and more hemispherical than that of E. longicornis.

  ― 41 ―

CDIII. E. Kochii Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR parva gracilis; cortex glaber; ramuli subcompressi sed mox teretes; folia juvenilia nondum visa; folia matura alternata, petiolata, lineari-lanceolata, acuminata, nonnunquam uncinata, 3–8·5 cm. long, 5–9 mm. lata, venis obscuris; inflorescentia formans umbellas 3–6 florum pedicellatorum; gemmae cylindricae, 5–6 mm. longae. Platyantherae; capsulae late urceolate, 7×6 mm., valvis subulatis plerumque inclusis.

A small, slender tree; bark smooth; branches terete, covered with a smooth reddish bark which decorticates in small, thin, scaly pieces, leaving the branches smooth and pink.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, linear-lanceolate, acuminate or uncinate, flat, moderately thick, gradually attenuated at the base into a slender, shortish petiole, 3–8·5 cm. long, 5–9 mm. broad. Venation obscure, only the median nerve visible without the aid of a lens, very fine and slightly channelled on both surfaces, as is usually the case with nearly all the interior or sand-plain species.

Inflorescence consisting of small axillary umbels, on short, slightly compressed peduncles, usually shorter than the buds, supporting 3–6 pedicellate flowers. Buds cylindrical, 5–6 mm. long, the operculum narrow-conical, obtuse or nearly so, thin, smooth, slightly longer than the pale-coloured campanulate calyx-tube. Filaments inflected in the bud, very long, except a few of the inner ones, which scarcely exceed the attenuated style; stigma very small, dark-coloured. Anthers (Platyantherae) rather large, the cells broad and globular when fully expanded.

Fruit pedicellate, broadly urceolate, truncate, thick, slightly rugose, 7×6 mm., 3–4 celled, with very fine subulate valves which sometimes slightly protrude beyond the contracted orifice.

Illustrations.—It is depicted, under E. oleosa, as a form, in this work, Part XV, Plate 66, figs. 2a, 2b, 2c.


It is known only from Watheroo rabbit fence, Western Australia (Max Koch, Nos. 1608, 1990, 1990a, September, 1905).

It is named in honour of the late Mr. Max Koch, who for more than thirty years took a very keen interest in the flora of South and Western Australia, and distributed specimens to the leading herbaria in different parts of the world. He died in 1925.


1. With E. oleosa F.v.M.

It appears to differ from E. oleosa in habit and also in the bark, as well as in the narrow leaves, which dry a very pale colour, in the different shaped buds, and in the urceolate fruits.

2. With E. Grasbyi see page 40.

  ― 42 ―

CDIV. E. platycorys Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

MALLEE vel arbor parva; ramulis fere teretibus; foliis petiolatis, angusto-lanceolatis vel falcato-lanceolatis, apice acuminato vel uncinato, crassis pallido-viridibus, 5–8 cm. longis, 8–15 mm. latis, venis valde obscuris; alabastris solitariis vel geminis in pedunculo brevi; calyce cupulare, costato, 6 mm. longo, 6–7 mm. diametro; operculo depresso, conoideo vel convexo, striato, 4 mm. longo, 8 mm. diametro; fructu non viso.

A Mallee or small tree; branchlets almost terete.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves petiolate, narrow-lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, acuminate, sometimes terminating in long uncinate points, thick, light green, smooth and glossy on both sides, 5–8 cm. long, 8–15 mm. broad; venation obscure, the median nerve alone conspicuous, slightly channelled on both surfaces; lateral veins almost invisible, radiating at an angle of 35° to the midrib; intramarginal vein confluent with the nerve-like margin; petioles terete, 9–12 mm. long, much darker than the leaves.

Inflorescence axillary. Buds solitary or in pairs, on slender, terete peduncles about 5 mm. long, almost sessile, mushroom-headed. Calyx broadly cupular, costate, dark brown, glossy, 6 mm. long, 6–7 mm. broad. Operculum depressed-conical or convex, of a greater diameter than the calyx-tube, striate, 4 mm. long, 8 mm. in diameter. Anthers adnate, with broad lateral cells. Fruit not seen.


Known only from Boorabbin, west from Coolgardie, Western Australia (Dr. A. Morrison, 16th January, 1906).

We have had this specimen since 1906, and at one time labelled it E. incrassata var.scyphocalyx F.v.M., but after carefully comparing it with the type of var.scyphocalyx, came to the conclusion that it was a distinct species, and it was set aside, thinking that some day it would be augmented with additional material. As that wish has not been fulfilled, we decided to describe it and give it a name so as to attract the attention of local botanists to it. It appears to be an attractive looking plant, with narrow glossy leaves, and plump, dark-coloured mushroom-headed, striate buds. The fruits are unknown.


It has nearly the same shaped buds as E. Clelandi, but they are not glaucous, and, moreover, they are fewer in the head. On the other hand, E Clelandi is a more or less glaucous plant, while E platycorys is dark to light green throughout.

  ― 43 ―

CDV. E. Kingsmilli Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

FRUTEX val arbor parva, 12–20' alta; foliis junioribus angusto-lanceolatis, 4–6×1 cm.; foliis maturis petiolatis, lanceolatis, tenuibus, venis paulo obscuris, 7–13×1·5–2·5 cm.; floribus axillaribus; filamentis flavis; alabastris plerumque triplicibus, in pedicellis longis, gracilibus, puniceis, rostratis, costis angustis 6–8; calycis tubo hemisphærico; fructu fere hemisphærico, disco prominente. 2×3 cm.

A shrub, or small tree, attaining a height of about 20 feet, with rough bark on the trunk, the upper branches being smooth. The crimson flower-buds give the tree a most ornamental appearance.

Juvenile leaves (not seen in the earliest stage, i.e., not quite opposite, but earlier than I have ever seen them in any form of E. pyriformis) narrow-lanceolate, say 4–6 cm. long and 1 cm. in the widest part, with petioles of about 1 cm. Equally pale green on both sides, venation not conspicuous the secondary veins at an angle of about 45° with the midrib.

Mature leaves apparently not different from those of the normal form of E. pyriformis.

Flowers in an umbel usually of three, with a rounded or flattened peduncle of about 4 cm., with pedicels of half that length. Anthers as in E. pyriformis. Buds with calyx-tubes nearly hemispherical and about 2 cm. in diameter. The operculum continued into an almost pungent point. Both the calyx-tube and operculum covered with about eight thin prominent wings, about 4 mm. deep, giving the buds a remarkable appearance. The style about 1·5 cm. long, persistent, with the stigma of scarcely increased diameter. Anthers broad (Platyantherae) with broad lateral cells and a very small terminal gland.

Disc at first concave, with a sharp raised inner ring flush with the top of the calyx-tube, which continues to grow upward, and at the same time expanding outwards, completely absorbing the concave cavity (noted in the early stages of its growth), until it reaches a height of 3–4 mm. above the level of the truncate calyx rim.

Fruit nearly hemispherical, 2·5 cm. in diameter, with eight prominent wings; these and the remainder of the calyx-tube (calycine rim) raised about the staminal ring.

This bizarre and showy variety, which promises to be an interesting addition to gardens in semi-tropical districts of low rainfall, is named in honour of the Hon. William Kingsmill, M.L.C., who has for many years taken a most active interest in forestry matters in Western Australia, and who has frequently assisted my botanical work for that State.

It is depicted in Part XLI, Plate 171, and described on p. 18.


E. pyriformis Turcz. var. Kingsmilli Maiden. It is a species quite distinct from E. pyriformis.

  ― 44 ―


Confined to Western Australia, as far as we know. From the East Murchison to Lake Way. The type from close to a mining camp called Mount Keith, about 160 miles north of Leonora (W. Kingsmill, July, 1918). I subsequently received the following specimen from the National Herbarium, Melbourne (Prof. Ewart). “Bush of 10 feet.” Upper Ashburton River (W. Cuthbertson), 1888. This is the variety Kingsmilli, but with peduncles and pedicels shorter, and fruits smaller than in the type.


1. With E. pyriformis Turcz.

It has the same kind of costate buds and fruits as E. pyriformis, but they are considerably smaller and more deeply winged. There is also a great deal of difference in the habit of the two species, E. Kingsmilli is sometimes a small tree, while E. pyriformis is a low branching shrub.

2. With E. pachyphylla F.v.M., Part XLI, Plate 171, figs. 1a, 1b, 2, 3.

This species appears to be its closest affinity, from which it differs in the larger and more prominently costate and pointed buds, with their long, slender pedicels, and larger and conspicuously winged fruits. It is also much taller, sometimes attaining a small tree 20 feet high, whereas E. pachyphylla is a small shrub not more than 6–10 feet high.

  ― 45 ―

CDVI. E. scyphocalyx (F.v.M.) Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

MALLEE parva; foliis iunioribus non visis; foliis maturis angusto-lanceolatis, petiolatis, alternatis, 6–8 cm longis, 1 cm. latis; inflorescentia in umbellis brevibus axillaribus, floribus 3–6 breviter pedicellatis; alabastris cylindraceo-urceolatis, obtusis 10–12 mm. longis; calyce urceolato; antheris versatilibus; fructu breviter pedicellato dolioformi, 10×9 mm.

A Mallee or small tree.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, narrow-lanceolate, somewhat thick, glossy and distinctly channelled on both surfaces, 6–8 cm. long, up to 1 cm. broad. Venation moderately distinct, the lateral veins very fine, diverging at an angle of 30–40° to the midrib; intramarginal vein usually somewhat distant from the margin.

Inflorescence in short axillary umbels of 3–6 shortly pedicellate, medium-sized flowers, the common peduncle compressed, rather short; buds cylindrical to cylindroid-urceolate, obtuse, 10–12 mm. long. Calyx campanulate-urceolate, smooth or faintly striate, 8×6 mm.; operculum broadly and obtusely conical smooth, broader and much shorter than the calyx. Filaments white, very numerous. Anthers moderately large, versatile, the cells broad, longitudinal, with a large globular dorsal gland occupying the upper half of the anther.

Fruit very shortly pedicellate, barrel shaped, 10×9 mm., faintly striate, the rim thin, rather sharp and oblique.

Illustrations.—It is figured in Part IV, Plate 13, figs. 5a, 5b, 5c.


E. dumosa A. Cunn., var. scyphocalyx F.v.M.


It has only been found at Eyre's Relief Camp, Great Australian Bight, Western Australia. Collector not known.

  ― 46 ―


1. With E. incrassata Labill.

At one time I expressed the opinion that it was near the E. incrassata type, but after carefully comparing it with the type, we agree that it is a species distinct from E. incrassata, and from which it may be recognised by the narrow leaves, shorter peduncles, cylindrical buds with very short pedicels, and with a much broader, shorter, and more obtuse operculum. The calyx is also more cylindroid-urceolate and longer than the calyx of E. incrassata. The fruits are also more sessile and more barrel-shaped than he accepted type of E. incrassata.

2. With E. dumosa A. Cunn.

In botanical characters it has very little in common with this species, the buds and fruits being totally different to those of E. dumosa.

3. With E. platycorys Maiden and Blakely.

This species appears to be its closest affinity, from which it differs in the much longer buds, and narrower, non-striate operculum.

  ― 47 ―

CDVII. E. Helmsii Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

APPARET Mallee vel arbor minor; folia juvenilia non visa; folia matura petiolata, linearia vel angusto-lanceolata, uncinata vel acuminata, valde nitentia, admodum crassa, 4–7 cm. longa, 5–15 mm. lata; inflorescentia umbellis axillaribus 3–6 florum; gemmae pedicellatae, cylindraceae, 10–12 mm. longae, 6–7 mm. diametro; calyx cyathiformis, crassus, costulatus; operculum late conicum, rugosum; filamenta numerosa, antherae latae, versatiles; capsulae nec in situ visae pedicellatac, late turbinatae, necnon rugosae, 8–9 mm. longae et sub apice aequalater latae.

Probably a small tree or Mallee.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves petiolate, linear to narrow-lanceolate, acuminate or uncinate, very glossy, somewhat thick, 4–7 cm. long, 5–15 mm. broad, veins obscure, the midrib conspicuous and channelled on both sides; lateral veins very fine, diverging at an angle of 40–45° with the midrib, the intramarginal vein very close to the edge.

Inflorescence axillary; buds 3–6 on a slender peduncle, all pedicellate, somewhat cylindrical, acute, 10–12 mm. long, 6–7 mm. in diameter; calyx cupular or goblet-shaped, rugose or imperfectly ribbed, shining, rather thick, 6×5 mm.; operculum broadly conical to almost rostrate, thick, rugose, scarcely striate, shorter than the calyx-tube; filaments very numerous; anthers broad, versatile with a large ovate dorsal gland.

Fruit (detached) pedicellate, broadly turbinate, truncate, slightly corrugated, shining like the buds, 8–9 mm. long and about as broad at the top; disc narrow, slightly raised above the calycine ring, convex, the four short, broad, valves enclosed and quite free from the disc.

Named in honour of Richard Helms, who was Naturalist and Botanical Collector to the Elder Scientific Expedition.


It was collected on the Elder Exploring Expedition, near Victoria Desert, Western Australia, Camp 59 (R. Helms, No. 14, 23rd September, 1891). The type. There are two specimens of loose fruits from Victoria Desert, Camp 56, (R. Helms, Nos. 13 and 26, 19th September, 1891) which appear to be referable to this species. The fruits, however, are slightly smaller and are almost smooth.

  ― 48 ―


1. With E. scyphocalyx, n.sp. Maiden and Blakely.

It differs from this species in the shape of the buds and fruits. The buds of E. scyphocalyx are somewhat cylindrical-campanulate to cylindroid-urceolate, and very shortly petiolate. The fruits are also urceolate and nearly sessile, not turbinate as in E. Helmsii.

2. With E. platycorys, n.sp. Maiden and Blakely.

Both species have light green, narrow, shining leaves, but differ to a great extent in the shape of the buds, and particularly as regards the operculum, which is much broader and more dome-shaped in E. platycorys. The pedicels of the latter species are more abbreviated than those of the former.

  ― 49 ―

CDVIII. E. concinna Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR parva gracilis, vel Mallee 6–12 pedes alta; foliis dilute viridibus, nitentissimis, 5–11 cm. longis, 1–3 cm. latis; inflorescentia in umbellis axillaribus 3–6 floris; floribus pedicellatis; operculo obtuso, striato, calyce breviore; antheris versatilibus, loculis longitudinalibus; fructu pedicellato, pyriformi vel clavato; valvis subulatis, exsertis (8–10×6–10 mm.).

A small slender tree or Mallee, 6–12 feet high.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, narrow-lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, more or less acuminate, light glossy green, somewhat thick and with a very obscure venation, 5–11 cm. long, 1–3 cm. broad; petioles slender, almost terete, 9–12 mm. long; lateral veins spreading at an angle of 40–45° to the midrib; intramarginal vein very close to the margin, and sometimes blending into the marginal nerve.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels of 3–6 pedicellate flowers, the peduncle compressed, broader at the top, 7–10 mm. long. Buds clavate, more or less angular, on slender, slightly compressed pedicels, ranging from 4–7 mm. long, sometimes two or more buds in the same cluster with longer pedicels than the others. Calyx cupular, 5–6 mm. long, smooth or faintly bicostate, with very faint parallel veins. Operculum blunt, depressed-hemispherical to cupola-shaped when inverted, striate. 3–4 mm. long, 6–7 mm. in diameter, usually of a greater diameter than the calyx-tube. Filaments numerous, far more numerous than in E. dumosa. Anthers moderately large, versatile, with broad cells and a large, oblong, dorsal gland. Floral disc obscure or rudimentary.

Fruit pedicellate, pyriform to mallet-shaped or somewhat turbinate, truncate, glossy, faintly and irregularly costate, 8–10×6–10 mm.; capsular disc obscure, valves subulate, lightly exserted.

It appears to be a striking species with light green leaves and unique clavate buds on long slender pedicels. It is depicted in Part IV, Plate 15, figs. 6a, 6b, under E. incrassata (miscellaneous forms).


Camp 49, Victoria Desert, Western Australia, Elder Exploring Expedition, 12th September, 1891 (R. Helms). The type. This is the only locality known to us.


1. With E. Griffithsii Maiden.

The buds of both species are somewhat alike in shape, but those of E. concinna are more numerous in the head, much smaller, and less angular than the buds of E. Griffithsii. The fruits of the latter are also larger and more strongly costate than those of E. concinna.

2. With E. ochrophylla, n. sp. See p. 50.

3. With E. dumosa A. Cunn.

It has larger buds and different shaped fruits than the typical E. dumosa, and light-green, glossy leaves.

  ― 50 ―

CDIX. E. ochrophylla Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

MALLEE 6–25 pedes alta, caudice basi admodum aspero sursum glabro cinereo; folia juvenilia alternata sessilia vel petiolis brevissimis, glaucescentia, elliptico-oblonga, 2·5–3·5×1·5–2 cm.; folia matura alternata petiolata, angusto vel late lanceolata nunc falcata, nunc acuminata, 4–11×1·5–3·5 cm.; flores axillares, 5–7 pedunculo compresso; gemmae pedicellatae, clavatae, obtusae, 8–10 mm. longae; operculum depresso, hemisphæricum, leviter striatae; antherae versatilis cellis longitudinalibus latis; capsulae pedicellatae, clavatae, truncatae, 7–8×5–6 mm., valvis subulatis, exsertis.

A small shrub or Mallee, 6–25 feet high, with short, whitish stems with a little rough bark at base and light green glossy adult leaves.

Juvenile leaves not seen in the earliest stages, alternate, sessile, or very shortly petiolate, flat, dull drying a pale slaty-green, elliptical to oblong, 2·5–3·5 cm. long, 1·5–2 cm. broad; venation almost obscure, the median nerve somewhat prominent on the lower surface, slightly channelled on the upper; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 40–50° with the midrib; intramarginal vein close to the edge. Stems quadrangular; oil dots numerous.

Intermediate leaves not seen in a perfect state, alternate, shortly petiolate, oblong to lanceolate, thick, dull, drying a pale slaty-green, 3–8 cm. long, 1–2 cm. broad; veins obscure, the median nerve slightly prominent on the lower surface, compressed or channelled above; lateral veins very fine, spreading at an angle of 40–50° with the midrib.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, narrow to broad-lanceolate, or falcate-lanceolate, sometimes terminating in a long acuminate point, 4–11 cm. long, 1·5–3·5 cm. broad, flat, thick, coriaceous, yellowish-green, glossy on both sides; lateral veins very fine, radiating at an angle of 35–40° with the midrib; intramarginal vein usually close to the edge.

Inflorescence axillary, the common peduncle compressed, up to 13 mm. long, supporting 5–7 medium-sized white flowers. Buds pedicellate, clavate, 8–10 mm. long; operculum obtuse or depressed-hemispherical, slightly striate, thick, 5–6×2–3 mm. Calyx-tube wine-glass shaped, thick, more or less rugose, fully twice as long as the operculum. Filaments short, not numerous, apparently in one row. Anthers versatile, white, with broad longitudinal cells, and a large dorsal gland. Style short, thick, somewhat pyramidal at the base, persistent; stigma black, capitate. Floral disc forming a thick carnose lining around the shallow calyx-tube.

Fruit pedicellate, goblet-shaped to rounded-clavate, sometimes slightly contracted at the top, truncate, smooth and shining, 7–8×5–6 mm., valves usually 4, somewhat subulate, exsert; disc small, distinct, usually forming a flat or slightly convex band around the orifice.


It seems to be mainly confined to the somewhat arid interior of South Australia. The following are the localities :—

South Australia.—Immana, near Ooldea (Professor J. B. Cleland, No. 67); Ooldea, said to be the Water Mallee (water in roots). Recognised by its yellow branchlets (same collector as above, Nos. 71, 72, and Ooldea Soak, No. 68); Mallee clumps. 15–25 feet

  ― 51 ―
high, with ragged or ribbony bark, growing in flats between sand hills (E. H. Ising); buds and fruits not mature. Sand Hill east of Ooldea, Transcontinental Railway Survey (H. Deane, June, 1909); Barton, “Mallee” (Professor J. B. Cleland, No. 66); 70 miles south-west of Camp 17, Elder Exploring Expedition (R. Ramsey, 17th July, 1891).

Western Australia.—Comet Vale (J. H. Maiden, September, 1909).


1. With E. concinna Maiden and Blakely.

There is a great deal of similarity in the buds of both species, but those of E. ochrophylla are less angular and the pedicels are much shorter. The fruit of the latter is also more mallet-shaped than that of the former.

2. With E. striatacalyx W. V. Fitz.

This is another species with striate buds, but the operculum is much longer and more pointed (as long or longer than the tube, original description) than that of E. ochrophylla, whilst the fruits are more campanulate, with a slightly different disc. E. striaticalyx is a much larger tree than E. ochrophylla, and it is also different in cortical characters.

3. With E. dumosa A. Cunn.

It resembles this species somewhat in the striate buds, but they are much broader and more obtuse than those of E. dumosa. The fruit also is larger and not campanulate like the fruit of E. dumosa. In the herbarium the leaves of E. dumosa usually dry a slaty-brown colour, whereas the leaves of E. ochrophylla dry a light yellow colour, and they are more glossy than those of E. dumosa.

  ― 52 ―

CDX. E. Nicholi Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR salici similis; ramis pendulis cortice sub-fibroso; foliis junioribus linearibus, crenulatis, 2–5 cm. longis, 3–6 mm. latis, foliis maturis lanceolatis vel falcato-lanceolatis, 6–12 cm.×10–15 mm.; alabastris, ovoideis, acutis, pedicellatis; antheris versatilibus longitudinaliter dehiscentibus; fructu hemispherico vel globoso, 4×5 mm.

A singularly graceful tree, reminding one of a Weeping Willow. Height 30–50 feet, and trunk. diameter 2 feet, as far as seen. The twigs are slender, a characteristic of the tree being the smallness and the grace of its parts. Bark sub-fibrous, Peppermint-like.

Juvenile leaves opposite for 2–4 pairs, sessile or nearly so, linear to linear-lanceolate, light green, somewhat crenulate, 2–5 cm. long, 2–5 mm. broad, venation very fine, sometimes obscure.

Intermediate leaves alternate, petiolate, broad-lanceolate, up to 5·5 cm. long, 1·5 cm. broad, venation very fine; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 20–35° to the midrib, intramarginal vein somewhat distant from the margin.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, narrow-lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, thin, 6–12 cm. long 10–15 mm. broad, venation fine and somewhat irregular; lateral veins radiating at an angle of 35–40° to the midrib; intramarginal vein distinct from the nerve-like margin. A good deal of the young foliage reminds one superficially of that of the Wilga (Geijera parviflora).

Buds pedicellate, 5–8 or more in the head, elliptical to slightly urceolate, 5×3 mm.; operculum conical, slightly shorter than the campanulate calyx-tube. Anthers versatile, opening in parallel slits.

Fruit hemispherical to sub-globose, sometimes with a sharp rim, 4×5 mm. Valves well exserted; Pedicels about as long as the fruit; the common peduncle 7–10 mm. long.

Timber pale reddish, rather soft, not very durable.

Vernacular Names.—A “Peppermint” or “Narrow-leaved Peppermint” “Grey Peppermint” (H. Deane).

Illustrations.—It is depicted in Part XXII, Plate 93, figs. 6a–9a. See also Coloured Plate 7, figs. 62–64.

Named in honour of Richard Nichol, my private secretary and Chief Clerk, Botanic Gardens, who for nearly forty years has been a member of the Botanic Gardens staff and for the greater portion of that period has assisted me in many ways with my botanical work.


E. acaciæformis, Deane and Maiden var. linearis, Deane and Maiden.

  ― 53 ―


New England, New South Wales. I have personally collected it from Yarrowitch to Walcha, and Mr. Henry Deane near Glen Innes. It also occurs in the Armidale district. “On slate formation at Enmore, head waters of Macleay River, 18 miles east of Uralla” (R. H. Cambage, No. 3780); Swamp Oak (E. H. F. Swain). “On quartz felsite, Mordun Creek, 12–14 miles south-east of Tingha. First record known to me west of the Great Northern Railway Line” (R. H. Cambage, No. 4444, 11th July, 1924). I have also received a specimen from the Botanic Gardens, Ootacamund, India (R. L. Proudlock).


1. With E. acaciæformis Deane and Maiden.

It is readily distinguished from E. acaciæformis by the very narrow or linear juvenile leaves. Those of E. acaciæformis are broadly oblong to lanceolate. The fruits of E. Nicholi are also slightly smaller and have more prominent valves than the fruits of E. acaciæformis; the pedicels are also longer and more filiform. The branches of E. Nicholi are more pendulous than those of E. acaciæformis. In Part XLIX, p. 289, there is a note on the drooping branches. The seedling leaves are distinct from those of E. acaciæformis; they are opposite for a larger number of pairs, and linear, not oblong like those of E. acaciæformis.

2. With E. nova-anglica Deane and Maiden.

The buds and fruits of E. Nichloi are small, like those of the above species, but they are not glaucous.

  ― 54 ―

CDXI. x E. Crawfordi Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR mediocris, cortice ramulorum aspero, squamoso; folia juvenilia nondum visa; folia matura attenuata, petiolata, angusto-lanceolata, acuminata, 7–16 cm. longa, 1·5–3 cm. lata; flores 5–12 in umbellis axillaribus; gemmae pedicellatae, ovatae, acutae, circiter 6 mm. longae; antherae versatiles, longitudinaliter dehiscentes; capulac pedicellatae, campanulatae, 3–4×3–4 mm.

A supposed natural hybrid between E. saligna and E. acaciæformis. A tree up to 70 feet high, with a rough scaly bark extending to the small branches, the remainder of the branches smooth and of a pinkish colour.

Juvenile and intermediate leaves not seen.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, thin, slightly paler on the lower surface, 7–16 cm. long, 1·5–3 cm. broad. Venation moderately distinct, and somewhat coarser than in E. saligna, the median nerve prominent beneath, faintly channelled above. Lateral veins irregular, often furcate, spreading at an angle of 45–55° with the midrib. Intramarginal vein close to the edge.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels, the peduncle slender, compressed, 6–8 mm. long, supporting 5–12 shortly pedicellate flowers. Buds yellowish-brown, ovate, acute; calyx-tube campanulate, 3 mm. long, and about as broad; operculum acutely conoid to rostrate, about the same length as the calyx-tube, the pedicels 2–3 mm. long. Filaments white; anthers versatile, with longitudinal cells and a large basal gland.

Fruit campanulate, truncate, pedicellate, somewhat thin, three or four-celled, the short, deltoid acute valves enclosed or slightly exceeding the small annular capsular disc which is evolved from the staminal ring, 4–5 mm. long, 4–4·5 mm. in diameter.

Named in honour of the late Mr. A. R. Crawford, of Moona Plains, Walcha, who was a keen student of our vegetation, and on several occasions brought under my notice (J.H.M.) the tree which now bears his name. It was my intention to figure it along with the other natural hybrids in Part LII, but it was overlooked.


So far it has only been recorded from Moona Plains, Walcha, New South Wales, Mr. A. L. Crawford. In January, 1897, 1898, and in December, 1904, Mr. Crawford sent me specimens of this tree accompanied by the following note concerning it:—“No. 1, a supposed hybrid between Eucalyptus saligna and E. acaciæformis, Black Peppermint. Trunk rough from the ground to within 3–4 feet from tips of branches. The tree is about 70 feet high, and there are other young trees resembling it which are 20 or 30 feet high, perhaps seedlings of the large tree.” In May, 1909, I received further specimens and a letter from Mr. Crawford, which is as follows:—“You may remember me writing to you re a hybrid Eucalyptus, E. saligna and E. acaciæformis. I have found another

  ― 55 ―
tree about 1½ miles from here. It is a young tree, about 50 feet, with rough bark on stem and for some distance up the branches; where smooth, it is of a pinkish colour not so pronounced as the upper bark of Tristania conferta. It will not flower for some time yet, but I got a few fruits of it and also of E. acaciæformis, but none of E. saligna, except a few on a dry twig. The hybrid is a much smaller tree than either of the parents; it exudes kino resembling that of E. acaciæformis. I cut a piece of dead branch and it was paler than the wood of E. saligna. The timber of E. acaciæformis is red.”


1. With E. saligna Sm.

It seems to partake of the botanical characters of E. saligna, especially in the venation of the leaves, and somewhat in the fruit. The buds, however, are longer and more pointed than those of E. saligna, and the fruit is smaller and more shell-like, with very fine needle-like valves which sometimes protude slightly beyond the orifice. It however, differs from E. saligna in the rough bark extending well out on the branches, and in the smooth bark being of a pinkish colour, not bluish as in E. saligna; the leaves are also uniformly narrower than those of E. saligna.

2. With E. acaciæformis Deane and Maiden.

It seems to resemble E. acaciæformis mainly in the rough bark which extends nearly all over the tree, and in the narrow leaves, small brownish buds, and in the very small fruits.

3. With E. Deanei Maiden.

It differs from E. Deanci in the shape of the buds and juvenile leaves, and also in the nature of the bark.

4. With E. quadrangulata Deane and Maiden.

Its small fruits are not unlike those of E. quadrangulata, but the leaf venation is distinct from that species and the bark and timber are also very dissimilar.

  ― 56 ―

CDXII. E. glaucescens Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

MALLEE vel arbor parva; cortice levi, albo in stratis brunneis secedente; foliis junioribus oppositis, glaucissimis, ovatis vel orbicularibus; foliis maturis alternatis, petiolatis, glaucis, oblongo-lanceolatis vel falcato-lanceolatis; alabastris glaucis, triplicibus, sessilibus, cylindraceis; fructu glaucissimo, sessili, cylindraceo, crasso, truncato, 9–10×7 mm. diametro.

A Mallee, or sometimes a small tree, 12–40 feet high; live bark smooth, whitish; dead bark falling away in reddish-brown flakes.

Juvenile leaves opposite for an indefinite number of pairs, very glaucous, ovate to orbicular, entire or emarginate, sessile to shortly petiolate, 1·5–3 cm. long, and about as broad.

Intermediate leaves sessile, elliptical to cordate-lanceolate, 2–4×2–2·5 cm.; venation obscure.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, glaucous, oblong-lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, thick, coriaceaous, 10–13 cm. long, 1·5–2 cm. broad, somewhat obscurely nerved, the marginal nerve usually thickened; intramarginal vein fairly close to the edge, very thin; lateral veins rising at an angle of about 45° with the midrib.

Inflorescence axillary, very glaucous. Buds invariably in threes, all closely sessile, cylindical, with a very short, mucronate operculum, 5–7 mm. long, 4–5 mm. in diameter; the common peduncle about half the length of the calyx-tube, compressed-angular, broader at the top.

Fruit very glaucous, closely sessile, cylindrical to barrel-shaped, thick, truncate with a slightly thickened rim, 9–10 mm. long, 7–8 mm. in diameter, valves usually enclosed, short and broad, corresponding to the rather broad cells, of which there are usually three.

Illustrations.—It is depicted in this work, Part XXVI, Plate 108, fig. 8a, mature leaf. 8c, fruits. (Fig, 8b, buds are E. Gunnii, drawn from Gunn's Tasmanian specimens and linked up in error with the Mount Baw Baw plant.) Plate 109, fig. 1a, young buds. The shape is correct, showing the very sharp rim and the small, acute operculum, but in the original specimen they are sessile, not pedicellate as shown; 1b, leaf and fruit; 1c, domed fruit Tingiringi Mountain, New South Wales (W. Baeuerlen). The type.


  • 1. E. Gunnii Hook. f., var. glauca Deane and Maiden (in part), Proc. Linn. Soc N.S.W., xxiv, 464 (1899).
  • 2. E. Perriniana F.v.M. Baker and Smith in “Research on the Eucalypts,” 205 (1902), refer this species to E. Perriniana F.v.M.
  • 3. E. Gunnii Maiden, non Hook. f., this work Part XXVI, 108 (1916), Plate 108, figs. 8a, 8b, 8c; Plate 109, figs. 1a, 1b, 1c.

  ― 57 ―


It seems to be confined to the cold mountain ranges of Victoria and New South Wales.

Victoria.—Summit of Mount Baw Baw (F. von Mueller), with large fruits and almost obliterated peduncles.

New South Wales.—Tingiringi Mountain, 5,400 feet, forming Mallee scrub, but sometimes single trees 40 feet high (W. Bauerlen, 20th June, 1887, also No. 195, March, 1889); Wollandibby, Jindabyne (W. Bauerlen), 12–15 feet; Little Tindery Mountain, Michelago (J. L. Boorman, January, 1909). Co-type


1. With E. Gunnii Hook. f.

It appears to be a smaller tree than E. Gunnii, and more frequently Mallee-like in habit. The inflorescence of both species is somewhat alike, but the common peduncle of E. glaucescens is usually much shorter and broader than that of E. Gunnii, while the the buds of the latter are all pedicellate and the operculum is larger. The fruits of both species are also somewhat similar, but those of E. glaucescens are usually larger, closely sessile and more cylindrical than the fruits of E. Gunnii. The latter is confined to Tasmania.

2. With E. Perriniana F.v.M.

Both are alpine species and have much in common as regards size, habit, glaucousness and inflorescence, but the connate juvenile leaves of E. Perriniana readily separate it from those of E. glaucescens. There is also a marked difference in the shape of the buds and fruits of both species.

  ― 58 ―

CDXIII. E. Archeri Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

FRUTEX parvus; cortice levi, albo; foliis junioribus lato-ovatis vel spathulatis; foliis maturis angustovel lato-lanceolatis, petiolatis, dilute viridibus; alabastris triplicibus, sessilibus, cylindraceis, 5–6 mm. longis; antheris versatilibus, loculis longitudinalibus; fructu conoideo vel campanulato, 6×7 mm., valvis insertis.

A small shrub, or dwarf stunted tree, with a white bark.

Juvenile leaves not seen in a fully developed state, broadly ovate to spathulate, emarginate, 3–5×2·5–3·5 cm. Venation obscure.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, thick, coriaceous, light green, narrow to broad-lanceolate, or falcate-lanceolate, 5–10×1–3 cm.; venation obscure; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 35–40° with the midrib; intramarginal vein distant from the edge. Petioles yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, punctate, with small dark dots.

Inflorescence in small axillary umbels of three flowers on short, compressed peduncle. Buds sessile or nearly so, oblong or cylindrical, 5×6 mm., calyx-tube campanulate, warty, three times longer than the very small, obtuse operculum. Anthers versatile, with longitudinal cells.

Fruit ovoid to campanulate, yellowish, 6×7 mm., valves enclosed or very slightly exsert, but not seen in a ripe state.


It is a Tasmanian species, and is only known from the following localities:— Western Mountains (W. H. Archer, January, 1848). The type. Mount Barrow (Rev. H. M. R. Rupp, January, 1921).


1. With E. Gunnii Hook. f.

It differs from E. Gunnii in being strictly glabrous in all its characters, in the yellowish-green leaves, and in the smaller, sessile buds and fruits. The leaves of E. Gunnii are glaucous.

2. With E. vernicosa Hook. f.

It has nearly the same coloured foliage as E. vernicosa, but the leaves are longer. The buds and fruits are also smaller and of a different shape to those of E. vernicosa.

  ― 59 ―

CDXIV. E. subcrenulata Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR parva, caulibus brevibus, levibus; foliis junioribus sessilibus, ovatis vel orbicularibus, subcrenulatis, pallido-viridibus; foliis maturis lato-lanceolatis, petiolatis; alabastris ovoideis vel globosis, levibus, sessilibus; fructu hemispherico, truncato, nitente, rugoso, 5×7 mm.

A small alpine tree, with smooth, crooked stems.

Juvenile leaves sessile, ovate to orbicular, subcrenulate, light green, glossy.

Intermediate leaves petiolate, ovate to oblong, thick, semicrenulate, up to 8 cm. long and 4 cm. broad.

Mature leaves petiolate, broadly ovate to oblong-lanceolate, glossy, light green, abruptly tapering into a long sub-terete, glandular, petiole, flat, thinly coriaceous, the margins revolute and often crenulated, especially at the top, which is obtuse or mucronate, 5–10 cm. long, 3–5 cm. broad. Venation moderately distinct, the lateral veins few and distant, making an angle of 40–45° to the midrib. Intramarginal vein distant from the edge.

Inflorescence axillary, the very short peduncle supporting three sessile flowers with white filaments. Buds sessile, globular to ovoid or somewhat cuneate at the extreme base, dark brown. Calyx hemispherical to cupular, thick, shining, somewhat rugose. Operculum blunt, very shallow, about half the length of the calyx-tube. Anthers versatile, opening in long parallel slits, with a large dorsal gland. Floral disc forming a thin lining over the conical base of the ovary.

Fruit sessile, hemispherical to shortly campanulate, shining, glandular or irregularly pitted-rugose, convex, valves slightly protruding, but not seen in a fully ripe state, 5×7 mm. Capsular disc represented by the somewhat thickened staminal ring and calycine rim.

The leaves are somewhat shining, with a resinous-like substance, but not sticky, light-green with yellowish-brown petioles, or the same colour as the semi-terete glandular twigs. It seems to be a very marked species, showing affinity to E. Johnstoni and E. vernicosa. See this work Part XXVIII, Plate 116, fig. 8a, mature leaf and buds; 8b, anthers.


Mount Field East, Tasmania (at an elevation of about 4,000 feet, J. H. Maiden, March, 1906). It is written up in this work, Part XXVIII, p. 181, as “A form showing transit to E. vernicosa.

  ― 60 ―


1. With E. vernicosa Hook. f.

It differs from the above species in the broadly ovate to broadly-lanceolate, thick, shining, different shaped leaves, in the very blunt buds, which are more globular, in the round, smooth operculum, and in the more hemispherical fruits.

2. With E. Johnstoni Maiden.

It is closely allied to this species, and may be an alpine form with considerably reduced leaves and buds and smooth fruits. It has, also, the crenulate leaves of E. Johnstoni, a character which is rather unique in the genus, and which is confined to about three other species.

  ― 61 ―

CDXV. E. Tindalae Blakely, n.sp

STRINGYBARK gracilis, 30–60' alta, 6–18? diametro; cortice fibroso alte sulcato; foliis junioribus alternatis, breviter petiolatis ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis leniter hispidis, foliis maturis alternatis, petiolatis lanceolatis vel falcato-lanceolatis, acuminatis, crassis 6–16×2–4 cm.; venis irregularibus; infloreseentia in umbellis axillaribus 7–14 flores; alabastris cylindraceis, obtusis; operculo calycis tubo pallidiore et breviore; fructu depresso-globoso, crasso, sessili; disco calycis tubo fere aequilongo, 8–10×5–6 mm.; valvis parvis inclusis vel leniter exsertis.

A slender Stringybark, 30–60 feet high or more, 6–18 inches in diameter, with a deeply furrowed fibrous bark on trunk and main branches, the smaller branches almost smooth. In the early days the bark was largely used by the settlers for roofing.

Juvenile leaves not seen in the earliest stage, alternate, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, slightly hispid, 3·5–6 cm. long, 2–3 cm. broad, petioles very short; internodes slightly hairy.

Intermediate leaves alternate, very shortly petiolate, broadly elliptical to obliquely lanceolate, the broader ones acuminate, thin, glossy on the upper surface, dull and much paler beneath, 5–11 cm.×2·5–5 cm.; venation very fine, the lateral veins rather numerous, diverging at an angle of 40–50° to the midrib, which is very conspicuous beneath; intramarginal vein distant from the edge.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, lanceolate to falcate and obliquely lanceolate, acuminate, moderately thick, 6–16 cm.×2–4 cm.; venation somewhat irregular, the lateral veins distant, radiating at an angle of 40–45° to the midrib; intramarginal vein close to the edge.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels of 7–14 flowers, the peduncle slender, slightly compressed, 10–12 mm. long. Buds cylindrical, blunt, the operculum much paler and slightly shorter than the brownish somewhat elongated calyx-tube, 6 mm. long, 3·5 mm. in diameter. Anthers small, reniform with a small, terminal gland.

Fruit depressed globular, closely sessile, thick, the smooth reddish disc nearly as deep as the calycine portion, 8–10×5–6 mm.; valves usually four, very small, enclosed or slightly exsert.

Named in honour of Miss Ann Tindal, of Ramornie, Clarence River, who, for a number of years, has taken a keen interest in the flora of the district.


Denman (W. Heron, January, 1909); near Copmanhurst at the head of the salt water, Clarence River; Orara River near Ramornie Meat Works; both localities are in New South Wales (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress, 28th July, 1922). The fruits of the Copmanhurst specimen are slightly larger than those from the Orara.


1. With E. laevopinea R. T. Baker.

It differs from E. lævopinea mainly in the smaller, different shaped buds and in the sessile, depressed-globular fruits.

  ― 62 ―

2. With E. agglomerata Maiden.

This species does not appear to extend to the Upper Clarence, but it resembles E. Tindalæ in the general appearance of the bark and habit, but seems to differ from it in the juvenile leaves, in the shape of the buds, and to a lesser extent in the fruit. The oil is also different. The juvenile leaves of E. Tindalæ have a rather pleasant geranium-like odour, those of E. agglomerata are somewhat rank.

3. With E. Wilkinsoniana R. T. Baker.

The habit and general appearance of both trees are somewhat similar; the buds, however, of E. Tindalæ are more cylindrical and more shortly petiolate than those of E. Wilkinsoniana, while the fruits of the former are sessile and thicker than those of the latter. There is perhaps very little difference in the oil of both species, as they appear to possess almost the same odour; if anything, the odour of E. Tindalæ is not quite so strong as that of E. Wilkinsoniana. The timber has not been examined.

  ― 63 ―

CDXVI. E. Wilkinsoniana R. T. Baker

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, 678 (1900), with a figure of a fruit on Plate XLVI, fig. 2. (Syn. E. hæmastoma var. F.v.M., “Eucalyptographia” Dec.II;note E. lævopinea var. minor).

IN Part VIII, p. 221 of the present work I stated that I looked upon E. Wilkinsoniana R. T. Baker and E. nigra R. T. Baker as being inseparable from E. eugenioides on the one hand, and from E. Muelleriana on the other. Recent investigations have shown that I was in error, and I now admit both are valid species. The following is the original description:—

A medium-sized tree with a thin, compressed Stringybark, not furrowed.

Sucker leaves lanceolate, falcate, generally under 3 inches long and under 6 lines wide, oblique, thin, venation oblique, parallel, distant; marginal vein removed from the edge.

Leaves of mature trees similar to sucker-leaves, only larger.

Flowers in axillary peduncles of about 6 lines long. Calyx small, 1 line long, 2 lines is diameter; pedicel about 1 line. Operculum small, hemispherical, acuminate; outer stamens apparently sterile; anthers kidney-shaped. Ovary flat-topped.

Fruit hemispherical, 5 lines in diameter, rim thick, red; valves slightly exserted, acute.

Habitat.—Dromedary Mountain (C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S.); Colombo (W. Bauerlen); Barber's Creek (H. Rumsey); Sutton Forest (R. T. Baker).

This is the “Stringybark” variety of E. hæmastoma Sm. mentioned by Baron von Mueller in his “Eucalyptographia” under that species. It was first observed in this colony by the late Government Geologist, Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., at Dromedary Mountain, at an elevation of 1,500 feet above sea level, and named for him by Mueller as stated above.

Timber pale-coloured, very hard, close-grained, heavy. In transverse and compression tests it stands higher than that of any of the Stringybarks above enumerated. It is evidently an excellent timber and is strongly recommended for forest conservation.

Illustrations.—This work, Part VIII, Plate 38 :—

  • 10a, Buds and flowers; 10b, Fruits, Walcha (A. R. Crawford).
  • 12a, Leaf; 12b, Buds; 12c, Fruits Attunga, 12 miles north-west of Tamworth (R. H. Cambage). Fruits with slightly longer pedicels than the type.
  • 16a, Leaf in the intermediate stage; 16b, Mature leaf; 16c, Buds; 16d, Fruits, Stanthorpe, Queensland (A. Murphy).
  • 17a, Buds; 17b, 17c, 17d, Fruits taken from the same tree of the type of E. Wilkinsoniana R. T. Baker (E. lævopinea R. T. B. var. minor), Glenrock Paddocks, Barber's Creek (H. J. Rumsey).
  • 18a, Buds; 18b, Fruits of co-type, Sutton Forest (R. T. Baker). The fruits of 18b, with flat rim, are closest to the form in 17b, and not a stable form. They are more or less unripe.

  ― 64 ―


In the present state of our knowledge, it appears to extend from Dimboola in Victoria to southern Queensland.

Victoria.—Dimboola (F. Reader). The buds are almost identical with those from Burragorang.

New South Wales.—Southern Localities—Near Goulburn (Dr. J. B. Cleland). Buds and fruits almost the same as the type. Barber's Creek or Tallong (H. J. Rumsey). Also labelled by Mr. Baker as the type. Sutton Forest (R. T. Baker). Labelled by Mr. Baker as the type. Marulan (A. Murphy); Cobbity, banks of the Nepean (J.H.M.); Burragorang (R. H. Cambage), fruit almost identical with those of the type; Kanangara Walls (W. F. Blakely); Wolgan River (R. H. Cambage, No. 1549).

Northern Localities.—Murrurundi (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman); Moggrani Mountain, Gloucester (J.H.M.); Upper Hastings River, cutting near Yeldham's (J.H.M.); Taree and Gloucester (W. Heron); Armidale (W. Howitt, J.H.M.); Tamworth district (R. H. Cambage); Yarrowitch (J. L. Boorman); Tia, via Walcha (J.H.M.); Walcha (E. Betche, F. W. Campbell); Tenterfield (L. G. Irby); Tenterfield to Sandy Flat, near Mount Spiraby (J.H.M.); Bald Knob on the Grafton-Glen Innes Road (H. T. Paton); Glen Innes (N. Stewart); Glen Elgin (J. L. Boorman); Wilson's Downfall (R. H. Cambage, Nos. 2822, 2826, 2839); Acacia Creek (W. Dunn); Foot of Mount Lindsay (W. Forsythe).

Queensland.—Stanthorpe (J. L. Boorman and A. Murphy); “Yellow Stringybark,” Landsborough, North Coast Railway (P. MacMahon); Dalveen (A. Sargent); Yungaburra (C. T. White, No. 1572), juvenile leaves broad, very shortly petiolate, softly stellate-hairy.


1. With E. eugenioides Sieb.

The bark and timber ally it to E. eugenioides, “White Stringybark,” and in botanical sequence it is placed next to that species (original description).

2. With E. lævopinea R. T. Baker.

The oil resembles that of E. lævopinea Baker, but no other characters connect it with that species. The red rim of the fruits has evidently been the cause of the misplacing of this, but it is now well known that this is a character common to a number of Eucalypts. It is a feature quite absent from E. lævopinea Baker, in fact, the fruits of the two species are so very different that the trees could not be synonymised with any degree of correctness in specific naming. The bark, leaves, venation and timber of these trees also differ. E. lævopinea Baker has a hard, compact bark right out to the branchlets, whilst this tree has a light-coloured, loose, stringybark, not extending out to the limbs. It is quite distinct in specific characters from the two Stringybarks described in this paper, viz., E. nigra and E. umbra. (Original description).

  ― 65 ―

CDXVII. E. nigra R. T. Baker

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxv, p. 689 (1900) with Plate XLVI, fig. 3.

A TALL tree with a black stringy bark.

Leaves lanceolate, scarcely falcate, occasionally oblique, mostly under 4 inches long, and under 1 inch wide, of a dull green colour; venation only faintly marked on the upper surface, but very distinct on the lower; lateral veins oblique, distant; intramarginal vein removed from the edge.

Peduncles axillary, short, under 4 lines, bearing a cluster of from 8–12 small flowers. Calyx hemispherical, under 2 lines in diameter, on a short pedicel. Operculum hemispherical, acuminate, about 1½ lines long when mature. Ovary flat-topped. Anthers very small, parallel, filaments very slender. Fruits about 4 lines in diameter, hemispherical to pilular, rim variable, thin or truncate, and even domed occasionally; valves slightly exserted.

Habitat.—Richmond River district (W. Bauerlen); Cook's River, Sydney (H. G. Smith).

From E. Wilkinsoniana Baker and E. macrorrhyncha F.v.M. it differs in fruits, timber and chemical constituents of the oil. From the Stringybark, E. umbra Baker, of this paper it differs in the shape of the sucker leaves and chemical constituents of the oil, although the immature fruits of these species are somewhat similar.

E. eugenioides Sieb. and E. capitellata Sm. approach each other very closely in morphological characters, and there often seems to be a gradation between the two, but, nevertheless, the two species are quite distinct; and so in this, although there also appears some similarity in the fruits of this species and E. eugenioides, yet the two differ in too many characters to be the same species.

The sucker leaves are not unlike those of E. capitellata, whilst the buds are similar to those of E. eugenioides. The fruits approach somewhat in shape those of the latter species, with which it has probably been confounded in the past when determined on dried specimens. If it were not for the distinctive character of the timber and oil, I should certainly have made it a variety of E. eugenioides, but the former product is of too poor a character to be associated with so excellent a timber as that yielded by White Stringybark, E. eugenioides. The oil also differentiates it entirely from that species.

On the sum of the above differences it was decided to give the tree specific rank, and botanically it is placed next to E. dextropinea Baker (E. Muelleriana Howitt), from which it differs in the shape of the fruits, bark, leaves and chemical constitutents. From E. lævopinea Baker it differs in the shape of the fruits, quality of timber and constituents of the oil.

Timber.—Of a dark-brown colour (hence the specific name), much affected with borers and not valued for durability by timber-getters and others interested in the trade.

Oil.—Yield very small, only 3½ oz. from 534 lb. of leaves, in fact, too small to make a fractional distillation. It has thus the smallest yield of the Stringybarks next to E. capitellata (H. G. Smith).

Illustrations.—It is figured in Part VIII, Plate 38, under E. Muelleriana Howitt, and allies, and the following figures are referable to it :—

Fig. 13, Fruits, Harding's Mill, near Glen Innes, New South Wales (H. Deane).

Fig. 14a, Buds; 14b, and 14c, fruits, all obtained from the same tree, Kanimbla Valley, Lowther-road, New South Wales (A. H. S. Lucas and J.H.M.).

Fig. 15a, Buds; 15b, fruits of the type of E. nigra Baker, Woodburn, Richmond River (W. Bauerlen).

In “Research on Eucalyptus” Mr. Baker depicts two fruits on p. 53, with the following comment :—“The fruits are very much like those of E. eugenioides.

  ― 66 ―


The localities quoted by Mr. Baker in “Research on the Eucalyptus” (2nd edition), p. 53, are :—Richmond River district, Cook's River, Sydney, Blackheath, New South Wales. The following specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney, appear to be referable to it :—

New South Wales, Kanimbla Valley, Lowther-road (A. H. S. Lucas and J.H.M.); Harding's Mill near Glen Innes (H. Deane); “Stringybark,” Parish Babzil, County Rouse, Casino (E. G. McLean); Black Stringybark, Woodburn, Richmond River (W. Bauerlen). Sent to me by Mr. Baker as typical.


These are discussed by the author in the original description, but at the same time I would like to draw attention to the fact that many specimens of buds and fruits of typical E. eugenioides approach the type of E. nigra, and on the whole they accentuate the close relationship of the two species. And, notwithstanding the author's remarks in reference to the affinity of E. nigra with E. eugenioides and E. Wilkinsoniana, there is much field work to be done before one can definitely state what the real differences are between them.

The outstanding difference appears to be in the broad suckers of E. nigra in contradistinction to those of its allies.

  ― 67 ―

Explanation of Plates 288–291

Plate 288

Plate 288: EUCALYPTUS BUCKNELLI Cambage. (1-3) EUCALYPTUS PERPLEXA Maiden and Blakely. (4-5) EUCALYPTUS CONGLOMERATA Maiden and Blakely. (6-8)

E. Bucknelli Cambage.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaf; 1b, twig with buds; 1c, anthers; 1d, 1e, mature leaves; 1f, fruits. Parish Bundoowithidie, county Courallie, Moree district, N.S.W. (W. M. Brennan).
  • 2a, 2b. Mature leaves from north of Mungindi, towards Thallon, N.S.W. (R. H. Cambage, No. 4394, 20th September, 1922).
  • 3. Fruits with exserted valves, from Bumble Station, 70 miles north of Mungindi (R. H. Cambage, No. 4402, 21st September, 1922.).

E. perplexa Maiden and Blakely.

  • 4a. Juvenile leaf, but not in the earliest stage; 4b, twig with fruits. Isdell River, near Mount Barnett Homestead, Western Australia (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 1082, June, 1905).
  • 5. Twig with fruits with exserted valves. Darwin to Roper River (Prof. Baldwin Spencer, July-August, 1911).

E. conglomerata Maiden and Blakely.

  • 6a. Juvenile leaves; 6b, mature leaf.
  • 7a. Intermediate leaf.
  • 8a, 8b. Mature leaves; 8c, twig with buds; 8d, anthers; 8e, young fruits; 8f, mature or nearly mature fruits. Beerwah, Southern Queensland (W. D. Francis and C. T. White, No. 24, September, 1919). The type.

Plate 289

Plate 289: EUCALYPTUS TROPICA Cambage. (1-4) EUCALYPTUS PSEUDO-PIPERITA Maiden and Blakely. (5-6) EUCALYPTUS URCEOLARIS Maiden and Blakely. (7) [See Plate 45, fig. 6] EUCALYPTUS CALLANII Blakely. (8-11) EUCALYPTUS PACHYCALYX Maiden and Blakely. (12) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. tropica Cambage.

  • 1a, 1b. Juvenile leaves.
  • 2a. Fruiting twig with small fruits; 2b, plan of fruit slightly enlarged. Croydon, North Queensland (R. H. Cambage).
  • 3a. Twig with larger fruits and narrow mature leaf; 3b, plan of fruit enlarged.
  • 4. Small leaf. All from Corella River, 30 miles north of Cloncurry, North Queensland (R. H. Cambage). The type.

E. pseudo-piperita Maiden and Blakely.

  • 5. Intermediate leaf.
  • 6. Twig with buds and fruit; 6a, anthers. Taronga Park, Sydney (D. W. C. Shiress and A. S. Le Souef, August, 1918, May, 1919).

E. urceolaris Maiden and Blakely.

  • 7. Rostrate, urceolate buds; 7a, anther. Mittagong (D. W. C. Shiress, January, 1926).

E. Callanii Blakely.

  • 8a, 8b. Types of juveniles leaves.
  • 9a, 9b. Mature leaves. They are very glossy on both sides, as if varnished.
  • 10a. Buds; 10b, anthers.
  • 11. Fruits. All from junction of Mittagong and Wombeyan Caves road, N.S.W. (D. W. C. Shiress and W. F. Blakely, April, 1923).

E. pachycalyx Maiden and Blakely.

  • 12a. Flowering twig with three mature leaves; 12b, buds; 12c, back and front view of anthers. Atherton, Queensland (H. W. Mocatta, December, 1915).

  ― 68 ―

Plate 290

Plate 290: EUCALYPTUS SUBVIRIDIS Maiden and Blakely. (1-3) EUCALYPTUS McCLATCHIE Kinney. (4-7) EUCALYPTUS MORTONIANA Kinney. (8) [See also Plate 80, fig. 8.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. subviridis Maiden and Blakely.

  • 1a. Broad intermediate leaf; 1b, orbicular juvenile leaf; 1c, narrow intermediate leaf; 1d, mature leaf.
  • 2a. Buds; 2b, flowers; 2c, anthers.
  • 3a. Unripe fruits; 3b, mature fruits; 3c, plan of fruit. Near the Pound Yard, Marulan (A. and P. Murphy, December, 1921, December, 1922).

E. McClatchie Kinney.

  • 4a. Twig with buds; 4b, fruits.
  • 5a. Twig with buds and a much longer mature leaf than 4a; 5b, back view of anthers.
  • 6. Mature leaf.
  • 7a. Fruits; 7b, plan of fruit. Santa Monica, California, in canyon. (Metcalf, No. 70, per Miss Alice Eastwood).

E. Mortoniana Kinney.

  • 8a. Mature leaf; 8b, buds and operculum; 8c, anthers; 8d, fruits; 8e, fruits. Golden Gate Park, California (Miss Alice Eastwood and Eric Walther, December, 1920, July, 1921, February, 1922).

Plate 291

Plate 291: EUCALYPTUS DIXSONI Wakefield. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. Dixsoni Wakefield.

  • 1a, 1b, 1c. Types of juvenile leaves from the same twig.
  • 2a, 2b, 2c. More advanced juvenile leaves from the same twig as 1a-c.
  • 3a. Intermediate leaves.
  • 4a. Broad mature leaf; 4b, mature leaf.
  • 5a. Narrow mature leaf; 5b, buds and narrow mature leaf; 5c, anther.
  • 6. Fruits and plan of fruit. All from 3½ miles east from Yambulla Mountain, N.S.W. (F. W. Wakefield, June, 1920).
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