Part 73

  ― 115 ―

1. Historical

1869–71. Mueller appears to have been the first to describe Eucalyptus seedlings. In his Fragmenta, vii, 42, he describes those of thirty-five species on the following plan:—

Eucalyptus amygdalina. Caulix scabridus, teretiusculus, folia opposita, demum sparsa, lanceolato-linearia, sessilia, mox apice acutata, basi cordata.” He does not mention the cotyledons in so many words, though in some cases it is evident that he includes a description of them.

His cautious opening and closing statements are to the following effect:—

(a) Eucalyptus plants raised from the seed in the first year of life often show particular diversities not only in species but in varieties.

(b) These brief notes concerning plants raised from seeds in a garden which are easily confused, and in nature difficultly matched with the maternal branch, need confirmation.

1891. Howitt. (Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., ii, 92) says (of Gippsland eucalypts) (p. 92): “Having now referred to the various types of the Stringybark groups, it is convenient to mention the distinctions between their seedlings and saplings.” (I will only take extracts concerning seedlings at present, as his remarks re what he calls “saplings” I will refer to under Intermediate Leaves.)

p. 92. “The seedlings of E. piperita, E. eugenioides, and E. capitellata are beset on stems and leaf-stalks with numerous tufts of hairs, which also line the edges of the leaves. The leaves themselves are more or less hairy, except in that form of E. capitellata growing in the mountains, as at Osler's Creek, where they are smooth (I have Howitt's original specimens, and have referred them to E. Baxteri).

The seedling leaves of E. piperita, E. eugenioides, and E. capitellata are at first ovate and opposed, but in the former I have often observed them to be ovate-pointed, or even lanceolar and smaller than those of E. capitellata, which are always ovate. In none of the species are the leaves shiny.”

“In E. macrorrhyncha the seedlings are also more or less beset with tufts of hairs (p. 93), giving the stem a rough appearance, but in a less degree than the lastnamed species. The leaves, at first opposed, are lanceolar in form and slightly shiny.”

“The seedlings of E. Muelleriana are as characteristic as those of any other species known to me. The stem and stalklets are slightly tufted with hairs, or are even smooth, the leaves rather long, lanceolar, pointed and opposed throughout, even in seedlings of a foot or more in height, while their extremely shiny upper surface distinguishes this form from all other species of this group, being more marked even than in E. obliqua, from which the persistent opposition of the leaves readily distinguishes it.”

p. 93. “The seedlings of E. obliqua are usually free from hairs, but are very commonly warty, and the leaves are lanceolar, shining on one side, and thinner in texture than those of E. macrorrhyncha. They become scattered somewhat sooner than those of E. macrorrhyncha, and very much sooner than those of E. Muelleriana, and soon show the marked unequalsidedness which is so characteristic of this tree.”

  ― 116 ―

1898. J. G. Luehmann. One of the few references concerning Eucalyptus seedlings is—

“There is one feature which will, probably, throw more light upon the limits of species as well as their affinities, with which we are not yet sufficiently acquainted; this is the character of the seedlings. I venture to express a hope that in the near future one of our botanic gardens will undertake the investigation of the subject, which requires not only great knowledge and care, but also certain means that are only at the command of few people.” (Rep. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, vii, 524.)

1902. In A. J. McClatchie's work (U.S. Department of Agriculture; Bureau of Forestry, Bulletin No. 35) we have the most extensive series of photographs of seedlings of species of Eucalyptus known to me. There are thirty-two species on eight plates, but only the names are given, together with a few notes at p. 84. One species is shown in each picture, and they are fair-sized plants.

1914. Cuthbert Hall, M.D. “The Evolution of the Eucalypts in relation to the Cotyledons and Seedlings,” Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., xxxix, 473, with numerous plates consisting of several small seedlings (one for each species) to a plate (1914). The most important research on the subject at the date of publication. He refers to the work of Lubbock in this connection, and also to that of Mueller, which he rightly criticises, I think, the errors of nomenclature being probably caused by Mueller's dependence on outside nurserymen, and because of the state of Eucalyptus nomenclature at the time. Dr. Hall's tropical seedlings are sometimes doubtful; I received the seeds before he did, and I know their history. Some of the figures in the plates are extremely difficult to see and to compare, since they are at all angles, and some are even reversed. The quaint Bakerian nomenclature is adopted without synonyms.

Maiden, J. H. My own work on the seedlings has been continuously in progress since 1899, and could not have been carried out without the co-operation of Miss Margaret Flockton, the artist of the Botanic Gardens, Sydney. I am very much indebted to the late and present Superintendents of the Botanic Gardens, Messrs. George Harwood and E. N. Ward, and Messrs. Sydney Smith and Ralph Tate, Propagators. Selections from Miss Flockton's beautiful coloured drawings, representing the seedlings in all stages, have been from time to time shown before Sydney Scientific Societies since 1904, but I have abstained from publishing them, for the same reason which has caused me to abstain from publishing my notes on other phases of the Eucalyptus question—from a desire to generalise from material from as large a number of species as possible. Of most species large numbers of individuals were raised, and from as many localities as possible. Anyone who has had horticultural experience knows that while in a pan of seedlings no two seedlings are precisely alike, and extreme forms may show a good deal of variation, it is for that reason risky to make deductions except on a large number of individuals. This applies to hypocotyl, cotyledons, and leaves of all kinds—they all vary. Seedlings from the same capsule vary.

  ― 117 ―

Here is the form adopted throughout the whole of the research. The spaces have been reduced in the copy:—





Number of Schedule

Date of Sowing

Date of Examination of Seedling




First Leaves

First Alternate Leaves

Further Remarks

The botanist of the future will ascertain to what extent there are differences in seedlings as the result of extraneous circumstances, and will experiment on—

  • 1. Seed of varying ages.
  • 2. Seed from a vigorous or a debilitated tree.
  • 3. Seedlings subjected to varying treatment, e.g., richer or poorer, well or inferior-drained soil; crowded and drawn up to the light, whether grown in the open under severer conditions.

One photograph of a seedling cannot show all the stages. In the beautiful water-colour drawings to which I have made reference, several drawings of each have usually been made, as a compromise. The botanists of the future, with adequate endowments, will make very many more, and will even call in the aid of the cinematograph. Unless there was a strong reason to the contrary, I have not raised a seedling unless I had the corresponding botanical material to compare with that of the progeny.

It is just as necessary to know the absolute origin of the seed from which a seedling is raised as it is for the engineer or surveyor to know his base-line. I do not say that all seeds of imperfectly ascertained origin are valueless, but they have the defect that we have imperfect data concerning them, and therefore cannot answer questions as to origin. And in an inquiry on phytogenetic lines, the correctness of our data is especially important.

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2. Their Horticultural Value

The value of Eucalypts for purely horticultural purposes has not yet been fully ascertained. In the countries of Northern Europe, the glaucousness and comparative hardiness of E. globulus and E. Maideni are freely taken advantage of in shrubberies, and in temporary ornamental plantings in the open air during the warmer months, since they make very striking objects when young. Afterwards they become straggly, and also suffer from the effects of winters. Such species as E. Planchoniana and E. eximia, which require a warmer climate (say Mediterranean conditions) have a totally different appearance, and, when young, say up to 15 feet high, furnish charming substitutes for such plants as the Copper Beech and Prunus Pissardi. They are not so compact as these small trees, and their young coloured leaves are succeeded by green ones. The young trees are quaintly straggly, and with sparse, pendulous, long, dull-green foliage, giving them an artistic appearance.

I would suggest that more attention be given to the horticultural side of Eucalyptus. Nurserymen will find that the industry will, however, never get a firm hold until there is a wider knowledge of seedlings. To order a certain species, and to be supplied with an unmeritorious substitute (as I have often known to be the case) may cause a would-be student of the genus to lose interest in these distinctly Australian plants.

3. Value of a Knowledge of Seedlings to the Forester, Nurseryman, and Gardener

It may be truly said that the appearance of the Eucalyptus seedling is almost unknown to the nurseryman, whether he grows plants for the forester, or for the gardener responsible for private or public gardens and parks, or for street-planting.

Apart from the inherent difficulty of the subject (and my researches are but an attempt to stimulate inquiry), the forester knows, or should know, that the recognition of seedlings in a forest is attended with great difficulty, and requires exercise of all the caution with which he has been endowed. In a pure forest, correct determination may be simple, but the tyro knows that because a seedling has germinated at the foot of a tree, that that tree may not necessarily be its parent. We know that seeds may be scattered by the wind, transported by rain-waters, or in the manure of herbivora.

  ― 119 ―
Until we know the similarities, or dissimilarities, of seedlings, we shall continue to stumble into the pitfalls which abound. I speak feelingly, as I have had hundreds of times to destroy material brought to me in perfectly good faith, and on which I thought I could rely. I know something of the difficulties of foresters in California and Florida, Brazil, Italy, Algiers, India, and other countries, in getting correctly named seed. The fact that recognition of seedlings is so wrapped up with matters of pounds, shillings, and pence, is a reason why I should very much like to have reproduced all the excellent drawings of seedlings which have been made under my direction, and not an imperfect selection of them.

4. Drawings and their Schedules

Below I attach copies of the two printed forms which were filled in in regard to all seedlings at the times the coloured drawings were made. The greatest care has been taken to secure the botanical correctness of the seeds, without which the experiments would, in most cases, be useless.

The three-coloured process drawings (for which I am indebted to the kindness of the Hon. Captain Frank Chaffey, Minister for Agriculture) only make one long for more. But they are costly, and so I have had to omit the vast majority of the large seedlings, either because of their size as plants, or because they have individually large leaves. I hope that the public finances will soon permit the reproduction of these omitted drawings, in the interests of science. Not only have most of the larger drawings been omitted, but as regards these and many others, there have been omissions which destroy the continuity of the life-history of individual species. Room could not be found for a single drawing whatever of some species. The trouble arises, of course, because of the magnitude of the genus, and I have endeavoured to make the best selection with the limited space available.

The vast majority of the coloured drawings were made by Miss Margaret Flockton, the artist to whom this work owes so much. Owing to pressure of work in other directions, and large influx of seedlings, she received assistance from Miss Phyllis Clarke during March, 1918, and at other times, and from Miss Ethel King from March, 1919, to August, 1923, and the work of both these artists deserves the highest credit.

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Following is the printed matter of the two forms, each of which is of foolscap size:—



Reference Number

Botanical Name

Natural Order

Vernacular Name

When collected

Where collected

By whom

Particulars as to Soil, &c.

Cultivated or Spontaneous

When sown

By whom

When Seedling collected





Collector and Date

Number of Schedule

Date of Sowing


Date of Examination of Seedling




First Leaves


Further Remarks

  ― 121 ―

5. Notes on the Descriptions

Following is the order followed in the description of a seedling (beginning p. 132):—

  • 1. Hypocotyl.
  • 1a. Hypocotyl. (Miss Flockton).
  • 2. Cotyledons (Petiole, Taper).
  • 2a. Cotyledons (Undersurface, Miss Flockton).
  • 3. Stem.
  • 4. 1st Pair of Leaves (Shape, vestiture).
  • 4a. 1st Pair of Leaves (Petiole).
  • 4b. Number of peltate leaves.
  • 5. Subsequent pairs of leaves (Number, petiole, shape, vestiture).
  • 6. Intermediate Leaves.
  • 6a. Miss Flockton's Notes.

a. Oil-glands

In a few cases a roughened or glandular appearance has been attributed to oil-glands, but this may not have been scientifically ascertained. Oil-glands are more or less plentiful in most parts of every Eucalyptus plant, and the slight asperities in seedlings are usually to be attributed to stellate and other hairs.

b. Hairs

These are more or less distributed in seedlings, as may be noted under the descriptions. Examples will be found under Renantheræ, Small Cotyledons (Groups 1 and 2), Bisectæ (Group 15). See also Part LVI, p. 321.

c. Tubercular Growths

The subject has been touched upon at Part XLIX, p. 283. It is probable that they may make their appearance in all species, given favourable conditions, but they have been observed, naturally very small, in the axils of the cotyledonary leaves of very many species, perhaps all. The species of bacteria concerned in the infections, the shapes, &c., of the resulting growths, and other matters, will form the subjects of further inquiry by a bacteriologist.

  ― 122 ―

d. Colour

During the years, the terms used by the artist and botanist for the anthocyanin colours of hypocotyl, cotyledon, &c., have varied. No tint should have been quoted except with quotation of a standard reference-work on colours. That has been quite out of the question with the time at my disposal, and doubtless some future student will carefully record these colours, and draw conclusions from his researches. In the notes on seedlings, red sometimes means crimson and pink, and there are doubtless other synonyms. Purple is also a term which covers much variation. (Some observations on the colours of the young shoots, or “young foliage,” will be found at Part LVI, p. 331.)

The undersurface of the cotyledons (cotyledonary leaf) varies in colour according to local conditions, e.g., time of year, moisture, soil. This is probably true of other parts of the seedling.

In a number of cases the colours in seedlings of the same species (or reputed to be such) from different localities are reported to be uniform; in some a difference is reported, but what interpretation is to be put on these reputed differences, if any, is a matter for further observation.

e. Glaucescence

The seedings of some species, other than those whose mature leaves are glaucous, display glaucousness in varying degrees. Sometimes the glaucousness is hard to detect, as it may shade into paleness in which no waxy surface is evident to the eye. The term sub-glaucous is an intermediate one, and somewhat vague. For references to glaucescence in both young and mature foliage, see Part LVI, p. 328.

f. Measurements

These have been rarely given. Lubbock gives them in the few species he examined, but as I submit coloured drawings (and hope to reproduce more), I consider they will afford sufficient data for the present.

The sizes of the component parts of seedlings actually given are those of pot-grown ones. Speaking generally, it seems to be a fact that those grown in the open (i.e., naturally grown) are larger; but I have not made a rigid series of comparisons. The whole question of measurements could form the subject of a useful research.

I have given localities or numbers after a description, so that the origin of the seedlings can be traced. It is purely a herbarium memo. Where there are no such indications, only one locality is known for the species.

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One reason why these records are incomplete is that, during a generation, seedlings have disappeared at various stages through accident, climatic changes, attacks by insects and animals, and the various happenings of a nursery. In one case, a larger number disappeared, one knows not where; they were probably distributed with others for some public purpose. In some cases seeds produced weakly plants; in others, the quantity was so very small as not to permit a second sowing. But the work has been begun, and will go on.

While there have been very many advantages in conducting these seedling researches in the nursery of a public institution, I have many a time sighed for the greater security and privacy of a private garden.

6. Notes on the Embryo

(Including notes on Cotyledons, &c., which have been dealt with under separate headings.)

“We must first of all distinguish between seed-leaves and shoot-leaves, with regard to their point of origin from the stem. The former only occurs in the embryo, the latter in all those structures comprised under the term “shoot.” The embryo which has developed from the fertilized egg-cell in the embryo-sac presents in many instances a tissue-body in which as yet no trace can be recognised of a differentiation into stem and leaf, or rather the embryo, when it leaves the fruit-capsule, is like a stem in which all indication of leaves is absent……”

“In the majority of instances, however, a distinct differentiation can be recognised in the embryo hidden in the seed, and one or two leaves may be seen issuing from the tissue-mass which forms the axis of the embryo. These are the seed-leaves or cotyledons.

“The short axis or stem-portion from which the seed-leaves originate, and which looks like the pedestal of the cotyledons, is called the hypocotyl.

“At one end of the hypocotyl a tissue-mass is developed, termed the radicle, at the opposite end a tissue-mass named the plumule.

“The plumule is situated above the place where the cotyledon or pair of cotyledons issued from the hypocotyl. It is the rudiment of a new portion of the stem, which is situated above the cotyledons, and is called the epicotyl.

“The epicotyl thus originates from the apex of the hypocotyl, and the boundary between these two portions of the stem is the place of origin of the cotyledon, or pair of cotyledons.” (Kerner and Oliver, i, 596.)

  ― 124 ―

Speaking of the embryo in Eucalyptus, Bentham says:

“Embryo with broad cordate 2-lobed or bipartite cotyledons, folded over the straight radicle, but otherwise flat.” (B.Fl., iii, 185.)

“The embryo in Eucalyptus appears always to have the cotyledons folded over the radicle, but varies much in the shape of the cotyledons, very broad or rather narrow, entire, cordate, 2-lobed or 2-partite, and in the comparative length of the radicle, and these differences are very likely of specific constancy; but there are but two or three species in which I have been able to examine the embryo taken from several specimens, and not many where I have had perfect seeds enough to spare more than one or even a single one for dissection. I have, therefore, thought it very unsafe to rely upon any of the modifications observed for specific distinction.” (p. 188.)

Mueller (“Eucalyptographia”) merely says: “Embryo of amygdaline consistence,” and figures it as follows:—

E. buprestium, 10 (in situ); 11, cotyledons slightly unfolded, laying free part of the radicle; 12, transverse section of embryo.

E. calophylla, 11, embryo; 12, cotyledons unfolded; 13, transverse section of embryo.

E. capitellata, 10, embryo; 11, the same uncoiled.

E. cladocalyx (corynocalyx), 10, embryo; 11, the same unfolded.

E. cosmophylla, 11, embryo in its natural position; 12, transverse section of an embryo; 13, embryo, with cotyledons unfolded.

E. crebra, 10, embryo.

E. diversicolor, 13, embryo; 14, cotyledons unfolded, to exhibit the radicle.

E. erythrocorys, 10, embryo.

E. ficifolia, 11, embryo in situ; 12, embryo uncoiled; 13, transverse section of embryo.

E. gamophylla, 11, 12, 13, as in E. ficifolia.

E. globulus, 11, 12, 13, as in E. ficifolia.

E. goniocalyx, 11, embryo.

E. leucoxylon, 13, embryo.

E. marginata, 11, embryo in situ; 12, embryo uncoiled.

E. megacarpa, 12, embryo in situ; 13, cotyledons partly spread out, to exhibit the radicle; 14, transverse section of embryo.

E. miniata, 10, embryo in situ; 11, side view of cotyledons; 12, transverse section of embryo.

E. obliqua, 10, embryo; 11, the same partly uncoiled.

E. Sieberiana, 11, embryo uncoiled; 12, embryo in its natural position.

E. Watsoniana, 11, embryo in situ; 12, transverse section of the same; 13, embryo unfolded, to show the cotyledons and radicle.

Lubbock “On Seedlings,” (1892, p. 524) says:

“The embryos of species of Eucalyptus coming under my notice are remarkable for the way in which the cotyledons are deflexed and become folded or coiled round the radicle. The latter is straight in E. globulus (fig. 338, not reproduced), as are the petioles for part of their length, while the upper portion is bent at right angles to reach the base of the cotyledons. The whole length of the seed is occupied by the radicle, the straight portion of the petioles, and the real length of the cotyledons, which is not great. The

  ― 125 ―
size of the latter, and their lobed appearance is due to their being deflexed and growing in a lateral direction till they reach the base of the seed, while their apical edge becomes coiled round the radicle. The middle portion through which the midrib runs cannot coil round the radicle, and is therefore short, thus giving rise to the apical sinus. This will be better understood by reference to the seedlings. A closely similar or identical case occurs in E. marginata, a transverse section of which shows the manner of coiling round the radicle. Although the section showing the coil is transverse to the seed, it is really through the longitudinal plane of the cotyledons. E. stellulata (fig. 341, not reproduced) has very much smaller and narrower seeds, and the coiling is therefore less extensive. The radicle is club-shaped, thickest at the point, and central to the cotyledons….”

He describes at length the embryo of two species:

E. globulus: “Straight, or nearly so, fleshy, colourless, occupying the whole interior of the seed, and conforming to it in general outline; cotyledons broader than long, deflexed and convolute over the radicle, which the lobes equal in length; half of one cotyledon lies over half of the other, and consequently only one-half of each cotyledon lies against the testa; radicle long, stout, fleshy, truncate, at the end where it lies against the testa, otherwise wholly enclosed by the longitudinally coiled cotyledons, parallel with the axis and consequently some distance from the hilum.” (i, 530, with fig.)

E. stellulata: “Straight, filling the interior of the seed, colourless; cotyledons transversely oblong convolute and folded round the radicle; radicle long, stout, truncate at the apex, occupying the centre of the seed and enveloped by the cotyledons.” (p. 532.)

Dr. Cuthbert Hall in Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., xxxix, 476, 1914, says:

Embryo.—As endosperm is not present, the form of the embryo depends on the shape, size and manner of folding of the cotyledons. The length of the petioles in the embryo depends on the distance from the junction of lamina and petiole to the superior pole of the radicle; and, in most species, is probably fairly short before germination. In E. citriodora and E. maculata, the cotyledons are almost sessile. In E. marginata, the hypocotyl is subterranean, and the failure of this to elongate, by growth in germination, is compensated for by the great elongation by growth of the petioles, so as to raise the laminæ well above the ground. A similar condition obtains in Angophora cordifolia, where the hypocotyl is short, and the petioles long. E. calophylla and E. Todtiana also have fairly long petioles.”

See also the subject of the folding of the cotyledons in the embryo at p. 518, and compare with Lubbock's remarks already quoted above.

I had prepared some notes, but found that the subject required a series of enlarged drawings of embryos, which Miss Flockton has had no time to do. I commend the subject to the attention of a student.

  ― 126 ―

a. Historical

Cotyledones (sic.) broad, much compressed, somewhat folded, undivided or bilobed, curved around the cylindrical straight erect radicle.” (“Eucalyptographia,” Preface.)

1866. Bentham (B. Fl., iii) rarely refers to the Cotyledon. Exceptions are—

“Embryo with broad cordate 2-lobed or bipartite cotyledons, folded over the straight radicle, but otherwise flat.” (p. 185.)

“… varies much in the shape of the cotyledons, very broad or rather narrow, entire, cordate, 2-lobed or 2-partite …” (p. 188.)

One of the few specific references is under E. cornuta, “Cotyledons of the seeds very deeply lobed almost 2-partite.”

1879–84. Mueller, in “Eucalyptographia,” under E. cornuta, figures twenty-seven species of seedlings “to exhibit mainly the cotyledonary leaves.” The seedlings are quite small, and as a rule also depict the first pair of leaves after the cotyledons. That of E. sepulcralis F.v.M. is figured on its own plate, and is the only seedling so found. Taken as a whole, the drawings of the seedlings are not quite satisfactory. The species depicted under E. cornuta are as follows:—

E. alpina.   E. leucoxylon.  
E. amygdalina.   E. macrocarpa.  
E. botryoides.   E. marginata.  
E. calophylla.   E. melliodora.  
E. cornuta.   E. obliqua.  
E. corymbosa.   E. pilularis.  
E. cosmophylla.   E. piperita.  
E. crebra.   E. rostrata.  
E. diversicolor.   E. saligna.  
E. gamophylla.   E. siderophloia.  
E. globulus.   E. Sieberiana.  
E. goniocalyx.   E. stricta.  
E. Gunnii.   E. Stuartiana.  
E. hemiphloia.  

The next reference in order of date, if not actually prior to Mueller's, is as follows:—

1883. Naudin, of which I offer a translation:—

“In all species of Eucalyptus the cotyledons have a common physiognomy, which makes them easily recognised. They are always petiolate and opposite, their most habitual form is that of a heart, broader than long, having the two lobes separated by a hollowing more or less deep. In some species they are almost orbicular and entire, in others the median hollowing descends almost to the base of the limb, which is thus also divided into two straight and diverging lobes. These different modifications may help in the recognition of some species, however, it is not a criterion sufficiently constant and sure to be trusted in every case.” (Naudin, i, 346, 1883.)

In other words, he issues a warning as to variation in cotyledons.

  ― 127 ―

1892. Lubbock.

“Most of the species of Eucalyptus observed have characters in common in the form of the cotyledons. They are transversely oblong, with or without a shallow sinus at the apex, with a short midrib terminating in the sinus, and a longer lateral nerve running along the centre of the lateral lobes. They are practically therefore trinerved; but the whole of the venation is sometimes obscure or indiscernible owing to the opacity of the cotyledons. The real apex of the latter is in the notch; and the length of the lateral lobes, together with the origin of the sinus is explained below. Species agreeing in the main with the above particulars are E. globulus (fig. 339), E. rostrata, E. cordata, E. leucoxylon (fig. 340), and E. stellulata. A slight modification of the above is seen in E. coccifera having small, obcordate cotyledons with a cuneate base. A greatly exaggerated form is met with in E. occidentalis (fig. 342), where the lateral lobes are ascending or suberect so as to give the cotyledons a furcate appearance strongly resembling those of Pentapetes puniceus (see fig. 219, not reproduced) amongst the Sterculiaceæ, with similar venation. The cotyledons of E. ficifolia are transversely oblong-reniform, with a moderately deep notch at the base, a very shallow apical sinus, the three nerves copiously branched, and long ascending petioles. On the whole, they may be compared to those of a Geranium. The long petioles show a transition to a still more remarkable type occurring in E. marginata (fig. 343, not reproduced), in which the hypocotyl is subterranean and extremely short, while this deficiency is compensated for by the length of the petioles. The lamina is obcordate, cuneate and trinerved, resembling a Brassica. A striking departure from the common type occurs in E. calophylla (fig. 344, not reproduced) having reniform-orbicular, incipiently emarginate, foliaceous cotyledons of great size. The three nerves are copiously branched, the lateral ones again having three main divisions.” (Lubbock, i, 526.)

A similar or identical case occurs in E. marginata, a transverse section of which shows the manner of coiling round the radicle. Although the section showing the coil is transverse to the seed, it is really through the longitudinal plane of the cotyledons. E. stellulata (fig. 341) has very much smaller and narrower seeds, and the coiling is therefore less extensive. The radicle is club-shaped, thickest at the point, and central to the cotyledons.” (Lubbock, “On Seedlings,” i, 524.)

The descriptions he gives in connection with the cotyledons are fuller than those of any previous author, and include:—

E. globulus, deeply bifid, lobes obovate-oblong, diverging (with fig.).

E. rostrata, small transversely oblong, obtuse, entire, sometimes almost cordate at the base.

E. cordata, very similar to those of E. rostrata, shallowly emarginate.

E. leucoxylon, as in E. rostrata, but truncate at the end, or sometimes possessing a small apical tooth (with fig.).

E. stellulata, transversely oblong.

E. coccifera, shortly stalked, obcordate, cuneate at base, retuse at apex.

E. occidentalis, deeply bifid, petiolate, lobes oblong, narrow obtuse (with fig.).

E. ficifolia, reniform, obtuse, entire or slightly emarginate, cordate at the base.

E. marginata, sub-rotund or transversely oblong, obtuse, emarginate, asymmetrical petiolate (with fig.).

E. calophylla, large foliaceous, reniform-orbicular, petiolate, blunt, entire except at the base or incipiently emarginate (with fig.).

1894. Kerner and Oliver in 1894 (in translation, presumably earlier in the original) use the term bisected for the cotyledons of certain species of Eucalyptus, i.e., No. 15 of fig. 148 (i, 621) for E. orientalis (a slip for occidentalis). No. 16 of the same figure is a reniform cotyledon of E. coriaceous (coriacea) but the word reniform is not used.

  ― 128 ―

1914. Then follows an important paper by Dr. Cuthbert Hall, “The Evolution of the Eucalypts in relation to the Cotyledons and Seedlings” (Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., xxxix, 473, with thirty-two plates). The paper takes cognizance of nearly 150 species, and the cotyledons are attached to the seedlings, which are reproduced by photography, and naturally vary in sharpness with the age of the seedlings. Each seedling (species) is represented by one photograph. They are difficult to compare because the figures are crowded on the plates at various angles, and some are even reversed.

1899 onwards. My own seedling work began seriously in 1899, and has been uninterruptedly continued ever since and practically all through the year. Miss Flockton (from 1901 to 1919), and Miss Ethel King since that date, have made drawings in colour of all cotyledons, as soon as they were unfolded, and fresh drawings of the identical seedlings were made at various stages. These are in colour, and have developed some surprising results. They will be reproduced in due course.

Excellent examples of the various types of Eucalyptus Cotyledons are depicted in Part LXX, Plates 286–287.

b. Poly- (tri-) cotyly

Poly- (tri-) phylly (in the juvenile leaves, of course).

These aberrant conditions are apparently rare, and have been seldom recorded. Probably they are much more frequent than at present supposed. In one case I cite, tricotyly was traced to have preceded triphylly, and further inquiry may further reveal a connection between the two phenomena, but it is not invariably the case.

Dr. C. Hall has seen tricotyly in E. coriacea, E. elæophora, E. eximia, E. Bosistoana, E. pilularis, E. Stuartiana, and E. microcorys. (Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., xxxix, 519, 1914.)

Following are the records that have come under my notice:—

  • 1. E. aggregata Deane and Maiden. Triphylly. Guildford Junction, Tasmania (R. H. Cambage, No. 4,101). (See 5a, Plate 235.)
  • 2. E. calcygona Turcz. Both tricotyly and triphylly. Yellana and Butler, Eyre's Peninsula, South Australia (W. J. Spafford, June, 1917, No. 3.)
  • 3. E. cordata Labill. Cultivated plants sometimes show triphylly. (Botanic Gardens, Sydney, 17th September, 1919).
  • 4. E. cornuta Labill. Triphylly rare. (A. D. Hardy, Proc. Roy. Soc., Vict., xxviii. (New Ser.), p. 241.)
  • 5. E. corymbosa Sm. I exhibited coloured drawings of seedlings showing tricotyly. (Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., xxxv, 523, 1910).
  • 6. E. eugenioides Sieb. Triphylly. Capertee, N.S.W. (J. L. Boorman, September, 1915.)
  • 7. E. eximia Schauer. Dr. C. Hall exhibited a seedling showing both tricotyly and triphylly. (Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., xxxv, 27, 1910.) Mr. P. R. St. John has sent me an excellent specimen showing tricotyly.

  •   ― 129 ―
  • 8. E. Gillii Maiden. A shoot (Botanic Gardens, Sydney, 11th April, 1919), has leaves at base, one in threes, then four whorls in twos, the rest in threes. The leaves connate. Ternate leaved alike in the seedlings and in the sucker leaves from a tree. Figured in Part LX, fig. 6, Plate, 247.
  • 9. E. goniocalyx F.v.M. Triphylly. Quoted by Mueller in “Eucalyptographia” under E. viminalis.
  • 10. E. Johnstoni Maiden. (Muelleri T. B. Moore). Botanic Gardens, Sydney (Coll. W. F. Blakely.)
  • 11. E. Muelleriana Howitt. Triphylly rare. (A. D. Hardy, loc. cit.)
  • 12. E. pachyloma Benth. Triphylly. Kalgan Plains, W.A. (J.H.M.)
  • 13. E. patens Benth. For an instance of triphylly, see fig. 1, Plate 88, Part XX, of the present work.
  • 14. E. piperita Sm. Triphylly in a tree at Hornsby, near Sydney (W. F. Blakely).
  • 15. E. radiata Sieb. Triphylly figured at fig. 3, Plate 29, Part VI, as E. amygdalina. Triphylly about 1 in 100 of certain seedlings. (A. D. Hardy, loc. cit.)
  • 16. E. resinifera Sm. “Polyphylly. The undermentioned species yielded forms with increase of foliar leaves supervening on tricotyly.”
  • 17. E. Risdoni Hook. “Polyphylly. The undermentioned species yielded forms with increase of foliar leaves supervening on tricotyly.”
  • In E. resinifera, triphylly in 1 in 530 of certain seedlings (p. 241). In E. Risdoni, triphylly in 1 in 100 of certain seedlings (p. 241). (A. D. Hardy, Proc. Roy. Soc., Vict., xxviii (New Ser.), p. 242.)
  • 18. E. umbra R. T. Baker. Cowan, near Hawkesbury River, N.S.W. (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress.)
  • 19. E. viminalis Labill. Case of triphylly shown in “Eucalyptographia” plate. See also a specimen from Lake St. Clair, Tasmania. (L. Rodway, 17th January, 1918.)

c. Cohesion

“Velenovsky mentions a seedling of E. pulverulenta in which one cotyledon only was present, as a consequence of which the foliage leaves above were alternately arranged. It is possible that each leaf in these cases represents a congenital fusion of two.” (“Principles of Plant Teratology,” Wordsell, i, 220.)

I do not think I have seen a seedling with only one cotyledon, except it has been removed by an accident, but alternately arranged leaves immediately above the cotyledons are not rare.

We have cohesion of cotyledonary leaves in E. punctata DC., the seed from Como, Sydney (J. L. Boorman and W. M. Carne). I have also seen it in E. setosa R.Br. (Northern Territory), forming a symmetrical cup. I have not specially searched for this form of cohesion.

d. Margin

In the same plant we may have one cotyledon strictly reniform (marginate), and the other more or less emarginate.

If the three principal groups of cotyledon leaves be studied, it will be seen that they chiefly differ in the degree of emarginateness; in other words, in examining a complete series of Reniformæ and Bilobæ (which two groups contain a minimum amount of it), and of Bisectæ (which contain it in its extreme form), we have a perfect series.

  ― 130 ―

Amongst a number of individual species there is so much variation that it is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to separate them on their emarginate character, or lack of it.

“The cotyledons are transversely oblong, with or without a shallow sinus at the apex, with a short midrib terminating at the sinus …” (Lubbock, i, 525.)

Dr. Cuthbert Hall (op. cit., p. 478) has made the question of entire and emarginate cotyledons of some importance. He even makes it a basis of classification:—

I. Entire Cotyledons.

(a) Bloodwoods or Corymbosas, characterised by very large or medium-sized cotyledons, usually reniform in shape, and resembling those of the Angophoras.

(b) Of medium size to small, reniform, entire … mainly Stringybarks with reniform anthers.

(c) Small, reniform or orbicular. E. dumosa, E. populifolia, E. quadrangulata, E. polybractea, (fruticetorum), E. incrassata.

II. Emarginate Cotyledons.

(a) Large, obcordate, cuneate at base, petioles long, E. marginata, E. Todtiana, E. megacarpa, E. santalifolia (diversifolia). The lastnamed shades off into the following group.

(b) Medium to small, emargination moderate, slight or even practically absent…. In most cases, the undersides of the leaves and cotyledons are tinged deep purplish-red. Most of the species contain Eucalyptol (cineol), and many phellandrene and piperitone. The anthers are generally reniform.

(Then follows a list of species all of which are Renantheræ except E. striaticalyx. It includes E. Planchoniana.)

(c1) Smaller, more or less transversely oblong, emargination moderate or very slight…. In this group may be placed the Ironbarks and most of the Boxes with anthers opening by pores; the remainder mostly have parallel anthers.

(c2) Very small, transversely oblong or triangular, emargination slight or practically absent…. Where the petiole is so small, it is sometimes almost impossible to know whether to put some of these in this group or in (I (c).

(The members of this group are moderately variable as regards anthers.)

(c3) Larger than in II (c1), more deeply emarginate, lobes obovate-oblong, obtuse, divergent…. It will be seen that this group shades off from (c1), just as (c2) may be taken to shade off from (c1) in the other direction. Comprised in it are E. eudesmioides, E. gomphocephala, E. Lehmanni, E. cosmophylla, E. cladocalyx, E. hemilampra, E. elæophora, E. goniocalyx, E. urnigera, E. unialata, E. Maideni, E. globulus.

e. Venation

“…. with a short midrib terminating in the sinus, and a longer lateral nerve running along the centre of the lateral lobes. They are practically, therefore, trinerved, but the whole of the venation is sometimes obscure or indiscernible owing to the opacity of the cotyledons.” (Lubbock, i, 525.) Venation is a character taken cognisance of in the seedlings, when describing the cotyledons.

Subsequent pairs of leaves (No. 5).—All pairs beginning with the second pair and ending just before the alternate leaves. There is considerable range in the number of pairs and in their shape.

  ― 131 ―

Number of Opposite Leaves.—Stress has been laid on the number of pairs of opposite leaves in a seedling, before the alternate-leaved stage is reached. The large number of narrow opposite leaves in E. viminalis and E. radiata, and of broad ones in E. Stuartiana and E. Gunnii, arrest the attention of every intelligent stroller in the bush, while the fact that some species (e.g., E. paniculata and E. corymbosa) change so rapidly to the alternate-leaved stage that one can rarely obtain opposite leaves of them, except after careful and perhaps prolonged search, is known to fewer observers.

This persistence in oppositeness, or in refusal “to grow up,” is instructive. Such species as E. viminalis and E. Stuartiana are physiologically retrograde, while E. paniculata belongs to a group more progressive in the cycle of life.

Intermediate Leaves (6) and 6a (Miss Flockton (6a)).—In some cases there may be some repetition here, but we have the advantage of two sets of facts made by different observers, and they may be looked upon as supplemental or corroborative as a rule. Miss Flockton's observations were invariably made from the seedling in the pot as she drew it, gazing at it again and again.

Intermediate leaves indicate all leaves from the last pair of opposite leaves to the lanceolate or adult leaf. There is a great range of variation in these leaves, as shown in the figures, and they are directly comparable with the intermediate leaves of the shoot as shown at Part LXVI, p. 307, Plates 270–271. At the same time, it may be proper to point out that the intermediate leaves of the shoot, as thus defined, have a wider range than those of the seedlings as defined above. In other words, in the intermediate leaves of the shoot we adopt the convention of including all shapes and sizes of leaves between the earliest and the latest, while in the seedling it becomes necessary, as a matter of convenience, to restrict the intermediate leaves in the manner stated. But the two kinds of intermediate leaves are strictly correlative.

Some seedlings show alternate leaves immediately after the cotyledons—some of the Corymbosæ, for example. They seem irregular or anomalous in the present state of our knowledge, but our acquaintance with them is increasing.

They may be alternate and then opposite, before they finally become alternate. Indeed, there may be two forms of leaves, each strictly opposite in character, before they proceed to the alternate stage. They can also be petiolate and then sessile before they finally become petiolate.

N.B.—In the Corymbosæ and Eudesmieæ the intermediate leaves start from the last peltate leaf.

Where the name of Miss Flockton occurs in brackets, with the detailed descriptions of seedlings, it means that these are the notes made by that artist at the various times each seedling was brought to her for drawing. (In a small percentage of cases the notes were made by the ladies who made drawings under Miss Flockton's supervision.) These notes extend over twenty years, and I prefer to copy them as they stand, rather than attempt to bring them into uniformity in 1923. I think they will be more useful as impressions made at the time, and hope that very many more such notes will be made by future workers.

  ― 132 ―

Detailed Descriptions of Seedlings

Division Reniformæ

Section 1.—Large Cotyledons

  • 1a. Corymbosæ—Peltatæ (with peltate leaves).
  • 1b. Corymbosæ—Non-Peltatæ (without peltate leaves).
  • 1c. Non-Corymbosæ (E. marginata, E. sepulcralis, E. Todtiana, E. buprestium, E. Planchoniana).

Division Reniformæ

Section Large Cotyledons.

SERIES 1a.—Corymbosæ—Peltatæ

(With peltate leaves.)

E. calophylla.   E. hæmatoxylon.  
E. ficifolia.   E. eximia.  

General Appearance.—Leaves short and broad, varying from orbicular to ovate or ovate-lanceolate, peltate, slightly crinkled and stellate in the early stages; petiole short or long, usually long when peltate. The general tone is a light-green, shading to darker green, faintly tinged with purple-brown. Stems pale green to purple-brown, usually setose up to 12 inches in height, then smooth.

When the intermediate-leaved stage is reached, the venation is much finer than in the early stages. The colour, however, is about the same, but the stem and also the petioles are often a much deeper purple-brown.

(1) Hypocotyl.

E. calophylla, erect, terete, reddish, densely covered with blunt, warty, glandular processes, about 1·3 to 1·5 cm. above the soil. (Lubbock.)

E. ficifolia, erect, terete, covered with short bristly hairs 2·5 to 3 cm. long, reddish. (Lubbock.)

E. calophylla, short, thick, glandular.

E. ficifolia, short, stout, glandular.

E. hæmatoxylon, short, stout, glandular.

E. eximia, medium, slender, smooth.

(1a) Hypocotyl (Miss Flockton).

E. calophylla, short, thick, tinted pink and covered with warty glands (Woods and Forests, Perth); pink, with a few glandular hairs (W.A. No. 4).

Var. rosea, terete, red, with some glandular processes near the top (Melbourne); terete, red, sometimes with warty glands (Rydalmere).

  ― 133 ―

E. ficifolia, tinted pink; has a few scattered glands (Botanic Gardens, Sydney); long terete, red, smooth or with a few glands (Victoria Lodge, Botanic Gardens, Sydney).

E. hæmatoxylon, tinted pink, covered with warty glands, thickening to the base.

E. eximia, terete, pink or red (Gosford); terete, shaded pink, warty glands, thickening to the root (Berowra, No. 1); terete, pink, with scattered warty glands, thickish (No. 2).

(2) Cotyledons.

E. calophylla. Large, foliaceous, reniform-orbicular, petiolate, blunt, entire except at the base or incipiently emarginate, glabrous, deep opaque green and punctate above, much paler beneath and more conspicuously punctate, strongly trinerved from the base, with the lateral nerves trifurcate a little above the base, and ascending while the midrib proceeds nearly straight to the apex, with a few alternate, ascending branches; lamina 2·3 cm. long, 3 cm. wide; petiole subterete, flattened on the upper side above the base and shallowly grooved upwards, much thickened and perfoliate at the base, densely covered with small glandular processes, about 1·6 cm. long (Lubbock.)

E. ficifolia. Reniform, obtuse, entire or slightly emarginate, cordate at the base, coriaceous, petiolate, glabrous except on the petioles, which are covered with short, bristly hairs, dark green, reddish beneath, palminerved. (Lubbock.)

Cotyledons (petiole; taper; vestiture).

E. calophylla. More or less glandular, broad reniform, slightly emarginate, lobed at base, 5–7 nerved, slightly tapering into the slender, glandular petiole, 37 mm. long, 30 mm. broad. (Perth.)

E. ficifolia. More or less glandular, broad reniform, slightly emarginate, lobed at base, 5-nerved, slightly tapering into the slender glandular petiole, 28 mm. long, 25 mm. broad. (Botanic Gardens, Sydney.)

E. hæmatoxylon. More or less glandular, broad reniform, undulate, slightly emarginate, lobed at base, 3–5 nerved, slightly tapering into the rather stout glandular petiole. (Forests Department, Perth.)

E. eximia. Smooth, broad reniform, not or slightly emarginate.

(2a) Cotyledons (Undersurface, Miss Flockton).

E. calophylla, with warty glands on the petiole, undersurface purple. var. rosea, crimson, petioles glandular.

E. ficifolia, crimson (1); red, prominent glands on petioles (2).

E. hæmatoxylon, undulate, purple.

E. eximia, red, deep red, deep crimson.

  ― 134 ―

(3) Stem.

E. calophylla. Erect, terete, ultimately woody, green in the young state, densely covered with irregular crystalline, glandular processes; first internode 2·25 cm. long; second 5–6 mm. (Lubbock.)

E. ficifolia. As in E. occidentalis Endl., but covered with bristly hairs; first internode 2–3·5 cm. long, second 1–2 cm. (Lubbock.)

(Miss Flockton.)

E. calophylla. Green, tinted pink, prominent glandular hairs (4).

E. ficifolia. Covered with long glandular processes (Botanic Gardens, Sydney); terete, with prominent glands, green, shaded pink (Victoria Lodge, Botanic Gardens, Sydney); strong, hardy-looking, terete, red (Teneriffe).

E. hæmatoxylon. Tubular, pale green tinted with pink, covered with red glandular hairs getting fewer towards the top (Jarrahwood).

E. eximia. Terete, shaded red, covered with pink glandular processes (Gosford); tinted red, warty glands above the cotyledons (Berowra); mauve, with long, irregular, transparent glands (Berowra, 1913).

“Seedlings (primary leaves).”

E. calophylla, covered on both surfaces with crystalline glands (Lubbock).

(4) First pair of Leaves (petiole, shape, vestiture).

E. calophylla, one, petiolate, orbicular, larger than the cotyledons, setose.

E. ficifolia, one, petiolate, ovate to nearly orbicular, large, but smaller than the cotyledons, setose.

E. hæmatoxylon, two or more, petiolate, ovate to nearly orbicular, larger than the cotyledons, setose.

E. eximia, two, petiolate, lanceolate to broad-lanceolate, rather large, about the size of the cotyledons, setose.

(4b) Number of Peltate Leaves (shape, vestiture).

E. calophylla, six or more, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, undulate, hispid, pale on the lower surface, veins few, rather distant. At 15 inches high, 5 to 8 cm. long, 4 to 5 cm. broad, light-green tinged with purple-brown; petiole setose, slender, 2 cm. long. Stem setose, at first terete, but angular at 8 inches, purple-brown throughout. (Foot of Stirling Range.)

E. ficifolia, at least ten, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, somewhat stellate on both surfaces in the early stages, slightly undulate, the margins glandular-denticulate, 2 to 6 cm. long, 2 to 3·5 cm. broad, light green. Petiole setose, 2 cm. long. Stem setose, pale green, tinged with purple-brown (Botanic Gardens, Sydney.)

  ― 135 ―

E. hæmatoxylon, eight, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, apiculate, fairly densely hispid-setose, ranging from 3·5 cm. long and 2 cm. broad to 8·5 cm. long and 5 cm. broad, light green, veins distant, spreading and rather prominent. Petiole short, covered with purple brown seta. Stem setose, green or the seta purple-brown. (Jarrahwood.)

E. eximia, six or more, leaves ovate to narrow-lanceolate, slightly undulate; at 6 inches high, 4 cm. long, 2 cm. broad; olive green, shaded purple brown, veins more or less prominent. Petiole slender, glandular, hairy, about 15 mm. long. At 9½ inches, narrow lanceolate, quite smooth, 7 to 10 cm. long, 2 to 2·5 cm. broad, light-green tinged with a dull purple-brown. (Gosford.)

E. calophylla. Leaves opposite in the young plant, covered on both surfaces and at the margin, but especially on the petioles and midrib beneath, with various-sized crystalline, glandular processes, rather closely and ascendingly penninerved and reticulate; petioles dilated and slightly flattened on the upper side at the base, otherwise nearly terete and tapering upwards. First pair broadly cordate, obtuse, tipped with a glandular mucro. Second pair cordate-ovate, obtuse, tipped with a glandular mucro, alternate. (Lubbock.)

E. ficifolia. First leaves as in E. coccifera, but covered with numerous bristly hairs, tinged with red below, pinnatinerved. The leaves in many specimens are alternate, not opposite, the internodes between the pairs of leaves at first being very short, but increasing in length after the second pair. (Lubbock.)

(6) Intermediate Leaves.

E. calophylla var. rosea, ovate lanceolate, undulate, the apex rather long, petiole short. At 8½ inches, 5 cm. long, 2 cm. broad, light green, margin shaded purple-brown, also the petiole, veins obscure. Young tips a rich purple-brown. Stem pale green shading into pale purple-brown. (Cultivated, Rydalmere, N.S.W.)

E. ficifolia, leaves oblong-lanceolate, undulate, thick, with a short sharp mucro, petiole short, but longer than in E. calophylla. At 10 inches, 6 cm. long, 2·5 cm. broad, light green, veins obscure, midrib and petiole purple-brown. Stem purple-brown. (Botanic Gardens, Sydney.)

E. hæmatoxylon, leaves oblong lanceolate, undulate, the apex short, recurved petiole long. At 18 inches, 9 cm. long, 3·5 cm. broad, dark green, midrib white, veins obscure, petiole purple-brown, also the stem. (Busselton, Dr. F. Stoward.)

At 29½ inches broadly elliptical, slightly undulate, apex short, very acute, petiole rather long, purple-brown, the colour extending partly into the midrib, the remainder of the midrib whitish, shaded yellowish green. General colour of leaf a light green, veins fine, scarcely prominent. Stem a rich purple-brown. (Jarrahwood, Western Australia.)

  ― 136 ―

E. eximia, leaves lanceolate, mucro, short, slightly undulate, veins obscure, petiole long, compressed. At 20 inches, 14 cm. long, 4·5 cm. broad, glaucous green, petiole and midrib yellowish. In this species some of the leaves are hastate to auriculate at the base. Hastate leaves are also present in other species. Stem a dull purple brown. (Gosford.)

(6a) (Miss Flockton).

E. calophylla.

1st leaves broadly ovate, glandular hairs scattered on the edges, midrib, &c. (No. 4). 1st alternate leaves the same, but larger and all are peltate (No. 4).

var. rosea. 1st leaves ovate, undersurface purple tint (Rydalmere).

E. ficifolia.

1st leaves ovate, undersurface pale glaucous green, with protuberant glands scattered on midrib and edges. 1st alternate leaves the same, but larger and sometimes becoming peltate. (Botanic Gardens, Sydney.)

Leaves alternate, 5¼ inches long by 2½ inches wide, sinuous, peltate, midrib red, intramarginal vein close to the edge. (Teneriffe.)

1st leaves ovate, undersurface pale green, dotted and edged with transparent glands. This plant is covered with prominent glands except on the cotyledon leaves. (Victoria Lodge, Botanic Gardens.)

E. hæmatoxylon.

1st leaves ovate-cordate, peltate, with pink glandular hairs on the petioles, principal veins and margins. 1st alternate leaves ovate cordate, peltate, murconate, fewer hairs. After the plant has attained to 7 or 8 inches the leaf changes, the venation becomes closer and more regular, the edge more wavy, no longer peltate-mucronate and without hairs. The intramarginal vein is almost lost in the extreme edge of the leaf. The seedlings are not always peltate. (Woods and Forests Department, Western Australia.)

E. eximia.

1st leaves ovate, petiolate, underside pale opaque green. Leaves ovate, peltate, irregular in shape, with pink bristly hairs on the midrib and scattered on the leaves, chiefly on the upper side, underside slightly paler. Petiolate, decussate, alternate after the first or second pairs. (Gosford.)

1st leaves ovate, undersurface purple shade and pink glands on both sides, very thick on the young growth. 1st alternate leaves ovate acuminate, midrib pink, peltate, glandular hairs on midrib and peduncle. (Berowra.)

  ― 137 ―

Series 1B. Corymbosæ—Non-Peltatæ

(Without peltate leaves.)

E. Foelscheana.   E. ptychocarpa.  

E. miniata.

General Appearance.—Leaves short and more or less obtuse, petiolate, ovate to lanceolate, smooth or hispid, sub-glaucous. In E. miniata the hypocotyl is submerged.

(1) Hypocotyl.

E. Foelscheana, medium, stout, smooth.

E. ptychocarpa, very short, stout, glandular.

E. miniata, submerged or very short.

(1a) Hypocotyl (Miss Flockton).

E. Foelscheana, terete, short, shaded red, Darwin (Baldwin Spencer); terete, slightly warty, sturdy and short, tinted pink (Edith Creek).

E. ptychocarpa, pale yellow green, sturdy, with warty protuberances (Northern Territory).

E. miniata, terete, short, thick, pale green and pink below the ground line. (Seed, Brisbane.)

(2) Cotyledons (petiole, taper).

E. Foelscheana, smooth, broad reniform, very slightly emarginate, slightly lobed at base, not tapering, 5-nerved, petiole slender, 20 mm. long, 15 mm. broad. (Edith Creek, Northern Territory).

E. ptychocarpa, more or less glandular, broad reniform, scarcely emarginate, 3-nerved, very slightly lobed at base, not tapering into the petiole, petiole slightly glandular, 18 mm. long, 11 mm. broad. (Bathurst Island.)

E. miniata, smooth, broad reniform, scarcely emarginate, slightly lobed at base, slightly tapering into the long, slender, smooth petiole, 25 mm. long, 17 mm. broad. (Northern Territory, per H. Steedman.)

(2a) Cotyledons (Undersurface, Miss Flockton).

E. Foelscheana, green.

E. ptychocarpa, pale green, petioles warty.

E. miniata, green, a little deeper on the upper surface.

  ― 138 ―

(3) Stem.

E. Foelscheana, terete with prominent glands (No. 27, Northern Territory); spindly, with prominent glandular processes (Edith Creek).

E. ptychocarpa, pale green, covered with glandular processes (Northern Territory).

E. miniata, terete, light yellow green with stellate hairs (H. Steedman); terete, green, covered with stellate hairs (Darwin); terete, pink, covered with stellate hairs (Northern Territory, from Botanic Gardens, Brisbane.)

(4) 1st pair of leaves (petiole, shape, vestiture).

E. Foelscheana, six, petiolate, lanceolate to ovate, not half the size of the cotyledons.

E. ptychocarpa, six, petiolate, slightly setose, lanceolate to ovate, much smaller than the cotyledons.

E. miniata, six, petiolate, lanceolate to ovate, longer but narrower than the cotyledons, setose.

(5) Subsequent pairs of leaves (Number, petiole, shape, vestiture).

E. Foelscheana, six or more, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, setose or hispid.

E. ptychocarpa, at least six.

E. miniata, six or more, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, slightly stellate, pale green, petiole short.

(6) Intermediate Leaves.

E. Foelscheana, not seen.

E. ptychocarpa, opposite, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, the lamina upturned, undulate, veins rather prominent, petiole short, compressed. At 32 inches still opposite, 10 cm. long, 5 cm. broad. (Northern Territory, W. S. Campbell.)

E. miniata, not seen.

(6a) (Miss Flockton.)

E. Foelscheana.

1st leaves ovate, the edges and midrib bearing long, colourless glandular processes (Northern Territory); small ovate, the edges and midribs with a few prominent glands (Edith Creek).

E. ptychocarpa.

1st leaves ovate-orbicular, oval. Leaves 2½–3 inches long, still opposite, plant 8 inches high (Northern Territory).

E. miniata.

1st leaves ovate-lanceolate, with stellate hairs (H. Steedman).

(1st leaves ovate-lanceolate, with stellate hairs (Darwin, H. Brown).

1st leaves ovate lanceolate, with stellate hairs (Northern Territory, from Botanic Gardens, Brisbane).

  ― 139 ―

Series 1C.—Non-Corymbosæ

E. marginata.   E. Planchoniana.  
E. Todtiana.   E. sepulcralis.  

E. buprestium.

General Appearance.—Leaves orbicular, oblong to lanceolate, shortly petiolate or sessile, slightly crinkled in the very early stage, flat, or undulate when more advanced, light to dark green or glaucous shaded pink, the veins more or less prominent. Stems usually purple-brown.

In the intermediate stage E. Planchoniana is the only one of this series which shows a marked affinity to the Corymbosæ in the venation, but it is interesting to note that there is a total absence of seta in this species, as well as in the rest of the series, which forms a group with more or less closely corresponding characters in the seedling, but differing materially in other respects.

(1) Hypocotyl.

E. marginata. “The hypocotyl is subterranean and extremely short, while this deficiency is compensated for by the length of the petioles.” (Lubbock.)

E. marginata, very short or submerged.

E. Todtiana, short, stout, smooth, reddish.

E. Planchoniana, medium to long, stout, reddish.

E. sepulcralis, long, slender, reddish.

E. buprestium, long, slender, reddish.

(1a) Hypocotyl (Miss Flockton).

E. marginata, almost without hypocotyl, the stem sometimes springing up from below the surface of the ground (217).

E. Todtiana, short, terete, reddish.

E. Planchoniana, thick, red (8-Mile Plains); terete, sturdy, red (Stradbrooke Island).

E. sepulcralis, sturdy, terete, red.

E. buprestium, smooth, red.

(2) Cotyledons.

E. marginata. Subrotund or transversely oblong, obtuse, emarginate, asymmetrical petiolate, coriaceous, glabrous, dark green, reddish beneath, distinctly trinerved; petioles long, plano-convex, stained with red (Lubbock).

(Petiole, taper.)

E. marginata, somewhat cuneate-reniform, slightly emarginate, tapering into the very long petiole.

E. Todtiana, broad reniform, slightly emarginate, tapering into the petiole, 18 mm. long, 12 mm. broad; petiole medium, light green, trinerved.

  ― 140 ―

E. Planchoniana, broad reniform, slightly emarginate, tapering into the medium petiole, 18 mm. long, 12 mm. broad, trinerved, light green, purple-brown beneath.

E. sepulcralis, somewhat cuneate-reniform, tapering to about into the short petiole for about half its length, slightly emarginate, 17 mm. long, 13 mm. broad, trinerved, light green.

E. buprestium, broad reniform, slightly emarginate, tapering into the very short petiole, 25 mm. long, 18 mm. broad, veiny or about 7-nerved, glaucous green.

(2a) Cotyledons (Undersurface, Miss Flockton).

E. marginata, slight purple tint.

E. Todtiana, purple.

E. Planchoniana, deep crimson (8-Mile Plains); purple-red (Stradbroke Island)

E. sepulcralis, rich puce.

E. buprestium crimson.

(3) Stem.

E. marginata. As in E. ficifolia (Lubbock). (Miss Flockton.)

E. marginata, tinted pink (No. 217).

E. Todtiana, thick red.

E. Planchoniana, smooth red (8-Mile Plains).

E. buprestium, smooth, tinted red (Kalgan Plains).

(4) 1st pair of leaves (Petiole, shape, vestiture).

E. marginata. Sessile, coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate subacute, glabrous, light. green, distinctly pinnatinerved. (Lubbock).

E. Todtiana, shortly petiolate or almost sessile, oblong lanceolate, slightly undulate, 4·5 cm. long, 2·5 cm. broad, light green, glabrous (Perth, Western Australia).

E. Planchoniana, distinctly but shortly petiolate, narrow-lanceolate, slightly undulate, 4·5 cm. long, 1·5 cm. broad, subglaucous, glabrous (8-Mile Plains, Brisbane).

E. sepulcralis, almost or quite sessile, ovate-cuneate, emarginate, 2·5 cm. long, 1·5 cm. broad, subglaucous, glabrous (Bremer Bay).

E. buprestium, sessile, ovate, 3·5 cm. long, 2·5 cm. broad, light glaucous green, glabrous (Kalgan Plains).

(5) Subsequent pairs of leaves (Number, shape, vestiture).

E. marginata, six or more, sessile up to the sixth pair, broad lanceolate, ranging from 5 cm. long, 1·5 cm. broad, to 7 cm. long, 2·5 cm. broad, light green, glabrous (near Perth).

E. Todtiana, six or more, sessile up to the sixth pair, then shortly petiolate and still opposite at 24 inches, broad to narrow lanceolate, at 11 inches, 12 cm. long, 3·5 cm. broad, light green, glabrous (Peninsula Estate, Maylands, W.A.)

  ― 141 ―

E. Planchoniana, six pairs, sessile to fourth pair, then shortly petiolate, oblong-lanceolate, ranging from 5 cm. long, 2·5 cm. broad, to 12 cm. long, 2·5 cm. broad, slightly undulate, light green tinged purple-brown, the midrib a rich purple brown (8-Mile Plains).

E. sepulcralis, eight or more, sessile to the sixth pair, then shortly petiolate, oblong to oblong-lanecolate, ranging from 3·5 cm. long, 2 cm. broad, to 8 cm. long, 3·5 cm. broad in the sessile leaves, and 5·5 cm. long, 2 cm. broad, to 8 cm. long, 2·5 cm. broad in the petiolate leaves, all more or less subglaucous, shading to light yellowish green, glabrous (Bremer Bay).

E. buprestium, six or more, sessile up to the third pair, then shortly petiolate, broad ovate, emarginate, 5 cm. long, 4 cm. broad in the sessile leaves, and broad-elliptical to broad lanceolate, 7 cm. long, 4·5 cm. broad, to 7·5 cm. long, 2·5 cm. broad, light green, shading to a still lighter green, glabrous (Kalgan Plains).

(6) Intermediate Leaves.

E. marginata, broad lanceolate, petiolate, 8 cm. long, 5 cm. broad, light green.

E. Todtiana, not seen.

E. Planchoniana, broad lanceolate, shortly petiolate, 13 cm. long, 4·5 cm. broad, venation fine, distant, intramarginal vein distant from the edge, midrib reddish. Stem terete, reddish (8-Mile Plains). In general appearance it is not unlike E. Sieberiana, E. gigantea, E. altior. In the cotyledons it is allied to E. miniata and to E. ptychocarpa.

E. sepulcralis, oblong lanceolate, shortly petiolate, thickish, 10 cm. long, 4 cm. broad, veins distant, spreading, intramarginal nerve undulate and distant from the edge, light olive green, petiole reddish. Stem terete, purple brown.

E. buprestium, not seen.

(6a) (Miss Flockton).

E. marginata.

1st leaves ovate or lanceolate, becoming large (3 inches), elliptical sessile and still opposite at 8 inches high (No. 217).

E. Todtiana.

1st leaves ovate, very undulate, red midrib, 3½ inches long, 1½ inches from the ground line. Height, 8 inches, still opposite.

E. Planchoniana.

1st leaves elliptical, undersurface pink, midrib red. 1st alternate leaves up to 5 inches long, undersurface pale green, midrib red (8-Mile Plains). The young foliage is very red.

1st leaves broad-ovate, almost sessile, midrib and underside rich purple red (Stradbroke Island).

E. buprestium.

1st leaves broad ovate, undersurface tinted purple, later becoming ovate-retuse, opposite without pedicel (Kalgan Plains.)

E. sepulcralis.

1st leaves ovate, sessile when very young.

  ― 142 ―

Supplementary Notes

Rate of Growth.

Growth and Age of Trees.

Natural Afforestation.

Flowering in Dwarf State.

Liquids in Tree Trunks.

Pendulous Branches.



Size and Habit.


Timbers (Colours).

Timbers (Inflammability).

Timbers (in general).

Leaves (and Oils).



Adjustment of Botanical Descriptions.

Additional Biographical Notes.

Rate of Growth

(See Part XLVIII, pp. 244–8.)

Growth and Age of Trees (p. 245).—“I also think there has been much misconception of the facts in the past. I do not think that any of our Eucalypts attain the age that, owing to their great size, many people have assigned to them. I think that an increase of 1 inch in diameter per year is a moderate estimate for the growth of many of these trees, in the conditions and environment in which they grew, and that from a half to 1 inch per annum is not an uncommon growth for many of our forest trees under average favourable conditions.

In Bairnsdale township there is a very fine specimen of E. tereticornis, a tall straight tree, with a bole about 5 feet in diameter at 3 feet from the ground, and about 45 feet to the first branch. It stands in an open place all alone. I have known the tree for thirty-eight years, and believe it has increased in diameter more than 24 inches during that time. It shows little sign of decay, but I believe its rate of growth has been less of later years. I look upon its age as 80–100 years. Near Orbost, growing on the rich river flat lands of the Snowy River, there is a splendid specimen of E. botryoides. When I saw it first, about thirty years ago, it was about 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter. Now it is fully 5 feet, and about 50 feet in height to the first branch. Again, and this is more definite, some years ago I saw in Stratford, growing in a White-horn hedge around a garden, two fine healthy vigorous Red Gum trees, E. tereticornis. I asked the owner of the garden how they came there. He said they came up as seedlings after he planted the hedge, and he let them grow. He had planted the hedge forty years before. I often noticed these trees, but about five years later, owing to the wide-spreading branches spreading too far over the street, the trees had to be removed. They were cut off level with the top of the hedge, at 5 feet from the ground, and at that height one of them was 30 inches in diameter, and the other about 26 inches. That was the growth of these trees in forty-five years. The stems or boles were not very high, probably not more than 10 feet, to where they spread into three or four limbs, with a thick spreading top of dense foliage.

  ― 143 ―

Some years ago, on the road from Glen Wills to Granite Flat, I passed through a very dense forest of young E. gigantea, about 12 to 18 inches in diameter, and about 100 feet high. The growth was much too dense for the trees to attain any large size, but I was able to see, here and there, traces of a former forest, in fragments, and outlines of stumps showing in the surface of the ground which indicated that the ground had been occupied, apparently at some rather remote preiod, by a forest of immense trees. The traces of these trees were faint, but still sufficient to show that there had been a forest of giant trees there at one time, perhaps not so far remote either. One thing struck me as peculiar, that there were no large, or moderately large trees of a later generation (only the large saplings I have mentioned, probably the largest of them not more than 2 feet in diameter). Had the former forest been destroyed by a bush fire so fierce that even the surface of the ground was burned to such an extent as to prevent all growth of vegetation for a number of years? E. gigantea is, of all the ‘Stringybarks,’ the most easily destroyed by fire.” (Harry Hopkins, Bairnsdale, Victoria.)

“On page 245 of Part XLVIII you quote Dr. Howitt as saying, with reference to rapid growth, etc. ‘At Omeo, in the Government Reserve a number of E. viminalis are now (1890) 60 feet high, which in 1863 were only small saplings under 5 feet in height.’ These trees were really E. rubida (I at first mistook them for viminalis). They have increased greatly in size, though not much in height since Howitt described them as above. The short bole has increased to a diameter up to 3 or 4 feet, crowned with a dense wide-spreading head rising to a total height of perhaps 80 or 90 feet, but the trees are past their prime and are dying—in fact some of them have died, or are falling to pieces through decay. On the main road from Omeo to Cassilis, near the Livingstone Creek bridge, there are several fine trees of E. rubida with boles 2½ feet to 4 feet in diameter, and 15 to 25 feet long—a very noticeable group some ten or twelve years ago, of fine grown healthy looking trees. These are now (1921) showing signs of old age and decay, and several are apparently dying. As I wrote previously, I think there has in the past been much misconception as to the age of Eucalypts. I doubt if many species live for more than 100 years, and I believe that most of them reach maturity at between 50 and 100 years.” (The same, 3–1–22.)

Natural Afforestation

(See Part XLVIII, pp. 248–250.)

“I am particularly interested in the remarks quoted from Dr. A. W. Howitt at p. 248. I entirely agree with him. I am acquainted with a great part of the country to which he refers, and my observations lead me to the same conclusions, especially his remarks about ‘Annual bush fires’ and the rapid increase and expansion of forest growth when fires were restricted. When the white man first occupied this part of the country, the land was described as ‘open’ forest, and more or less well grassed. Probably in the summer season fires occurred frequently in the dry grass, so that the ‘bush’ would be burned annually, or semi-annually, keeping the country ‘clean’ as Dr. Howitt describes. These ‘grass’ fires (rather than ‘bush’ fires) would do little or no damage to the grown timber and larger saplings, but would keep in check the immoderate growth of seedlings and destroy other undergrowth and many pests and parasites. When the white settler came along, he feared these fires, which destroyed the herbage and endangered his flocks, and so he took every care to prevent them from starting or from spreading if once started. Thus the seedlings and other undergrowth had a chance to grow and secure possession, until in time what was formerly well-grassed open timber country, became a thicket of saplings or a jungle of useless undergrowth or ‘scrub.’ When ‘bush’ fires did occur, as was inevitable, owing to the accumulation of dead and dying material in these scrubs, and the falling débris of leaves, bark, etc., from the larger trees, they raged with great fury, doing great damage to even the largest trees, and seriously injuring or killing outright the younger trees and saplings. These conditions exist to-day, and, because of the infrequency of fires, rather than their frequency, in the forest areas, much damage is done to the timber, and insect pests increase and flourish in the intervals. For some years past I have been saying that it would be beneficial to have all the forest country, as far as practicable, burned annually. This would, I believe, in time restore the ‘bush’ country to its former clean and open forest character, promote the growth of a more healthy forest and better class of timber, keep down the many injurious insect and vegetable pests, and prevent the recurrence of periodic destructive bush fires.” (The same.)

  ― 144 ―

E. acmenioides is one of the worst species to sucker, and one of the first to send up a crop of seedlings after ringbarking, and if left alone it forms a dense forest of saplings in a very short time, as the growth is remarkably rapid. (North-eastern New South Wales, W. F. Blakely.)

E. dealbata A. Cunn. “A considerable number of seedlings of it were found coming up naturally in the forest where it was planted after the forest had been damaged by a severe forest fire. This is the first and only definite record we have of any natural reproduction of Eucalyptus in northern India. In the same forest there is also natural reproduction of E. globulus as a result of the fire, but the seedlings are mainly of the species (E. dealbata) I am sending.” (R. S. Hole, C.I.E., Forest Botanist, Dehra Dun, U.P. India, 11th November, 1922.)

Flowering in Dwarf State

(See Part XLIX, p. 273.)

E. Foelscheana F.v.M. “Flowering already at the height of 18 inches (as is the case also with E. cordata and E. vernicosa).” (Original description of species.)

E. pilularis Sm. Otford, by the roadside, halfway to Stanwell Park, N.S.W. (W. F. Blakely, November, 1922.)

E. punctata DC. On top of big tunnel, half-way between Wondabyne and Woy Woy, N.S.W. (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress, November, 1922).

E. umbra R. T. Baker. Same locality and date.

Liquids in Tree Trunks

(See Part XLIX, p. 286, and also under Kinos, p. 145, below.

“This phenomenon was quite common at Longford, near Sale, where I lived many years ago, in E. Stuartiana (locally called ‘Apple Tree’), and particularly in the largest and soundest (i.e., not over-matured) trees. It was not noticeable in other species thereabout. This liquid tasted and smelt like sour cider. Sometimes in felling one of these trees, when the cut reached near the centre, there would be a report like the crack of a rifle, and then the liquid would gush out in quite a large quantity.” (H. Hopkins, Bairnsdale, V., 3rd January, 1922.)

E. alba Reinw. “The heartwood contains water, which runs out in fair quantities when the tree is felled.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys, North-west Australia.)

E. Houseana (W.V.F.) Maiden. “The trunk is frequently swollen at the base, forming a kind of pedestal as in E. redunca var. elata.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

Pendulous Branches

(See Part XLIX, p. 288.)

‘A species, not mentioned by you, in which this characteristic is conspicuous in part or this district E. polyanthemos. This is particularly noticeable at Longford, near Sale, at Heyfield, and between Bairnsdale and Bruthen. The late Dr. Howitt once said to me that he thought those trees with the slender pendulous branches and the other less or not at all pendulous character were really two separate varieties, but I do not think they can be separated botanically. In this district E. macrorrhyncha is not noticeably pendulous in habit, although I have seen it so occasionally.” (H. Hopkins, Bairnsdale, Victoria.)

E. Campaspe, E. microtheca (Coolabah), and E. populifolia (Bimble Box) may be added to the list of species with conspicuously pendulous branches, at least on occasion.

  ― 145 ―


(See Part LXIII, p. 101, of my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” also Part LV, p. 250, of the present work.)

It has been found on the juvenile leaves of E. eximia, about half a mile beyond Warrimoo Railway Station, Blue Mountains. (Dr. E. C. Chisholm and W. F. Blakely.)


For a paper on the Western Australian Red Gum (Marri) Kino (E. calophylla), giving a method of bleaching it and of rendering its tannin more available for economic purposes, see Circ. No. 8, by H. Salt, Institute of Science and Industry, 1922. See also E. calophylla and E. latifolia, under “Timbers,” p. 161, below.


In the report of the Forest Department of Western Australia for the year ended 30th June, 1924, Mr. S. L. Kessell, the Conservator, has a brief extract at p. 21 on “Marri Kino Investigation,” with acknowledgments to Mr. L. W. Phillips, of the Perth Technical School.

He speaks of the natural reservoirs in E. calophylla trees being of two distinct types. One consists of perpendicular fissures radiating from the centre of the tree. As much as 10 gallons of liquid kino have been obtained from one series of shakes, but this yield is very exceptional. The kino drawn from such reservoirs is of inferior quality, having low specific gravity. The other type of reservoir is in the form of a cavity between wood and bark, and can generally be relied upon to give a satisfactory yield of pure liquid kino. It also differs from the radial type in that it usually refills in from two to four weeks after tapping, when a further supply of kino may be drawn from it. The presence of these reservoirs may be detected usually by a slight swelling of the trunk.

The cause of these veins was at one time suggested to be due to bacterial infection of undifferentiated tissue immediately below the cambial region. Experiments, however, do not give any definite confirmation to this theory, and for the present it has been superseded by a purely chemical hypothesis. Mr. W. E. Campion favours an explanation based on carbon dioxide poisoning, due either to the exposure of the cambial region to the air by the boring of insects or mechanical damage, or to an accumulation of an excess of carbon dioxide by respiratory processes in microscopic cavities caused by the rupture of delicate cells of the cambial region owing to wind strain.

Size and Habit

(The numbers given are the consecutive numbers of the species.)

26. E. acmenioides Schauer. Ranging from a small stunted tree of 20 feet to a stately tree up to 100 feet. (Upper Clarence River, W. F. Blakely.)

  ― 146 ―

136. E. alba Reinw. “It is never a tall tree, nor is the trunk thick; the branches are usually straggling and not stained with exudations of gum. … Thus the tree is always conspicuous, and when the open forest is composed of it, as it is between Townsville (Q.) and the tableland, the effect of the masses of white trunks is very striking.” (J. E. Tenison-Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., vii, 332, 1882–3, as E. platyphylla.) “Tree of 40–50 feet; stem diameter to 1½ feet.” (W. V. Fitzgerald, Kimberleys, as E. platyphylla.)

“A tree of 30 to 40 feet, with an erect trunk and widely spreading branches. Trunk 10 to 25 feet in height, and 16 inches in diameter.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys, as E. alba).

181. E. argillacea W. V. Fitzgerald. “Tree 20–40 feet high, stem diameter of 6–12 inches.” (W. V. F.)

151. E. brachyandra F.v.M. “A crooked tree of 25–30 feet high; stem diameter to 9 inches.” (W. V. Fitzgerald.) “A dwarf tree or large shrub of 10 to 18 feet, of spreading habit and a usually thick and distorted trunk.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

120. E. cæsia Bentham. “Grows Mallee style, about 12 feet high.” (C. A. Fauntleroy, near Dowerin, W.A.)

3. E. calycogona Turcz. Mr. Walter Gill, Conservator of Forests of South Australia, sent me a photo of a tree 25 feet in height, and Mr. Max Koch says that it is a tree of 30 feet at Cowcowing, Western Australia. “Fairly tall plants, reaching 25–30 feet, usually with only one stem.” (F. W. Wakefield, Wedderburn, Victoria.)

3. E. calycogona Turcz. A Mallee; stems 6–15 feet, branchlets yellow (No. 2110) Mallee, 20–30 feet, with thick stems of 6–10 inches in diameter, and a dense crown of small pendulous leaves. Looks more like E. gracilis, but is a Mallee. (No. 2121.) Harrismith, Western Australia (C. A. Gardner).

83. E. Campaspe S. le M. Moore. “District Ranger Ferguson says it is sometimes known as “Salmon Gum,’ but it must not be confused with E. Salmonophloia F.v.M. A specimen growing on a diorite hill near Coolgardie is a young tree (20 years more or less). It has no trunk, but the limbs appear to grow and spread from the ground much like a very large Mallee. Another tree stands about 40 feet, and its branches spread and droop like a willow. The thickest part of the tree is about 8 inches in diameter, and the limbs spread from the ground.” (J.H.M., in Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., li, 447, 1917.) “Known as ‘Silver-topped Gimlet,’ widely branched and 20 to 30 feet in height, spirally fluted.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie.) (But see remark “Wood is not twisted,” by District Ranger Ferguson, quoted below at p. 154.)

189. E. clavigera A. Cunn. “A tree of 15 to 35 feet, with an erect trunk and rigid spreading branches with dense foliage. Trunk to 18 feet and 20 inches diameter.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

  ― 147 ―

E. Cloeziana F.v.M. “The aboriginal name is ‘Jandour.’ The tree as I know it here (Mundubbera, Q.) is 60 to 80 feet high, with the trunk as straight as a gun barrel, and free from limbs for a number of feet up. It is not a common tree here, and is only found in isolated places and always in country that we graziers term unavailable.” (H. S. Bloxsome.)

188. E. confluens W.V.F. “Tree 30–40 feet high, stem diameter 1–1½ feet.” (W.V.F.)

334. E. conglobata (R.Br.) Maiden. A Mallee of 10–20 feet with erect or widely branched stems. No. 2103. Branchlets reddish. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner, No. 2114. Stems few, erect and very straight, 10–25 feet high and up to 5 inches in diameter. Grasspatch (C. A. Gardner, No. 2220.)

104. E. cordata Hook f. “Usually a small tree, but at Uxbridge, T., in forests, it attains a height of 200 feet.” (L. Rodway.)

174. E. cornuta Labill. A tall Mallee, stems erect, 8–15 feet diameter 2 inches,, bark smooth, shining, decorticating in strips. (C. A. Gardner, No. 1956.)

205. E. corymbosa Sm. “In the Ramornie district, Clarence River, N.S.W., it is a much larger tree than is usually met with in the county of Cumberland; it has a pale, flaky, persistent bark. On the whole it is one of the finest forest trees.” (W. F. Blakely.)

351. E. crucis Maiden. “A slender Mallee with erect stems attaining a height of 25 feet with numerous side branches seldom exceeding 3 feet in length. The stems range from 4 to 6 inches in diameter.” (C. A. Gardner, Yorkrakine.)

217. E. dichromophloia F.v.M. “A tree of 20 to 30 feet, with spreading slender branches. Trunk to 15 feet and 10 inches diameter. Easily recognised by its graceful habit.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

79. E. doratoxylon F.v.M. “A Mallee; stems attaining 18 or 20 feet, slender and erect; stems up to 4 inches diameter.” (Mount Toolbrunup, Stirling Range, C. A. Gardner.)

199. E. dumosa A. Cunn. Stems 10–20 feet, erect, straight, smooth, 2–4 inches diameter, bark greyish-white, shredding in long strips. Grasspatch (C. A. Gardner, No. 2221.)

252. E. eremophila Maiden. A Mallee of 6–15 feet, with erect stems of 2–3 inches. No. 2123. Mallee with slender twisted stems of 4–5 or even 7 feet. No. 2122. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

var. grandiflora Maiden. Mallee of 10–13 feet, branches erect, buds and fruits pendulous. No. 2120. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

117. E. erythronema Turcz. “Tree of 25 feet, with a very crooked trunk of 10 feet, diameter 1 foot.” (W. V. Fitzgerald.) “Small tree of 20–30 feet.” (Max Koch.)

  ― 148 ―

249. E. Ewartiana Maiden. “A Mallee, 10 to 18 feet high, with slender branches.” (C. A. Gardner, Westonia.)

75. E. falcata Turcz. Tree of 20–35 feet, with fairly erect branches, flat-topped. No. 2116 (C. A. Gardner).

5. E. foecunda Schauer. A number seen about 18 inches or 2 feet in diameter, Pindar (J.H.M.); “Medium-sized tree, 3–4 feet in diameter, not much of a barrel.” Goomalling (Percy Murphy). It grows in clumps from one root.

224. E. Foelscheana F.v.M. “Bloodwood. A tree of 10 to 35 feet in height with few widely spreading branches. Trunk to 15 feet and 15 inches diameter.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

355. E. Gardneri Maiden. “Blue Mallet”; tree of 20–30 feet, erect, narrowly branched. No. 2115. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

209. E. gracilis F.v.M. “Attains a height of 65 feet, and a diameter of 30 inches.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie.)

281. E. Houseana (W.V.F.) Maiden. “A tree of 20 to 60 feet with numerous erect or spreading (or even drooping) branches, occasionally attaining a height of 80 feet and a diameter of 32 inches, the largest of any Eucalypt seen in tropical Western Australia.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

4. E. incrassata Labill. A Mallee, with stems of 6–15 feet, dense and spreading from an exposed stock. No. 1914: 10 miles north of Wagin, Western Australia. Stock quite subterranean, stems numerous, slender, rarely exceeding 2 inches in diameter, branches rigid, erect, the branchlets reddish, but not at all glaucous. No. 1902: Narrogin. Stems erect, rigid from a half-buried stock, 8–12 feet high. No. 2102. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

223. E. latifolia F.v.M. “An erect tree, with widely spreading branches, which are rather pendulous. Trunk 15 to 25 feet, and up to 20 inches in diameter.” (C. A. Gardner, Kumberleys.)

176. E. Lehmanni Preiss. A stunted Mallee of 4–6 feet, with several slender stems from an extensive woody stock of 1–3 feet diameter. Warrungup Hill, Stirling Range (C. A. Gardner, No. 1955).

332. E. leptophylla F.v.M. “A small spreading tree of 15 to 25 feet, with widely spreading branches, the trunk 6 to 8 feet high and 8 to 12 inches diameter.” (C. A. Gardner, Southern Cross.) A Mallee of 3–5 or even 6 feet, with a number of wiry stems from a subterranean stock, branchlets yellow, becoming reddish. No. 2101. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

  ― 149 ―

211. E. longicornis F.v.M. “Red Morrel.” “A tree of 50 to 80 feet and to 2–3 feet diameter, not much branched.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie.) Tall Mallee (sic.) of 10–25 feet, branchlets red. No. 2107. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner). A Mallee of 8–12 feet, with numerous erect slender stems of 1–2 inches diameter. Bark smooth, light grey-brown, thin, and decorticating in plates. Narrogin (C. A. Gardner, No. 1904).

97. E. megacarpa F.v.M. Hitherto only known as a tree, and sometimes as a large tree, Mr. C. A. Gardner has found a remarkable Mallee-like form. “It is a true Mallee of 4–10 feet, the bark smooth, silvery and grey in patches, decorticating in large flakes. The fruits are much larger than I have seen on trees, and more flat on the summit, with an expanded rim” (C. A. Gardner). This form occurs on Mt. Toolbrunup, where it is known as “Bullich.” It is hoped that a full suite of specimens may be collected, to see if it has specific differences from E. megacarpa.

49. E. microtheca F.v.M. Note on the appearance of this tree in “north-west” Western Australia (where it is known as “Blackheart”), and where it has a smooth bark as compared with the rough bark of the Kimberley and New South Wales, &c., tree. See C. A. Gardner in Aust. For. Journ., vi, 241 (September, 1923).

339. E. melanoxylon Maiden. “Black Morrel.” “A tree of 50 to 70 feet and 2 to 2½ feet diameter. (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie.)

123. E. miniata A. Cunn. “Tree of 50–100 feet high; stem diameter about 3 feet.” (W. V. Fitzgerald, Kimberleys.) “Woolly-butt.” “A tree of 30 to 65 feet, with a stout erect trunk of 20 to 40 feet and 2 feet diameter.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys, different route.)

182. E. occidentalis Endl. “Swamp of Flat-topped Yate.” A tree of 30–50 feet in height, and up to 24 inches diameter. Bark persistent and fibrous, thick and deeply longitudinally fissured on the trunk and bases of the main branches, that of the upper portions of the tree smooth, silver-grey and blotched, decorticating in long thick ribbon-like pieces, which hang around the line of separation of the different types of bark in long persistent ribbons. No. 1911. Wagin Lake (C. A. Gardner).

73. E. oleosa F.v.M. Following are reports by Mr. C. A. Gardner on two different trees at Coolgardie-Widgiemooltha, W.A. See Part XL, p. 325, for further particulars of this species—

  • (1) “Erect or more usually with a straggling trunk, 20 to 40 feet high, with widely spreading rigid branches. Trunk to 15 feet and 18 inches diameter. (2) Apparently a medium-sized tree with a basal diameter of 16 inches, but no trees seen unfelled.”

72. E. oligantha Schauer. “Tree to a height of 40 feet; stem diameter to 1 foot. In appearance bears a close resemblance to Sterculia decipiens.” (W. V. Fitzgerald MSS.)

  ― 150 ―

171. E. pachyloma Benth. Mallee of 4–8 feet with numerous erect, wiry stems, with branches dense, erect, and leafy. Stirling Range (C. A. Gardner).

119. E. pallidifolia F.v.M. In general appearance it resembles a spreading stunted form of E. maculosa R. T. Baker, its average height being about 30 feet. For a photo see R. H. Cambage in Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., Plate LVIII, fig. 1, 1915.

243. E. perfoliata R.Br. “A ‘Bloodwood.’ A small straggling tree of 10 to 20 feet, with a short stout trunk and spreading branches.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys). W. V. Fitzgerald, in the same area saw it up to 40 feet in height; stem diameter to 2 feet.

124. E. phænicea F.v.M. “Large tree, 30 feet high, straight trunk and limbs, on granitic hillside. Native name, ‘Weewell.’ ” (Pine Creek, Northern Territory, C. E. F. Allen, No. 470.) The term “large” is, of course, comparative.

31. E. Planchoniana F.v.M. “Yellow Jacket.” “Fairly tall, glaucous trees, 40–80 feet high, with a stem diameter up to 3 feet, moderately straight, but more or less uneven owing to irregular swellings.” (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress, Copmanhurst district, N.S.W.) See Part LI.

244. E. ptychocarpa F.v.M. “A tree of 30 to 50 feet, with spreading, drooping branches. Trunk 10 to 25 feet in height, and attaining 30 inches in diameter.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

218. E. pyrophora Benth. “A tree of 20 to 35 feet, with an erect or leaning trunk and spreading, drooping branches. Trunk to 15 feet and 12 inches in diameter.” (The same.)

50. E. Raveretiana F.v.M. “Certainly one of the finest of our tropical Eucalypts —lofty trees. It is truly a noble tree, towering above every other gum-tree on the banks and even in the beds of rivers.” (J. E. Tenison-Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., vii, 334.)

172. E. redunca Schauer. A Mallee of 6–10 feet, with a dull, smooth, greyish bark and slender erect stems. Grasspatch (C. A. Gardner, No. 2219).

168. E. rostrata Schlecht. “An erect tree of 40 to 60 feet, with slender, drooping branches.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

179. E. spathulata Hook f. 30–40 feet high and 8–10 inches in diameter. Nyabing (F. M. C. Schock). A shrub to a small tree of 20–30 feet, not much branched. Dumbleyung (C. A. Gardner). An erect, virgate Mallee of 4–8 feet, with thin stems and erect slender branches. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

216. E. terminalis F.v.M. “Does not appear to have a recognised vernacular name, being variously known as Redwood, Ironbark, Red Gum, Bloodwood, &c. 30 to 60 feet with a stout, erect trunk of 20 to 35 feet and 30 inches diameter. It is somewhat difficult to distinguish in the field from E. pyrophora Benth.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

  ― 151 ―

158. E. tereticornis Sm. “Tall, smooth-barked trees, 40 to 100 feet high, 1–3 feet in diameter, fruits mostly small. (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress, Upper Clarence River, N.S.W.)

254. E. tetrodonta F.v.M. “Messmate” or “Stringybark.” “A tree of 20 to 65 feet, but usually about 40 feet high, attaining a diameter of 20 inches.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

27. E. umbra. Flowering and fruiting less than 6 feet high. (Top of Kariong, north of Hawkesbury River, Blakely and Shiress.)

68. E. uncinata. A Mallee, stems numerous, clustered, dense, 8–12 feet high, slender. Bark decorticating in thick brown flakes, leaving the trunk greenish brown, Ten miles north of Wagin (C. A. Gardner, No. 1910). A Mallee of 6–10 feet, with a moderately rough bark, and stems of 2–3 inches diameter. Of spreading habit. Esperance (C. A. Gardner, No. 2212).

175. E. Websteriana Maiden. “Mallee habit of growth. Grows to a height of 6–7 feet and stem 2–3 inches diameter at Mount Jackson.” (Fitzgerald Fraser, through W. C. Grasby.) “Not very large, more like large shrubs, of a gnarled and stunted appearance. The highest specimen I have seen is under 20 feet, with diameter of trunk about 8 inches.” (R. J. Larsen, of Lake Lefroy.)


(See also “Tannin” and “Oil in Bark,” Part LII, p. 101. Also under E. Herbertiana and E. Macarthuri, M. B. Welch, p. 157, below.)

“The development of the periderm keeps pace with the development of the stem. As soon as the wood of the stem becomes thicker, by the intercalation of a new annual ring, the mantle of periderm stretches, and consequently the whole envelope of bark. In many trees this bark remains year after year on the periphery of the stem; it becomes fissured by the continued increase in thickness, but new bark is as continuously produced from within, closing up the fissures. In other instances a part of the bark falls off on the ground in consequence of the thickening of the stem, and is again replaced by new bark from within.” (Kerner & Oliver, i, 719.)

Compare Oldfield's remarks quoted at p. 51, Part LI.

“The fall of the leaf may be looked upon, so far, as an excretion of superfluous matter, which, in deciduous plants, occurs only once every year, but is then carried out on a grand scale.” (Kerner, i, 486.) This is analogous to the fall of the bark in Eucalyptus, which often falls in enormous quantities, carrying spent materials with it.

“Your chapters dealing with barks are very interesting and instructive, but the differentiation seems a hopeless task. I think soil, as well as climatic conditions, affect and cause variations in the bark in some species at least. I have noticed that, on very poor sandy soils, the outer “rough” bark persists, or is ‘thicker’ to a much greater extent on otherwise ‘smooth’ or ‘half-barked’ species than on the richer soils; particularly have I noticed this in the case of E. viminalis and E. radiata.” (H. Hopkins.)

  ― 152 ―

The colours of the barks of all the smooth-barked trees vary according to the season of the year; so that it would be well for the student of this most interesting branch of dendrology to take into consideration the season or time of the year. To get an accurate description of the bark it would be necessary to describe it soon after it was shed, and again about one or two months after; and a final description a short period before the tree sheds its bark again. Half-barks should be followed up in a similar manner.

Compare the chapter on Barks in Part LI, pp. 19, 20, &c.

173. E. accedens W. V. Fitzgerald. “Contains 18 per cent. tans.” (H. Salt Circular No. 8, Bureau of Science and Industry, 1922. Further notes from this Circular will be quoted as “H. Salt.”). The dendrological and sylvicultural records in the Circular are by Mr. C. A. Gardner, through S. L. Kessell, Acting Conservator of Forests, Perth, Western Australia. Compare Part LII, p. 101.

26. E. acmenioides Schauer. Bark stringy, somewhat furrowed on old trees. Upper Clarence River (W. F. Blakely).

136. E. alba Reinw. “Its distinguishing character is the great width of the leaves and the conspicuous cream-coloured smooth bark. Unlike most of the gum trees the bark of which does not split, the deciduous portions soon fall off, so that there are none of those strips and ribbons or dark crests of bark which are so characteristic of the Australian bush. The bark is smooth or slightly wrinkled, and of bright colour.” North Queensland (Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., vii, 332, as E. platyphylla). “Greyish to reddish, thin, decorticating in strips, leaving the trunk and branches smooth and cream-coloured.” (W. V. Fitzgerald, Kimberleys, as E. platyphylla.)

“Smooth, pinkish or almost white, decorticating in large grey flakes.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys, as E. alba.)

“Contains from 30 to 32 per cent. tans. This is the Ridge Gum of the Kimberleys, called the River Gum in Java, and the Mountain Gum (sic.) in Queensland. It grows to 35 feet, and the bark is about ½-inch thick, white outside and pink inside. The tannins present are readily soluble in water, and mostly at a temperature below 50 degrees C. … The Department of the North-west is using this bark at the Aborigines' Station at Noola Bulla, 270 miles south of Wyndham, and though the apparatus is primitive, and the labour mostly native labour, they have turned out excellent leather of a good colour and substance. The quantity of bark available can be said to be unlimited, and the stripping is easy. Besides the value of this bark for export, or for extract manufacture, the supply of cheap hides in the Kimberleys offers an opportunity of establishing a tannery in or near the source of the Ridge Gum supplies.” (H. Salt.)

“Khaki-coloured bark.” (C. E. F. Allen, Katherine River, Northern Territory).

136. E. alba. “This tree is readily distinguished in the field by its clean white trunk and branches.” (C. T. White, Port Moresby, Papua.)

181. E. argillacea W. V. Fitzgerald. “Dark grey, persistent on trunk and branches, similar to that of E. amygdalina, ‘Peppermint.’ ” (W. V. Fitzgerald MSS.)

  ― 153 ―

356. E. astringens Maiden. “Contains from 40 to 56 per cent. tans, and is commonly known as ‘Mallet,’ ‘Brown Mallet,’ or ‘Red Mallet.’ This tree grows up to 50 feet high, and has a thin bark, which is very easily stripped. It is found in thickets of up to 10 acres. Its natural habitat seems to be the ironstone ridges, but further south the Mallet patches are found on the lower flats. The Mallet bark from the northern portion of the area is darker than that from the south, and this latter often assumes a white or flesh-coloured tint on the outside.” (H. Salt.)

247. E. Baileyana F.v.M. “Has a trunk similar to Grey Ironbark (E. paniculata) when you are at a distance, but when you are close to it it looks like a Stringybark.” (Forester Henry A. Timms, Clarence River, N.S.W.)

42. E. bicolor A. Cunn. “Box-bark on trunk and branches. About 40 feet high. In Queensland, about 10 miles north of Mungindi, N.S.W.” (R. H. Cambage, No. 4393.) Mr. Cambage gives the native name as “Cooboroo,” which is evidently a variant of the name “Goborro” given by Sir Thomas Mitchell as in use in 1835 by the natives of south-western New South Wales. Attention is also drawn to the “Boxbark” of the Mungindi tree. Mr. Cambage also has specimens (called by the same name by the blacks), but not so satisfactory, from Bimble Station, 70 miles north of Mungindi (No. 4405).

126. E. botryoides Sm. Barks of E. botryoides and E. robusta are known as Mahogany, originally applied to the timber, which is softer than that of E. resinifera and its allies. (See Part LIII, p. 155, under Timbers.) See also Rhytiphloiæ (b), with red timbers (Part LI, p. 45, under Barks), where the bark is described, including that of the Gippsland trees.

In my “Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part LXXII, we have the following description of the bark of these trees :—“Dark, rough scaly, and persistent on the stem and main branches, smooth on the smaller branches, outer bark on these peeling off in thin flakes” (top of p. 41). In parts of Gippsland the species would appear to attain its best development, and there to be a half-barked tree (Hemiphloiæ). We have thus another instance of the impossibility of marshalling all individuals of a species into recognised groups of barks.

157. E. brachyandra F.v.M. “Grey, rough, persistent on trunk and branches.” Sunday Island, North-west Australia (W. V. Fitzgerald MSS.). “Fibrous, persistent, fairly rough, the branchlets smooth, of a grey brown colour, decorticating in long strips. The bark of the trunk is of a dark brownish-grey.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

120. E. cæsia Benth. “Mr. C. A. Fauntleroy, Uberin, Dowerin, W.A., says: ‘The bark has a long-grained fibre and runs like Jarrah. It is composed of a number of thin layers or flakes, hardly as thick as a threepenny-piece while green, and when dry are thinner still. The lower wood is shedding a layer now, which splits into narrow strips along the stem and breaks across at short intervals, some pieces curling vertically,

  ― 154 ―
others horizontally, but all curling. The new bark on the lower section is of a rich yellow-brown to orange-brown colour. The mid-section, which will not shed a layer this year, is covered with a blue-grey bloom which rubs off on the hand and exposes bark of a reddish colour. The bark of the young wood and the top of the trees is red without the bloom powder.’ Specimens from Mr. Fauntleroy show it to have a smooth, tough bark, which strips in long lengths. The smooth bark has thin reddish-brown flakes, which fall off in succession.” (J.H.M., in Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., li, 446, 1917.)

3. E. calycogona Turcz. “Smooth, greyish, very similar in colour to that of E. fruticetorum.” Wedderburn, Victoria (F. W. Wakefield).

Greenish-brown, smooth, with flakes of shedding grey-brown bark. No. 2110. Dark brown, smooth above, but inclined to be flaky-rough at the base. No. 2117. Harrismith, W.A. (C. A. Gardner, March, 1924).

269. E. Cambageana Maiden. In Part LI this is classified as a member of the Hemiphloiæ, with a red timber. It would appear from the following note that the rough bark is more or less tessellated. “Rough bark marked into squares halfway up the stem. Blackbutt.” (H. I. Jensen.)

83. E. Campaspe S. le M. Moore. “Bark much the same as E. salubris, but wood is not twisted.” (District Ranger Ferguson, near Coolgardie). “Smooth, thin, and brown, decorticating in large flakes. The branchlets are glaucous.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie.)

189. E. clavigera A. Cunn. “Of the lower portions persistent and flaky, that of the upper deciduous, decorticating in large thin flakes. The height of the persistent bark varies, but is usually from 4 to 6 feet, of a grey colour, while the deciduous portions are of a light greyish-pink colour.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.) Mr. C. T. White speaks of the bark near Port Moresby, Papua, as being “easily distinguished by the blackish tessellated bark at the butt, extending for about 5 to 10 feet up the trunk.”

71. E. Cloeziana F.v.M. See the description of the bark already given. Mr. H. S. Bloxsome says that the bark at the extremities of the branches becomes smooth, like Gum-topped Box (presumably E. hemiphloia).

8. E. coccifera Hook. “Small tree, with a smooth white bark.” (L. Rodway.)

188. E. confluens W. V. Fitzgerald. “White, smooth.” (W.V.F.)

334. E. conglobata (R.Br.) Maiden. Varying from a light silvery grey to a deep dull greenish-grey. No. 2103. Olive-green or brownish-green, smooth and thin, with small hard patches of deciduous bark adhering near the base. No. 2114. Harrismith, W.A. (C. A. Gardner). Silvery-white, decorticating in tough, stringy, ribbon-like strips along the entire length of the stem, the new bark persistently smooth. Grasspatch (C. A. Gardner, No. 2220).

  ― 155 ―

351. E. crucis Maiden. “Identical with that of E. Ewartiana.” (C. A. Gardner, Yorkrakine.) See Part L, p. 330.

165. E. dealbata A. Cunn. Forest Guard E. O. Allen, of Grenfell, N.S.W., reports this species as “Blue Gum” or “Swamp Gum” at the Weddin State Forest. It has a height of 40 feet, a girth of 6 feet, with spreading branches, and has “smooth, light blue bark.” (Latin : dealbata, whitewashed.)

217. E. dichromophloia F.v.M. “Persistent throughout, but of a loose flaky nature, roughish grey.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

108. E. diversicolor F.v.M. “Contains from 16 to 20 per cent. tans. The bark is ¾-inch thick. The leather made from the bark extract is a pale cream in colour, darkening to a pale brown on exposure to sunlight, but the final colour is still good.” (H. Salt.)

79. E. doratoxylon. “Smooth and brown, but dull-coloured and thin, decorticating in long strips, leaving a smooth stem.” (Mount Toolbrunup, Stirling Range, C. A. Gardner.)

252. E. eremophila Maiden. Greenish-grey, dull. No. 2123. Smooth, pinkishred, thin. No. 2118. Greyish, No. 2122. (Harrismith, C. A. Gardner.)

Var. grandiflora. Smooth, reddish-brown. No. 2120. (C. A. Gardner.)

253. E. erythrocorys. “A tree about 30 feet, with a pure white bark when a few years old.” (H. Steedman.)

117. E. erythronema Turcz. “Greyish to white, smooth.” (W. V. Fitzgerald.) “Very light grey, smooth.” (Max Koch.) “White Mallee, contains 30 per cent. tans. This tree, which has the general Mallee form, grows from 10 to 15 feet high, and bears a thin bark. It is found in areas where E. salmonophloia and E. salubris are common, and is commonest in the Avon district, where it grows in thickets. The extract from this bark is pale in colour, and gives a pale-colured leather, a property which appears to be common to Mallee barks generally.” (H. Salt.)

249. E. Ewartiana Maiden. “Green, with red patches of decorticating bark, giving the tree an elegant striated appearance.” (C. A. Gardner, Westonia.) See p. 330, Part L.

75. E. falcata Turcz. “Known as White or Silver Mallet, and contains from 5 to 32 per cent. tans. Growing up to 40 feet high, with a thin bark, often containing kino. It is scattered in Mallet patches, and is not plentiful but is stripped and sold as ‘Mallet.’ ” (H. Salt.) Perfectly smooth, whitish, red in fracture. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

  ― 156 ―

5. E. fæcunda Schauer. “Butt has a rough persistent bark. Branches smooth, York Gum.” (Max Koch.) “Of a stringy nature near the base, but of a smooth, greenish colour higher up.” (Anon.) “Black flaky to almost ribbony bark on trunk, smooth limbs.” (J.H.M., Pindar.) “York Gum has a rough bark up to the branches, and is generally with large spreading limbs, with short trunks. It does not seem to be a tree yielding much timber. Bark flaky-fibrous, thin.” (Percy Murphy, Goomalling.)

“Contains from 5 to 10 per cent. tans. Although this bark has not a high tannin content, it is very plentiful over a wide range. The tree grows from 40 to 60 feet high, and the bark is ½-inch thick.” (H. Salt.)

224. E. Foelshceana F.v.M. “Of a light buff colour, or whiter, with purple blotches of decorticating bark, otherwise quite smooth.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

355. E. Gardneri Maiden. Beginning (March, 1924) to shed in small crisped flakes, the under pinkish brown. No. 2115. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner.)

209. E. gracilis F.v.M. “The fibrous persistent bark extends upwards over the greater portion of the trunk, ending in a collar-like fringe of ribbony bark. The upper portion of the trunk and branches have a smooth greenish-brown bark.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie, W.A.) In sending further specimens from the same locality under the name “Black Morrel,” he speaks of the “bark of the lower trunk thick, fibrous, and persistent, with a fibrous brown outer layer and a dense yellowish-brown inner layer.” Locally known as a Blackbutt. Tree of 20–45 feet, typically a Morrel, but the rough bark covering only the lower half of the trunk. No. 2119. Harrismith. W.A. (C. A. Gardner).

344. E. Herbertiana Maiden. “The tree has a resinous scent.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.) Perhaps this is a consequence of “Oil in Bark.” Compare Part LII, p. 101.

281. E. Houseana (W.V.F.) Maiden. “Quite white, smooth, decorticating in large thin flakes.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

4. E. incrassata Labill. Greyish-brown, deciduous in large greyish plates. No. 1914. Thin, smooth, pale-brown, becoming greyish and decorticating in large flakes. No. 1902. Greenish-brown, smooth, decorticating in rigid brown strips, branchlets reddish. No. 2102. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner.)

223. E. latifolia F.v.M. “Of a yellowish-pink colour, spotted with purple-grey flakes, which give the trunk a mottled appearance … has an almost smooth bark and would doubtless be a Bloodwood.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

332. E. leptophylla F.v.M. Thin, reddish, decorticating in rather thick grey-brown plates or strips. No. 2102. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

  ― 157 ―

211. E. longicornis F.v.M. “Of the trunk persistent and fibrous-flaky, more or less fissured in the adult tree, light grey in colour. In fracture the bark has an outer brown layer, and the inner bark is a pink or red colour. That of the branches is smooth, greenish-brown or brown, with grey streaks.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie.) Thin greenish-brown bark, ultimately decorticating to a pale olive-green or brownish bark. No. 2107. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

133. E. Macarthuri Deane and Maiden. “The occurrence of oil-glands in the barks of certain Eucalypts,” by M. B. Welch, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., xlvii, 428–438 with two plates of the anatomy of the barks of E. Macarthuri and E. Smithii (1922). The author states that a large number of species have been examined with negative results, and that it is evident that Eucalypts with bark oil-glands are the exception rather than the rule. Those species in which oil-glands occur are noted in detail, and there is a useful summary at p. 437.

53. E. melanophloia F.v.M. “Another peculiarity about it is that the rough deeply furrowed black bark extends to the very small branches. Now, in most Eucalypts the bark, however rough on the stem, becomes smooth on the smaller branches, but it is not so here. The bark is always rough and always black and coarse-looking.” (J. E. Tenison-Woods, writing of Queensland, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., vii, 335.)

339. E. melanoxylon Maiden (Black Morrel). “Persistent for the greater part of the trunk, usually extending to the lowest branches, thick and flaky, dark grey in colour and not much furrowed. In fracture the bark has two well-defined layers, an outer thick brown layer, and a very distinct inner bright yellow layer, which is much more pronounced in the fresh bark than in the dry. The bark of the branches and upper trunk is a silvery brown and the bark is ribbony at the line of demarcation between the two classes of bark. The adult trees have, as a rule, a darker persistent bark than the Red Morrel (E. longicornis), but the younger trees may be detected by the silvery-brown appearance of the smooth portions. From E. gracilis its absence of any green colour in the smooth portions makes it distinct to the bushman.” (C. A. Gardner.)

25. E. microcorys F.v.M. “Usually large trees, sometimes with a short thick bole and large spreading branches. Bark fibrous throughout, of an inferior stringybark nature, and of a dirty reddish-brown colour, rough to the small branches.” (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress, Upper Clarence River.)

123. E. miniata A. Cunn. “Woolly-fibrous, greyish to reddish, rough and persistent on the lower half of the stem, sometimes covering the whole of it; branches always white and smooth.” (W. V. Fitzgerald, Kimberleys.) “Of the trunk persistent, consisting of several papery layers in the young trees, becoming thicker and loosely fibrous with age, the fibres short, brittle and wavy. Higher up the tree the bark is flaky and papery, of a yellowish-white or grey colour (that of the lower trunk is brown). Branches smooth, of a yellowish-white colour, decorticating in large thin flakes.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

  ― 158 ―

182. E. occidentalis Endl. With reference to my remark at Part XXXVI, p. 146, as to E. accedens and E. occidentalis having a similar percentage (45) of tannin, Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald writes: “I personally obtained samples of bark from trees of both species which were growing together and they were tested for the information of the Royal Commission on Forestry, of which I was a member at that time, and I do not think the analyst made a mistake.”

“Known as ‘Swamp Yate’ or ‘Black Mallet,’ and contains from 20 to 26 per cent. tans. This tree grows to 50 feet high, carrying a bark of about ?-inch thickness. It is found in clumps in swamps and other low-lying places in the south.” (H. Salt.)

73. E. oleosa F.v.M. “For a height of 8 to 12 feet persistent, close, light grey, more tessellated than in the other Morrels, and never very thick. Bark of the upper portions smooth, and a light rich-brown in colour streaked with grey, decorticating in long fibrous strips which adhere at their base, where a collar of ribbony bark marks the junction of the two kinds of bark. The bark of the trunk in fracture has an outer light brown layer and a light yellowish inner layer, which, however, is never an intense yellow like that of Nos. 1753–1764 (E. melanoxylon).” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie-Widgiemooltha.)

72. E. oligantha Schauer. “Greyish, thin, smooth.” (W. V. Fitzgerald MSS.)

171. E. pachyloma Benth. Dull brown, blotched with grey, but smooth. Stirling Range (C. A. Gardner).

192. E. papuana. White-barked Gum, in high ground. Cloncurry, North Queensland (Capt. S. A. White, No. 228).

138. E. Perriniana F.v.M. “Generally deciduous, sometimes persistent close to ground. Colour a browny-green, very like the clean bark of the Black Sally (E. stellulata), sometimes a faint red tinge is present, more like E. rubida. At a glance the trunk could be mistaken for E. stellulata. Never white-barked like Snow Gum (E. coriacea).” Lobb's Hole, Kiandra district, N.S.W. (W. A. W. de Beuzeville.)

243. E. perfoliata R.Br. “Persistent, fibrous, brownish-grey and rough.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

1. E. pilularis Sm. “Tall half-barked trees 50 to over 100 feet high, usually straight and well proportioned. Bark on the lower portion of the trunk peppermint-like, upper portion and large branches smooth, greenish-white, or very pale-green splashed with streaks of white, on some trees the white predominating; on the smaller branches usually decorticating in long narrow strips, and semi-persistent in the forks of the branches where it often accumulates in large quantities. On very old trees the bark is persistent for a short distance below the forks, somewhat similar to the base, but more of a flaky nature.” (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress, Upper Clarence River, N.S.W., August, 1922.)

  ― 159 ―

31. E. Planchoniana F.v.M. “Close and fibrous throughout, with a peppermint-like cast. Some trees, however, are not unlike E. acmenioides and E. microcorys, but the general appearance gives one the impression of being stained with a dirty yellow-clay colour, probably due to the weathering of the outer layer, or to the kino.” (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress, Copmanhurst district.)

178. E. platypus Hook. “Contains 25 per cent. tans, and is known as ‘Roundleaf Moort.’ E. platypus grows 25 feet high, and bears a thin bark. It is found in very dense thickets up to 30 acres, and the range is small, stretching from Gnowangerup eastwards, the eastern boundary not being known. The leather made from this material is the lightest in shade of all the samples tanned.” (H. Salt.)

244. E. ptychocarpa F.v.M. “Persistent on trunk and branches, dark-coloured, fairly rough, soft and flaky.” (W. V. Fitzgerald, Kimberleys.) “Persistent throughout, thick and longitudinally fissured, dark grey. Base of trunk usually black, probably the result of bush-fires.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

218. E. pyrophora Benth. “Persistent and rough, grey.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

132. E. quadrangulata Deane and Maiden. “Whitish, woolly, not unlike that of our interior White Box in texture. Locally known as ‘Scrub Box.’ ” (Forest Overseer Mattson, referring to Nundle trees.)

172. E. redunca Schauer. Brown-grey, decorticating in thin, plate-like strips, the new bark yellow-grey. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

Var. elata Benth. “Commonly called Wandoo, and contains from 16 to 20 per cent. tans. It grows to 60 feet high, and carries a bark of ¾-inch thickness. Stripping is difficult, but the bark is thick enough to be knocked off in large pieces when struck sharply. The extract from this bark is of a deep orange colour.” (H. Salt.)

168. E. rostrata Schlecht. “Smooth white bark.” (C. E. F. Allen, Daly Waters and Powell's Creek.) “Thick, silvery white, yellow in fracture, quite smooth.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.) “Containing 16 per cent. tans. About ¾-inch thick.” (H. Salt.)

89. E. salmonophloia F.v.M. “Contains from 8 to 13 per cent. tans. The bark is thick, and often has a salmon-pink shade. The wood is of no value for tanning.” (H. Salt.)

184. E. salubris F.v.M. “Contains from 16 to 19 per cent. tans. Bears a thin kino-impregnated bark, brown outside and easily stripped. It gives a full leather of good colour, although penetration is slow. It has been used in local industry where Wattle and Mallet barks have been used, and was found to give an improved colour, with less darkening on exposure. The chief objection to its use was that it gave ropy liquors, a difficulty that might be overcome.” (H. Salt.)

  ― 160 ―

196. E. setosa Schauer. “Thick, light, from an old stunted tree.” (C. E. F. Allen, No. 676). North of Alice Springs, Northern Territory.

55. E. Smithii R. T. Baker. See under E. Macarthuri.

179. E. spathulata Hook. f. Rough dark butt, branches clean and erect. Nyabing, W.A. (F. M. C. Schock). Smooth, thin, brown and shining, much like that of E. salubris. A young tree has a silvery-grey bark. Dumbleyung (C. A. Gardner). Light red, brownish or yellowish red, or a warm brown, with a few silver patches of decorticating bark. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner). “Contains 26 per cent. tans, commonly known as ‘Swamp Mallet,’ grows from 20 to 30 feet high. It bears a thin bark, resembling Mallet, and strips easily. It is not very common.” (H. Salt.)

158. E. tereticornis Sm. “Varies from very smooth to rough and flaky. Some trees show a decided persistent flaky bark at the base, while others are flaky to the first branch. When smooth it is marked with neutral colours of pale green, glaucous and white, which blend imperceptibly into each other.” (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress, Upper Clarence River.)

216. E. terminalis. F.v.M. “Persistent throughout, rough and of a greyish colour, short in fibre, fairly dense. Used by the natives for shelters, and very durable.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

254. E. tetrodonta F.v.M. “Bark grey, fairly rough, persistent, very stringy.” (The same.)

200. E. torquata Lueh. “Contains 17 per cent. tans, is the so-called ‘Gold-fields Flowering Gum,’ grows 15 to 20 feet high, and bears a bark ½-inch thick, which is somewhat difficult to strip. It is found scattered throughout the gold-fields in small clumps. The tannin present penetrates hide fairly rapidly, giving a soft, tough leather.” (H. Salt.)

210. E. transcontinentalis Maiden. “Locally known as a bastard Morrel on account of its bark, which is fibrous on the lower trunk to a height of 6 to 10 feet. The bark is, however, not a true Morrel bark since it is not fissured, but almost smooth externally.” (C. A. Gardner, Westonia, W.A.)

100. E. urnigera Hook. “Smooth and usually blotched with red or brown.” (L. Rodway.)

249. E. Websteriana Maiden. Thin and tough, and very like that of E. Ewartiana (see Part L, p. 330) in general appearance. E. crucis has a similar bark, making three peculiar ones, which closely resemble each other.

It would be desirable to describe anomalous barks such as these (and indeed most barks, especially Gums) at various seasons.

  ― 161 ―

Tans (Barks and Woods)

For analyses of the tannins contained in a number of Western Australian species, see Rep. Forests Department, W.A., year ended 30th June, 1923, p. 54.


Timber (Colours)

(See Part LIII, p. 136.)

“I think the colour of the wood is affected slightly by the age of the tree, and to a lesser extent by the nature of the soil on which it grows; to a somewhat larger extent by ‘seasoning’ after being cut, and to a still larger extent by time and exposure to the air after being seasoned.” (Harry Hopkins, Bairnsdale, Victoria.)

Timbers (Inflammability)

See Part LIV, p. 209. Compare also the notes referring to Bush Fires at Part XLVIII, p. 248, and p. of the present Part.)

E. gigantea is, of all the Stringybarks, the most easily destroyed by fire.” (Harry Hopkins, Gippsland.) (See also notes below under E. alba, E. corymbosa.)

For analysis of the ash of the bark and wood of E. Stricklandi, E. Le Souefii, E. salmonophloia, and E. gomphocephala, see Report, Forests Department, W.A., year ended 30th June, 1923, p. 52.

Timbers (in general)

136. E. alba Reinw. “Very inferior, and not much used, even for burning.” (J. E. Tenison-Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., vii, 332, as E. platyphylla). “Pale rather soft and very brittle.” (W. V. Fitzgerald, Kimberleys.) “Fairly dense, yellowish.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

181. E. argillacea W. V. Fitzgerald. “Reddish, tough.” (W. V. Fitzgerald.)

157. E. brachyandra F.v.M. “Red, hard and tough.” (W. V. Fitzgerald, Kimberleys.) “Red, dense.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

83. E. Campaspe S. le M. Moore. “Like Salmon Gum (E. salmonophloia).” (District Forester Ferguson.)

71. E. Cloeziana F.v.M. “E. Cloeziana is good for fencing. I used some here twenty years ago, and it is sound to-day, just as good as any Ironbark that I ever used. A blackfellow told me some time ago that this timber is what the blacks always used in years gone by for their nulla-nullas, in preference to any other. This I can quite understand, as it is a most durable timber. When travelling to Gayndah (55 miles from here) I met a team going to a sawmill with a huge log of E. Cloeziana.” (H. S. Bloxsome, Delubra, Mundubbera, Queensland, October, 1922.)

  ― 162 ―

188. E. confluens (W.V.F.) Maiden. “Brownish, tough and hard.” (W. V. Fitzgerald.)

334. E. conglobata (R.Br.) Maiden. Pale brown, hard and dense. Grasspatch (C. A. Gardner, No. 2220.)

205. E. corymbosa Sm. “Has a good reputation as being one of the best timbers for fencing purposes, since it is not attacked by white ants, and it is also more fire-resistant than any other timber in the Upper Clarence district, N.S.W.” (W. F. Blakely.)

69. E. decipiens Endl. Mr. Bernard R. Lucas, 1921, sent me the reddest wood I have ever seen in the species from Rosamel, 13 miles from Bunbury, W.A.

14. E. dives Schauer. “Broad-leaved Peppermint.” “Not used for mill timber to any great extent, as it grows somewhat stunted up to about 5 feet in girth and 50 feet high. Is considered a good fencing timber, lasting well in and out of the ground.” (T. H. Williams, Queanbeyan district, N.S.W., on the range towards the coast, at an elevation of about 3,000 feet.)

79. E. doratoxylon F.v.M. “Timber pale and strong.” Mount Toolbrunup, Stirling Range (C. A. Gardner).

117. E. erythronema Turcz. “Reddish, rather brittle.” (W. V. Fitzgerald.)

5. E. fæcunda Schauer. “Dark brown, hard, used for wheelwright's work— naves, felloes, spokes.” (Percy Murphy, Goomalling.)

224. E. Foelscheana F.v.M. “Red, and the tree exudes quantities of an extremely astringent deep red gum which dries in large lumps.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

160. E. gigantea Hook. “On page 252, Part XLVIII, there is a reference to E. gigantea at Buddong, as follows :—‘A noteworthy feature is that trees evidently well past maturity are sound to the heart and absolutely free from disease.’ This quite bears out my observations in connection with the Victorian tree, which is very rarely pipy or hollow. I have seen logs of well matured trees felled for milling, 3½ and 4 feet in diameter, absolutely sound at heart, and this seemed to be characteristic of this timber generally. Not only was there an absence of any sign of pipe, but the wood was thoroughly sound and useable right through the heart. This soundness of heartwood in a Eucalypt was so remarkable as to arrest attention.” (Harry Hopkins, Bairnsdale, Victoria.)

101. E. goniocalyx F.v.M. Sold as “Yellow Box” and “Mountain Box.” Tantawanglo Mountain, Cathcart, N.S.W. (W. A. W. de Beuzeville).

  ― 163 ―

209. E. gracilis F.v.M. “Timber dark brown, exceedingly dense and strong.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie.) Dark, dense. No. 2119. Harrismith, W.A. (C. A. Gardner).

109. E. Guilfoylei Maiden, “Yellow Tingle Tingle.” For an account of the properties and estimate of the value of this timber, see Rep. Forests Department, W.A., 30th June, 1923, p. 6. Engineering tests at p. 53.

281. E. Houseana (W.V.F.) Maiden. “Timber pinkish, dense and hard, with a pale sapwood. It is not readily attacked by termites.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys).

251 E. Jacksoni Maiden, “Red Tingle Tingle.” For an account of the properties and estimate of the value of this timber, see Rep. Forests Department, W.A., year ended 30th June, 1923, p. 6. Engineering tests at p. 53.

223. E. latifolia F.v.M. “Pale red in colour. It exudes a large quantity of kino.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

211. E. longicornis F.v.M. “Dense and red in colour.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie.)

339. E. melanoxylon Maiden. “Cigar-brown or a darker brown, hard, strong and dense.” (C. A. Gardner.)

123. E. miniata A. Cunn. “Red, tough and hard.” (W. V. Fitzgerald.)

73. E. oleosa F.v.M. “Deep red and very hard.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie-Widgiemooltha.)

72. E. oligantha Schauer. “Reddish brown, tough and hard.” (W. V. Fitzgerald MSS.)

192. E. papuana F.v.M. With reference to page 194, Part XXXVII, Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald writes: “The timber of the trees referred by me to E. tesselaris is pale and brittle, and was generally regarded in West Kimberley as of inferior quality.”

243. E. perfoliata R.Br. “Red, fairly dense.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

124. E. phænicea F.v.M. “Reddish-brown.” (C. E. F. Allen, No. 470, Pine Creek, Northern Territory.)

62. E. polyanthemos Schauer. “The forests of this tree are unfortunately not very extensive, but the wood is of excellent quality, suitable for posts, sleepers, piles, beams, &c. It is very durable in the ground, being almost, if not quite, equal to Red Gum (E. tereticornis) in this respect. I have seen fence posts of this timber, after being

  ― 164 ―
in use thirty-two years, that were quite sound, and equally as good as Red Gum posts in other parts of the same fence. It is next to Red Gum in my opinion, and I am sorry it is so scarce and so rapidly being destroyed—scarcely any of this species is being renewed. In the higher and poorer country along the Tambo Valley and in East Gippsland, the timber of E. polyanthemos is not quite so good, the trees do not grow so straight or to a large size, and there is much heart decay, even the saplings of less than a foot being usually hollow. On the richer lowlands the timber is usually very sound.” (Harry Hopkins, Bairnsdale, Victoria.)

244. E. ptychocarpa F.v.M. “Red and porous.” (W. V. Fitzgerald, Kimberleys.) “Pink, fairly soft.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.) Evidently it is inferior to most of the Corymbosæ.

132. E. quadrangulata Deane and Maiden. “Much esteemed by sawmillers, and reminds one of those of E. goniocalyx (Mountain Gum), E. microcorys (Tallow Wood), and E maculata (Spotted Gum).” (Forest Overseer Matterson, speaking of Nundle, N.S.W., trees.)

50. E. Raveretiana F.v.M. “It goes by the local names of Grey Gum, Iron Gum, and Woollybutt, and is highly esteemed as a timber tree. It was much valued for sleepers on the Central Railway, Queensland, but the plate-layers told me it was so hard that it destroyed their tools. The wood is dark brown and takes a beautiful polish, besides being close-grained without any interstices filled with gum.” (J. E. Tenison-Woods in Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., vii, 335.)

196. E. setosa, “Light-coloured sap-wood, dark red heart-wood.” (C. E. F. Allen, No. 676, north of Alice Springs.)

179. E. spathulata Hook. f. Light-brown, hard and dense. Dumbleyung (C. A. Gardner).

216. E. terminalis F.v.M. “Dense, of a deep red colour, but fairly soft, with resin ducts. The tree exudes small quantities of a deep red kino, which is very astringent.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

254. E. tetrodonta F.v.M. “Pale red, moderately hard, with a yellow sapwood.” (The same.)

230. E. Watsoniana F.v.M. Pale-brown, coarse-grained, somewhat fissile, liable to gum-veins.

175. E. Websterina Maiden. “Very hard, deep brown with white towards the the bark. Some specimens seen by me are all more or less hollow, evidently eaten by termites. The wood is good firewood; but not of much quality.” (R. J. Larsen, Lake Lefroy.)

  ― 165 ―

Welch, M. B. “Note on the Structure of some Eucalyptus Woods,” Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., lviii, 169 (1924). Deals with the anatomy of the woods of E. pilularis Sm., E. microcorys F.v.M., and E. maculata Hook. The paper concludes with a table of comparative characters.

Leaves (and Oils)

E. incrassata Labill. Dull but thick, erect and glaucous. No. 1902. Thick, erect, dull green, but shining, with thick reddish margins, the veins not very conspicuous, minutely oil-dotted. Harrismith, W.A. (C. A. Gardner).

E. leptophylla F.v.M. Narrow, bright green and copiously oil-dotted. Juvenile leaves narrow, oblong-spathulate, equally glaucous on both sides. No. 2101. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

E. Perriniana F.v.M. Foliage very glaucous and perfoliate to within about 6 inches of terminal branchlets. Lobb's Hole, Kiandra district, N.S.W. (W. A. W. de Beuzeville).

E. redunca Schauer. Glaucous, small, erect and rigid. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

E. redunca var. elata. “Wandoo.” The younger leaves distinctly red in colour, the secondary ones assuming a glaucous hue. Narrogin, W.A. (C. A. Gardner).

Penfold, A. R., and Morrison, F. R. “Notes on Eucalyptus piperita and its Essential Oils, with special reference to their Piperitone content,” Part I, Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., lviii, 124 (1924). The authors draw attention to the difference of the oils from trees in the Port Jackson and other districts. They give a note on the separation of Phellandrene and Piperitone.


(This includes Operculum, Part LVIII, p. 475; Pedicel, p. 444; Calyx-tube, p. 468; Filament, Part LIX, p. 547; and Anther, p. 537.)

137. E. alba Reinw. (platyphylla). Operculum double (E. bigalerita F.v.M.). (W. V. Fitzgerald, Kimberleys.)

181. E. argillacea W. V. Fitzgerald. “Flowers small.”

120. E. cæsia Bentham. Buds elongated pear-shaped, 2–3 cm. long, the tapering calyx-tube about 1·5 cm., with the bluntly conoid operculum about 1 cm. long. Four and five in an umbel.

  ― 166 ―

8. E. coccifera Hook. f. Buds club-shaped, with small, nearly flat, opercula; normally only three in the umbel. (Rodway.)

334. E. conglobata (R.Br.) Maiden. Filaments white. No. 2103. Flowers yellowish-white. No. 2114. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

104. E. cordata Labill. Flowers three together on short stalks, close in the angles of the leaves; tube broad, operculum almost flat. (Rodway.)

174. E. cornuta Labill. Filaments greenish yellow, calyces separate (fruits not seen). Warrungup Hill, Stirling Range (C. A. Gardner).

351. E. crucis Maiden. A very glaucous bud, lemon-yellow filaments and similar anthers, but I cannot recognise the small gland at the top of the filament. Yorkrakine (C. A. Gardner).

79. E. doratoxylon F.v.M. “Buds green with white opercula.” Mount Tool-brunup, Stirling Range (C. A. Gardner).

199. E. dumosa A. Cunn. Filaments white. Grasspatch, W.A. (C. A. Gardner, No. 2221).

117. E. erythronema Turcz. Flowers reported as “sweet scented.” When fully ripe, operculum of slightly greater diameter than the calyx-tube. See Part XXII, p. 23. Cultivated at Deniliquin, N.S.W. (J. S. Parry).

235. E. ficifolia F.v.M. I have seen in a garden at Albany, W.A., a clump of four trees about 20 feet high and each one a different shade of red, ranging from faint pink to richest scarlet. The trees I was told were obtained as seedlings from Denmark district. One of these trees had two distinct tints showing on the flowers. (Dr. L. C. Webster, 25th November, 1920.)

5. E. fæcunda Schauer. The York Gum. It blooms more or less every year. It carries its buds from ten to twelve months and blooms from August to November, the best blossoming time being in September and October. The blossom is insignificant in appearance. (Correspondent, Western Mail, March, 1914.)

281. E. Houseana (W.V.F.) Maiden. Peduncles axillary, short, slightly flattened, expanded at the top to receive a sessile cluster of five to seven flowers. Calyx-tube broadly turbinate or almost hemispherical, slightly angular and galucous. Operculum hemispherical, not quite so long as the calyx-tube. Filaments white, anthers pale yellow. (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

  ― 167 ―

4. E. incrassata Labill. Filaments yellowish-white. No. 1914. White, anthers pale-coloured, the flowers rather sweetly scented. No. 1902. Buds yellowish-green, more or less angled or ribbed, the operculum abruptly narrowed into a short beak, filaments yellowish-white. No. 2102. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

176. E. Lehmanni Preiss. Fruits small, concrescent, filaments greenish yellow (flowers and fruits both seen). Warrungup Hill, Stirling Range (C. A. Gardner).

332. E. leptophylla F.v.M. Filaments white. No. 2101. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

211. E. longicornis F.v.M. Filaments yellowish white. No. 2107. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

123. E. miniata A. Cunn. Inflorescence glaucous. (W. V. Fitzgerald.)

243. E. perfoliata R.Br. Opercula red (C. A. Gardner).

94. E. pyriformis Turcz. var. elongata. C. E. Chapman, Mullewa, Western Australia, sends specimens with peduncles 10 cm. long, terete, and pedicels 4 cm. long slightly quadrangular.

218. E. pyrophora Benth. Flowers in terminal corymbs of 4 to 6 inches in diameter. Peduncles and pedicels rough and glaucous. Pedicels slightly flattened, bearing each an umbel of 3 to 7 flowers. Pedicels about 3 lines long, tapering into the calyx; calyx-tube about 4 lines long, turbinate, contracted at the summit; operculum depressed-conical, the line of demarcation with the calyx-tube not visible when in the bud. The buds are rough and almost white. Flowers not seen. Stamens inflected in the bud. The inflorescences are very heavy. (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

168. E. rostrata Schlecht. Flowers pale yellowish white or lemon yellow. (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

E. saligna Sm. Scott, M. H. “The Saligna Gum (E. saligna). Notes on its physical qualities, conversion and uses.” (South African Journ. of Industries, August, 1924.) The author suggests it may supply some of the demand for soft wood in South Africa.

216. E. terminalis F.v.M. Flowers in a terminal corymbose panicle, white; calyx-tube obconical or turbinate, glaucous, with a slightly spreading rim; flowers only seen in a very advanced state; style thick, shorter than the filaments, the stigma capitate. Fruits narrow urceolate, about 1¼-inch long, contracted at the orifice, glaucous, the capsule deeply sunk.

E. viminalis Labill. Known at Lithgow (Blue Mountains, N.S.W.) as Gum or White Gum. It is disposed of by the Barlow Timber Co. as Mountain Ash. Local millers and purchasers of the timber with whom Mr. V. H. Hadley has spoken have not any great regard for it. Vicinity of Hampton, Jenolan Caves Road.

  ― 168 ―


257. E. Blaxlandi Maiden and Cambage. (See E. capitellata below.)

120. E. cæsia Benth. “Pedicels stout, terete, up to 4 cm. long, fruits pendulous; peduncles terete, curved; fruits truncate-ovate in shape, 3 cm. long by 2·5 cm. broad striate, tapering somewhat abruptly into the pedicel. The resemblance in the fruits to those of E. leucoxylon F.v.M. var. macrocarpa J. E. Brown (present work, Part XII, p. 56, fig. 12) is considerable.” (J.H.M. in Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., li, 446, 1917.)

3. E. calycogona Turcz. “Fruits from W. J. Spafford (Yeelanna and Butler, Eyre's Peninsula, S.A.) are the largest I have seen, and remind one of those of E. Forrestiana and E. tetraptera.” (J.H.M. in Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., lii, 486, 1918.) Smaller than in the typical form, showing an approach to those of E. celastroides. No. 2110. Harrismith (C. A. Gardner).

83. E. Campaspe S. le M. Moore. “Much larger than any previously seen, very glaucous, with scarcely exserted valves. The valves of the typical form have long protruding points.” (C. A. Gardner, Coolgardie.)

17. E. capitellata Sm. The figure of E. capitellata fruit in Baker and Smith's “Research,” &c., Ed. II, p. 260, is E. Blaxlandi Maiden and Cambage.

8. E. coccifera Hook. f. “About 1 centimetre long and broad, very flat, and not at all constricted at the top, the rim broad, flat or convex. On Mount Faulkner, Cradle Mount, Western Tiers, and Great Lake, the fruits are much smaller and more numerous in the umbel, sometimes being typically flat above, with a broad rim, at others more constricted, with a depressed rim.” (L. Rodway, in Proc. Roy. Soc., Tas., 1917.)

334. E. conglobata (R.Br.) Maiden. A form with large fruits nearly twice the size of the normal form. Grasspatch, Western Australia (C. A. Gardner, No. 2220).

104. E. cordata Labill. “The fruit is nearly spherical, and about 1 centimetre diameter to rather more; the rim is rather broad, the valves deeply sunk.” (L. Rodway, in Proc. Roy. Soc., Tas., 1917.)

205. E. corymbosa Sm. “We examined a large number of the fruits in various parts of the Upper Clarence district, N.S.W., and were impressed with their remarkable variation in size, which ranged from very small to very large, from trees growing together. The large quantity of fruit on some trees caused the branches to break with their weight. We could not see anything in the bark or any other character of the tree which differed from the normal form. Inquiries were made amongst the station hands at Ramornie as to the possibility of there being two different kinds of rough-barked Bloodwood, but we were all thoroughly convinced that there was only one kind in the district.” (W. F. Blakely and D. W. C. Shiress.)

  ― 169 ―

351. E. crucis Maiden. “Larger than in E. Websteriana, the rim more convex and the capsule more exserted.” (C. A. Gardner, Yorkrakine, W.A.)

217. E. dichromophloia F.v.M. “Very variable in size.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys, N.W. Australia.)

224. E. Foelscheana F.v.M. “Fruits pendulous.” (The same.)

281. E. Houseana (W.V.F.) Maiden. “Fruits collected (immature) north of the Couchman Range, in sandy swampy places, were turbinate with prominent angles, otherwise similar to those described. Others almost hemispherical (also not seen quite mature), with a prominent rim and deeply sunk capsule, with short not protruding valves.” (The same.)

90. E. leptopoda Benth. “With long bristly continuations of the valves of the capsules, showing affinity to E. oleosa.” (F. A. Stoward, Wickepin, W.A.)

360. E. Nowraensis Maiden. The carpels separate readily in the young fruit, and are quite free from the wall of the calyx. They are somewhat similar to those figured in Part LXII, Plate 253, figs. 4a and 4d.

72. E. oligantha Schauer. “Campanulo-urceolate, under 4 lines long, rim thin, valves 4, included.” (W. V. Fitzgerald MSS.)

192. E. papuana F.v.M. “Of comparatively large size, and are rather thin of papery texture or Angophoroid).” (Cloncurry, North Queensland, Captain S. A. White, No. 228.)

243. E. perfoliata R.Br. “Reddish, becoming brown with age.” (C. A. Gardner, Kimberleys.)

94. E. pyriformis Turcz. var. elongata. Six cm. long, with four prominent wings. Top of fruit 3 cm. diameter. Greatest diameter of fruit 5·5 cm. This is the largest fruit I have seen, and was collected by C. E. Chapman at Mullewa, W.A.

Vars., minor and Rameliana. Mr. D. A. Herbert informed me that he and Mr. E. H. Wilson had collected the above varieties off the same shrub. I did not see the specimens.

57. E. sideroxylon A. Cunn. “The fruits are usually as figured at Plate 55, but I have received from the Forestry Commission from near Eden, N.S.W., fruits as large as those of the related E. leucoxylon F.v.M. var. macrocarpa J. E. Brown, figured at 12 c, Pl. 56.” (J.H.M. in Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., lii, 510, 1918.)

  ― 170 ―

Adjustment of Botanical Descriptions

It is sometimes necessary to amend a description, and sometimes to adopt and regularise what has hitherto been a nomen nudum. Following are a few references :—

  • (1) E. diversifolia Bonpl., including E. santalifolia F.v.M., Part VIII, p. 198. See also a discussion of the matter under E. pachyloma Benth., in Part XXXIII, pp. 84–88.
  • (2) E. hemiphloia F.v.M. See Part XI, p. 14, for a case of the adoption of a nomen nudum by Bentham.
  • (3) E. goniocalyx F.v.M., and E. elæophora F.v.M. In Part XIX, pp. 267, 268, will be seen an account of the confusion which has arisen through the confusion by Mueller of two of his own species, and the compromise I propose in the interests of a stable nomenclature.
  • (4) E. gigantea Hook. f. See Part XX, p. 291, for the rectification of a description, this species and E. obliqua L'Hérit., having become confused.
  • (5) E. Stuartiana F.v.M. There are no less than three distinct species described by Mueller under this name, and what I have termed the “Stuartiana confusion” is explained and rectified at Part XXI, p. 4, Part XXIV, p. 68, and Part LXX, p. 467. Mr. Baker attempts to rectify the confusion by adding E. Bridgesiana Baker to an over-burdened synonymy; this produces taxonomic surfeit.
  • (6) E. resinifera Sm. See Part XXX, p. 208. This is a classical case of the rehabilitation by Bentham of an unsatisfactory species, which dated from the early days of New South Wales. Bentham's compromise has been accepted on all sides.

The question of the adjustment of a species is also referred to by Bentham under Endiandra hypotephra F.v.M., in B.Fl., v., 301. There are other instances, but perhaps the above are sufficiently representative.

Arising to some extent out of the above, we have the quotation of herbarium names not hitherto published, e.g., Hooker in “Flora of New Zealand,” p. 18, under Melicytus ramiflorus Forst., quotes Tachites umbellulifera, Banks et Sol. MSS. Britten, who has done work to secure stability of nomenclature which can never be forgotten, sometimes follows a similar course in the Journal of Botany when it seems justifiable.

  ― 171 ―

Additional Bibliographical Notes

(The list given in Part I of this work has not been repeated, nor have the many bibliographical notes which are scattered throughout the text.)

The First Eucalyptus Described.—One is naturally disappointed that the “Botany of Cook's First Voyage” (Banks and Solander) (edited by J. Britten), contains practically no Eucalypts. Vol. II includes two North Queensland species under Plate 116 (E. alba), and Plate 117 (E. terminalis). The latter is, however, probably E. crebra and not E. terminalis F.v.M.; see my note at Part XL, p. 306. The original of Plate 116 came from the Endeavour River, and the native name was “Kaikur,” while that of Plate 117 came from Lizard Island, Thirsty Sound.

The first Eucalyptus was described by L'Héritier in his “Sertum Anglicum,” published in Paris in 1788 from plants observed by him at Kew in the years 1786 and 1787, as stated on the title page. We have at p. 18 the original description of the genus Eucalyptus, then the words :—“Eucalyptus obliqua, Tab. 20. Habitat in Nova Cambria, Nelson, Guil., Anderson.” This ends the reference. David Nelson and William Anderson were on Cook's Third Voyage (1776–1779), as mentioned by me in Part II of the present work, p. 51, under E. obliqua).

In Aiton's “Hortus Kewensis,” ed. 1, vol. ii, p. 157 (1789) we have:

“1. Eucalyptus. L'Herit. sert. angl. tab. 20, obliqua. Oblique-leav'd Eucalyptus. Nat. of New South Wales. Introd. 1774 by Tobias Furneaux, Esq., Fl. July.”

(New South Wales included Tasmania in those days, the latter not being then known to be an Island.)

Tobias Furneaux was the Captain of the ship which visited the modern Tasmania (Adventure Bay) in the “Adventure,” in Cook's Second Voyage (1772–1774). It is quite possible that plants were raised from Furneaux's seeds, collected in February, 1773, but L'Héritier described the species from plants collected in January, 1777, by Nelson and Anderson. As will be seen from L'Héritier's figure, he had flowers and fruits, and they could not have been seedlings from Furneaux's plants. If Aiton's statement is true, he (or rather his officers) must have collected seeds of the trees, or branches bearing ripe fruits, and these found their way into Aiton's hands in 1774. This would not alter the fact of the genus being based on the material of Nelson, but it would prove that the plant was in cultivation before the visit of Nelson and Anderson to Tasmania.

  ― 172 ―

Mr. E. H. Wilson (Assistant Director of the Arnold Arboretum), in his interesting series of articles on his botanical travels in “The Garden Magazine” (New York) for May, 1923, p. 186, points out that “E. obliqua is not only the type of the genus, but also the first species introduced (into England), and this prior to the founding of the genus and the naming of this species from Nelson's (and Anderson's) material by L'Héritier.”

(b) Subsequent Eucalyptus Notes.—The year 1788 was also the date of the foundation of Sydney, but by the close of the century only about a dozen species had been described, and all (with the exception of obliqua) came from Port Jackson. Then came the stay of Robert Brown at Sydney, and his longer Australian voyages, chiefly of circumnavigation; his Eucalyptus material is referred to below. Next in order we have the collections of Sieber, which were exclusively made in New South Wales, and which were described in the twenties under the auspices of A. P. de Candolle; together with the collections of Allan Cunningham, partly made in New South Wales. Eucalypts from that State (or Colony, as it was then) were described by other botanists in the early part of the nineteenth century, and, being the oldest settled Colony, and the principal seat of Government for many years, it is not surprising that most of the early Eucalyptus work was based on New South Wales material; that of Tasmania and Western Australia followed.

Andrews' “Botanical Repository,” 1799–1801 (10 volumes, 4to.) contains some figures of Eucalypts.

Robert Brown was in Australia from 1800–4.

“Of the National Australian genus Eucalyptus only six species are referred to by Brown in his Collected Works. Hooker says Brown returned to England with the description of his plants written outnote. If so, he had described in MSS. 100 species of Eucalyptsnote. These were, of course, not published. What became of the MSS.? And how is it that Brown's successors have had to worry out Eucalypts without any help from Brown, who had such great opportunities, and who was the first botanist of his age? The world is poorer through not knowing the views of Brown on such a widely diffused and difficult genus. Hookernote speaks of plants in Brown's care ‘during half a century …’ they,note together with the rest of his magnificent collections were jealously closed to botanists.”

“The reason why Bentham did not consult the British Museum herbarium for the ‘Flora Australiensis’ (the fact has been pointed out by you)note, was probably the result of Brown's attitude in years gone by.” (Maiden in “Sir Joseph Banks, the Father of Australia,” p. 42.)

  ― 173 ―

The above was part of a letter to Mr. James Britten of the British Museum, in 1907.

As a final attempt to definitely ascertain what the old British Museum botanists had written about the genus, I wrote in 1923 to Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S., Keeper of Botany at the British Museum, and following is his reply :—

“As regards MSS. of Eucalyptus of the older botanists, I find that the Solander MSS. include nothing on the genus; of Brown we have a number of rough descriptions made (in Latin) at the time of collecting. … In any case I think you would find them of little use without the specimens, of which they are more or less incomplete descriptions. Frankly, I do not think it would be worth the labour of copying, especially as it would have to be done by a person with a knowledge of both Latin and botany.”

The National Herbarium of New South Wales is under deep obligation to both Mr. Britten and Dr. Rendle for valuable information and specimens. After consultation with botanists in this and some other States, I have stated the position as to the work of early botanists on Australian plants, so far as I know it. The matter is now closed so far as I am concerned, and I am grateful to Mr. Britten and Dr. Rendle.

George Caley, one of the Banksian botanical collectors, was in New South Wales from 1800–10 (under Brown's direction till 1804). Some account of him will be found in my “Sir Joseph Banks,” p. 127. At p. 130 will be found details of his journey to the Cowpastures, Nattai, Stonequarry Creek, &c. There is a note at p. 133 on the pile of stones erroneously called “Caley's Repulse,” but he was never on the Blue Mountains proper. He went up the valley of the Grose (from its confluence with the Nepean) to Grose's Head (a name given by Caley himself) and beyond. See under E. eximia, Part XLII, p. 30. He collected abundantly in the County of Cumberland, particularly in the Parramatta district.

Willdenow, “Species Plantarum” (1797) and Persoon Synopsis Plantarum (1807), both followed Smith's list of species of 1797.

Sprengel's “Systema Vegetabilium” (16th edition) was published in 1826, and vol. ii, p. 500, in 1825. He enumerates twenty-four species, grouped according to the conical or hemispherical operculum.

Concerning Turczaninow (a Russian botanist, who purchased a set of Drummond's Western Australian plants), the following is a note in the Kew copy of the third volume of Bentham's “Flora Australiensis” :—“For seventy-seven species (of Myrtaceæ) omitted from this work, see Turczaninow in Bull. Phys. Mathem. Acad. Sc., St. Petersb. x, p. 321 (1852).”

  ― 174 ―

Bentham's “Flora Australiensis,” seven volumes (1863–1878). Vol. iii (1866) contains the Eucalypts. Asa Gray, the very distinguished American taxonomist, wrote of it :—

“The greatest Flora written in English, we might say the best great Flora in any language which has ever been produced and completed.” (Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 3rd Ser., xx, (1880).

Dr. L. Diels, of the Botanical Museum, Berlin (with a companion, Dr. E. Pritzel) travelled from 1900–2 in Australia, chiefly Western Australia, but in the other States also. The results of their researches (including the Eucalypts) were published by him in some valuable works, including “Fragmenta Phytographial Australiæ occidentalis” (with E. Pritzel in Engler's Botan. Jahrbucher xxxv, 55–662 (1905). See other works enumerated at Part LXVII, p. 319.

Cambage, R. H. This author has written extensively on the Eucalypts of New South Wales, and also an important paper on those of Northern Queensland. His work at one time as a mining surveyor led him to districts infrequently or not at all visited by other botanists, and he has very greatly improved our knowledge of the genus, particularly in regard to plant-geography, geology, and climate. His papers, including two series (see Part LXVII, p. 334), are chiefly, but not exclusively, published in the Journals of the Linnean and Royal Societies of New South Wales.

Fitzgerald, William Vincent. He wrote an important paper, “The Botany of the Kimberleys, North-west Australia” (Journ. and Proc. Roy. Soc., W.A., iii, 1–123 (1918). In a note at p. 1, I (as editor, he was at the war) explained that his valuable Eucalyptus work is mainly represented in Journ. Roy. Soc., N.S.W., vols. xlvii (1913); xlix (1915); li (1917), and how it came about. All Mr. Fitzgerald's species (including striaticalyx and accedens in Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc., 1904) and notes, will be found in the present work.

It will be obvious to anyone who has perused this work, even superficially, that I have quoted an enormous number of authorities. I have always tried to consult originals, and to give the references and to copy the quotations accurately. In a few cases I have not been able to consult the originals, either because of the carelessness with which the references were set down, or because the originals were not accessible to me.

It has come home to me that some of my brother naturalists have been easy-going in quoting references, while others do not quote the ipsissima verba. This carelessness sometimes amounts to false quotation. I suggest that in all schools and universities where botany and zoology are taught, pupils be instructed in bibliography,

  ― 175 ―
how to quote references, and, where extracts from originals are cited, such should clearly show, by the use of inverted commas, the precise words to be attributed to the original author. Another matter, and this is worthy of attention by the editors of Australian scientific publications—a uniform method of citation of scientific serials should be agreed to by them, acting under the authority of the councils of the several Societies. There is not always clearness as to the significance of Proceedings, Journal, Transactions, and the pernicious habit of having a pagination different in reprints from that of the original volumes from which they were taken, is not entirely stamped out.

Science is truth, and carelessness and false quotations are not truth, and therefore not contributions to science.

My own association with the genus began in an accidental way, and arose out of the unsatisfactory and even contradictory statements which I found current in regard to Eucalyptus timbers, a collection of which was got together by me in my capacity of Curator of the Technological Museum of New South Wales. (See a reference in Part LIII, p. 129.) Under works containing partial bibliographies of Eucalyptus may be cited my “A Bibliography of Australian Economic Botany,” Technical Education Series, No. 10 (Sydney, 1892). Eucalyptus references will be found under: “General,” especially p. 4; “Eucalyptus Oils and Eucalyptus in General,” pp. 25–34; “Kinos,” pp. 39, 40; “Eucalyptus Mannas and Lerp,” pp. 41–43; “Timbers,” pp. 45–52. The following articles in my “Forest Flora of New South Wales” contain bibliographies of Eucalyptus more or less useful :—“Australian Manna,” Part LXIII; “Honey Plants,” Part LXIV; “Insects and Timber-trees,” Parts LXV and LXVI; “A Tentative Bibliography of Eucalyptus Oil,” Part LXVII; “The Cultivation of Eucalypts in Countries outside Australia,” Part LXVIII.

  ― 176 ―

Coloured Plates

(N.B.—The horizontal line under the hypocotyl indicates the ground line.)

Plate 1

Coloured Plate 1: E. EUGENIOIDES Sieb., Figs. A-E. E. BICOSTATA Maiden, Blakely, and Simmonds, Figs. F-1. N.B.-The horizontal line under the hypocotyl indicates the ground line.

E. eugenioides Sieb. (A—E).

  • A. (D. 16), Mount Victoria, N.S.W., (J. L. Boorman, seed collected August, 1917). Hypocotyls and two pairs of reniform cotyledon leaves and of first leaves. Sown 28th November, 1917; drawn 5th January, 1918. Back of cotyledons purple-red.
  • B, C, D. Same particulars as A, except dates of drawing.
  • B. Drawn 28th February, 1918. Seedling with cotyledons and six opposite leaves.
  • C. Drawn 28th February, 1918. A second seedling of the same sowing, with cotyledon leaves and eight leaves, the four uppermost alternate.
  • D. Drawn 11th June, 1918. A seedling of the same sowing. The cotyledon-leaves have dropped off, are succeeded by two pairs of entire, opposite leaves, one pair of opposite incipiently crinkled leaves, two pairs of opposite crinkled leaves, and two pairs of alternate crinkled leaves. The leaves and rachis are coloured.
  • E. Drawn 21st January, 1920. Height 2 ft. 2 in. A further stage showing rather thick, entire, alternate leaves.

E. bicostata Maiden, Blakely, and Simmonds (F—I).

  • F. (x 100.) Upper Meroo, N.S.W. (Andrew Murphy, seed collected 15th January, 1918). Hypocotyls and two pairs of bilobed cotyledon leaves and one pair of first leaves. Sown 21st January, 1918; drawn 8th February, 1918.
  • G, H, I. Same particulars as F, except dates of drawing.
  • G. Drawn 19th March, 1918. Two cotyledon leaves, followed by one pair of slightly petiolate thin leaves, and three pairs of sessile thin leaves.
  • H. Drawn 30th November, 1918. Height, 1 ft. 6 in. End of a branch showing several pairs of sessile opposite leaves with crimson midribs and quadrangular rachis.
  • I. Drawn 16th March, 1920, height, 2 ft. 6 in. A pair of opposite leaves still further advanced.

Plate 2

Coloured plate 2: E. CALOPHYLLA R.Br., Figs. 1-2. E. FICIFOLIA F.v.M., Figs. 3,4. E. PTYCHOCARPA F.v.M. Figs. 5,6 E. FOELSCHEANA F.v.M., Figs. 7,8. [See also Plate 268, Fig. 16.] E. MINIATA A. Cunn., Figs. 11-13.

E. calophylla R.Br.

  • 1. and 1a. (A. 85.) Perth, Western Australia (Woods and Forests Department). Two pairs of cotyledon leaves showing hypocotyls. The undersides are sometimes purple and sometimes green. Sown 23rd December, 1914; drawn 5th January, 1915.
  • 2. (A. 85.) Perth, Western Australia. Seedling, showing a pair of cotyledons, a pair of opposite leaves, a pair of alternate leaves, succeeded by two pairs of opposite leaves. Oil dots distinct on the back, the undersides of the cotyledon leaves of a purple shade. Sown 7th July, 1911; drawn 23rd October, 1911.
  • In Plate 40 all the drawings are E. eugenioides Sieb., with the exception of 1a, cotyledon leaf, and 1b, first leaf, which were wrongly attributed to E. marginata Sm. They are really E. calophylla R.Br.

E. ficifolia F.v.M.

  • 3. From a tree grown in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney (collected by J. L. Boorman, 1904). Seedling, showing pair of cotyledons, succeeded by a nearly opposite pair of first leaves and three pairs of more alternate ones. Leaves not peltate. Sown 6th June, 1905; drawn 26th September, 1905. Leaves non-peltate.

  •   ― 177 ―
  • 4. (64 H.H.). Irwin's Inlet, near South West Coast, Western Australia (F. Stoward, collected April and May, 1917). Upper portion of a seedling 5¼ inches long. Sown 5th May, 1919,; drawn 20th October, 1919.

E. ptychocarpa F.v.M.

  • 5. (Ref. No. 30.) Northern Territory, north of Lat. 14°. (W. S. Campbell.) Seedling, showing pair of cotyledon leaves and a pair of young, opposite first leaves. Back of cotyledon leaves green. Sown 18th September, 1913, drawn 27th October, 1913.
  • 6. Same particulars as under 5. Seedling, further advanced, showing pair of cotyledon leaves and three pairs of first leaves. Sown 18th September, 1913; drawn 22nd December, 1913.

E. Foelscheana F.v.M.

  • 7. (Ref. No. 27.) Edith Creek, near Darwin, Northern Territory (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer, July-August, 1911). Seedling, showing cotyledon leaves, and one young pair of first leaves. Back of cotyledon leaves green. Sown 18th September, 1913; drawn 27th October, 1913.
  • 8. The same plant as 7, showing a pair of cotyledon leaves and six pairs of first leaves, varying from sessile to a petiole of 7 mm. The largest leaves have the longest petioles. Drawn 19th January, 1914.

This plant was again inspected on 22nd March, 1917, when it was 8 inches (20 cm. full) high. It was branched, but showed no difference in the leaves.

Portion of the seed which produced the above plants was resown on 14th December, 1917 (Ref. No. x 43). On 4th January, 1918, the seedlings were precisely similar to that already noted (No. 7). A seedling a little more advanced was drawn on 22nd January, 1918. Seen later (28th May, 1918) it was “identical” with fig. No. 8.

Another seedling (Ref. No. 41) of the same history as the preceding (Ref. No. 43), was examined on 28th May, 1918. This seedling was then 6 inches high, and was identical with No. 27, drawing dated 19th January, 1914 (fig. 8) except that the leaves were more shortly petiolate. The cotyledons were still attached. This seedling had deteriorated; at 8 inches high it was much branched and the leaves were all small and irregular in size. Stem still hairy.

B. 21, Northern Territory (W. S. Campbell, September, 1911). On 25th March, 1915, this seedling was examined. It agreed with No. 27 in the first and second stages, except that the glandular processes on stem and leaves were more pronounced.

X 44, Darwin, Northern Territory (G. F. Hill, 25th October, 1915). This seedling in the early stage appeared to be identical with No. 27 Northern Territory drawing dated 27th October, 1913.

Figs 9 and 10 will be found on Plate 3, under E. eximia.

E. miniata A. Cunn.

  • 11. (Ref. No. 126 H.H.), Darwin, Northern Territory, where it is said to be rare (Horace Brown, per D. W. C. Shiress). Seedling with pair of cotyledon leaves, the petioles of which are partly subterranean. The undersides of the cotyledon leaves are of a paler green. Sown 3rd May, 1920; drawn 2nd September, 1920.

One seedling of the same sowing and number has the cotyledon leaves broader, resembling that of No. 12. Examined 14th December, 1920.

  • 12. (Ref. No. 45), from Northern Territory, but received from Mr. E. W. Bick, Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, Queensland. Seedling with two cotyledon leaves supported by a hypocotyl of about 5 mm. Three pairs of lanceolate first leaves, which are covered with fine stellate hairs. Sown 1st October, 1915, drawn 30th December, 1915.

  •   ― 178 ―
  • 13. Same particulars as No. 12. Portion of seedling, consisting of one pair of opposite leaves and of six alternate leaves, the whole plant covered with fine, stellate hairs.

(Ref. No. 154 H.H.). From Tropical Western Australia (H. Steedman, Perth). Seedlings from seeds sown 30th October, 1922, have subterranean petioles of the cotyledon leaves as figured in 11; stellate hairs and larger leaves, thickish and whitish (glaucous) in colour, contrasting in appearance with Nos. 12 and 13.

Plate 3

Coloured plate 3: E. EXIMIA Schauer, Figs. 9, 10. E. HÆMATOXYLON Maiden, Figs. 14, 15. E. MARGINATA Sm., Figs. 16-18. E. BUPRESTIUM F.v.M., Fig. 19. E. SEPULCRALIS F.v.M., Figs. 20, 21. E. PLANCHONIANA F.v.M., Figs. 22, 23.

E. eximia Schauer.

  • 9. (Ref. No. 419.) Berowra, about 8 miles south from the railway bridge, Hawkesbury River, N.S.W. (Andrew Murphy, 1913). Seedling with two pairs of cotyledon leaves and two pairs of petiolate opposite first leaves. The undersides of the cotyledon leaves of a deep purple, with a faint purplish tint on the undersides of the other leaves. Sown 3rd December, 1914; drawn 12th January, 1915.
  • 10. (Same particulars as No. 9.) Upper portion of a seedling, showing alternate leaves, and all of them slightly peltate. The lower leaves, not depicted, are also peltate. The colour of the underside of the lowest depicted foreshortened leaf can be seen. The whole seedling, and particularly the rachis, petiole, and veins plentifully besprinkled with reddish glandular hairs. Drawn 13th April, 1915.

Nos. 11, 12, and 13 will be found on Plate 3, under E. miniata.

Ref. No. X 90, Gosford, N.S.W. Seeds collected by Andrew Murphy, 15th January, 1918, and sown 22nd January, 1918. Seedlings drawn, but not reproduced. One drawn 6th May, 1918, has a lower pair of opposite leaves, and the upper leaves peltate. Other drawings resemble those of Nos. 9 and 10. At 8 inches high most of the leaves alternate and slightly peltate. A more advanced seedling, 9¼ inches in height on 6th May, 1918, has all the leaves alternate, long lanceolate, almost glabrous, and scarcely peltate. A pair of nearly opposite leaves drawn 19th January, 1920, from a seedling 1 ft. 8 in. high, and depicted 10½ inches from the top, are perfectly glabrous, not peltate, thickness, venation and shape approaching that of mature leaves.

E. hæmatoxylon Maiden.

  • 14. (Ref. No. 922), “Mountain Gum,” Jarrahwood, Busselton, W.A. (Forest Ranger W. Donovan, through Department of Woods and Forests, Perth, W.A.). Seedling with hypocotyl, one pair of cotyledon leaves and one pair of very young first leaves. Sown 19th February, 1914; drawn 13th March, 1914.

No. 108 from Jarrahwood, Busselton, W.A. (F. Stoward) is the same as No. 14 above.

  • 15. (Same particulars as No. 14.) Underside of cotyledon leaves purple. Seedling with large cotyledon leaves and three pairs of first leaves and three pairs of first leaves much smaller and with much shorter petioles than the cotyledon leaves.

No. 15 was sown on the same day as No. 14, and drawn on the same day.

Ref. No. 886, E. hæmatoxylon, from the same source, had been previously sown on 18th July, 1913, and drawn 27th November, 1913, as a sturdy seedling of 25 cm., and therefore too large for reproduction at present. The largest leaf is 9 cm. by 5 cm. broad. The seedling is just beginning to get out of the opposite-leaved stage, and the petioles of both cotyledons and first leaves are about 1 cm. long. All the leaves are peltate except the final one depicted. Hairs on the rachises, petioles, edges of the leaves and on the principal veins, diminishing in number, as ususal, as growth proceeds.

This species has, under the numbers X6 (drawing and photograph) and 108 (drawing) been practically grown on to the mature-leaf stage.

  ― 179 ―

E. marginata Sm.

  • 16. Perth, W.A. (Woods and Forests Department). Seedling showing the petioles of two cotyledon leaves and the hypocotyl largely subterranean. Underside of cotyledon leaves slightly purple. Sown 16th August, 1904; drawn 29th September, 1904.

This seedling is 7 cm. high and has two pairs of opposite, practically sessile, lanceolate leaves on 10th January, 1905. Leaves still opposite, practically sessile, 5·5 cm. long, more definitely lanceolate, being broader towards the base, and venation more distinct, 29th March, 1905.

  • 17. Perth district, W.A. (J. Staer, 1911). Seedling showing hypocotyl just above the ground line and one cotyledon leaf (the second one not depicted for reasons of space). The hypocotyl reduced to a mere thickening at the junction of the bases of the petioles of the cotyledons and of the ascending rachis (stem), on which are two small ovate, opposite leaves, and two still younger ones. A purple tint on the underside of the cotyledon leaves. Drawing not dated, but probably 1911.
  • 18. (Ref. No. 217.) Perth district, W.A. (Andrew Murphy). Lower portion of a seedling 21 cm. long (say 8½ inches). The whole of the seedling has two cotyledon leaves (one shown) and five pairs (three shown) of opposite, lanceolate leaves separated by fairly long internodes. Sown 24th May, 1906, drawn 13th November, 1906.

A new sowing of A 19, seedling examined 29th December, 1914, and of A 15, examined 16th February, 1915, agrees with the drawing of No. 18.

E. buprestium F.v.M.

  • 19. (Ref. No. 37 H.H.). Kalgan Plains, north of Kalgan River, Albany district, W.A. (J.H.M., 12th October, 1909). Seedling (ground line not shown) with pair of cotyledon leaves and two pairs of sessile opposite first leaves. Sown 28th April, 1919; drawn 29th July, 1919.

On 13th October, 1919, 7 inches high with opposite, sessile ovate or ovate-oblong leaves.

On 3rd December, 1919, 8 inches high.

On 18th October, 1920, 15½ inches high, leaves still opposite, and becoming narrower.

E. sepulcralis F.v.M.

  • 20. (Ref. No. 23 H.H.). Eyre's Range, back of Bremer Bay, South Coast, W.A. (J. Wellstead). Two seedlings showing cotyledon leaves and very young first leaves. Sown 19th December, 1918; drawn 29th January, 1919.
  • 21. (Same particulars as No. 20, but drawn 1st March, 1919). The seedling shows enlargement of the cotyledon leaves and two pairs of sessile oblong-lanceolate leaves.

On 22nd October, 1919, this seedling was 5 inches high; the lower leaves had fallen off (perhaps through want of water), and the upper leaves were still sessile (or nearly so), opposite and bluntly lanceolate.

E. Planchoniana F.v.M.

  • 22. (Ref. No. X 55.) Stradbroke Island, Southern Queensland (C. T. White, 12th December, 1917). Seedling showing pair of cotyledon leaves, succeeded by a pair of young first leaves. Sown 20th December, 1917; drawn 29th January, 1918.

Drawn on 11th March, 1918, this seedling shows two first leaves 5 cm. long and 12 mm. long, sessile and bluntly lanceolate; also a pair of young first leaves.

  • 23. (Particulars the same as No. 22.) Drawn on 11th March, 1918, a second seedling (see final paragraph under No. 22) shows two pairs of opposite, almost sessile, lanceolate first leaves about 6 cm. long and 2 cm. broad.

  ― 180 ―

Plate 4

Coloured plate 4: E. SETOSA F.v.M., Figs. 24-25a. E. TERMINALIS F.v.M., Figs. 26-28. E. MACULATA Hook, Figs. 29, 29a. E. PELTATA Benth., Figs. 32, 33. E. TRACHYPHLOIA F.v.M., Fig. 37. [See also Plate 5, Figs. 34-36.] E. CORYMBOSA Sm., Fig. 38.

E. setosa F.v.M.

  • 24. Woolgni, Northern Territory (Dr. H. I. Jensen, July, 1916). Seedling with two cotyledon leaves and two pairs of very young leaves. The cotyledons are slightly coloured above, pale-green beneath. Sown 14th December, 1917; drawn 7th January, 1918.
  • 25. (Ref. No. A 13.) Northern Territory (G. F. Hill, No. 398, 29th June, 1911). Seedling more advanced than fig. 24. Sown 3rd December, 1914; drawn 15th December, 1914.
  • 25a. The same plant as No. 25, drawn 9th May, 1915, still in the opposite stage.

E. terminalis F.v.M.

  • 26. (Ref. No. 59 H.H.). Near Rifle Pit, Darwin (G. F. Hill, 5th August, 1916). Seedling with the cotyledons attached and four pairs of opposite elliptical leaves above them. Note the filiform petioles to the cotyledons. Sown 5th May, 1919; drawn 14th October, 1919.
  • 27. The same plant at 6 inches high, drawn 16th February, 1920. The leaves are now more elongated and oblong.

Seen again at 9 inches high, the upper leaves had grown from 7 cm. to 10 cm. long, and still oblong, but much narrowed into the petiole, and darker in colour.

  • 27a. (Same particulars as No. 27), drawn 22nd March, 1920. An opposite leaf from a plant 6 inches high which has changed from oblong to narrow-lanceolate.
  • 28. (Same particulars as the preceding), drawn 8th March, 1921. The plant at that date was 14 inches high and just breaking into the alternate stage. The alternate leaf depicted is somewhat oblong abruptly acute, 12 cm. long, 28 mm. broad in the middle.

E. maculata Hook.

  • 29a. (Ref. No. X 93.) Gosford (Andrew Murphy, 15th January, 1918). A seedling with two cotyledons, and two alternate leaves immediately above them.
  • 29. (Same particulars as 29a), drawn 23rd November, 1918. Two peltate leaves from a seedling 9½ inches high.

Figs. 30 and 31 will be found on Plate 5.

E. peltata Benth.

  • 32. (Ref. No. B 12.) Beta, Queensland (J. L. Boorman, August, 1912). A seedling showing the filiform hypocotyl and the two cotyledons. Sown 25th September, 1912; drawn 17th October, 1912.
  • 33. (Ref. No. B 25.) Alma-den, North Queensland (R. H. Cambage). Upper portion of a seedling 12 inches high, showing the broad, peltate leaves; the two lower ones are more distinctly alternate than the two above them. Sown 29th December, 1914; drawn 23rd March, 1915.

Figs. 34, 35 and 36 will be found on Plate 5.

E. trachyphloia F.v.M.

  • 37. (Ref. No. X 198.) (See also Plate 5, figs. 34–36.) Maryborough, Queensland (C. T. White, February, 1918). A seedling 3 inches high, showing the slender, mature, elongated hypocotyl and four pairs of ovate to oblong leaves. Sown 5th October, 1920; drawn 8th February, 1921.

At 10 inches high this seedling showed the characteristic peltate leaves, as shown in figs. 34 and 35, Plate 5.

E. corymbosa Sm.

  • 38. (Ref. No. B 48.) Hornsby (W. F. Blakely, October, 1914). A seedling about 4 inches high, showing the hypocotyl, two cotyledons, first pair of leaves and six peltate leaves, the first two of which are alternate. Sown 29th December, 1914; drawn 4th March, 1915.