Part 72

  ― 69 ―

CCLXXXV. E. rariflora Bailey

This work, Part L, p. 303, Plate 207, figs. 1 and 2.

THE juvenile and mature leaves are depicted, together with the buds, anthers and fruits. They are in every detail almost identical with those of E. populifolia, figured at Part X, Plate 48. Under “Affinities” I pointed out that both species are closely related. I also drew attention to the fact that in E. populifolia the leaves are sometimes narrow like the adult leaves of E. rariflora, while the juvenile leaves appear to be alike in both species. It may be, as formerly stated by me, an isoblastic and heteroblastic species.

The two forms of E. populifolia occur in New South Wales and Queensland, and they are known to bushmen as “Round-leaved Bimble Box” and “Narrow-leaved Bimble Box.” The latter seem to be identical with E. rariflora, and are figured under E. populifolia, Part X, Plate 48, fig. 14, mature leaf, North Bourke, A. Murphy; 18a, leaf with flowers and immature fruits; 18b, anthers. Fragments of the type of E. bicolor A. Cunn. var. parviflora Muell., Burdekin River, Queensland (from Kew). A flowering twig and fruits are depicted in the “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part XLVII, Plate 176, figs. C and D.


It seems to be confined mainly to New South Wales and Queensland.

New South Wales: Zara, via Hay (Miss Edith Officer); Euabalong (J. L. Boorman); Nyngan (J. H. Maiden, Dr. E. C. Chisholm); Coolabah (J. H. Maiden and J. L. Boorman); Canbelego (W. Bauerlen); North Bourke (A. Murphy); “Bastard Box,” Tarella, Wilcannia (W. Bauerlen); Bohena Creek, South-east Pilliga (W. A. W. de Beuzeville); Pilliga Bore (W. A. W. de Beuzeville); Killarney State Forest, about 7 miles from Narrabri (Gordon Burrow).

Queensland: Silverwood, Darling Downs (C. T. White); Eidsvold, and 5 miles along the Dalgangal Road from Eidsvold (Dr. T. L. Bancroft); Barakula, a little north of Chinchilla (J. E. Young, per C. T. White); Burdekin River (F. Mueller).

  ― 70 ―


I have already discussed the affinities of E. rariflora and E. populifolia in Part L, p. 304.

With E. bicolor A. Cunn.

Under E. populifolia, Part X, p. 339, I stated “There are many gradations of size and width of leaf. The species is usually very easily recognised, but the narrow lanceolate leaves may be a pitfall in some cases; they then sometimes show affinity to E. bicolor.” Apart from the mature leaves of the latter being like those of E. rariflora, there is also a striking resemblance in the buds and fruits of both species, but the juvenile leaves of E. bicolor are much narrower than those of E. rariflora, while the timber of the former is red, and that of the latter pale brown.

  ― 71 ―

CDXVIII. E. polycarpa F.v.M

In Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 88 (1859).

It is described in English in Part XL, p. 321, and is figured at Plate 166, figs. 6 and 7.


E. pyrophora Benth., var. polycarpa Maiden.

In the above Part of the present work I looked upon it as a variety of E. pyrophora, but I am now of opinion that it is a valid species.


The following additional localities may be added to those already quoted in Part XL, p. 324 :—

Northern Territory: Kelly's Well, also near No. 5 Northern Wells, Alice Springs district (C. E. F. Allen, Nos. 613, 641, 656).

New South Wales: Redbank, via Bourke (W. Howell); “Small tree, mostly large Mallee type, flowers cream (sometimes pink),” Tibooburra (A. Morris, No. 797).


They are already dealt with in Part XL, p. 325. In the herbarium it is readily separated from E. pyrophora in the much smaller and more slender inflorescence and in the smaller and thinner fruits. The floral branches in E. pyrophora are much swollen, those of E. polycarpa are almost normal and more slender. The timber of the former appears to be larger and darker than that of the latter.

  ― 72 ―

CDXIX. x E. Langii Maiden and Blakely, n.sp

ARBOR circiter 40' alta; ramis gracilibus, pendulis; ramulis semi-teretibus; foliis maturis alternatis, petiolatis, angusto-lanceolatis vel falcato-lanceolatis, 8–18 cm. longis, 6–20 mm. latis; inflorescentia in umbellis axillaribus 5–6 floris; floribus pedicellatis; alabastris cylindraceo-urceolatis, rugulosis; calycis tubo tenui, circiter 9 mm. longo; operculo conico vel rostrato, 4–5 mm. longo; antheris (Macrantherae) irregularibus, loculis lateralibus, longitudinaliter dehiscentibus; fructu ovoideo vel cylindroideo-urcolato, 7–10 mm. longo, 5–7 mm. in diametro.

A supposed natural hybrid with E. cladocalyx as one of the parents. A beautiful shaped tree, about 40 feet high, with slender, pendulous branches, and semi-terete, reddish-brown branchlets.

Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves alternate, petiolate, irregularly narrow-lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, acuminate, sometimes terminating in a slender point 7–12 mm. long, light green and glossy on both surfaces, but usually paler beneath; venation not very distinct, except the median nerve, which is distinctly channelled above, flat and faintly channelled beneath, pale yellow or sometimes purple-brown; lateral veins few and distant, radiating at an angle of 20–30° with the midrib; intramarginal vein usually close to the slightly revolute margin, but sometimes rather distant from it, 8–18 cm. long, 6–20 broad; petioles slender, compressed-terete, 12–25 mm. long.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels of 5–6 pedicellate flowers; the peduncles slender, scarcely terete, 10–14 mm. long. Buds pedicellate, cylindrical-urceolate, rugulose, greenish-white; calyx-tube thin, about 9 mm. long; operculum conical to rostrate, 4–5 mm. long. Anthers (Macrantherae) very irregular, sometimes oblique on the filament as in Terminales, but the cells are lateral, either somewhat cordate or long and narrow, with or without a small terminal gland. Floral disc obscure; style moderately thick, with a dark-coloured capitate stigma.

Fruit ovoid to cylindroid-urceolate, slightly rugulose or sometimes quite smooth, usually with a small orifice and crowned with the slightly enlarged staminal ring, 7–10 mm. long, 5–7 mm. in diameter; valves deeply sunk. The fruits are somewhat like those of E. cladocalyx, but they are not so conspicuously costate.

This tree was brought under notice by Mr. P. R. H. St. John in 1921. The following is an extract from his letter :—“I send you specimens of an uncommon form of E. cladocalyx, which I found recently in a plantation some miles long, mainly of Sugar Gums, on Dr. Lang's Litanga Station, Lismore, Victoria. This form of E. cladocalyx is a beautiful tree, and is quite distinct from the rest of the trees in the plantation; the main difference being in the long narrow leaves and in the smaller fruits.” Later Mr. St. John informed me (W.F.B.) that the tree was raised from seed in July, 1888, and is about 40 feet high. The origin of the seed is unknown.

Named in honour of Dr. P. H. Lang, “Litanga,” Lismore, Victoria, who has taken a keen interest in the cultivation of Eucalyptus. Mr. St. John informed me (J.H.M.) that Dr. Lang has about 25 miles of Eucalyptus plantation, and in his house paddock there are over 100 different species.

  ― 73 ―


1. With E. cladocalyx F.v.M.

It seems to be a well-marked natural hybrid of E. cladocalyx, with long, slender, irregular narrow-lanceolate leaves, and rather long rostrate buds and cylindroid-urceolate fruits. The anthers, however, are somewhat alike in both species, being very irregular as regards shape and size. Perhaps no other species has such variation in the anthers as the ones under discussion. No less than three or four different types of anthers can be found in the same head. Some are plump, with broad lateral cells, others are very narrow or uniformly oblong, while cordate or obcordate types are not uncommon. Occasionally the anther attachment is quite oblique, or it is sometimes attached to the side of the filament instead of at the top. Like E. cladocalyx, it does not appear to be a good oil-bearing species, and on that account it should make a useful tree for sheep and cattle fodder, especially in moderately dry areas.

2. With E. calycogona Turcz.

The unripe rugulose fruits resemble some forms of E. calycogona, and the leaves are also narrow, thin and channelled like the leaves of E. calycogona, but they are longer and there is a total absence of the characteristic oil-dots of E. calycogona.

  ― 74 ―

CDXX. E. pygmaea Blakely

Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., LXI, 149 (1927).

MALLEE 2–6 pedes alta, caulibus aliquanto dense ramosis, ramulis quadrangularibus; folia juvenilia glabra, sessilia, elliptica vel ovata; folia matura alternata, petiolata, falcato-lanceolata, obscure viridia; gemmæ parvæ, cylindroido-clavatæ, obtusæ; antheræ reniformes; capsulæ sessiles, depresso-globulares, 8×10 mm.

A Mallee-like shrub, 2–6 feet high, with somewhat densely branched stems, and quadrangular branchlets; juvenile leaves glabrous, sessile, elliptical to ovate; adult leaves alternate, petiolate, falcatc-lanceolate, dark green; buds small, cylindroid-clavate, obtuse; anthers reniform; fruit sessile, depressed-globular, 8×10 mm.

A shrubby Mallee-like Stringybark, 2–6 feet high, with short branching stems ½ to 1½ in. in diameter. Branchlets reddish, more or less quadrangular and sulcate, caused by the decurrent petioles.

Juvenile leaves glabrous, the first or lowest pair opposite, sessile or shortly petiolate, elliptical to broadly ovate, 5–10 cm. long, 3–9 cm. broad; veins distinct, the lateral ones more or less bifurcate, intramarginal vein distant from the edge. Internodes densely hispid with stellate hairs.

Intermediate leaves alternate, petiolate, obliquely-lanceolate, thick, coriaceous, venulose, 7–15 cm. long, 4–10 cm. broad; lateral veins distinct, often broken or irregular, spreading at an angle of 50–60° with the midrib, and uniting with the undulate intramarginal nerve 3–4 mm. from the thickened nerve-like margin.

Adult leaves alternate, petiolate, falcate-lanceolate to obliquely-lanceolate, with a long straight or uncinate point; usually a dark glossy green on both surfaces, 4–11 cm. long, 2–3 cm. broad, venulose, but the veins more conspicuous on the lower surface, the median nerve usually reddish and channelled above; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 50–60° with the midrib; the intramarginal vein closer to the margin on the lower half of the lamina than on the upper half.

Inflorescence in simple axillary umbels on compressed peduncles, 10–13 mm. long, 3–4 mm. broad. Buds 8–15 in the head, sessile, yellowish, cylindroid-clavate, obtuse, slightly angular. Calyx-tube funnel-shaped or obconical; operculum blunt, hemispherical, much shorter than the calyx-tube.

Fruit sessile or nearly so, 8×10 mm., depressed globular, with a thick prominently raised disc nearly as deep as the calycine portion and usually reddish, three or four-celled, the small deltoid enclosed valves deciduous.


It seems to be restricted to a small area, about an acre in extent, on the top of a gravelly sandstone plateau, a little south of the 17-mile post between Hornsby and Galston, about 24 miles north by rail from Sydney; near Kuring-gai railway station, New South Wales. Further extensions of its range may be looked for in somewhat similar situations, as the same class of country on which it grows extends for many miles along the coast range, both north and south of the localities indicated above.

  ― 75 ―

In company with Mr. D. W. C. Shiress I found this species in June, 1914, but could only obtain specimens of juvenile and intermediate leaves as it was just recovering from the effects of a bush fire.

We paid several visits to the spot at different intervals, and succeeded in obtaining buds and fruits in June, 1922. Shortly afterwards it was again burnt down, and again two years afterwards, when there was a good prospect of obtaining additional material.


1. With E. Camfieldi, Maiden.

I had several good opportunities of studying these species, as they grow side by side in small communities, and are somewhat similar in habit, being dwarf and Mallee-like, but they are entirely different in the shape of their juvenile leaves. The early leaves of E. Camfieldi are cordate and closely sessile, and remain opposite for an indefinite number of pairs, whereas the juvenile leaves of E. pygmaea are elliptical, shortly petiolate, and opposite for two or three pairs; they are also much broader than those of E. Camfieldi. But the latter species exceeds the former in height and density of growth; it sometimes grows into small individual round-headed trees up to 12 feet high, with a stem diameter of 3–6 inches. The buds of E. Camfieldi are more globular than those of E. pygmaea, but the fruits are very much alike both in size and shape.

2. With E. capitellata Sm.

The juvenile leaves of both species are not very dissimilar. On the whole those of E. capitellata are the coarser of the two, while the buds are also larger and more angular. The fruits are also larger and compressed to a greater degree than the fruits of E. pygmaea. On the other hand, E. capitellata is a tree, while E. pygmaea is a small bushy Mallee.

  ― 76 ―

CDXXI. E. deformis Blakely

Jour. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., LXI, 152 (1927).

STRINGYBARK Mallee vel arbor parva deformis, 6–25 pedes alta, 2–9 uncias in diametro; cortex laxe fibroso-intricatus; folia juvenilia opposita vel alternata, cordata, lanceolata, sessilia vel breviter petiolata, fere glabra, leviter crenulata, 2·5–6×1·7–4–5 cm.; folia matura alternata, petiolata, obliquo-falcato-lanceolata, 6–14×1·3 cm.; inflorescentia umbellis axillaribus 5–14 florum, gemmæ subsessiles, cylindracæ, acutæ vel rostratæ, 7–8×3 mm.; antheræ reniformes; stylus teres, subulatus; capsulæ hemisphæricæ ad fere globulares, subsessiles, 7–8×4 mm.; discus convexus admodum crassus.

A Mallee, or a small somewhat deformed or badly-shaped Stringybark, 6–25 feet high, 3–9 inches in diameter, usually growing in moist, shallow sandstone depressions, and on damp stony plateaux and low ridges. Bark loosely matted-fibrous on the stem and main branches, the smaller branches less fibrous and usually dark-coloured.

Juvenile leaves cordate to lanceolate, sessile to shortly petiolate, only the first two or four pairs opposite, or sometimes an occasional pair may be opposite amongst the alternate ones, glabrous, except for a few glandular hairs along the midrib, dark green, the margins slightly crenulate, 2·5–6 cm. long, 1·7–4·5 cm. broad; lateral veins not numerous, usually somewhat prominent beneath, diverging at an angle of 40–50° with the midrib; intramarginal vein distant from the edge. Stems scabrous with stellate hairs for 6–12 inches, then smooth.

Intermediate leaves alternate, petiolate, oblong-ovate to obliquely lanceolate, mucronate, glabrous, dark green, 5–8 cm.×2–6 cm.; veins somewhat obscure, the lateral ones spreading at an angle of 50–60° with the midrib; intramarginal vein undulate, usually distant from the thickened nerve-like margin.

Adult leaves alternate, petiolate, obliquely lanceolate, or falcate-lanceolate, thick, coriaceous, dark green, glossy, 6–14 cm.×1–3 cm. Venation penninerved, usually distinct; lateral veins diverging at an angle of 35–40° with the midrib, the median nerve very distinct on both sides, and usually closer to the lower margin; intramarginal vein usually very close to the edge.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels, the peduncle compressed, 5–7 mm. long, supporting 5–14 smallish flowers. Buds elongated, acute, to slightly rostrate, sessile or nearly so, somewhat angular at the base, 7–8 mm.×3 mm. Operculum conoid or rostrate, as long as or longer than the narrow funnel-shaped calyx-tube. Filaments not numerous, white, many of the upper ones straight in the bud or before the operculum falls, and nearly as long as the terete, subulate style. Anthers small, reniform.

Fruit sessile or very shortly pedicellate, hemispherical to nearly globular, 7–8×4–6 mm.; disc usually prominent, forming a rather broad, smooth, slightly convex band around the small orifice; valves small, scarcely exsert.

Timber.—The trees are small and usually hollow, and produce a ery pale brown, hard and durable timber, but it is so small that it is of little us except for fuel and mine props.

  ― 77 ―


So far it has been found only on the rough sandstone country south and north of the Lower Hawkesbury River, New South Wales, and is very common from Berowra to the Hawkesbury on the southern side while on the northern side it extends as far as Penang Range, Gosford. It is very plentiful in the vicinity of Kariong trig. station, the type locality, which is roughly about 7 miles north of Brooklyn. (D. W. C. Shiress and W.F.B.).


1. With E. eugenioides.

From which it differs in being a Mallee or dwarf tree, in the broader and more glabrous suckers, and in the more sessile and thicker fruits.

2. With E. agglomerata.

The suckers of this species in the young state are softly hairy, while those of E. deformis are scarcely hairy; they are also smaller and they do not possess the putrid-like odour of E. agglomerata. The latter is also a large tree, whereas the former does not appear to exceed 25 feet in height, and the stem diameter is usually less than 12 inches.

3. With E. globoidea.

Both species have broad juvenile leaves, but those of E. deformis appear to be more cordate-lanceolate and more variable than the juvenile leaves of E. globoidea. The buds of the latter are also smaller than those of the former, and the operculum is also shorter.

The fruits of E. globoidea are also smaller and rounder than the fruits of E. deformis. There is also a marked difference in the habit of the trees; E. globoidea is a small to medium-sized, single-stemmed tree of good shape, while E. deformis is usually a Mallee or a badly-shaped tree. The former seems to prefer a clay soil, while the latter is strictly a sandstone species.

  ― 78 ―

CDXXII. E. aequans Blakely

Jour. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., LXI, 154 (1927).

STRINGYBARK parva ad 10 pedes alta; cortex fibrosus; ramuli rubelli, compressi vel teretes, glandulari-scabrosi; folia juvenilia opposita vel alternata, ovata vel lanceolata, sessilia vel nonnumquam breviter petiolata; folia matura alternata petiolata, oblonga vel angusto-lanceolata, æquilateralia, uncinata; gemmæ in parvis umbellulis, sessiles, graciles, cylindroideæ, acutæ, 5–6 mm. longæ; antheræ reniformes; capsula sessilis, fere globularis, truncata, 3–4 cellis, 5 mm. longa, 6 mm. diametro.

A small Stringybark up to 10 feet high, sometimes branching at the base, and with the same general appearance of E. Moorei. Bark somewhat flat and flaky-fibrous on the stem, more or less smooth and of a dull greenish-grey colour on the branches. Branchlets reddish, at first compressed, but soon becoming terete, and more or less glandular-scabrous. Young tips somewhat metallic, of a bluish cast.

Juvenile leaves ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, only the first two or three pairs opposite, sessile to shortly petiolate, glabrous except the revolute, minutely glandular denticulate margins, pale green above, dark green and glandular-scabrous beneath, 2–4·5 cm. long, 1–1·5 cm. broad. Venation penninerved, somewhat obscure, the median nerve slightly convex beneath, compressed or slightly channelled above; lateral veins very fine, scarcely visible on the upper surface, the intramarginal vein close to the edge. Stems and internodes reddish-brown, scabrous with numerous glands tipped with microscopic stellate hairs.

Intermediate leaves not seen in a fully developed state, alternate, shortly petiolate, lanceolate to obliquely-lanceolate with acuminate points, up to 5 cm. long, 2 cm. broad.

Adult leaves alternate, somewhat rigid, oblong to narrow-lanceolate, usually terminating in a fine uncinate point and gradually diminishing at the base into a rather short, slightly compressed petiole, thick, coriaceous, flat, æquilateral and glossy on both sides, somewhat scabrous, with numerous, more or less conspicuous oil-glands, 3·5–8·5 cm. long, 7·13 mm. broad. Venation penninerved somewhat obscure, the median nerve faintly canaliculate on both surfaces; lateral veins sometimes more or less distinct, not more than three or four prominent ones on each side of the midrib and usually radiating at an angle of 10–20° with the median nerve, the intramarginal vein usually distant from the nerve-like margin.

Inflorescence in short axillary umbels of 5–9 small sessile flowers; peduncle compressed or almost terete, glandular scabrous, slightly dilated at the top, 4–5 mm. long. Buds sessile or nearly so, slender, cylindroid, acute, 5–6 mm. long, about 2 mm. in diameter. Calyx hyprocrateriform rather thick, slightly longer than the acutely conoid glossy operculum; filaments not numerous, nearly all antheriferous. Anthers reniform, with broad cells and a very small terminal gland.

Fruit sessile, almost globular, truncate, with a somewhat slightly convex disc, 3–4 celled, the very short deltoid valves enclosed or sometimes slightly protruding beyond the broad orifice, 5 x 6 mm.

Fertile seeds black, obliquely pyramidal to somewhat navicular bi- or tricostate on the face, the dorsal surface smooth and striate. Hilum terminal, small, whitish, 2–2½ mm. x 1–2 mm. Sterile seeds light brown, granular, striate, usually smaller than the fertile seeds.

This species has remarkably uniform and equal-sided leaves for a Stringybark, hence the specific name.

  ― 79 ―


Only known from King's Tableland, Wentworth Falls, Blue Mountains, N.S.W., where it grows in association with other small species, such as E. Moorei, E. ligustrina, and E. stricta. (D. W. C. Shiress and W. F. Blakely, May, 1921 ; D.W.C.S., January, 1924.)


1. With E. ligustrina D.C.

Both are dwarf species, but E. æquans seems to differ from E. ligustrina in every character except in the shape of the fruits. The small dainty cordate juvenile leaves of E. ligustrina are very dissimilar from the lanceolate juvenile leaves of E. æquans.

2. With E. Kybeanensis Maiden and Cambage.

This is also a dwarf species, with narrow leaves, but the buds are almost globular and not cylindrical and acute like the buds of E. æquans.

The fruits of the latter are also smaller and thinner than those of the former.

  ― 80 ―

CDXXIII. E. globoidea Blakely

Jour. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., LXI, 157 (1927).

STRINGYBARK parva 20–50 pedes alta; cortex stispis crassus, fibrosus, persistens, ramis glabris; folia juvenilia alternata, obliquo-lanceolata, vel falcato-lanceolata, tenuia, 6–12 x 1·5–4·5 cm.; inflorescentia umbellis simplicibus axillaribus 6–16 florum; gemmæ cylindricæ, acutæ, calyx obconicus; operculum conicum, acutum vel rostratum, 8 x 3 mm.; antheræ reniformes; capsulæ hemisphæricæ, in parvis globularibus capitibus congregatæ, ad 15 mm. diametro.

A small to medium-sized Stringybark, 20–50 feet high, with a short, straight stem and spreading branches, which give the tree a round-headed appearance. Bark rather thick, fibrous, a typical Stringybark; branchlets semiterete.

Juvenile leaves not seen in the earliest stage, alternate, ovate, lanceolate, shortly petiolate, glabrous or nearly so, 2·5–5 cm. long, 1·5–2·5 broad, cm. broad or broader, rather thick, smooth, with entire margins. Venation somewhat obscure.

Intermediate leaves alternate, rather broad, petiolate, oblong, elliptical to obliquely-lanceolate, acute or mucronate, smooth and shiny on both sides, 5–8 cm. long, 3–5 cm. broad. Venation somewhat prominent, the median nerve conspicuous on both surfaces, the lateral veins rather numerous, diverging at an angle of 40–50° with the midrib; intramarginal vein very remote from the edge.

Adult leaves alternate, very variable, broad to narrow-lanceolate, or obliquely-lanceolate, to falcate-lanceolate, thin, coriaceous, shiny on both surfaces, 6–12 cm. long, 1·5–4·5 cm. broad. Veins distinct, the lateral ones very slender, radiating at an angle of 30–50° with the midrib, the intramarginal vein distant from the edge in the broad leaves, rather close to the margin in the narrow ones.

Inflorescence in simple axillary umbels, the peduncle rather slender, sometimes very short, supporting 6–16 flowers. Buds tip-cat shaped, acute or slightly obtuse, including the short pedicels about 8 mm. long, 3 mm. in diameter. Calyx funnel-shaped; operculum acutely conical, as long as or longer than the calyx-tube. Anthers reniform with rather narrow cells and a small terminal gland in front.

Fruit hemispherical or nearly so, rather small, usually in dense globular heads, up to 15 mm. in diameter, pale-coloured, except the smooth, reddish-brown slightly convex disc, 5–6 x 7–8 mm., the cells very small, usually 4, with minute deciduous valves.

Timber pale, almost white, free in the grain, and to all appearance as strong as the timber of E. eugenioides.

Illustrations.—It is depicted in Part VIII of this work, under E. capitellata, Plate 38, figs. 7a, 7b. The type. Also under E. eugenioides, Plate 40, figs. 14a, 14b, 14c, 15a, 15b, 15c. Fruit more globular that the preceding.

  ― 81 ―


In the present state of our knowledge it appears to be confined mainly to the coastal districts and southern tablelands of New South Wales. The following are the localities :—Bermagui (W. Hutchinson); Mt. Imlay, near Eden. “One of the few Eucalypts found on the summit of the Mount.” It reaches to but a small tree on the top, but at the base of the Mount and some distance from it, the trees become normal, or average about 50 feet high (J. L. Boorman, Kangaloon) ; “Stringybark saplings” (J. L. Bruce). Between Eden and Brown Mountain (C. C. Robertson and W. A. W. de Beuzeville). The juvenile leaves are broad and of a very dark green.

Illawarra (Rev. Dr. W. W. Woolls); Wingello (J. H. Maiden J. L. Boorman, and A. Murphy); Marulan (A. Murphy); Berrima (J. H. Maiden, J. L. Boorman, D. W. C. Shiress); Cutaway Hill, Mittagong (D. W. C. Shiress and W. F. B.). Co-type; Mount Colah W.F.B.); Asquith (W.F.B.); Wyee (A. Murphy); Wallsend (J. L. Boorman, and J. W. Froggatt); Booral (A. Rudder); Glen Innes (per Forestry Commission).


1. With E. eugenioides Sieber.

It appears to be a smaller tree than E. eugenioides, with broader juvenile and adult leaves, the former leaves are also less stellate-hispid in the sucker stage, while the fruits are sessile and usually form small globular masses in contradistinction to the lax fruiting habit of E. eugenioides.

2. With E. agglomerata Maiden.

Both species have broad juvenile leaves and conglomerate fruits, but the juvenile leaves of E. globoidea are smaller and more glabrous than those of E. agglomerata, while the fruits are smaller and relatively more uniform than the fruits of the latter species. It is also a much smaller tree than E. agglomerata. The seedlings are also smaller, and slightly more crinkled than those of the latter species.

  ― 82 ―

CDXXIV. E. Bottii Blakely

Jour. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., LXI, 163 (1927).

ARBOR admodum magna, cortice caulis aspero plus minus rugoso, cortice ramorum glabro; folia juvenilia subglauca, lanceolata vel oblique lanceolata; folia matura falcato-lanceolata, undulata; gemmæ parva, rostratæ; antheræ reniformes; capsulæ ovoidæ, glandulari-rugosæ, 9×8 mm.

A moderately large tree, 50 to over 100 feet high, with rough, more or less deeply furrowed bark on trunk, smooth on the branches; juvenile leaves subglaucous, lanceolate to obliquely lanceolate; adult leaves falcate-lanceolate, undulate; buds small, rostrate; anthers reniform; fruit ovoid, glandular-rugose 9×8 mm.

Juvenile leaves opposite for 3–6 pairs, slightly glaucous and somewhat rough with numerous oil-glands, lanceolate to obliquely lanceolate, shortly petiolate, very thin, dark green above, pale beneath, 4–7 cm. long, 2½ –4 cm. broad; venation moderately distinct on both surfaces, but more prominent beneath, lateral veins diverging at an angle of 50–60° with the midrib, and uniting with the intramarginal vein a short distance from the edge.

Intermediate leaves alternate, slightly more glaucous than the juvenile leaves, and particularly the internodes which are glaucous to pruinose, green above, much paler beneath, broadly elliptical to obliquely-elliptical, or the upper ones obliquely-lanceolate, undulate with a short, terete glandular petiole, 9–16 cm. long, 5–9 cm. broad, venation distinct, the lateral veins rather distant, rising at an angle of 40–60° with the midrib; intramarginal vein very irregular; in some places it is close to the margin, in others 10 mm. from it, and when the latter there is a rudimentary or very fine secondary intramarginal vein between it and the minutely crenulated margin.

Adult leaves alternate, petiolate, falcate-lanceolate to obliquely-lanceolate, undulate, somewhat thick, coriaceous, smooth on both surfaces and with a very fine obscure venation, 6–16 cm. long, 1–3 cm, broad, the midrib slightly raised beneath, finely canaliculate above; lateral veins very fine, radiating at an angle of about 30–40° with the midrib; intramarginal vein a short distance from the slightly revolute margin. Petioles often twisted, glandular-rugose, convex beneath, channelled above.

Inflorescence axillary usually in simple umbels, but sometimes in short panicles. Umbels usually dense, the common peduncle compressed, 10–17 mm. long, bearing seven to over twenty pedicellate flowers. Buds pedicellate, small, rostrate, the calyx-tube obconical, thin minutely glandular-rugose, about 4×3 mm.; operculum conical but usually acutely rostrate up to 4 mm. long, striate on the inside; pedicels about 5 mm. long. Anthers reniform, the white filaments all fertile. Style subulate, more than twice the length of the calyx-tube.

Fruit pedicellate, forming ball-like masses up to twenty in the head, ovoid, glandular-rugulose. the small orifice surrounded by a rudimentary disc, the very small valves enclosed or sometimes flush with the edge of the dise, 9×8 mm. Pedicels subterete, rugose, 4–5 mm. long.

Timber with a rather thick sapwood, pale brown when freshly cut, slightly gummy, moderately hard and with a more interlocked grain than the timber of E. piperita. It appears to be a superior timber to that of the latter species.

Named in honour of Harold Bott, my friend and companion on many botanical excursions during the last fourteen years.

  ― 83 ―


So far it appears to be confined to a small area of the coast districts of the counties of Cumberland and Northumberland, at no great distance south and north of Sydney, N.S.W.

The following are the localities :—

Between Stanwell Park and Otford, large spreading tree with slightly glaucous undulate adult leaves (W.F.B.); Oatley and National Park (J. H. Camfield, April, 1901); the fruits from Oatley are slightly larger and thicker than the type; Gladesville (H. Deane, June, 1886); Cedar Gully, Cowan; tall, straight trees, up to 100 feet high and 2 feet in diameter, growing in association with E. agglomerata on rich clay soil (Bott, Shiress and Blakely); at the foot of Mt. Penang and along the old Penang-road for some distance; also in Kendall's Glen, which is on the left of the Penang-road going west from Gosford; trees 50 to over 100 feet high, somewhat like E. pilularis in appearance, with straight boles covered with a rather thick, grey Peppermint-like bark extending to the base of the large branches on moderately small trees, and on old trees extending to the small branches. The top portion of very young saplings is somewhat pruinose like those of E. Sieberiana, and the leaves are large, slightly glaucous, and distinctly undulate. At one spot it is ecologically associated with E. paniculata, E. pilularis, E. saligna, and Angophora intermedia. Very old trees of E. Bottii are markedly like old tree of A. intermedia, both in general appearance and in cortical characters. The rough, grey bark of the former persists well out on the branches like the bark of the Angophora (W.F.B., H. Bott, and D. W. C. Shiress); between Teralba and Fassifern, also about one mile south of Awaba (W.F.B.); Narara, on the edge of the brush (W.F.B., D.W.C.S., and A. Murphy).


1. With E. piperita Sm.

It is quite obvious that there are imperceptible gradations between E. Bottii and E. piperita and its allies, but the main difference between them is in the superior size, and more shaft-like habit of E. Bottii with its relatively better timber; in the broader subglaucous juvenile and intermediate leaves, as compared with the very thin light green leaves with their pale undersurface of E. piperita; and in the slightly pruinose

  ― 84 ―
bloom of the very young saplings of the former, and also with its more rostrate buds, and less urceolate thick fruits. E. Bottii seems also to prefer a better class of soil, and low-lying land with a porous subsoil, whilst E. piperita, almost without exception, sticks to the well-drained, rugged sandstone country, particularly with a southerly aspect, thus indicating that it prefers the cool side of the hills; at times it descends into the deep gullies until it meets with the shale which seems to be a barrier to its progress.

2. With E. pilularis Sm.

Young saplings of E. Bottii are tall and straight, and somewhat difficult to distinguish from saplings of E. pilularis, with which it is often associated, and they are sometimes cut for the latter species. The timber of E. Bottii is darker than that of E. pilularis, and much shorter in the grain. The adult foliage is also narrower and more glaucous than that of E. pilularis, while the juvenile leaves are very broad in comparison with those of E. pilularis.

  ― 85 ―

CDXXV. E. Robertsoni Blakely

Jour. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., LXI, 167 (1927).

ARBOR permagna ad 180 pedes alta, 1–6 pedes diametro metrens; cortex stispis dense fibrosus atque intertextus; rami glabri; folia juvenilia opposita, angusto-vel late-lanceolata, acuminata, sessilia nunc amplexicaulia, parvum glauca, 1·5–10 cm. longa, 9–30 mm. lata; folia matura alternata, petiolata, angusto-vel late lanceolata, tenuia, exsiccata, viridi-glauca, 7–17 cm. longa, 1·5–3 cm. lata; pedunculi axillares fulcientes 9–21 parvos flores; gemmæ pedicellatæ, clavatæ vel rostratæ; antheræ reniformes; capsulæ hemisphæricæ vel pyriformes, truncatæ, pedicellatæ 5–7×5–6 mm., disco obliquo vel horizontali, valvis parvis, inclusis.

A large tree up to 180 feet high, up to 6 feet in diameter. Bark close, not ribbony (Robertson), of the Peppermint type, branches usually smooth. Young branchlets compressed, but becoming terete with age, usually of a reddish-brown colour or sometimes slightly pruinose. Leaves a pale slaty-green, usually with reddish veins and veinlets.

Juvenile leaves opposite for an indefinite number of pairs, narrow to broad-lanceolate, a few oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, sessile to stem-clasping, a much darker green above than on the under surface, invariably drying a pale slaty-green colour, 1·5–10 cm. long, 9–30 mm. broad or broader; venation moderately distinct, the median nerve very prominent beneath, usually of a reddish-brown colour and somewhat thickened at the base, very fine and channelled above; lateral veins very fine, scarcely raised above the surface of the lamina, radiating at an angle of 30–40° with the midrib and with numerous fine secondary veins; intramarginal vein usually distant from the edge. Oil dots very numerous, the larger ones less numerous than the small ones. Internodes terete, glandular, reddish-brown.

Intermediate leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, narrow to broad-lanceolate or falcate-lanceolate, acuminate, oblique or rounded at the base, drying a pale slaty-green on both surfaces, 3–10 cm. long, 1–4 cm. broad; venation somewhat similar to that of the juvenile leaves; secondary veins diverging at an angle of 30–40° with the midrib.

Adult leaves alternate usually with slightly compressed petioles, 1–2·5 cm. long, narrow to broad-lanceolate, obliquely-lanceolate and falcate-lanceolate, thin, drying a pale slaty-green, 7–17 cm. long, 1·5–3 cm. broad; venation sometimes very distinct, the median nerve reddish-brown, slightly raised on both surfaces towards the base, or sometimes faintly canaliculate above; lateral veins numerous, diverging at an angle of 20–30° with the midrib, usually much branched and unequal in length; intramarginal vein very irregular and sometimes well removed from the margin owing to the abbreviated lateral veins; oil-dots conspicuous, very numerous.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels, the peduncle compressed, supporting 9–21 small pedicellate flowers. Buds clavate to rostrate, glandular, slightly glaucous, including the usually filiform pedicel 6–9 mm. long, about 3 mm. in diameter. Calyx-tube funnel-shaped; operculum conical to rostrate or acuminate, sometimes longer and broader than the calyx-tube. Anthers reniform with rather broad lateral cells and a fairly large terminal gland.

  ― 86 ―

Fruit clavate to pyriform, occasionally somewhat mallet-shaped, truncate, smooth or more often slightly rugose, pedicellate, sometimes the pedicels filiform as in E. numerosa, 5–7 mm. long, 5–6 mm. in diameter; disc oblique or forming a flat broadish band over the very small enclosed valves, cells usually three.

Timber pale, with a slight pink tinge when fresh, changing to a very pale yellowish-brown when dry, moderately light with a fairly long, somewhat open grain, interspersed with short gum veins. It is fairly fissile and apparently not suitable for heavy work, and in this respect is inferior to Blackbutt, E. pilularis, but is a far superior timber to E. numerosa and E. radiata.

Mr. C. C. Robertson, M.F., in “A Reconnaissance of the Forest Trees of Australia from the point of view of their cultivation in South Africa,” page 169, states that “on the high mountains above Tumut, &c., it is a large tree up to at least 120 feet high and commonly 3 or 4 feet, sometimes 6 feet in diameter.”

“The wood of this large timber tree on these mountains is regarded locally as good for buildings, including flooring and lining, and it is stated not to shrink or warp to any large extent. I even saw some good moulding of it which had kept its shape very well. It is a moderately light, strong wood, and is excellent and largely used for pick handles. It has gum veins, but not to a very serious extent. It has also been used for furniture. It is also said to be quite durable, and house-blocks of it are believed to have lasted forty years. A trial of it for railway sleepers has been arranged. I was told also in Victoria of this tree being considered durable, fence posts of it having lasted thirty-five years.”

Illustrations.—It is figured in Part VI, Plate 29, under E. amygdalina, fig. 8a, juvenile leaves; 8b, fruits, from Munendel Hill, Victoria (A. W. Howitt). Also Plate 30, under E. amygdalina Labill. var. numerosa, var. nov. (1), and allies, fig. 3a, leaf; 3b, small fruits, from Lilydale, Victoria (A. W. Howitt); 4a, broad leaf; 4b, fruits, Darlimurla, Victoria (H. Deane). The late Mr. Maiden has a note: “This form undoubtedly shows affinity to var. numerosa.

Named in honour of Mr. C. C. Robertson, M.F., Forest Department, Pretoria, South Africa, who assisted in segregating this species from its allies.


E. amygdalina of many authors, but not of Labill; E. numerosa Maiden (partim.); E. Australiana Baker and Smith (partim.); E. phellandra Baker and Smith (partim);

The late J. H. Maiden and Messrs. Baker and Smith referred certain specimens of E. Robertsoni to the above species, but they did not describe them.

  ― 87 ―


It appears to be confined to Victoria and New South Wales. In the latter State it is widespread throughout the high mountain ranges from the Victorian border to Canberra, and it extends northward to Mullion Creek, Orange district.

Victoria.—Lilydale (A. W. Howitt). Mount Macedon (W. S. Brownscombe). Boggy Creek, Buchan-road (J. H. Maiden). Stony Creek, Dargo (A. W. Howitt). “Peppermint,” near the Big River on the new road between Omeo and Glen Wills. Up to 3 or 3½ feet in diameter (H. Hopkins). Bulgaback, North Gippsland (A. W. Howitt).

New South Wales.—Grows into large trees on granite and basalt, Laurel Hill (R. H. Cambage, No. 871). “Messmate,” Tumut (Forest Ranger Mecham). Gilmore, near Tumut (J. L. Boorman). “Tumut, at an elevation of about 3,500 feet” (C. C. Robertson and W. A. W. de Beuzeville, A. W. Howitt). Talbingo Mountain, Tumut district (A. W. Howitt, C. C. Robertson, and W. A. W. de Beuzeville). The type.

“One of our best timbers for all purposes. I have seen blocks of this timber taken out of the ground after thirty years and they were still in good condition. (This applies to ground on which it grows.) We use it largely locally for telephone posts, rough building and especially T. and G. flooring and lining, and also for railway sleepers. It is locally a very large and tall tree, often 150–180 feet high. It is generally a very useful timber” Batlow (W. A. W. de Beuzeville); also collected in the same district by A. W. Howitt, P. Murphy, W. Hutchinson, F. W. Wakefield and W. H. Austin. The last is labelled E. Australiana by Mr. R. T. Baker.

(Tumbarumba. “Tree with a fibrous, matted bark.” Bishop J. W. Dwyer, No. 1,418, F. W. Wakefield, No. 9, J. Davis.) “Narrow-leaved Messmate.” Attains a height of over 100 feet, and exceeds 4 feet in diameter. Is considered a fine timber, and is largely used for fencing purposes. It is almost solely used at Kopsen's factory for pick-handles. It would make fine furniture, as it takes a good polish and looks exceedingly well when worked into chairs and tables. Found throughout the mountainous parts of the district. Grows equally well along sides of gullies and tops and sides of hills.” Tumbarumba (H. A. Timms). Yarrangobilly (A. W. Howitt). “Messmate,” Yarrangobilly saw-mills (W. W. Gillespie, E. Betche). Snowy River, near head of Murray (E. M. de Burgh). Mount Stromlo, and Condor Creek, Federal Territory (C. Weston). Bondi Mountain and Devil's River, Tantawanglo Mountain (F. W. Wakefield).

The following are western localities, or its furthest point north of Gippsland, Victoria. Isabella River, Oberon to Burraga (F. W. Wakefield.) Paupong (F.W.W.). “Very tall tree, with comparatively thin stem, 2–3 feet diameter, usually much less. Bark of Peppermint nature. Timber straight in grain. Not plentiful.” Glengowan, Upper Meroo (J. L. Boorman and A. Murphy). Mullion Creek, near Orange (R. H. Cambage).

  ― 88 ―


1. With E. numerosa Maiden.

In botanical characters E. numerosa appears to be its closest affinity. In fact, it may be described as a rough-barked form of E. numerosa, possessing a more durable timber, larger and more glaucous juvenile leaves, and sub-glaucous adult leaves, also glaucous, and more pointed buds. The umbels appear also to have fewer flowers in the head, and the pedicels are usually slightly shorter than those of E. numerosa.

2. With E. radiata Sieb.

E. Robertsoni is a much larger and taller tree than E. radiata, possessing a better class of timber, and has larger and broader juvenile leaves, which are more glaucous than those of E. radiata, while the venation of the leaves is also different. On the other hand, the buds are more pointed and even rostrate, and the peduncle and pedicels are usually longer in E. Robertsoni than in E. radiata.

  ― 89 ―

CDXXVI. E. multicaulis Blakely

Jour. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., LXI, 172 (1927).

MALLEE parva erecta caulibus ramisque tenuibus; folia juvenilia sub-glauca, breviter petiolata, ovata vel elliptica; folia matura-excentia alternata, petiolata, lanceolata, vel falcato lanceolata, subviridia utrimque nitida; gemmæ globulares, pedicellatæ; antheræ reniformes; capsulæ pyriformes vel urceolatæ-truncatæ, disco parvo, plano, 6–9×5–8 mm.

A small erect Mallee, with slender stems and branches; juvenile leaves sub-glaucous, shortly petiolate ovate to elliptical; adult leaves alternate; petiolate, lanceolate to falcate-lanceolate, pale green, glossy on both surfaces; buds globular, pedicellate; anthers reniform; fruit pyriform to urceolate-truncate disc small, flat, 6–9×5–8 mm.

A Mallee, 6–20 feet high, with numerous slender whipstick or clothes-prop-like stems ½–4 inches in diameter. Large-sized plants with a little rough, sub-fibrous bark on the lower part of the stems, the upper portion smooth and usually purple-brown in colour. Branchlets sub-terete to quadrangular.

Juvenile leaves alternate, glaucous, shortly petiolate, ovate, elliptical to somewhat cordate, apiculate, thickish, usually lustreless, 4–10 cm. long, 3–9 cm. broad; venation scarcely prominent, the midrib slightly convex beneath, canaliculate on the upper surface of the lamina; lateral veins rather numerous, spreading at an angle of 20–40° with the midrib; intramarginal vein distant from the slightly revolute margin.

Intermediate leaves alternate, broadly lanceolate to obliquely lanceolate, dull, slightly glaucous, the lateral veins somewhat more distant than in the juvenile leaves, diverging at an angle of 40–50° to the midrib, 7–12 cm. long, 4–7 cm. broad.

Adult leaves alternate, petiolate, obliquely-falcate to lanceolate, light green (not glaucous) drying a pale colour, glossy on both surfaces, coriaceous, copiously dotted with dark oil glands, the margins somewhat thickened, 6–12 cm. long, 1–3 cm. broad; venation somewhat longitudinal, the median nerve more or less obscure especially on the lower surface; lateral veins radiating at an angle of 65–80° with the midrib and much closer together than in the intermediate leaves; intramarginal vein not far removed from the edge. Petiole semi-terete and usually twisted.

Inflorescence in axillary umbels, the peduncle compressed, up to 15 mm. long, supporting 5–12 pedicellate flowers. Buds drum-stick like, including the trigonous pedicels 5–8 mm. long. Calyx-tube shaped like a wine-glass, about 2 mm. deep; operculum blunt, hemispherical, about 3 mm. in diameter; stamens white, not very numerous, attached to the inner edge of the calyx-tube or staminal ring in two or three closely-packed irregular rows, only the inner ones antheriferous and shorter than the outer ones. Anthers very small, reniform, with a large globular semiterminal gland in front. Style slender, subulate, not exceeding the top of the calyx-tube.

Fruit pyriform-truncate, to slightly urceolate, flat-topped or slightly convex, the small capsular disc growing well out towards the centre of the capsule and extending over the very small enclosed valves, or the latter rarely exsert, usually three-celled, 6–9 mm. long, 5–8 mm. in diameter.

  ― 90 ―


So far it appears to be confined to the Lower Hawkesbury, between Broken Bay and Gosford, New South Wales, and grows mainly on poor shallow moist sandstone slopes with a southerly or south-east aspect; head of the left arm of Patonga Creek, about 1½ miles beyond tidal water; Sugar Loaf, over the Woy Woy tunnel; Kariong Trig., 807 feet above sea level, and about 7 miles air-line from Broken Bay. The type locality. It extends from Kariong in a southerly direction for about 1½ miles on the south-east slope of two prominent ridges which are very little lower than the Trig., and in several places it forms pure stands one to several acres in extent. In one spot on the southern end of Kariong it is intermixed with E. virgata, but, as a rule, it prefers the slightly better and drier soil than the latter species, and it has not been observed to grow on the rocky precipitous slopes like E. virgata does in this locality. (W. F. Blakely, D. W. C. Shiress and H. Bott); head of Kendall's Glen, Gosford (W.F.B. and D. W. C. Shiress).


1. With E. Sieberiana F.v.M.

E. multicaulis might be called a Mallee form of E. Sieberiana, as it somewhat resembles it in botanical characters, but it never seems to grow into a tree like E. Sieberiana. Sometimes E. Sieberiana sends out several small saplings from the rootstock, but they resemble the typical form in every way except in manner of growth. But they are very dissimilar from E. multicaulis in the nature of the bark, which is thicker, harder, and more rugged on the lower portion of the trunks, while the bark of the upper is smooth, glaucous or pruinose, in contradistinction to the short, brittle, mealy-fibrous bark on the base of the stems of E. multicaulis, and the smooth, reddish or purple-brown bark on the upper portion. The juvenile leaves of E. multicaulis are smaller, thinner, and less glaucous than those of E. Sieberiana. It is common to find the juvenile leaves of the latter species 18 cm. long, and 10 cm. in diameter. The fruits of E. multicaulis are also slightly smaller and somewhat differently shaped to those of E. Sieberiana.

2. With E. Consideniana F.v.M.

This species is usually a medium-sized tree, and, so far as I am aware, it has not been known to form a Mallee-like growth like E. multicaulis. The bark of the two species is also dissimilar in texture, and there is a marked difference in the juvenile leaves and in the sculpture of the fruit of both species.

  ― 91 ―

CDXXVII. E. Bleeseri Blakely

Jour. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., LXI, 175 (1927).

BLOODWOOD, arbor mediocris; cortex caulis ramorumque glaber; ramuli compressi, mox teretes; folia matura alternata, petiolata, angusti lanceolata, acuminata; infloresentia formans paniculam terminalem magnam, corymbosam; gemmæ ovoideæ, glabræ; antheræ versatiles; capsulæ cylindraceo-urceolatæ, 1·5–2·5×1–1·2 cm.

A moderately smooth, white-barked Bloodwood, up to 50 feet high. Bark at base thin-flaky, semi-persistent, whitish to pale reddish-brown. Branches smooth; the old bark, which is of a reddish-brown colour decorticates annually in small, thin flakes, leaving the branches and portion of the stem smooth and white. Branchlets at first compressed, sulcate, but soon becoming terete, usually of a reddish-brown colour.

Juvenile leaves very variable, the lower ones alternate, petiolate, orbicular to ovate, apiculatee scabrous and loosely pilose, 3·5–7 cm. long, 3–5 cm. broad. Venation somewhat transverse, almost obscurs except the intramarginal vein, which is conspicuous at the base, and distant from the margin. Internode. compressed, sulcate, densely pilose with reddish hairs; young tips infested with purple-brown hairs Upper juvenile leaves opposite for two or three pairs, then alternate, oblong to broadly lanceolate, petiolate, very scabrous, almost peltate, or an odd one peltate, very dull, with a few scattered hairs or seta, on the margin and midrib, 6–10 cm.×2·5–7 cm., more or less aromatic when crushed. Venation somewhat transverse, moderately distinct, diverging at an angle of 65–75° with the midrib. Internodes compressed or terete, pilose.

Intermediate leaves opposite for two or three pairs, then alternate, petiolate, coriaceous, smooth and shining, slightly pale on the under surface, broadly oblong-lanceolate, undulate, 8–18 cm. long, up to 6·5 cm. broad. Venation transverse or nearly so, very fine, almost obscure, the median nerve rather broad, convex beneath, channelled above; lateral veins spreading at an angle of 75–80° with the midrib; intramarginal vein concealed by the thickened nerve-like margin.

Adult leaves alternate, petiolate, narrow-lanceolate to obliquely-lanceolate, acuminate, thin, light-green, glossy on both sides, 10–16×1–2 cm. Venation almost transverse, very fine, the median nerve reddish, compressed or scarcely raised above the lamina; lateral veins very numerous, radiating at an angle of 75–80° with the midrib; intramarginal vein indistinguishable from the thin nerve-like margin. Petiole slender, convex beneath, channelled above, 10–15 mm. long, 1–1·5 mm. in diameter.

Inflorescence forming large terminal compound umbels or corymbose panicles; partial umbels 3–6 flowered; flowers on slender, slightly dilated pedicels 15–25 mm. long. Buds somewhat ovoid, slightly acute, tapering into the pedicels, smooth, pale-coloured or reddish, straight or curved at the base like the bowl of a tobacco pipe, 10–13×6–8 mm. Calyx-tube obconic, moderately thick, 7 mm. long; operculum broadly conical, slightly rugose at the top, shorter than the calyx-tube. Filaments white; anthers versatile, rather large, the cells longitudinal, with a large oval dorsal gland.

  ― 92 ―

Fruit obliquely cylindroid-urceolate, to oblong-urceolate, 1·5–2·5 cm. long, 1–1·2 cm. in diameter; the capsular disc fairly well developed, internally deeply oblique, the orifice considerably smaller than the expanded top of the capsule; valves deeply sunk, sometimes much lower than the base of the capsular disc.

Timber a very pale pink when fresh, with a moderately long straight grain, strong and tough, of medium weight.

ILLUSTRATIONS.—It is figured in Part LXIX, Plate 280, figs. 4–5.


E. terminalis F.v.M. var. E. longipedata Maiden and Blakely, Crit. Rev., Part LXIX, p. 407.


In the present state of our knowledge, it seems to be confined to Port Darwin, Northern Territory, and was first collected by Schultz about 1880, who forwarded a specimen to the late Baron Von Mueller for identification.

It apparently had escaped the observation of many collectors who visited Darwin since the above date, until it was rediscovered by Mr. C. E. F. Allen, in March, 1917, who submitted a flowering specimen to the late Mr. J. H. Maiden, who asked Mr. Allen to supplement his specimen with ampler material, but the request was left in abeyance.

In February, 1927, Mr. F. A. K. Bleeser, of Darwin, pointed out the tree to Mr. D. W. C. Shiress, who brought back specimens which enabled me to establish its identity. Mr. Blesser has also sent specimens, together with a sample of the timber, and field notes concerning it.

I therefore, name the species in honour of Mr. F. A. K. Bleeser, Assistant Postmaster, Port Darwin, who for upwards of thirty-eight years has taken a very keen interes in the flora and fauna of the Northern Territory.

  ― 93 ―


1. With E. terminalis. F.v.M.

The buds and fruits of both species are somewhat similar in shape and size, but the long slender pedicel of either character of E. Bleeseri readily differentiates it from E. terminalis; the operculum is also longer and more pointed in the former. In the field the former may be distinguished from the latter by its moderately smooth white bark, in contradistinction to the rough bark of E. terminalis.

2. With E. dichromophloia F.v.M.

The buds and fruits of E. Bleeseri are larger than those of E. dichromophloia, while the bark of the former is comparatively smooth, not rough like that of the latter.

  ― 94 ―

CDXXVIII. E. Dielsii Gardner

In Jour. Roy. Soc., Western Australia, vol. xii, p. 67 (1925–26).

ARBOR pusilla, sive “Mallee, quindecim vel octodecim peduum altitudinus, e cortice plano-tenui, viridifusco et trunco quinque vel septem uniciarum diametri. Ligno tenaci, recte granulato, duro, pallide, fusco, denso.

Juvenilibus foliis potius pallido-viridibus, parce petiolatis, tenuiter inæqualibus, pellucidis ex punctis oleosis, inconspicuis lateralibus venis angulum facientibus circiter 75 graduum cum costa centrali.

Maturiis foliis denso-rigidis, anguste lanceolatis, tenuiter falcatis, vel fere rectis, petiolatis, idem color utrinque habentibus costa centrali prominenti venis lateralibus circiter parallelis angulum efformantibus circiter 40 graduum cum costa media, vena intramarginali remota a margine.

Pedunculis generaliter axillaribus, modice planis et curvatis, sub umbella expansis, quae consistit ex tribus vel quinque floribus. Pedicellis tenuibus, sursum incrassatis. Operculo conico, dilatato super lineam commissuralem; tubo calyceo modice campanulato, disco efformante calycis prolongationem atque in gemmatione constituenti annulo staminali. Antheris oblongis longitudinaliter aperientibus, albicantibus, filamentis in gemma inflectis. Stylo crasso breviori staminibus, cum capitato stigmate.

Fructo urceolato-globulari, abrupte imminuenti versus pedicellam; margine distincte definita, protrusa et reflexa ita ut suspendentum limbum formet, summitate formam cupulae habente, valvulis deltoidis magis minusve planis cum capsula.

Foliis 7–12 cm. longitudinis, 10–17 mm. amplitudinis. Pedunculis circ. 2·5 cm. long; pedicellis modice supra 1 cm. long. Operculo 1 cm. long, 8 mm. amplitudinis supra basim. Calyci 6 mm. long. Fructo 1·3 cm. long, idemque in diametro.

Nuncupatus in honorem L. Diels, illustris moderator Hortus Botanici apud Berlin, qui extense peragravit Australian occidentalem in principio hujus saeculi, quique tantum contulit historiae botanicae hujus regionis.

A small tree, or a Mallee of 15–18 feet, with a smooth, thin, greenish-brown bark, the trunk 5–7 inches in diameter. Timber tough, straight-grained, hard and dense, pale brown in colour.

Juvenile leaves rather dark green, shortly petiolate, slightly unequal, pellucid with dark oil-dots, the inconspicuous lateral veins making an angle of about 75 degrees with the midrib.

Mature leaves thick and rigid, shining, narrow-lan ceolate, only slightly falcate or almost straight, petiolate, the lateral veins roughly parallel, and forming an angle of about 40 degrees with the midrib; the intramarginal vein removed from the edge.

  ― 95 ―

Peduncles mostly axillary, slightly flattened and recurved, widening under the umbel, which consists of three to five flowers. Pedicels slender, thickened upwards. Operculum conical, widest some distance above the junction with the calyx-tube, acute. Calyx-tube ovoid-campanulate, the disc produced above the base of the operculum, forming a staminal ring covered by the operculum when in bud. Anthers oblong, the cells parallel, opening in longitudinal slits, white in colour, the filaments green, and inflected in the bud. Style thick, shorter than the stamens, with a capitate, somewhat large stigma.

Fruit urceolate-globular, abruptly tapering into the pedicel, the summit domed, with the rim well defined, protruding or even reflexed, the valves deltoid, more or less flush with the summit of the capsule.

Leaves 7–12 cm. long, 10–17 mm. broad. Peduncles about 2·5 cm. long; pedicels slightly over 1 cm. long. Operculum 1 cm. long, 8 mm. diameter in the widest part (i.e., about one-quarter of the height). Calyx-tube 6 mm. long. Staminal ring 2 mm. long. Fruit 6 mm. long, and the same in diameter.


Habitat near Salmon Gums in the Coolgardie district, to the south of Dundas, Western Australia, in red clay soil, forming low forests with E. diptera, flowering January to April. The type is No. 1,051A, Herb. C. A. Gardner, and was collected by W. T. Brown, 13th January, 1925.


The affinities of this species appear to lie with E. erythronema and E. eremophila, particularly with the var. marginata of the former. This is especially the case with the staminal ring, which is perhaps the floral disc. This projects above the commisural line, lining the operculum for some distance. This continuation of the disc remains erect in the flower like a continuation of the calyx-tube, but after flowering becomes reflexed and forms the remarkable rim of the domed disc of the fruit. Something of the kind is observable in E. erythronema var. marginata, but the ring remains erect.

From the collector's remarks it appears that E. Dielsii much like E. diptera in habit, and the timber and barks are certainly very much alike.

  ― 96 ―

CDXXIX. E. Gilleni Ewart and L. R. Kerr

In Proc. Roy. Soc., Vict., xxxix, 7 (1926), with fig.

A LOW, densely-branched shrub, spreading from the base, about 6–8 feet high, with a smooth bark on the branches, becoming rougher and more Box-like on the older stems, but not fibrous. Leaves shortly stalked with the petiole, usually twisted so as to place the lamina vertical, linear-ovate to lanceolate, bluntly pointed, thick, very coriaceous, pale green on both sides, intramarginal vein prominently developed, and frequently with a second, fainter, intramarginal vein nearer the edge of the leaf; lateral veins diverging at an angle of about 45°; young shoots angular, midrib red. Fruits shortly stalked, usually in clusters of three, occasionally in twos, or even single, and either on terminal leafless branches or on leafy shoots opposite the leaves, or in their axils; peduncles short, thick, and more or less angular; capsules sessile, almost globular, with an equatorial rim and a domed-shaped top with four, or less commonly three, short valves with flattened-incurved tips; seeds not winged.

The fruit somewhat resembles that of E. macrorrhyncha, but the bark is quite different. The nearest affinity appears to be E. Oldfieldii, but the general habit and the shorter, angular, common pedicel are distinctive features. Although the flowers have not been seen, the species appears to be quite distinct.

Juvenile leaves narrow ovate-lanceolate, pointed, shortly stalked, opposite and becoming alternate later; venation almost identical with the adult leaves, except that the intramarginal vein is thinner and single and the leaves less coriaceous than the adult; oil glands not numerous, but more prominent on the juvenile foliage. The plant is strongly xerophytic, and only grows, so far as is known, on the southern slope of Mt. Gillen, among the tufts of porcupine grass. It grows well in Melbourne, forming a rather graceful small shrub, but seems reluctant to flower.

Mt. Gillen, Northern Territory, July, 1924 (A. J. Ewart).


With E. Morrisii R. T. Baker.

The fruits appear to resemble those of E. Morrisii R. T. Baker. They are, according to the figure, ovoid, closely sessile; the peduncle is very short, scarcely half the length of the fruit. The leaves are broad-lanceolate and thick.

  ― 97 ―

CXXXVII. E. alba Reinwardt

IT is fully described and figured in Part XXV, p. 90, Plate 105, figs. 1–5, and need not be repeated here.


The type came from Timor. It occurs also in Java, but its western limit in Malaysia is unknown, and it does not appear to extend to Australia, as stated in Part XXV. The localities quoted in the above Part are referable to E. platyphylla and E. pastoralis, which have been segregated from E. alba, see pp. 98 and 102.

  ― 98 ―

CDXXX. E. platyphylla F.v.M

In Jour. Linn. Soc., iii, 93 (1859).

IN Part XXV, p. 95, of this work I have written up this species as a synonym of E. alba Reinw., but I now regard it as a distinct species.

A Latin description will be found at p. 95, of which the following is a translation:—

Arboreal, with more or less terete branchlets; leaves alternate or sub-opposite with long petioles, ovate or cordate-orbicular, occasionally sub-rhombic, rarely ovate-lanceolate, opaque, prominently penninerved, pellucidly dotted, peripheric vein distant from the margin; umbels axillary or lateral, 3–7 flowered, the angular peduncles as long as the calyx-tube, the latter hemispherical, ecostate, and as long as the semi-globose, smooth and rounded operculum; fruits turbinate, hemispherical, with three or four compartments, slightly convex at the apex, valves attached to the margin, exserted.

Habitat. —In fertile pastures on the Burdekin River (Eastern tropical shores, A. Cunningham, Herb. Hooker). Flowers September and November.

A tree of moderate or large dimensions, bark of the trunk and branches smooth, soon whitening, the shedding outer layers thin and dark. Petioles semiterete, 1–1½ inches long. Leaves thinly coriaceous, usually 2–3 inches long, often abruptly tapering into the petiole, decurrent. Calyx-tube measuring 1½–2 lines. Operculum rather pale, simple (by which it may be distinguished from the similar E. bigalerita). Stamens 2–3 lines long, whitish. Capsules 2 lines long. Near to E. bigalerita. (Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 93, 1859.)

Eucalyptus platyphylla F.v.M. is called “Nankeen Gum,” from the peculiar light brown colour of its bark. It is the “White Gum” of Queensland, where it has a different appearance to that in Northern Australia. “Deciduous Gum.” The timber is poor.

“One thing which strikes the observer is the enormous size of the leaves of a small, scrubby Gum which grows close to the ground. It is no uncommon thing to see saplings with leaves a foot long, and half as broad. This is the young state of this species. It is the commonest Gum tree of all tropical Australia, and will grow on the poorest soil, but the leaves of the adult tree are not very large.” (Tenison-Woods, “Explorations in Northern Australia.”)

Illustrations.—It is amply depicted on Plate 106, figs. 3–6, also Plate 107, figs. 1–7. Fig 6 is portion of the type of E. bigalerita F.v.M. which appears to be conspecific with E. platyphylla.

  ― 99 ―


E. bigalerita F.v.M. This is referred to under E. alba in Part XXV, 96, where the original description is quoted in Latin, also Bentham's observations concerning it.


It is for the most part tropical, and while on the mainland of Australia it extends over the north, from Queensland to the Kimberleys and North-western Australia generally, it descends a little south in Queensland, at least as far as Gladstone. It prefers moist grassy valleys, but is not exclusively confined to such areas.

Papua.—Port Moresby, Papua (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer, W. S. Campbell).

North-western Australia.—Calder River, near junction of Lennard and Barker Rivers; Isdell River, near Mount Barnett Homestead (W. V. Fitzgerald). A Cabbage Gum of moist, sandy loam overlying sandstone and quartzite, Lennard River, near Lukin's Old Station, Carnley and Ord Rivers, Dillen's Springs (W. V. Fitzgerald). Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald speaks of E. platyphylla in North-west Australia as a “copious oil producer.” The abundance of oil in this species is implied by the name “Kaju-puti” (Cajeput), applied to it in Malaysia in common with other trees also rich in oil. Banks of the Upper Drysdale River, near Mount Hann, in sandy soil in basaltic country, forming open savannah with E. Spenceriana, but never far from the river; from thence south-west in the direction of Mount Agnes in low-lying flat country, with the same associate tree. (Kimberleys, C. A. Gardner, No. 1566.)

Northern Territory.—Pine Creek Railway (E. J. Dunn). Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria (R. Brown, quoted in B.Fl., iii, 243).

Queensland.—“Bay of Inlets, Endeavour's River. Banks's specimens are not referred to by Bentham. Native name, ‘Kaikur’ (Botany of Cook's First Voyage, Banks and Solander (Britten), p. 38, p. 116).” Above is the label of a specimen.

Mr. Britten kindly gave me two specimens, one a Banksian one, corresponding to the Plate, and a second one practically identical, collected by Brown at Shoalwater Bay in 1802. It is labelled:—

Eucalyptus populifolia Banks and Sol. and R. Br. MSS. E. platyphylla F.M. ex Benth. Shoalwater Bay, R. Brown, Sept. 2, 1802.”

  ― 100 ―

The name populifolia is one which at once arises when one views this tree, and it is not surprising that it was adopted by more than one botanist independently. It is the “Poplar Gum” of Leichhardt, who often refers to it in his “Overland Expedition … to Port Essington,” e.g., p. 142:—“In one of the glens along the ridges I observed a new Gum tree with a leaf like that of the trembling Poplar of Europe, and of a bright green colour, which rendered the appearance of the country exceedingly cheerful. It is a middle-sized tree, of irregular growth, with white bark, but the wood, not being free-grained, was unfit for splitting.” “Considerable tracts were covered by the Poplar Gum” (p. 148). At p. 149 he named the Isaacs River, and I have seen a specimen of E. platyphylla which bears Leichhardt's label. “The Poplar Gum, which forms patches of forest along the Isaacks” (sic.). The Isaacs River is in Northern Queensland, approximately in 22–23° S. Lat., and 149° E. Long. “… tracts of fine open forest country, amongst which patches of the Poplar Gum forest were readily distinguished by the brightness of their verdure” (p. 153). “The Poplar Gum was more frequent, and we always found patches of fine grass near it, even when all the surrounding Ironbark forest was burnt” (p. 206). “… Narrow-leaved Ironbark and Poplar Gum grew on the hills, and rich grass everywhere” (p. 250). “… the left side (of the plain) being sandy and covered with a very pleasing Poplar Gum forest” (p. 253).

Following are additional localities for this species:—

“No. 252. In flat, swampy ground. Few in dry ridges. Middle size tree. Falling bark like in the Platanus. Old bark ashy colour; new, white-yellowish.” This is a copy of A. Thozet's label on a Rockhampton specimen.

Grows on flat lands, moist clayey. Also found on the ridge at the Rockhampton cemetery (J.H.M.). Thirty miles north of Rockhampton (A. Murphy); “Red Gum,” Crescent Lagoon, West Rockhampton (W. N. Jaggard).

Following is a note on E. platyphylla taken by me while standing in front of the trees at North Rockhampton, Queensland:—

“Poplar Gum. A Cabbage Gum. Timber will not split. Excellent firewood. An entirely smooth bark without flakes, a typical White or Cabbage Gum. Though not a very tall tree, it has a good trunk, although often scrambling. Branches brittle, common from Gladstone northward.”

“A fairly common tree in the Rockhampton district, growing usually in moist, though not necessarily in swampy places. Large smooth-barked trees, having a pendulous habit, with large poplar-like leaves. Timber soft, red (when newly cut—J.H.M.) in colour, useless except for firewood, even this of poor quality.” Yeppoon (J. L. Boorman). Thirty-eight miles west of Mackay, Pioneer River, and tree common about Mackay. The young leaves when dry were 12 inches long by 11 inches broad. “On full-grown tree the leaves are much smaller, and roundish in shape” (Sid. W. Jackson). Port Denison or Bowen (Dallachy); Pandanus Creek (E. B. Yearwood); “Many buds have double operculum when collected,” Townsville (R. H. Cambage, No. 3,801) Reid River, near Townsville (N. Daley), “Poplar Gum,” near Atherton and throughout the north. “Low stunted tree, spreading gnarled branches, while bark, timber grey, very gnarled grain” (H. W. Mocatta, District Forest Inspector) Atherton (E. Betche). These specimens (in bud) are in no way different from those of E. pastoralis. Ten Mile, Stannary Hills (R. G. Shearer).

  ― 101 ―

The following localities, not already enumerated, given in B.Fl., iii, 243, may be taken in here:—

Fertile pastures on the Burdekin (Mueller). This may be regarded as the type. Percy Island (A. Cunningham); Broad Sound (Fitzroy); Bowen River (Bowman).

Dr. H. I. Jensen says:—

E. platyphylla is widespread on the flats throughout North Queensland. It is the typical Poplar Gum of the Northern Territory; grows on heavy grey clay soil. The dwarfed hill variety of E. platyphylla, which I regarded in the Northern Territory as a different species, has not been observed by me at all in North Queensland.” He adds that it is calciphile on heavy loams and heavy subsoil, from Central Railway, Queensland, to far north. It is mostly on alluvial and detrital flats, associated with E. terminalis and E. grandifolia.


With E. alba Reinw.

E. platyphylla seems to possess the same cortical characters of E. alba, but differs somewhat in size and habit, and on the whole is a smaller and more scrambling tree than E. alba. The adult leaves are also much broader, while the buds are almost sessile and more globular, and the fruit is usually thicker, with strong, exserted valves, and invariably possesses the characteristic short, thick, pedicel.

Bentham, in B. Fl., iii, 197, separates the species as follows:—

Leaves broad, with very diverging veins and distinctly reticulate.

Flowers nearly sessile or on short thick pedicels. Operculum hemispherical, short E. platyphylla.

Flowers small, distinctly pedicellate, operculum conical E. alba.

Mueller (“Eucalyptographia,” under E. alba) says:—

E. platyphylla F.v.M., Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 93, approaches closely to E. alba; the leaves are mostly broader, the lid is generally shorter and blunt and the valves less exserted; its foliage sheds for short periods almost entirely. The range and variability of these trees remain yet to be further ascertained by extended field researches.”

  ― 102 ―

CDXXXI. E. pastoralis Spencer Moore

Journ. Bot., xl., 27 (1902).

IN Part XXV, p. 95 of the present work, I have placed E. pastoralis as a synonym of E. alba, and quoted the original description. As it appears to be a much larger flowered species than E. platyphylla, I think it had better be kept apart from that species until we know more about it.

Portion of the type is figured at Plate 105, figs. 8, 9. Fig. 7, from Port Darwin, is almost identical with fig. 9 from the Adelaide River, North Australia, the type locality for E. pastoralis. It will be seen, therefore, that it is not confined to one locality, and may have a much wider range than we are aware of at present.


So far I have seen specimens from the following localities, all of which are in the Northern Territory:—

Port Darwin (Paul Foelsche). Nearly globular buds (see fig. 6b, Plate 105) Tree of 40 feet, banks of Katherine River, Northern Territory (C. E. F. Allen, No. 681). With slightly smaller buds than the type. Adelaide River (Rev. T. L. Lea). The type.


1. With E. platyphylla F.v.M. and E. alba Reinw.

In the original description Spencer Moore makes the following comparison:—

“Near E. platyphylla R.Br. and E. alba Reinw. The leaves are almost exactly those of the former, but in either case the buds and opercula are much smaller than those of E. pastoralis and differently shaped. At the British Museum there is a specimen, sent under the name of ‘E. alba Reinw.’ by Baron Mueller, which has large flowers with a broad, hemispherical, very obtuse operculum, almost exactly like that of E. pastoralis. This is altogether unlike typical E. alba Reinw., and may perhaps be a small-leaved form of the species described above.” (Journ. Bot. xl, 27, 1902.)

The buds are certainly distinct from those of E. alba and E. platyphylla, they are larger, more spherical, and thicker in texture than in either of the above species. The leaves of E. alba are also much narrower and more acuminate than those of E. pastoralis or E. platyphylla.

  ― 103 ―

CDXXXII. E. tectifica F.v.M

Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 92 (1859).

THE original description in Latin will be found at p. 95, Part XXV, of the present work, and may be translated as follows:—

Arboreal, branchlets slender rounded; leaves alternate, thinly coriaceous, rather shortly petiolate, ovate-lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, narrowed for a long distance towards the apex, thin-veined, opaque, imperforate, the longitudinal vein closely approximate to the margin; umbels axillary, solitary or in terminal panicles; pedicels of the calyx angular, equal in length to the tube, but shorter than the common peduncle; operculum conical, acuminate, as long as the semiovate tube … Hab.—In grassy valleys of the McArthur River near its source. (N. Holl. Sub-Trop., Mitchell in Hb. Hook.). Flowers August and September.

A rather tall tree, bark pale ashy, rugose, persisting on the trunk and branches. Leaves 6 inches long, or nearly so, near the base ¾–1½ inch wide, primary veins spreading, secondary reticulate-anastomising. Flowers on the specimen collected not yet well developed. Peduncles slender, 2–3 lines long. Flower buds 2 lines long, in fuller development perhaps acute. Fruits wanting. The bark is employed by the aboriginals in the construction of their rude shelters.

In Part XXV, p. 95, I pointed out that Mueller evidently considered E. tectifica synonymous with E. alba, for he omits it from his second census without comment. Notwithstanding Mueller's decision, I am of opinion that E. tectifica is specifically distinct from E. alba. Although I have not seen a specimen of it, it is quite obvious to me, that if reliance can be placed in the original description, especially as regards the bark and buds—which appear to me to be totally different from those of E. alba—it is undoubtedly a rough-barked species, and its place seems to be among the Boxes, such as E. Spenceriana or E. Hillii, but its true position cannot be ascertained until the anthers are examined.


So far it is only known from the Macarthur River, Northern Territory.

Leichhardt, in his “Overland Expedition … to Port Essington,” p. 413, says:—“I called this river the ‘Macarthur,’ in acknowledgment of the liberal support my expedition received from James and William Macarthur of Camden.” The Macarthur River runs (it is presumed, for the whole of its course has not been explored) into the south-western part of the Gulf of Carpentaria. In Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 92, specimens from the Upper Macarthur River (presumably collected either by Leichhardt

  ― 104 ―
or Mueller) are referred to E. tectifica. But as regards the second specimen quoted in the original description, viz., “N. Holl. Sub-trop. Mitchell in Herb. Hook.” Bentham (B. Fl., iii, 243, under E. alba) says that “Mitchell's specimens, referred by Black in Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 92, to E. tectifica, belong to E. dealbata; the leaves of which sometimes assume the form of those of E. alba, but with a different venation.” Therefore, only the Macarthur River specimen (the type) can be referred to E. tectifica.


1. With E. alba Reinw.

E. tectifica was so called because “the bark of the Carpentaria tree (was) persistent and rough, as well on the branches as on the stem, though it is certainly pale outside, and is used by the aborigines there for constructing the rude roofs of their sleeping places.” (Mueller in “Eucalyptographia,” under E. alba.)

E. alba has the leaves nearly equilateral, the almost hemispherical calyx-lid protracted into an umbomate apex, the capsules 3–4 celled, the valves barely semi-exserted, and the seeds wingless. The identity of E. tectifica with E. alba is not yet established beyond doubt.” (Mueller, “Papuan Plants,” i, 9).

E. alba is a smooth-barked tree.

2. With E. platyphylla F.v.M.

The rough, persistent bark of E. tectifica sharply separates it from E. platyphylla, while the leaves appear to be longer and narrower, and the buds more acute.

3. With E. pastoralis S. Moore.

This is also a smooth-barked species, while E. tectifica appears to belong to the Boxes. The leaves and buds of the former are also distinct from those of the latter.

  ― 105 ―

Notes on Supposed Hybrids

Are E. Bourlieri, E. unialata and E. antipolitensis conspecific?

For a description of E. Bourlieri and E. antipolitensis see this work Part LII, and for E. unialata see Part LI.

In Proc. Roy. Soc., Tas., 1918, p. 89, I stated that I looked upon E. antipolitensis as being conspecific with E. unialata Baker and Smith, and I expressed the opinion that they both originally arose from a cross or crosses between E globulous and viminalis, but whether they were really identical I preferred to suspend judgment. However, after again examining the evidence, I now think they are distinct and should be kept apart as hybrid species until we know more about them.

As regards E. Bourlieri, Dr. Trabut states that it appeared in a sowing of E. globulus (probably mixed seed, J.H.M.) at La Reghaia. Dr. Trabut does not state where the seed was obtained, but it is reasonable to suppose that it was of Tasmanian origin, as the species described as E. unialata Baker and Smith is very closely related to it.

E. Bourlieri was described in 1903, vide Part LII p. 75; E. unialata in 1912; and E. antipolitensis in 1917.

There are two more or less distinct forms of E. unialata in Tasmania, and E. Bourlieri comes very close to one form, and E. antipolitensis to the other. At the same time, neither E. Bourlieri nor E. antipolitensis agree entirely with E. unialata. All three species seem to be forms of one common species. Whether they are descendants of E. globulus it is difficult to say with any degree of certainty; but at all events there does appear to be some justification for assuming that E. globulus is one of the parents, and it is reasonable to suppose that E. viminalis is the other, as both species are sometimes associated in the field.

The juvenile leaves of E. Bourlieri, E. antipolitensis and E. unialata are somewhat alike, but on the whole they are smaller, thinner and less glaucous than the juvenile leaves of E. globulus, and are not unlike some broad forms of E. viminalis.

The mature leaves are practically the same in the three species, and they are relatively smaller than those of E. globulus, and about the same size as the coarse form of E. viminalis.

The buds of E. Bourlieri are turbinate, on a very narrow base, while the operuclum is conical and rather long, nearly as long as the calyx-tube. They do not appear to differ very much from those of E. antipolitensis, but, on the other hand, the fruits are more turbinate and resemble one form of E. unialata found in Tasmania. The buds of the type of E. unialata are scarcely turbinate; they are, according to the figure, closely sessile with a broad base, and have a very short operculum, shorter than the calyx-tube.

  ― 106 ―

The fruits of E. Bourlieri depicted at Plate 212 are immature, and, therefore are unsatisfactory for taxonomic purposes. The fruits of the type are closely sessile, unicostate and very glaucous. The fruits of E. unialata are almost the same shape as those of E. Bourlieri, but they are thicker and less glaucous, and the valves appear to be stronger and more exsert. The description of the fruits of E. Bourlieri, especially as regards the setting of the fruit, which is generally solitary, agrees very well with fruiting specimens of E. unialata in the National Herbarium, Sydney.

It seems to me, that owing to the variation in the buds and fruits of E. Bourlieri it should be kept apart from E. unialata and E. antipolitensis. In any case, it is the oldest species of the three, and if at any time the others are found to be conspecific, it has priority over them.

  ― 107 ―

The Curving Boundary

“COULD we but know the actual curving boundaries of a few hundreds of our best defined species what a wealth of new generalisations could be drawn from them, and how much new information they would yield concerning the factors which govern distribution in general?

“For, irregular as these lines would be, I can but think that they would, in many cases, stand in definite relation to lines of other kinds: to isothermals, to altitudinal contours, to degrees of humidity, to the boundaries of geological formations, the limits of glaciation, the ranges of animals—especially pollen-bearing insects—to the paths of bird-migration, and finally to the course of human traffic.” [Dr. B. L. Robinson's Presidential Address to the Botanical Society of America, Science, Vol. XIV, No. 352 (1901). Quoted in my Presidential Address to the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Vol. XXVI, p. 763 (1901), 1902.]

I went on to say that “Our results may, for many years, prevent us from affording satisfactory information in regard to a number of these points, but they are ideals, and should be striven after. I show you to-night a ‘curving boundary’ of one of our important species. The idea of graphical representation of range of species occurred to me many years ago, and I have had it in limited use for two or three years. It may proceed simultaneously with the main botanical map, and is, in fact, supplementary to it.”

There was at the time what I may express as a “boom” in the better scientific definition of botanical areas, which has continued to this day, and the most valuable outcome of this has been the inauguration and the building on a firm foundation of the science of ecology.

In the “Report of the Interstate Conference on Forestry,” Perth, W.A., 1917, at p. 13, I made a further reference to the subject, as follows:—

1. A Botanical or Forest Survey.—First of all let me explain what a curving boundary is by this map [not reproduced]. The use of such a term is an endeavour to replace a vague statement that a tree is found on the Eastern Goldfields, or in the South-west of Western Australia, by a graphic record of where it really occurs. We mark on the map, by a blue cross, or other indication, where a certain kind of tree (a species or variety) has been found, and the more or less curved line, which indicates the outer line (and inner, in certain cases) which joins the intersections of these crosses in the curving boundary.

In other words, at a particular date, it indicates the territory within which the tree is found. It serves as a basis for a more accurate record, for obviously we are always learning. In a work of this kind the forester and the botanist are mutually helpful, for unless the botanist checks the record the forester may be led to give erroneous estimates of the distribution of a particular tree, and we ought, as regards our Australian trees, to do what we can to dispense with vague generalisations as to the areas and constituents of our forests. While we establish the curving boundary, we concurrently obtain a good deal of information as to the distribution of particular trees within that boundary.

  ― 108 ―

To some extent the trees in Western Australia are gregarious, but many are not so, and different species have varying amounts of denseness of distribution. So that the problem is one of some complexity, but it has to be worked out. Every man who has goods to sell has to say what he has got and where the goods are. Thus we must have the botanical survey, or to save the feelings of persons who look upon the botanist as a merely academic person, call it the forest survey. Not one of our Australian States has progressed much in the direction of making such a survey, so that Western Australia, with its vast areas and sparse population need not feel ashamed of itself in this respect.

It must be borne in mind that the very foundation of forestry in any State is this particular forest survey. The term is not sufficiently explicit, as it may mean many things, but the accurate indication of the whereabouts of the trees in any State is a condition precedent to the forester being able to get on with his working plan. You may starve the opportunities of the botanist as much as you like, but in this matter he stands firmly as the rock of Gibraltar when he says “No botanical survey, no proper forest administration.”

2. Each State must work out its Botanical Survey. Speaking more particularly of my own State, we require a botanical survey of New South Wales. We have an enormous amount of material for such record in the National Herbarium of New South Wales. We require, as regards this State alone, one man charged with the duty of keeping the records of the survey, and he should as far as possible be relieved from all other duties, except those of systematically collecting. We have merely scratched the surface as regards the distribution of our indigenous plants, and I would impose on the botanical surveyor the additional duty of systematically recording the advance (with dates) of weeds, particularly those infesting agricultural and pastoral lands. Up to the present time we have ascertained the range of most of our indigenous and introduced species in a fortuitous manner. We have, however, now arrived at the time when the records of the plant-survey, as of all other statistics, should be recorded in a proper way. Ideally the record of each species (no matter of what State) should be entered on separate maps of Australia. This map (with the principal physical features and townships printed in pale ink) should be a standard one, selected by the Government Botanists of the various States in conference. No matter how sparse the records, the ideal of one species one map should be borne in mind, but until the work develops a purely provisional arrangement of temporarily placing two or more records on the same map could be adopted. As facts of distribution accummulate, two or more species of a genus could be placed on one map, the curving boundary of each indicated by a different coloured ink. My own method is to indicate each locality by a cross in pencil or ink, and each cross can be joined by a curving boundary line in ink, joining the extreme eastern localities or the extreme western, southern or northern ones, as the case may be.

Concurrently with this development of the botanical survey in individual States, a Federal botanical survey will be developed. This does not necessarily imply that it will be carried out by a Federal officer, who might not be as well informed of the details of the flora as a State officer. Indeed most important work might be carried out by private botanists. Once particulars of State surveys are published, it will be

  ― 109 ―
open to any botanist to try his hand at a Federal survey. Each man engaged on such a collective task will give his work the impress of his own individuality, and the final co-ordination could fairly be supported by Commonwealth funds.

3. The E. albens Line. The curving boundary of this well-known species has been shown to be so important in its relations that it may be especially noted as illustrative. Mr. R. H. Cambage first drew my attention to its importance about 1904, and he subsequently wrote:—

The area described as the Western Slopes (N.S.W.) forms a gradation from the mountains to the plains, and has a less rainfall than either the coastal or mountain division. Its eastern margin practically coincides with that of E. albens Miq. (White or Grey Box), and nowhere in New South Wales is any particular zone of temperature better defined by the vegetation over such a distance than along the eastern edge of these White Box trees. This species seems to slightly prefer an igneous to a sedimentary formation, but may be found on both, and is usually looked upon as an indication of good wheat-producing country. Its distribution throughout the length of the State affords an excellent illustration of the gradual change of climate from south to north. In the south it is seldom found above an elevation of 1,500 feet, but in the north it often ascends to upwards of 2,500 feet, and in places reaches to 3,000 feet. (Journ. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci., XI, 481, 1907.)

In the following year, in “The Surveyor,” xxi, p. 11, he expands the above, and gives details as to the localities and topography of the earlier paper. It is too long to reproduce here, but it should be carefully read. At Part XI, 23 (1910), of the present work, I have drawn attention to Mr. Cambage's observations, which indicate a useful climatic boundary to agriculturists, pastoralists and others.

(Incidentally it may be remarked that the soil on which E. salmonophloia occurs has proved the best for wheat-growing in Western Australia, consequently the curving boundary of that species would prove useful in study of the wheat problem).

Except as regards the north of New South Wales (where it is not well defined), I adopted the albens line as the western boundary of the Western Slopes in my Vegetation Zones Map of 1906 (Agri. Gaz. N.S.W., June, 1906, p. 632).

It may be described as follows, as far as our present knowledge goes:—

Western boundary, N.S.W. Going north from the Murray, we have Corowa, Coreen, north to Binya, east to Temora, north to Barmedman, north-east to Grenfell, then more or less north-west to the Forbes district, thence more or less north-east to Parkes, Peak Hill, Narromine, Gilgandra, Baradine, north to Pilliga, nearly due east to Narrabri, north-east to Bingara and Warialda.

The country between this district and the Queensland border has not been fully mapped out as regards this species. Forest Guard Lance B. Peacocke says that it is plentiful throughout most of the Inverell district, where the basalt and shale formations appear. (The eastern record of the Inverell district cannot be pushed much further to the east, because the cold will be too much for E. albens as Glen Innes is approached). He specifically quotes Mt. Topper, State Forest No. 419. Parish of Swinton, County of Hardinge, and the Parishes of Ashford, McIntyre and Bannockburn, County of Gough, and of Ena, Boraand Adowa, County of Arrawatta.

  ― 110 ―

Forest Guard G. J. Hampstead finds it in the vicinity of Macpherson Range (Queensland border), reporting it from between Wallaby Creek and Koreelah Range, County of Buller.

Eastern boundary. The most south-easterly locality I have is the Queanbeyan district. Here is a reminder that we are in a comparatively cold district, and that the species must find out sheltered localities in which to flourish. The boundary about here is probably a very irregular line. At all events, we do not know what it is. The species occurs going north from Canberra to Yass, north-easterly to Wombeyan Caves and the Camden district.

3A. The Sydney Enclave. Then there is what I may term the “Sydney enclave” with which we are so familiar, since so many southern plants, coming north, avoid the Sydney district (roughly the County of Cumberland). This enclave of low-level country is too warm for many southern species which flourish at an elevation of say 1000 to 2,500 feet, and they get north via the Blue Mountains or the broken country to the west of them. In that way such a species as E. albens arrives at that measure of climatic equilibrium which it requires.

This “Sydney enclave” indicates the proximity of a plant-bridge, just as a geocol does, but for a very different reason. The “Sydney enclave” indicates that, surrounding it, there is passage of species by means of approximate continuity of high land, while a geocol indicates the reverse, viz., a break or gap in the high land, through which plants can pass and repass. In the former case, the migration of plants is approximately north and south, in the latter case, approximately east and west.

To resume our records of E. albens: A few miles north of Wallerawang we go north to Rylstone and Barigan, and north-east to Merriwa and Scone, then more or less northerly to Murrurundi, Currububula, Tamworth to Inverell, and on to the Queensland border.

In Victoria, notes on the range are given in Part XI, p. 23. It grows in the Tambo Valley between Fainting Range and Bindi, and in the Snowy River Valley. Dr. A. W. Howitt also observed it in places in the north-eastern district.

The following are the Victorian localities, and, so far as I am aware, are very incomplete:—Heathcote, Bendigo, Eurora, Rushworth, Rutherglen, Ovens River, Tongio, Gippsland, Ensay, Tambo River. See Map 294.

In South Australia the species is only known in the Flinders Range, a few miles to the east of Port Augusta. Specific localities are Mount Remarkable, Laura, Wirrabarra.

Until we know more fully the range of the species in Victoria and South Australia, it is obvious that we cannot construct curving boundaries for it for the whole of Australia. We have already seen that we do not fully know them for New South Wales, the State we know most about in this connection.

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A few additional boundary curves of species will be shown later, if convenient, and I only wish that the aspiration of Dr. Robinson to see the curves of a “few hundreds of our best defined species” could be realised. It would give a great impetus to botanical science if the curves of say three hundred species of Eucalyptus could be given, but that must remain a pious hope for the future. I have a large mass of data on the subject already accumulated in this work, but considerations of time and expense are involved, and they are insuperable at present.

Other branches of the subject of Eucalyptus have also had to be laid aside. I especially regret the practical abandonment of the curving boundaries, as I wished to work out some of the interesting generalisations that study of them has in store for the investigator.

4. The relation between wheat-growing and rainfall, particularly as regards—a. New South Wales (compared with the E. albens line.)

The Commonwealth Meteorological publication of Hunt, Taylor and Quayle (1913), has already been cited, as regards its importance to rainfall problems.

We also turn to “The Australian Environment” (especially as Controlled by Rainfall) [my italics], by Griffith Taylor, being Memoir No. 1 of the Advisory Council of Science and Industry (1918). This important memoir largely deals with rainfall, as its title indicates.

The phenomenon which most strikingly, and universally perhaps, exhibits climatic control is the earth's covering of vegetation.

This is a quotation from Bonacina, by Griffith Taylor, who puts the position as follows:—

The natural vegetation is the chief response of nature to rainfall, and is very closely bound up with the season and abundance of the rain.

See also “Distribution of the Eucalyptus” by Howitt in Trans. Roy. Soc., Vict., ii, 104. This portion of the paper has been already referred to under “Altitude” (Part LXVII, p. 338), with which of course it is inseparably bound up.

“Physical Geography and Climate of New South Wales,” 2nd Edition (1892), by H. C. Russell, F.R.S., is one of the most valuable of the earlier pamphlets.

In Agric. Gaz., N.S.W., for January, 1905, Mr. T. A. Coghlan, Government Statistician, published a “Memorandum regarding Area of New South Wales Suitable for Wheat-growing,” which was illustrated by a “Diagram map of N.S.W. showing the area in which Agriculture can be carried on under favourable conditions of rainfall.” It contains a solid “Crop-line (based on actual results)” and a dotted “Theoretic (Rain) line.” The former line is defined in detail, and represents the westward limit of profitable wheat-growing based upon actual results (see pp. 1—3). The “rain” line is referred to at p. 4. Compare 1912 (Trivett).

In “Wheat-growing in Relation to Rainfall,” John B. Trivett, Agric. Gaz., N.S.W., xxiii, 737 (September, 1912), has a map of New South Wales, bearing three lines in black, red and blue, as follows:—

Black, limit of 10 inch rainfall (Hunt's line) from April to October, inclusive (the growing period for wheat).

Red. Wheat experience line (Coghlan's solid line, 1904).

Blue. Wheat experience line, 1912.

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During the eight years, the western boundary of profitable wheat-growing (see Coghlan's solid line, 1904 map) has moved further westward, and it is pointed out that the line will never wholly coincide with the 10 inch isohyet, since success depends not so much on the total rainfall as on the incidence of it. (Compare 1905, Coghlan.)

(Reference may also be made to “The Climatic Control of Australian Production” by Griffith Taylor, Bulletin No. 11, Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, 1920, p. 20).

The article “Wheat-breeding in Australia” by A. E. V. Richardson, in Journ. Agric. Vict., Nov., 1914, p. 644, has a clear map of Australia, showing isohyets, obtained from the Commonwealth Meteorologist. The map shows—

  • 1. The high rainfall belt (20 inches and over), coloured green in Mr. Richardson's map.
  • 2. The intermediate belt (over 10 inches and under 20 inches), coloured yellow.
  • 3. The low rainfall belt (under 10 inches) coloured grey.

In South Australia, the margin of cultivation of wheat has already been extended to the 10 inch isohyet, and profitable wheat-growing is now carried on in districts with an annual rainfall of under 10 inches.

The latest publication on the subject is by Mr. H. A. Smith, entitled “Wheat-growing in New South Wales” (Memorandum by the Government Statistician regarding the area of the State within which experience has shown that wheat for grain can be grown profitably). Laid before the Legislative Assembly, September, 1923.

He shows a map with lines drawn across it representing:—

  • (a) The eastern limit of wheat-growing in 1922, in blue.
  • (b) The western limit of wheat-growing in 1922, in blue.
  • (c) The western limit of wheat-growing in 1912, in green.
  • (d) The western limit of wheat-growing in 1904, in brown.
  • (e) The western limit of 10-inch rainfall in the growing season—average from April to October, inclusive, in scarlet.

Mr. Smith then details “The Western Wheat Line of 1922,” and says it “along its entire length passes through the edge of the great Western Plains, where the natural features of the country are uniform. Its trend is decided principally by rainfall and the nature of the soils.” He then proceeds to describe the line geographically, and goes south to north. Starting from the Queensland border, near Yetman, it successively goes near Pilliga, Pallamallawa, Wee Waa, Coonamble, Gulargambone, Collie, Warren, Nevertire, Fifield, Condobolin, Cargellico, Rankin's Springs, Hillston, Murrumbidgee Irrigation Areas, Darlington Point, Moulamein, Balranald, Barham (most westerly point).

“The Eastern Wheat Line of 1922” is similarly treated. It “is determined partly by the contour of the country and partly by the rainfall. Very little wheat is grown at an altitude of more than 2,000 feet.”

  ― 113 ―

He quotes the line as:—Queensland border north of Ashford, then Glen Innes, Inverell, Barraba, Tamworth, Moonbi, Nundle, Murrurundi, Muswellbrook, Denman, Wollar, Rylstone, Mudgee, Sofala, Bathurst, Cowra, Crookwell, Goulburn, Queanbeyan, Yass, Tumut, Holbrook, Bowna (near Albury).

We have not yet absolutely settled the eastern and western wheat lines in New South Wales, nor the eastern and western Eucalyptus albens lines; it will probably take many years to do this. It is a coincidence that the above pairs of lines show so much parallelism, and hence there becomes added interest in our investigation of the range of E. albens. Other students will follow the ranges of this species and of wheat in other States, and thus we have an incentive to study the curving boundaries of other species.

6. Goyder's Line of South Australia. I have already invited attention to the value of the curving boundary of E. albens as an agricultural or wheat line in New South Wales, and I proceed to give an account of Goyder's Line, a rainfall line, north of which farmers would attempt to grow wheat at their peril. South Australian botanists should study it in connection with the range of E. albens.

South Australia experienced an unusually severe drought in 1865. On November 3rd of that year, the Commissioner of Crown lands instructed the Surveyor-General (Mr. G. W. Goyder) to proceed to the north of the State, with as little delay as possible, and by his own personal observations obtain such information to enable him to lay down on a map a line of demarcation between that portion of the country where the rainfall has extended and that where the droughts prevail.

In Mr. Goyder's report to the Government on this matter (December 6th, 1865) (see Proceedings of Parliament, 1865–6, Nos. 62, 78, 82, 133, 154), he says:—

Had the drought, which unfortunately still prevails, been that of an ordinary nature, there had been no necessity for my leaving town upon this duty, as the line of demarcation might have been shown from information previously in my possession … The drought, however, being of an unusually severe nature, and extending more generally than any previously known, it became indispensable to add to my previous experience the knowledge of the state of the country as it now exists …

The result of my investigation shows the line of demarcation extending considerably further south than I anticipated. The change from the country suffering from excessive drought to that where its effect has only been slightly experienced being palpable to the eye from the nature of the country itself, and may be described as bare ground, destitute of grass and herbage; the surface soil dried by the intense heat, in places broken and pulverised by the passage of stock, and formed by the action of the wind into miniature hummocks, surrounding the closely cropped stumps of salt, blue and other dwarf bushes, whilst those of greater elevation are denuded of their leaves and smaller branches as far as the stock can reach. This description generally holds good of all country upon which stock has been depastured and where the drought obtains. The change from that to where the drought has had a less serious effect being shown by the fresher and more leafy appearance of the bushes, gradually improving to those in their ordinary state, and the gradual increase of other vegetation from bare ground to well grassed country.

During my visit I observed that places upon stocked runs pretty well grassed during the drought of 1859 are now utterly destitute of grass or herbage.

The line of demarcation I found to extend from Swan Reach on the River Murray, in a north-westerly direction, to the Burra Hill; and thence north to Oak Rises, east of Ulooloo, and by the last-named hill to Mount Sly; and in a northerly and westerly direction as shown by plan herewith forwarded, by the Hogshead

  ― 114 ―
and Tarcowie to Mt. Remarkable; thence southerly by the Bluff and Ferguson's Range to the Broughton; and south-westerly to the east shore of Spencer's Gulf, crossing the Gulf to Franklin Harbour; and thence north-westerly to the west end of the Gawler Ranges …”

The line as shown in plate is practically identically the same as the one put on the map by Mr. Goyder in 1865.

The generally accepted idea in South Australia (says Mr. W. J. Spafford, who kindly supplied the above information) of how Mr. Goyder decided on this line of demarcation between farming lands and purely pastoral lands was that he followed the line of saltbush, but from his own stating of the position, it was rather the defining of the line above which the 1865 drought was very severe. As it happens, Goyder's Line does follow the edge of our saltbush country, and remarkably close to it all the way. Mr. Spafford goes to on say:—

“Goyder's Line” may be described somewhat as follows, regarding present-day towns:—

Commencing at the point of junction between 141° long. and 35° lat., the “line” travels a little north of west, past the Kringin Railway Siding, crossing the Paringa railway line about midway between Wanbi and Mindarie, then crosses the Waikerie railway line at Galga, and the River Murray at Swan Reach. From here it takes a more northerly course, crossing the Morgan railway line at Sutherlands, to a point about 4 miles east of Robertstown, and then travels almost due north, passing about 7 miles east to Burra, to a point about 9 miles east of Hallett. Now taking a north-westerly course it passes through Terowie to Morchard, keeping about 4 miles to the west of Peterborough. At Morchard it turns abruptly and for about 16 miles travels a little west of south, then turns sharply to the north-west for about 16 miles to a point just south of Melrose on the Wilmington railway line. The “line” then travels almost directly south to Crystal Brook and takes a south-west curve to Moonta Bay, passing just north of the town of Moonta.

Commencing again on Eyre's Peninsula at Point Gibbon, it takes a north-westerly direction, crossing the Kimba railway line at a point about midway between Rudall and Kielpa, then the Cape Thevenard railway line at Kyancutta, and again between Wudinna, and Yaninee, and continues on the north of, and almost parallel to, this railway line to a point about 7 miles above Mudamuckla Railway Siding.

Explanation of Plates 292–295

Plate 292

Plate 292: Griffith Taylor's Key Map to his 15 Rainfall Regions (climographs), 1918. See text, this work Part LXVI, p. 239.

Griffith Taylor's Key Map to his 15 Rainfall Regions (Climographs), 1918. [See text, this work, Part LXVI, p. 239.]

Plate 293

Plate 293: Map of New South Wales showing:- 1. The curving bondary of EUCALYPTUS ALBENS; 2. The wheat limits, 1904-1922; and 3 . The 10-inch rainfall line, April to October (After H. A. Smith).

Map of New South Wales showing:—

  • 1. The curvimg boundary of Eucalyptus albens;
  • 2. The wheat limits, 1904–1922; and
  • 3. The 10-inch rainfall line, April to October (after H. A. Smith).

Plate 294

Plate 294: Map of Victoria showing the localities of EUCALYPTUS ALBENS.

Map of Victoria showing the localities of Eucalyptus albens.

Plate 295

Plate 295: Map of South Australia, after Map p. 498, Gregory's "Australasia," Vol. 1, showing the localities of EUCALYPTUS ALBENS, viz., Laura, Wirrabara, and Mount Remarkable. Also Goyder's Line of Rainfall.

Map of South Australia, after Map p. 498, Gregory's “Australasia,” Vol. I, showing the localities of Eucalyptus albens, viz., Laura, Wirrabara and Mount Remarkable. Also Goyder's Line of Rainfall.