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Appendix A The Names of the Natives

EVERY individual is spoken of as belonging to some particular sub-class and totem, but in addition to this he has at least two individual names. The first of these is the personal name in ordinary use which is more or less frequently used in speaking to or of the individual. The second is the secret or sacred name. As already described in the chapter dealing with the Churinga, every individual has a secret name associated with his or her Churinga nanja. If the individual be regarded as the reincarnation of an ancestor whose spirit part was associated with that Churinga, then he bears the name of that individual; but it may happen that the name of the ancestor of whom he is the reincarnation is not handed down in the traditions, in which case the head man of the local group to which he belongs decides upon the secret name which is given to the individual. In any case this secret name which is given to men and women alike is associated with the Churinga, is spoken of as the Churinga name, and is only known to the fully initiated men of the local group. To take an example, every member of the Alice Springs witchetty grub group has a secret Churinga name which is only known to the fully initiated men of that local group and is never uttered except during the solemn ceremonies when the Churinga are examined as described in connection with the Engwura.

When spéaking to or of a living individual, one of three methods is adopted. First, the term of relationship (Okilia, Mia, etc.), may be used; second, the ordinary personal name may be used; or third, if the person addressed be one who has acted in an official capacity during the initiation of the man who is speaking to him, then


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the term applied to him in connection with this ceremony may be used (for example, Atwia-atwia if he performed the ceremony). This latter term may be spoken of as strictly a term of address.

Further still, an individual often has what may be called a “nick name,” arising from some strongly-marked feature in his figure, or from his fancied resemblance to some animal or plant.

In addition to these names a man has the following, which may be called “status terms,” applied to him, indicating the stage of initiation which he has reached; (1) up to the time at which he is thrown up in the air he is called Ambaquerka; (2) up to the time at which he is taken to the circumcision ground he is called Ulpmerka; (3) during the few days which elapse between his being painted on the circumcision ground and the actual performance of the ceremony, he is called Wurtja; (4) during the few weeks between the operations of circumcision and sub-incision he is called Arakurta; (5) after circumcision and until he has passed through the Engwura he is called Ertwa-kurka; (6) during the few weeks in connection with the close of the Engwura ceremony, when he is sent out into the bush to secure food for the old men and when he may not paint his body he is called Ilpongwurra; (7) after passing through the Engwurra he is called Urliara.

Amongst the women there are only three status terms: (1) up to the time of the first menstruation period she is called Ambaquerka; (2) after this and until she is fully grown and her breasts hang pendent she is called Wunpa; (3) after that she is called Arakutja.

Every man has thus: (1) his sub-class name, (2) his totem name, (3) his personal name, (4) his secret or Churinga name, (5) probably a nick-name, (6) his status term, and (7) he may have, if he has acted as an official during an initiation ceremony, a special term applied to him by the man who was initiated at that ceremony.

In the following table we give the sub-class and totem of the members of five families in the Arunta tribe, and also the personal and secret names of the individuals. In the case of the women it must be remembered that they never know their secret names.




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Sub-Class.  Totem.  Personal Name in Ordinary Use.  Sacred or Churinga Name. 
FAMILY 1 
Husband  Purula  Little hawk  Apililquirka  Atnimunga urliaka. 
Wife, 1  Panunga  Rat  Illuta  Iparmintha. 
Daughter  Kumara  Witchetty grub  Untherquaorinia  Ilparta-powiliaka. 
Wife, 2  Panunga  Kangaroo  Eltwartapanika  (?) 
Wife, 3  Panunga  Lizard  Apmaura  Erkatha-wuru-wurika. 
Daughter  Kumara  Emu  Erlia  (?) 
Daughter  Kumara  Water  Ungararinia  Illyaka. 
FAMILY 2. 
Husband  Panunga  Eagle hawk  Irritcha  Kauun-jirika. 
Wife, 1  Purula  Hakea  Kuperta  Ilkalurkna. 
Wife, 2  Purula  Hakea  Apmaura  Akita-thurinjirrika. 
Son  Appungerta  Witchetty grub  Unchalka  Kintabrinjilika. 
Son  Appungerta  Emu  Arkaliliaka  Ariaka. 
Son  Appungerta  Eagle hawk  Karra-wunchirka  Kintji-iruka. 
Son  Appungerta  Arakurtanote  Wangallia  Atnam-juru-wulika. 
Daughter  Appungerta  Witchetty grub  Chantunganote  Upata-pur-uilika. 
Daughter  Appungerta  Witchetty grub  Chantunga2  Lalku-lalkudia. 
FAMILY 3. 
Husband  Bulthara  Witchetty grub  Unchalka  Akukathurika. 
Wife, 1  Kumara  Lace lizard  Erliwatchera  Arularintika. 
Son  Uknaria  Large lizard  Ungardjibrinia  Ulmirtwiririka. 
Son  Uknaria  Witchetty grub  Unchalka  Untatwirika. 
Wife, 2  Kumara  Large lizard  Apungilchuringa  Auadauwa. 
FAMILY 4. 
Husband  Purula  Emu  Arriaka  Illpungwurra. 
Wife  Panunga  Ullukumba  Ertuntarra  Muringa. 
Son  Kumara  Wild cat  Irkuntera  Umbataka. 
Daughter  Kumara  Lizard  Inkuterta  Ilchilyera. 
Son  Kumara  Kangaroo  Wiliwilyika  Murana. 
FAMILY 5. 
Husband  Bulthara  Witchetty grub  Erti-cherti cheringa  Uchuaqua. 
Wife  Kumara  Witchetty grub  Untherqua brinia  Ilparta-paurliaka. 
Son  Uknaria  Kangaroo  Kulla-kulla  Nita-wilyiaka. 
Daughter  Uknaria  Witchetty grub  Chauritji-rinia  Nungua. 
Sonnote  Uknaria  Witchetty grub  Inti-illa 

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